WorldWideScience

Sample records for single instrumentation design

  1. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  2. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  3. The instrumental design of Elmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Vargas, M.; Sánchez-Blanco, M.; Cavaller, L.; Martín-Fleitas, J.; Kohley, R.; Medina, M.; Rosich, J.; Hammersley, P. L.; Ronquillo, B.; Vega, M.

    ELMER is a visible imager spectrograph currently scheduled to be in operation at the GTC on Day One. This paper covers engineering aspects of the instrument and summarizes five poster contributions presented at this conference. ELMER is an instrument managed directly by the GTC Project Office, which has developed the preliminary design and large part of the detailed design. The detailed design, manufacturing, and testing of the structure and mechanisms is being undertaken by the join venture MEDIA-SPASA.

  4. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  5. Instrumentation and control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Homma, Fumitaka; Kondo, Makoto; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    2004-01-01

    The instrumentation and control system of the high temperature engineering test reactor consists of the instrumentation, control equipments and safety protection systems. There are not many differences in the instrumentation and control equipments design between the HTTR and light water reactors except for some features. Various kinds of R and D of reactor instrumentation were performed taking into account the HTTR operational conditions, and a plant dynamic analysis was carried out considering the operational conditions of the HTTR in order to design the control system. These systems are required to have a high reliability in respect to safety. In the rise-to-power test it was confirmed that the instrumentation has a high reliability and the control system has a high stability and reasonable damped characteristics for various disturbances

  6. Mechanical engineers' handbook, design, instrumentation, and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Kutz, Myer

    2015-01-01

    Full coverage of electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation andcontrol in mechanical engineering This second volume of Mechanical Engineers' Handbookcovers electronics, MEMS, and instrumentation and control, givingyou accessible and in-depth access to the topics you'll encounterin the discipline: computer-aided design, product design formanufacturing and assembly, design optimization, total qualitymanagement in mechanical system design, reliability in themechanical design process for sustainability, life-cycle design,design for remanufacturing processes, signal processing, dataacquisition and dis

  7. Conceptual design of safety instrumentation for PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralikrishna, G.; Seshadri, U.; Raghavan, K.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumentation systems enable monitoring of the process which in turn enables control and shutdown of the process as per the requirements. Safety Instrumentation due to its vital importance has a stringent role and this needs to be designed methodically. This paper presents the details of the conceptual design for PFBR. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Design requirements for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies (SWIFT) instrument is a proposed limb-viewing satellite instrument that employs the method of Doppler Michelson interferometry to measure stratospheric wind velocities and ozone densities in the altitude range of 15–45 km. The values of the main instrument parameters including filter system parameters and Michelson interferometer parameters are derived using simulations and analyses. The system design requirements for the instrument and spacecraft are presented and discussed. Some of the retrieval-imposed design requirements are also discussed. Critical design issues are identified. The design optimization process is described. The sensitivity of wind measurements to instrument characteristics is investigated including the impact on critical design issues. Using sensitivity analyses, the instrument parameters were iteratively optimized in order to meet the science objectives. It is shown that wind measurements are sensitive to the thermal sensitivity of the instrument components, especially the narrow filter and the Michelson interferometer. The optimized values of the main system parameters including Michelson interferometer optical path difference, instrument visibility, instrument responsivity and knowledge of spacecraft velocity are reported. This work also shows that the filter thermal drift and the Michelson thermal drift are two main technical risks. (paper)

  9. Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future

  10. Analysis and design of instrumented subsurface mooring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Sakhardande, R.N.; Nayak, B.U.; Somanatha, G.S.

    The analysis and design of instrumented mooring is complex, since the environmental loading on the system may be static or dynamic and random. By using certain assumptions, an equivalent static loading system can be adopted and the problem can...

  11. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods

  12. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of "nonstandard" magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  13. Water NSTF Design, Instrumentation, and Test Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, Darius D.; Gerardi, Craig D.; Hu, Rui; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.; Bremer, Nathan C.; Lomperski, Stephen W.; Kraus, Adam R.; Bucknor, Matthew D.; Lv, Qiuping; Farmer, Mitchell T.

    2017-08-01

    The following report serves as a formal introduction to the water-based Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) program at Argonne. Since 2005, this US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored program has conducted large scale experimental testing to generate high-quality and traceable validation data for guiding design decisions of the Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concept for advanced reactor designs. The most recent facility iteration, and focus of this report, is the operation of a 1/2 scale model of a water-RCCS concept. Several features of the NSTF prototype align with the conceptual design that has been publicly released for the AREVA 625 MWt SC-HTGR. The design of the NSTF also retains all aspects common to a fundamental boiling water thermosiphon, and thus is well poised to provide necessary experimental data to advance basic understanding of natural circulation phenomena and contribute to computer code validation. Overall, the NSTF program operates to support the DOE vision of aiding US vendors in design choices of future reactor concepts, advancing the maturity of codes for licensing, and ultimately developing safe and reliable reactor technologies. In this report, the top-level program objectives, testing requirements, and unique considerations for the water cooled test assembly are discussed, and presented in sufficient depth to support defining the program’s overall scope and purpose. A discussion of the proposed 6-year testing program is then introduced, which outlines the specific strategy and testing plan for facility operations. The proposed testing plan has been developed to meet the toplevel objective of conducting high-quality test operations that span across a broad range of single- and two-phase operating conditions. Details of characterization, baseline test cases, accident scenario, and parametric variations are provided, including discussions of later-stage test cases that examine the influence of geometric

  14. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  15. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  16. A Light-Weight Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidner, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    To meet challenging constraints on telemetry system weight and volume, a custom Light-Weight Instrumentation System was developed to collect vehicle environment and dynamics on a short-duration exo-atmospheric flight test vehicle. The total telemetry system, including electronics, sensors, batteries, and a 1 watt transmitter weighs about 1 kg. Over 80 channels of measurement, housekeeping, and telemetry system diagnostic data are transmitted at 128 kbps. The microcontroller-based design uses the automotive industry standard Controller Area Network to interface with and support in-flight control fimctions. Operational parameters are downloaded via a standard asynchronous serial communications intefiace. The basic design philosophy and functionality is described here

  17. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  18. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...... demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  19. Advanced Antenna Design for NASA's EcoSAR Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Cornelis F.; Deshpande, Manohar; Rincon, Rafael F.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced antenna arrays were designed for NASA's EcoSAR airborne radar instrument. EcoSAR is a beamforming synthetic aperture radar instrument designed to make polarimetric and "single pass" interferometric measurements of Earth surface parameters. EcoSAR's operational requirements of a 435MHz center frequency with up to 200MHz bandwidth, dual polarization, high cross-polarization isolation (> 30 dB), +/- 45deg beam scan range and antenna form-factor constraints imposed stringent requirements on the antenna design. The EcoSAR project successfully developed, characterized, and tested two array antennas in an anechoic chamber. EcoSAR's first airborne campaign conducted in the spring of 2014 generated rich data sets of scientific and engineering value, demonstrating the successful operation of the antennas.

  20. Design of nuclear instruments for industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    Following an introduction to the atomic structure and the radioactive desintegration, the applications of radioisotopic sealed sources are described. The laws that govern the interaction of radiation with matter and the statistics applied to the radioactive measurements are presented. Different measurement techniques, basic equations of design, the way to provide the activity calculation of a source and the detector's characteristics are given, according to the parameters to be measured and the conditions imposed. Finally, the principles of operation and the most important characteristics of different nuclear instruments to be used in industrial measurements are described. (Author) [es

  1. Designer's handbook of instrumentation and control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph J

    1991-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive, practical guide to the entire process of analog instrumentation and control, from sensor input to data conversion circuitry and final output. This readable handbook avoids complex mathematical treatments, instead taking an applications-oriented approach and presenting many sample circuits and concrete examples. It is an essential reference for engineers and high-level technicians in a variety of scientific and engineering fields--anywhere data is collected electronically and where such data is used to control physical processes.Key Features* Covers design o

  2. Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Zhihao [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. This project was completed in three phases, each with a separate focus. Phase I of the program, from October 1999 to April 2002, was devoted to development of sensing schema for use in high temperature, harsh environments. Different sensing designs were proposed and tested in the laboratory. Phase II of the program, from April 2002 to April 2009, focused on bringing the sensor technologies, which had already been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensors could be deployed in harsh industrial environments and eventually become commercially viable through a series of field tests. Also, a new sensing scheme was developed and tested with numerous advantages over all previous ones in Phase II. Phase III of the program, September 2009 to December 2013, focused on development of the new sensing scheme for field testing in conjunction with materials engineering of the improved sensor packaging lifetimes. In Phase I, three different sensing principles were studied: sapphire air-gap extrinsic Fabry-Perot sensors; intensity-based polarimetric sensors; and broadband polarimetric sensors. Black body radiation tests and corrosion tests were also performed in this phase. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. At the beginning of Phase II, in June 2004, the BPDI sensor was tested at the Wabash River coal gasifier

  3. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  4. Design of an intelligent flight instrumentation unit using embedded RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Marmolejo, R.; García-Torales, G.; Torres-Ortega, H. H.; Flores, J. L.

    2011-09-01

    Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV) must calculate its spatial position to control the flight dynamics, which is done by Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). MEMS Inertial sensors have made possible to reduce the size and power consumption of such units. Commonly the flight instrumentation operates independently of the main processor. This work presents an instrumentation block design, which reduces size and power consumption of the complete system of a MUAV. This is done by coupling the inertial sensors to the main processor without considering any intermediate level of processing aside. Using Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) reduces the number of intermediate components, increasing MUAV reliability. One advantage is the possibility to control several different sensors with a single communication bus. This feature of the MEMS sensors makes a smaller and less complex MUAV design possible.

  5. Computer assistance for the pre-design of optical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.A.J. van der; Kruit, P.

    1995-01-01

    Currently designers use detailed numerical simulation tools for designing charged particle optical instruments. However, these detailed numerical simulation tools are not adequate for the pre-design stage, as they focus on the detailed design of components of the instrument while the pre-design stage deals with the design of the complete instrument. In this article the role of the pre-design stage is analyzed, resulting in a list of requirements for computer assistance at the pre-design stage. These requirements are derived using a model for the process of design. The results of this study are being used by us to develop a pre-design tool. (orig.)

  6. Large coil test facility instrumentation system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Fletcher, W.M.; Goddard, J.S.; Murphy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation system for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is described. Sensors are divided into two categories: coil diagnostic sensors, installed in the test coils; and facility sensors, installed in the various systems of the test facility in order to monitor their performance. After signal conditioning, data from the ''fast'' channels are multiplexed, digitized, and stored in four microcomputer systems programmed to be used in a ring buffer mode to record data before and after receipt of a random trigger from the normal zone detection circuitry. ''Slow'' channels are digitized by a scanner and buffered by a microcomputer. Selected data channels are continuously displayed on digital or recorded on strip chart recorders. The microcomputer systems are interfaced to a central minicomputer system for display and archival storage. Facility variables are digitized by a separate scanner system. Certain critical fault variables are compared with set point values, and if they are out of range, cause a programmable logic controller to initiate an emergency coil energy dump. 2 refs

  7. Instrument design optimization with computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael H. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density uctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented with a focus on primary electron beam deflection downstream of the target. The SHMS consists of a superconducting horizontal bending magnet (HB) and three superconducting quadrupole magnets. The HB allows particles scattered at an angle of 5:5 deg to the beam line to be steered into the quadrupole magnets which make up the optics of the spectrometer. Without mitigation, remnant fields from the SHMS may steer the unscattered beam outside of the acceptable envelope on the beam dump and limit beam operations at small scattering angles. A solution is proposed using optimal placement of a minimal amount of shielding iron around the beam line.

  8. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  9. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Lin; Wang Houjun; Zhou Xue; Zhou Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful

  10. The Basic Design Report of the 40M SANS Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Hwang, Dong Gil; Kim, Hak Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Sung Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    The HANARO cold neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum basic design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The optimum design of the guide for the 40M SANS instrument was completed and the optimum basic design of the 40M the SANS instrument was also completed based on the Vitess simulation results. The Q range of the instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A-1 and the maximum flux at a sample position can reach about 5.5x10 7 n/cm2sec. The simulation results and the basic design product will be used for the detailed design and the construction of the SANS instrument. The simulation results could be applied to the development of the other instrument.

  11. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-09-10

    In this research program, several optical instruments for high temperature measurement based on single crystal sapphire material are introduced and tested for real-time, reliable, long-term monitoring of temperatures for coal gasifier. These are sapphire fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensor; intensity-measurement based polarimetric sapphire sensor and broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sapphire sensor. Based on current evaluation and analysis of the experimental results, the broadband polarimetric differential interferometric (BPDI) sensor system was chosen for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the self-calibrating measurement of optical path differences (OPD) in a single-crystal sapphire disk, which is a function of both the temperature dependent birefringence and the temperature dependent dimensional changes. The BPDI sensor system extracts absolute temperature information by absolute measurement of phase delays. By encoding temperature information in optical spectrum instead of optical intensity, this sensor guarantees its relative immunity to optical source power fluctuations and fiber losses, thus providing a high degree of long-term measurement stability which is highly desired in industrial applications. The entire prototype for BPDI system including the single crystal sapphire probe, zirconia prism, alumina extension tube, optical components and signal processing hardware and software have shown excellent performance in the laboratory experiments shown in this report.

  12. MOEMS devices designed and tested for astronomical instrumentation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Noell, Wilfried

    2012-03-01

    Next-generation astronomical instrumentation for ground-based and space telescopes could use MOEMS devices. Among them, Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. A promising solution for the object selection system is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays (MMA) which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. We are engaged in a European development of MMA for generating reflective slit masks. Prototypes of MMA with 2048 individually addressable micromirrors made of single-crystal silicon were successfully designed, fabricated and tested. 100×200μm2 micromirrors can be tilted by electrostatic actuation yielding 24° mechanical tilt-angle. The micromirrors were successfully actuated before, during and after cryogenic cooling at 162K. Line-column addressing for individual mirrors has also been demonstrated. We were also engaged in a technical assessment of using a 2048 × 1080 DMD from Texas Instruments for space applications. For a MOS in space, the device should work in vacuum and at low temperature. Our tests reveal that the DMD remains fully operational at -40°C and in vacuum. A 1038 hours life test in space survey conditions, Total Ionizing Dose radiation, thermal cycling and vibrations/shocks have also been successfully completed. These results do not reveal any show-stopper concerning the ability of the DMD to meet environmental space requirements. These developments and tests demonstrate the full ability of this type of components for space instrumentation, especially in multi-object spectroscopy applications.

  13. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanyuan; Wang Meng; Guo Yuchao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  14. Die Casting Mold Design for Aluminum Alloy Shell of Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about die casting mold design for aluminum alloy shell of instrument. Three-dimensional model of the casting and mold are designed by using Pro/Engineer and AutoCad which can analyze forming quality. Digital design and theoretical calculation can greatly shorten product development cycle and mold design cycle, improve the accuracy of product design and mold design, and reduce the cost of mold design.

  15. FMIT test-end instrumentation conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    FMIT test-end measurement techniques and instrumentation concepts for deuteron beam control, test-end device protection, test cell radiation field characterization, lithium jet performance monitoring, and in-situ off-line target testing and examination are described. The test-end refers to the beam line-target-test assembly interface area inside the test cell, but TEI includes measurements inside and outside the cell. The measurement requirements are briefly reviewed and referenced. The sometimes severe environmental limitations are discussed. Where feasible, multifunctional systems have been configured. Special facility features have been minimized

  16. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    for teaching skills with GeoGebra, as well as an entrepreneurial attitude towards mathematics. Using the instrumental approach I discuss how open ended transdisciplinary design activities can support instrumental genesis, by considering the extent to which the pupils address mathematical knowledge...

  17. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  18. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    2005-01-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  19. Design aspects of safety critical instrumentation of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, P. [Electronics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: swamy@igcar.ernet.in

    2005-07-01

    Safety critical instrumentation systems ensure safe shutdown/configuration of the nuclear installation when process status exceeds the safety threshold limits. Design requirements for safety critical instrumentation such as functional and electrical independence, fail-safe design, and architecture to ensure the specified unsafe failure rate and safe failure rate, human machine interface (HMI), etc., are explained with examples. Different fault tolerant architectures like 1/2, 2/2, 2/3 hot stand-by are compared for safety critical instrumentation. For embedded systems, software quality assurance is detailed both during design phase and O and M phase. Different software development models such as waterfall model and spiral model are explained with examples. The error distribution in embedded system is detailed. The usage of formal method is outlined to reduce the specification error. The guidelines for coding of application software are outlined. The interface problems of safety critical instrumentation with sensors, actuators, other computer systems, etc., are detailed with examples. Testability and maintainability shall be taken into account during design phase. Online diagnostics for safety critical instrumentation is detailed with examples. Salient details of design guides from Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, International Atomic Energy Agency and standards from IEEE, BIS are given towards the design of safety critical instrumentation systems. (author)

  20. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-09-10

    Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire

  1. SINGLE-CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Wang; G. Pickrell; R. May

    2002-10-18

    Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a wide range of industrial processes. Appropriate techniques and instrumentation are needed depending on the temperature measurement requirements in different industrial processes and working environments. Harsh environments are common in many industrial applications. These harsh environments may involve extreme physical conditions, such as high-temperature, high-pressure, corrosive agents, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. Due to these severe environmental conditions, conventional temperature sensors are often difficult to apply. This situation has opened a new but challenging opportunity for the sensor society to provide robust, high-performance, and cost-effective temperature sensors capable of operating in those harsh environments. The focus of this research program has been to develop a temperature measurement system for temperature measurements in the primary and secondary stages of slagging gasifiers. For this application the temperature measurement system must be able to withstand the extremely harsh environment posed by the high temperatures and corrosive agents present in these systems. Real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperature for the coal gasification process is important to realize the full economic potential of these gasification systems. Long life and stability of operation in the high temperature environment is essential for the temperature measurement system to ensure the continuous running of the coal gasification system over the long term. In this high temperature and chemically corrosive environment, rather limited high temperature measurement techniques such as high temperature thermocouples and optical/acoustic pyrometers are available, each with their own limitations. In this research program, five different temperature sensing schemes based on the single crystal sapphire

  2. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  3. Design of 40M SANS instrument at HANARO, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hark-Rho

    2006-01-01

    The HANARO cold-neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. At the end position of the CG1B guide, 40M SANS will be installed in the cold-neutron guide hall. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum conceptual design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The 100x100 cm 2 area detector will be installed and the sample-to-detector distance will vary from 1 to 20 m. The refractive focusing optics and the transmission polarizer/spin flipper setup is planned for installation. The Q range of the 40M SANS instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A -1 when considering the refractive focusing optics. In this paper, the simulation results and the design of the new 40M SANS instrument are presented

  4. Design of 40M SANS instrument at HANARO, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yshan@kaeri.re.kr; Choi, Sung-Min [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hark-Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    The HANARO cold-neutron research facility project was launched on July 1, 2003. A state of the art SANS instrument was selected as a top-priority instrument by an instrument selection committee, which consisted of domestic users and HANARO personnel. An instrument development team and an international and domestic instrument advisory team were formulated. At the end position of the CG1B guide, 40M SANS will be installed in the cold-neutron guide hall. The guide and the instrument simulation were performed using Vitess software and the optimum conceptual design was completed based on the simulation results and the international advisory team reviews. The 100x100 cm{sup 2} area detector will be installed and the sample-to-detector distance will vary from 1 to 20 m. The refractive focusing optics and the transmission polarizer/spin flipper setup is planned for installation. The Q range of the 40M SANS instrument will cover from 0.0008 to 1.0 A{sup -1} when considering the refractive focusing optics. In this paper, the simulation results and the design of the new 40M SANS instrument are presented.

  5. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  6. Design aid system for nuclear power plant instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Ito, Toshiichiro; Fujii, Makoto; Shimada, Nobuhide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to provide design aid for the nuclear power plant instrumentation of high reliability with the minimum cost while eliminating unrequired condition even if there are no data for the ground of the instrumentation design. Constitution: The information data base for the design of process radiation ray monitors are administrated by a data base administration device. The conditions to be satisfied in the process radiation monitors designed based on the data for the circumstances where particular predetermined process radiation monitors are installed, are derived by deduction using information obtained from the data base by way of the data base administration device. The derived design conditions are displayed and the optimum conditions are again reduced and displayed. In this way, the designers are assisted such that optimum designs can be obtained while sufficiently satisfying the safety and also in view of the cost. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Design of cost effective antennas for instrumentation radars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of antennas for instrumentation radars are determined by the development cost. By re-use of the reflector system cost effective antennas can be designed. The factors governing the design of such antennas are described here....

  8. Image reconstruction design of industrial CT instrument for teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yongning; Cai Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Industrial CT instrument for teaching is applied to teaching and study in field of physics and radiology major, image reconstruction is an important part of software on CT instrument. The paper expatiate on CT physical theory and first generation CT reconstruction algorithm, describe scan process of industrial CT instrument for teaching; analyze image artifact as result of displacement of rotation center, implement method of center displacement correcting, design and complete image reconstruction software, application shows that reconstructed image is very clear and qualitatively high. (authors)

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  10. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  11. System 80+ instrumentation and controls - certification of a reliable design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Scarola, K.; Turk, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    ABB Combustion Engineering's (ABB) System 80+ advanced light water plant design includes a modern, fully digitized instrumentation and controls complex, Nuplex 80+. This complex incorporates an evolutionary advanced control room, replacing conventional analog instruments with more capable computer driven components. As a result, Nuplex 80+ results in significant improvements in operator information handling and control to enhance plant safety and availability. The design implements features which the U.S. NRC has determined to be acceptable for addressing the potential for common mode failure in software implemented for protective functions. (author)

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Instrument Air System Design Description. System 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPLEY, B.J.; TRAN, Y.S.

    2000-01-01

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the instrument air (IA) system of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This IA system provides instrument quality air to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. The IA system is a general service system that supports the operation of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the process equipment skids, and process instruments in the CVD Facility. The following discussion is limited to the compressor, dryer, piping, and valving that provide the IA as shown in Drawings H-1-82222, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Mechanical Utilities Compressed and Instrument Air PandID, and H-1.82161, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Process Equipment Skid PandID MCO/Cusk Interface. Figure 1-1 shows the physical location of the 1A system in the CVD Facility

  13. Training With Curved Laparoscopic Instruments in Single-Port Setting Improves Performance Using Straight Instruments: A Prospective Randomized Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovich, Peter; Sionov, Valery Ben; Kakucs, Timea

    2016-01-01

    Lately single-port surgery is becoming a widespread procedure, but it is more difficult than conventional laparoscopy owing to the lack of triangulation. Although, these operations are also possible with standard laparoscopic instruments, curved instruments are being developed. The aims of the study were to identify the effect of training on a box trainer in single-port setting on the quality of acquired skills, and transferred with the straight and curved instruments for the basic laparoscopic tasks, and highlight the importance of a special laparoscopic training curriculum. A prospective study on a box trainer in single-port setting was conducted using 2 groups. Each group performed 2 tasks on the box trainer in single-port setting. Group-S used conventional straight laparoscopic instruments, and Group-C used curved laparoscopic instruments. Learning curves were obtained by daily measurements recorded in 7-day sessions. On the last day, the 2 groups changed instruments between each other. 1st Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University of Medicine from Budapest, Hungary, a university teaching hospital. In all, 20 fifth-year medical students were randomized into 2 groups. None of them had any laparoscopic or endoscopic experience. Participation was voluntary. Although Group-S performed all tasks significantly faster than Group-C on the first day, the difference proved to be nonsignificant on the last day. All participants achieved significantly shorter task completion time on the last day than on the first day, regardless of the instrument they used. Group-S showed improvement of 63.5%, and Group-C 69.0% improvement by the end of the session. After swapping the instruments, Group-S reached significantly higher task completion time with curved instruments, whereas Group-C showed further progression of 8.9% with straight instruments. Training with curved instruments in a single-port setting allows for a better acquisition of skills in a shorter period. For this

  14. Design and validation of portable optical instrument for crop diagnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Zheng, Wengang; Huang, Wengjiang; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Liangyun

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a portable diagnostic instrument was designed and tested, which can measure the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and structure insensitive pigment index (SIPI) of crop canopy in field. The instrument have a valid survey area of 1 m*1 m when the height between instrument and the ground was fixed to 1.3 meter The crop growth condition can be assessed based on their NDVI and SIPI values, so it will be very important for crop management to get these values. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. There are six special different photoelectrical detectors within red, blue and near infrared bands, which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and reflex light from the canopy of crop. This optical instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process and A/D convert module, the data storing and transmission module and human-machine interface module. The detector is the core of the instrument which measures the spectrums at special bands. The microprocessor calculates the NDVI and SIPI value based on the A/D value. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's RS232 serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field at different view directions. This paper also provided the method of calibration, the results showed that the average measurement error to SIPI value of instrument was 5.25% and the average measurement error to NDVI value in vegetation-covered region is 6.40%. It reveals the on-site and non-sampling mode of crop growth monitoring by fixed on the agricultural machine traveling in the field.

  15. COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers - Instrument design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G.; Bennett, C.; Weber, R.; Maruschak, J.; Ratliff, R.; Janssen, M.; Chitwood, J.; Hilliard, L.; Lecha, M.; Mills, R.; Patschke, R.; Richards, C.; Backus, C.; Mather, J.; Hauser, M.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.; Gulkis, S.; Boggess, N.; Cheng, E.; Kelsall, T.; Lubin, P.; Meyer, S.; Moseley, H.; Murdock, T.; Shafer, R.; Silverberg, R.; Wright, E.

    1990-09-01

    Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) at frequencies of 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz have been designed and built to map the large angular scale variations in the brightness temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The instrument is being flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, launched on November 18, 1989. Each receiver input is switched between two antennas pointing 60 deg apart on the sky. The satellite is in near-polar orbit with the orbital plane precessing at 1 deg per day, causing the beams to scan the entire sky in 6 months. In 1 year of observation, the instruments are capable of mapping the sky to an rms sensitivity of 0.1 mK per 7 deg field of view. The mission and the instrument have been carefully designed to minimize the need for systematic corrections to the data.

  16. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  17. Design of virtual three-dimensional instruments for sound control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Axel Gezienus Elith

    An environment for designing virtual instruments with 3D geometry has been prototyped and applied to real-time sound control and design. It enables a sound artist, musical performer or composer to design an instrument according to preferred or required gestural and musical constraints instead of constraints based only on physical laws as they apply to an instrument with a particular geometry. Sounds can be created, edited or performed in real-time by changing parameters like position, orientation and shape of a virtual 3D input device. The virtual instrument can only be perceived through a visualization and acoustic representation, or sonification, of the control surface. No haptic representation is available. This environment was implemented using CyberGloves, Polhemus sensors, an SGI Onyx and by extending a real- time, visual programming language called Max/FTS, which was originally designed for sound synthesis. The extension involves software objects that interface the sensors and software objects that compute human movement and virtual object features. Two pilot studies have been performed, involving virtual input devices with the behaviours of a rubber balloon and a rubber sheet for the control of sound spatialization and timbre parameters. Both manipulation and sonification methods affect the naturalness of the interaction. Informal evaluation showed that a sonification inspired by the physical world appears natural and effective. More research is required for a natural sonification of virtual input device features such as shape, taking into account possible co- articulation of these features. While both hands can be used for manipulation, left-hand-only interaction with a virtual instrument may be a useful replacement for and extension of the standard keyboard modulation wheel. More research is needed to identify and apply manipulation pragmatics and movement features, and to investigate how they are co-articulated, in the mapping of virtual object

  18. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  19. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units of measurements for quantitative variables. In respect of good practice, a set of confounding factors (as gender, date of birth, etc. have also been identified and integrated in data collection instruments. Data-entry validation rules were implemented for each variable to reduce data input errors when the electronic data collection instrument was created. Results: Two data collection instruments have been developed and successfully implemented: a paper-based form and an electronic data collection instrument. The developed forms included demographics, neonatal complications (as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, etc., biochemical data at birth and follow-up, immunological data, as well as basal and follow-up echocardiographic data. Data-entry validation criteria have been implemented in electronic data collection instrument to assure validity and precision when paper-based data are translated in electronic form. Furthermore, to assure subject’s confidentiality a careful attention was given to HIPPA identifiers when electronic data collection instrument was developed. Conclusion: Data collection instruments were successfully developed and implemented as an a priori step in a clinical research for assisting data collection and management in a case of an observational prospective study with follow-up visits.

  20. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  1. Remote sensing technology research and instrumentation platform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    An instrumented pallet concept and definition of an aircraft with performance and payload capability to meet NASA's airborne turbulent flux measurement needs for advanced multiple global climate research and field experiments is presented. The report addresses airborne measurement requirements for general circulation model sub-scale parameterization research, specifies instrumentation capable of making these measurements, and describes a preliminary support pallet design. Also, a review of aircraft types and a recommendation of a manned and an unmanned aircraft capable of meeting flux parameterization research needs is given.

  2. ASIC and HMC designs for portable nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratre, V.B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the seed activity done so far for realizing the goal of compact portable nuclear instruments and related instrumentation that can be designed, developed and manufactured without external constraints. This important activity requires critical components to be made in the country by tapping and gearing the established industrial units for this activity. A good deal of ground work has been carried out over a period of time in setting up IC design facility and CAD-FAB interface. There has been a close interaction with the production and semiconductor facilities to design and develop ASIC, hybrids, display devices, detectors/sensors etc. Efforts are also undertaken to develop the critical technologies that are required to fulfill the requirement. A status report on various technologies, ASIC, hybrids and their application development done in the face of out-standing challenges is being presented here. (author)

  3. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  4. Non Invasive Instrumentation For Single Event Effects (NIISEE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On this Phase 1 project, Adventium will identify and address key hurdles to achieve Radiation Hardening by Software (RHS) for Single Event Effects (SEEs) for modern...

  5. Design and Implementation of Data Collection Instruments for Neonatology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Monica G. HĂŞMĂŞANU; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Gabriela C. ZAHARIE; Tudor C. DRUGAN

    2014-01-01

    im: The aim of our research was to design and implement data collection instruments to be use in context of an observational prospective clinical study with follow-up conducted on new born with intrauterine growth restriction. Methods: The structure of the data collection forms (paper based and electronic based) was first identified and for each variable the best type to accomplish the research aim was established. The code for categorical variables has also been decided as well as the units ...

  6. Requirements and design reference mission for the WFIRST/AFTA coronagraph instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; Noecker, Charley; Neville, Timothy; Pham, Hung; Rud, Mike; Tang, Hong; Villalvazo, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument takes advantage of AFTAs 2.4-meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes: Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, Lyot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architectures. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predicts the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  7. Requirements and Design Reference Mission for the WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Richard T.; Dekens, Frank; Calvet, Rob; Chang, Zensheu; Effinger, Robert; Ek, Eric; Hovland, Larry; Jones, Laura; Loc, Anthony; Nemati, Bijan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument take s advantage of AFTA s 2.4 -meter aperture to provide novel exoplanet imaging science at approximately the same instrument cost as an Explorer mission. The AFTA coronagraph also matures direct imaging technologies to high TRL for an Exo-Earth Imager in the next decade. The coronagraph Design Reference Mission (DRM) optical design is based on the highly successful High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), with modifications to accommodate the AFTA telescope design, service-ability, volume constraints, and the addition of an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). In order to optimally satisfy the three science objectives of planet imaging, planet spectral characterization and dust debris imaging, the coronagraph is designed to operate in two different modes : Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph. Active mechanisms change pupil masks, focal plane masks, yot masks, and bandpass filters to shift between modes. A single optical beam train can thus operate alternatively as two different coronagraph architecture s. Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis predict s the instrument contrast with the Low Order Wave Front Control loop closed. The STOP analysis was also used to verify that the optical/structural/thermal design provides the extreme stability required for planet characterization in the presence of thermal disturbances expected in a typical observing scenario. This paper describes the instrument design and the flow down from science requirements to high level engineering requirements.

  8. Higs-instrument: design and demonstration of a high performance gas concentration imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Klop, W. A.; Visser, H.; van Brug, H.; Human, J.

    2017-09-01

    Climate change and environmental conditions are high on the political agenda of international governments. Laws and regulations are being setup all around the world to improve the air quality and to reduce the impact. The growth of a number of trace gasses, including CO2, Methane and NOx are especially interesting due to their environmental impact. The regulations made are being based on both models and measurements of the trend of those trace gases over the years. Now the regulations are in place also enforcement and therewith measurements become more and more important. Instruments enabling high spectral and spatial resolution as well as high accurate measurements of trace gases are required to deliver the necessary inputs. Nowadays those measurements are usually performed by space based spectrometers. The requirement for high spectral resolution and measurement accuracy significantly increases the size of the instruments. As a result the instrument and satellite becomes very expensive to develop and to launch. Specialized instruments with a small volume and the required performance will offer significant advantages in both cost and performance. Huib's Innovative Gas Sensor (HIGS, named after its inventor Huib Visser), currently being developed at TNO is an instrument that achieves exactly that. Designed to measure only a single gas concentration, opposed to deriving it from a spectrum, it achieves high performance within a small design volume. The instrument enables instantaneous imaging of the gas distribution of the selected gas. An instrument demonstrator has been developed for NO2 detection. Laboratory measurements proved the measurement technique to be successful. An on-sky measurement campaign is in preparation. This paper addresses both the instrument design as well as the demonstrated performances.

  9. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  10. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  11. Advanced nuclear instrumentation design using programmable logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M. K.; Srivani, L.; Sambasivan, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of semiconductor technology has made the application of Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) inevitable in modern digital systems design but when they are deployed in Safety Critical Systems (SCS), their reliability and safety need to be proved beyond doubt. PLDs are available as off-the-shelf parts that offer a wide range of logic capacity, various features, speed and voltage characteristics. These devices can be customized as per the user requirements. Re-programmable series of PLDs allows designers to change the circuitry as often as they want until the design operates to their satisfaction. To describe the digital designs, IEEE standard Hardware Description Languages (HDL) such as VHDL and Verilog HDL are used. As designs grow more complex, the verification problems increase exponentially. High level Verification Languages (HVL) have emerged to solve the functional verification bottleneck. Using HVLs, directed-random verification approach is adopted to achieve high coverage. The purpose of this approach is to ensure that the system is verified for its functionality in all possible scenarios. A 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is in the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam (Tamilnadu), India. PLDs are extensively utilized in designing instrumentation systems like core monitoring and safety logic functions of PFBR. This paper provides review of advanced digital design methodologies adopted in designing PLD based SCS. (authors)

  12. Aeroflex Single Board Computers and Instrument Circuit Cards for Nuclear Environments Measuring and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, Sam; Stevenson, Dave; Magnifico, Mateo

    2013-06-01

    A Single Board Computer (SBC) is an entire computer including all of the required components and I/O interfaces built on a single circuit board. SBC's are used across numerous industrial, military and space flight applications. In the case of military and space implementations, SBC's employ advanced high reliability processors designed for rugged thermal, mechanical and even radiation environments. These processors, in turn, rely on equally advanced support components such as memory, interface, and digital logic. When all of these components are put together on a printed circuit card, the result is a highly reliable Single Board Computer that can perform a wide variety of tasks in very harsh environments. In the area of instrumentation, peripheral circuit cards can be developed that directly interface to the SBC and various radiation measuring devices and systems. Designers use signal conditioning and high reliability Analog to Digital Converters (ADC's) to convert the measuring device signals to digital data suitable for a microprocessor. The data can then be sent to the SBC via high speed communication protocols such as Ethernet or similar type of serial bus. Data received by the SBC can then be manipulated and processed into a form readily available to users. Recent events are causing some in the NPP industry to consider devices and systems with better radiation and temperature performance capability. Systems designed for space application are designed for the harsh environment of space which under certain conditions would be similar to what the electronics will see during a severe nuclear reactor event. The NPP industry should be considering higher reliability electronics for certain critical applications. (authors)

  13. Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The SP2 is an instrument that measures, in situ, the time-dependent scattering and incandescence signals produced by individual BC-containing particles as they travel through a continuous-wave laser beam. Any particle traversing the laser beam will scatter light, and the BC component of a BC-containing particle will absorb some of the laser energy until its temperature is raised to the point at which it incandesces (hereafter we adopt the standard terminology of the SP2 community and denote any substance determined by the SP2 to be BC as refractory black carbon (rBC)). The amplitude of the rBC incandescence signal is related to the amount of refractory material contained in the illuminated particle. By binning the individual incandescence signals per unit sample volume, the mass concentration [ng/m3] of rBC can be derived. By binning the individual signals by volume equivalent diameter the size distribution (dN/dlogDVED) per unit time can be derived. The rBC mass loading per unit time and the rBC size distribution unit time are the core data products produced by the SP2. Additionally, the scattering channel can be used to provide information on the rBC particle population-based mixing states within ambient aerosols. However, this data product is produced on a requested-basis since additional detailed analysis and QC/QA must be conducted.

  14. Single-Use Instrumente in der endoskopischen Gastroenterologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Henning; Wintermantel, Erich

    In der Medizin werden flexible Endoskope in natürliche Körperöffnungen eingeführt, um z. B. den Verdauungstrakt und die Atemwege zu untersuchen. Ein solches Endoskop besteht aus einem langen Schlauch, dessen distaler Bereich mit Hilfe einer Griffmechanik in alle Richtungen bewegt wird und so der Anatomie und morphologischen Gegebenheiten des menschlichen Verdauungstrakts folgen kann. Das Endoskop wird an eine Lichtquelle angeschlossen. Innerhalb des Schlauchs befindet sich ein Glasfaserstrang, der das Licht an die Spitze des Schlauchs leitet. Über die Optik kann der Arzt dann den beleuchteten Bereich des Körperinneren inspizieren. Während sich früher nur ein Okular direkt am Griff befunden hat, werden die Bildinformationen heute zusätzlich über einen CCD-Chip an der Spitze des Endoskops auf einen Monitor übertragen. Über den Arbeitskanal werden Instrumente eingeführt, die dann unter optischer Kontrolle angewendet werden können.

  15. Single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy using standard urological instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe the surgical technique and initial experience with a single-port retroperitoneal renal biopsy (SPRRB. Materials and Methods Between January and April 2013, five children underwent SPRRB in our hospital. A single 1.5 cm incision was performed under the 12th rib at mid-axillary line, and an 11 mm trocar was inserted. A nephroscope was used to identify the kidney and dissect the perirenal fat. After lower pole exposure, a laparoscopic biopsy forceps was introduced through the nephroscope working channel to collect a renal tissue sample. Results SPRRB was successfully performed in five children. The mean operative time was 32 minutes, and mean estimated blood loss was less than 10 mL. The hospital stay of all patients was two days because they were discharged in the second postoperative day, after remaining at strict bed rest for 24 hours after the procedure. The average number of glomeruli present in the specimen was 31. Conclusion SPRRB is a simple, safe and reliable alternative to open and videolaparoscopic approaches to surgical renal biopsy.

  16. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  17. Design and reliability of a specific instrument to evaluate patient safety for patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in a predefined care track: a retrospective patient record review study in a single tertiary hospital in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eindhoven, Daniëlle C; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Dietz, Marlieke F; Schalij, Martin J; Brouwers, Corline; de Bruijne, Martine C

    2017-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that a substantial number of patients suffer from adverse events (AEs) as a result of hospital care. However, specific data on AEs in acute cardiac care are scarce. The current manuscript describes the development and validation of a specific instrument to evaluate patient safety of a predefined care track for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Retrospective patient record review study. A total of 879 hospital admissions treated in a tertiary care centre for an AMI (age 64±12 years, 71% male). In the first phase, the medical records of patients with AMI warranting coronary angiography or coronary intervention were analysed for process deviations. In the second phase, the medical records of these patients were checked for any harm that had occurred which was caused by the healthcare provider or the healthcare organisation (AE) and whether the harm that occurred was preventable. Of all 879 patients included in the analysis, 40% (n=354) had 1 or more process deviation. Of these 354 patients, 116 (33%) had an AE. Patients with AE experienced more process deviations compared with patients without AE (2±1.7 vs 1.5±0.9 process deviations per patient, p=0.005). Inter-rater reliability in assessing a causal relation of healthcare with the origin of an AE showed a κ of 0.67 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.83). This study shows that it is possible to develop a reliable method, which can objectively assess process deviations and the occurrence of AEs in a specified population. This method could be a starting point for developing an electronic tracking system for continuous monitoring in strictly predefined care tracks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Sentinel-5 instrument: status of design, performance, and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gühne, T.; Keim, C.; Bartsch, P.; Weiß, S.; Melf, M.; Seefelder, W.

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-5 instrument is currently under development by a consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space in the frame of the European Union Copernicus program. It is a customer furnished item to the MetOp Second Generation satellite platform, which will provide operational meteorological data for the coming decades. Mission objective of the Sentinel-5 is to monitor the composition of the Earth atmosphere for Copernicus Atmosphere Services by taking measurements of trace gases and aerosols impacting air quality and climate with high resolution and daily global coverage. Therefore the Sentinel-5 provides five dispersive spectrometers covering the UV-VIS (270…500 nm), NIR (685 …773 nm) and SWIR (1590…1675 and 2305…2385 nm) spectral bands with resolutions <=1nm. Spatially the Sentinel-5 provides a 108° field of view with a ground sampling of 7.5 x 7 km2 at Nadir. The development program is post PDR and the build-up of the industrial team is finalised. We report on the instrument architecture and design derived from the driving requirements, the predicted instrument performance, and the general status of the program.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of a Copper Single Crystal Shape Memory Alloy-Based Endodontic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marin; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Bel Haj Khalifa, Saifeddine; Engels-Deutsch, Marc; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is the development of endodontic Cu-based single crystal Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) instruments in order to eliminate the antimicrobial and mechanical deficiencies observed with the conventional Nickel-Titane (NiTi) SMA files. A thermomechanical constitutive law, already developed and implemented in a finite element code by our research group, is adopted for the simulation of the single crystal SMA behavior. The corresponding material parameters were identified starting from experimental results for a tensile test at room temperature. A computer-aided design geometry has been achieved and considered for a finite element structural analysis of the endodontic Cu-based single crystal SMA files. They are meshed with tetrahedral continuum elements to improve the computation time and the accuracy of results. The geometric parameters tested in this study are the length of the active blade, the rod length, the pitch, the taper, the tip diameter, and the rod diameter. For each set of adopted parameters, a finite element model is built and tested in a combined bending-torsion loading in accordance with ISO 3630-1 norm. The numerical analysis based on finite element procedure allowed purposing an optimal geometry suitable for Cu-based single crystal SMA endodontic files. The same analysis was carried out for the classical NiTi SMA files and a comparison was made between the two kinds of files. It showed that Cu-based single crystal SMA files are less stiff than the NiTi files. The Cu-based endodontic files could be used to improve the root canal treatments. However, the finite element analysis brought out the need for further investigation based on experiments.

  20. Design and installation of advanced computer safety related instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Andolina, K.; Ruether, J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly developing area of computer systems creates new opportunities for commercial utilities operating nuclear reactors to improve plant operation and efficiency. Two of the main obstacles to utilizing the new technology in safety-related applications is the current policy of the licensing agencies and the fear of decision making managers to introduce new technologies. Once these obstacles are overcome, advanced diagnostic systems, CRT-based displays, and advanced communication channels can improve plant operation considerably. The article discusses outstanding issues in the area of designing, qualifying, and licensing of computer-based instrumentation and control systems. The authors describe the experience gained in designing three safety-related systems, that include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based Safeguard Load Sequencer for NSP Prairie Island, a digital Containment Isolation monitoring system for TVA Browns Ferry, and a study that was conducted for EPRI/NSP regarding a PLC-based Reactor Protection system. This article presents the benefits to be gained in replacing existing, outdated equipment with new advanced instrumentation

  1. Older drivers' attitudes about instrument cluster designs in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Seder, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about older drivers' preferences and attitudes about instrumentation design in vehicles. Yet visual processing impairments are common among older adults and could impact their ability to interface with a vehicle's dashboard. The purpose of this study is to obtain information from them about this topic, using focus groups and content analysis methodology. A trained facilitator led 8 focus groups of older adults. Discussion was stimulated by an outline relevant to dashboard interfaces, audiotaped, and transcribed. Using multi-step content analysis, a trained coder placed comments into thematic categories and coded comments as positive, negative, or neutral in meaning. Comments were coded into these categories: gauges, knobs/switches, interior lighting, color, lettering, symbols, location, entertainment, GPS, cost, uniformity, and getting information. Comments on gauges and knobs/switches represented half the comments. Women made more comments about getting information; men made more comments about uniformity. Positive and negative comments were made in each category; individual differences in preferences were broad. The results of this study will be used to guide the design of a population-based survey of older drivers about instrument cluster format, which will also examine how their responses are related to their visual processing capabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Matter in Extreme Conditions Instrument - Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, R.F.; Boyce, R.M.; Haller, G.; Hastings, J.B.; Hays, G.; Lee, H.J.; /SLAC; Lee, R.W.; /LLNL, Livermore; Nagler, B.; /Rutherford; Scharfenstein, M.; Marsh, D.; White, W.E.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), is constructing a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) research facility. The FEL has already met its performance goals in the wavelength range 1.5 nm - 0.15 nm. This facility, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), utilizes the SLAC 2-Mile Linear Accelerator (linac) and will produce sub-picosecond pulses of short wavelength X-rays with very high peak brightness and almost complete transverse coherence. The final one-third of the SLAC linac is used as the source of electrons for the LCLS. The high energy electrons are transported across the SLAC Research Yard, into a tunnel which houses a long undulator. In passing through the undulator, the electrons are bunched by the force of their own synchrotron radiation and produce an intense, monochromatic, spatially coherent beam of X-rays. By varying the electron energy, the FEL X-ray wavelength is tunable from 1.5 nm to 0.15 nm. The LCLS includes two experimental halls as well as X-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to create a facility that can be developed for research in a variety of disciplines such as atomic physics, materials science, plasma physics and biosciences. This Conceptual Design Report, the authors believe, confirms the feasibility of designing and constructing an X-ray instrument in order to exploit the unique scientific capability of LCLS by creating extreme conditions and study the behavior of plasma under those controlled conditions. This instrument will address the Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences, mission objective related to study of Plasma and Warm Dense Matter as described in the report titled LCLS, the First Experiments, prepared by the LCLS Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) in September 2000. The technical objective of the LCLS Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) Instrument project is

  3. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  4. RoboSCell: An automated single cell arraying and analysis instrument

    KAUST Repository

    Sakaki, Kelly

    2009-09-09

    Single cell research has the potential to revolutionize experimental methods in biomedical sciences and contribute to clinical practices. Recent studies suggest analysis of single cells reveals novel features of intracellular processes, cell-to-cell interactions and cell structure. The methods of single cell analysis require mechanical resolution and accuracy that is not possible using conventional techniques. Robotic instruments and novel microdevices can achieve higher throughput and repeatability; however, the development of such instrumentation is a formidable task. A void exists in the state-of-the-art for automated analysis of single cells. With the increase in interest in single cell analyses in stem cell and cancer research the ability to facilitate higher throughput and repeatable procedures is necessary. In this paper, a high-throughput, single cell microarray-based robotic instrument, called the RoboSCell, is described. The proposed instrument employs a partially transparent single cell microarray (SCM) integrated with a robotic biomanipulator for in vitro analyses of live single cells trapped at the array sites. Cells, labeled with immunomagnetic particles, are captured at the array sites by channeling magnetic fields through encapsulated permalloy channels in the SCM. The RoboSCell is capable of systematically scanning the captured cells temporarily immobilized at the array sites and using optical methods to repeatedly measure extracellular and intracellular characteristics over time. The instrument\\'s capabilities are demonstrated by arraying human T lymphocytes and measuring the uptake dynamics of calcein acetoxymethylester-all in a fully automated fashion. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper (CDIM): Instrument and Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; CDIM Team

    2018-01-01

    CDIM is the Cosmic Dawn Intensity Mapper, one of the probe-class missions currently under study for NASA. A detailed Report from the study will be submitted to NASA and for consideration by the Decadal Survey. The flight system will comprise a wide-field cryogenic telescope with a large focal plane array providing complete coverage from optical through mid-IR. The system will be deployed to L2 or Earth-trailing orbit, to provide a stable thermal environment and allow extended observations of fields selected to be cross-correlated with deep surveys in other wavebands. Spectra with will be measured for every point in each target field, using linear variable filters (LVFs). These filters eliminate the need for a spectrometer in the focal plane. Spectra are built up through simple imaging of a series of telescope pointings separated by small angular offsets. This poster presents the initial concept for the instrument and mission design.

  6. USE OF LEAN PRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS IN DESIGNING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elietta P. Burnasheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the concept of lean production seeks not a reduction of costs but complete elimination of losses that do not bring added value to the product or service. In any system, in all processes – from production and assembly, to hospitality, education, health, transport and social services – there are hidden losses. Teaching itself is a kind of production process in which a certain “product” (student acquires the added value (knowledge and skills, that is why it has become topical in educational institution to establish the working group on introduction of lean production into the learning process. The article presents the factors that are to be taken into account while designing the educational process based on the lean production principles. Materials and Methods: methods of analysis of existing system of vocational training in higher school, monitoring of the results of educational practice, modeling and experimental work in the process of analytical work were used. Results: important direction for eliminating losses in the educational process is the development of the interlinked curricula, allowing to avoid repeated study of a number of didactic units in the organization of continuous training in the system “Vocational education – Higher education”. In order to eliminate the possibility of incompetent graduate one should focus on the organisation of objective final control. Losses in education are caused by to the mismatch between labour market demand and the spectrum of areas of training in educational institutions. Discussion and Conclusions: the lean production possibilities are defined as instrumental in ensuring the organisation of “the process of lean learning”: by applying some lean production instruments such as the designing of the educational process, preventing of “faulty work” while training students, the attuning of the training system to employers’ requests, the visualisation of the education

  7. Clinical Utility of an Automated Instrument for Gram Staining Single Slides ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-01-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis. PMID:20410348

  8. Clinical utility of an automated instrument for gram staining single slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-06-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis.

  9. Design of the Local Instrument for KSTAR Gravity Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, N. I.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, Y. O.; Sa, J. W.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Park, Y. M.; Hong, G. H.; Choi, C. H.; Bak, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity support installed between the lower toroidal field (TF) coil cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and the cryostat base is the main support structure for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) superconducting magnet system. This structure should be flexible to absorb thermal shrink of the magnet and also should be rigid to support the magnet weight and the plasma disruptions loads. The gravity support was designed with stainless steel 316LN and Carbon fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) that has low thermal conductivity and high structural strength at low temperature. The fabrication of the support has been completed after engineering design. The gravity support is composed of one toroidal ring and eight supporting posts as shown in Figure 1. The toroidal ring and post are cooled by 4.5 K supercritical helium and 77 K gaseous helium, respectively. The overall dimension of the post is 1 m height and 0.8 m width and depth, respectively. The post is composed of upper block, inner CFRP plate, lower block, flexible plate, thermal anchor block, outer CFRP plate, base block, and strengthen plate. Inner CFRP plate is connected to the upper and lower block using the pin. And the outer CFRP plate is connected to the thermal anchor block and the base block. Inner and outer CFRP plates consist of four and two 20 mm thin plates, respectively. Flexible plates consist of four 8 mm thin stainless steel plates to absorb the magnet shrinkage. These plates are assembled into the thermal anchor block and lower block. The fabrication of the gravity support initiated October 2002 has been completed in October 2003. The supporting post and toroidal ring were fabricated at shop individually and assembled at site. Various of static and dynamic loads will increase the stress level of the structure during the cool-down and plasma operation. After fabrication of the structure, we designed an instrumentation system to monitoring the structural safety. This system

  10. Instrumentation and control of harmonic oscillators via a single-board microprocessor-FPGA device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Rico A. R.; Davis, Solomon; Devine, Cameron; Garbini, Joseph L.; Sidles, John A.

    2017-04-01

    We report the development of an instrumentation and control system instantiated on a microprocessor-field programmable gate array (FPGA) device for a harmonic oscillator comprising a portion of a magnetic resonance force microscope. The specific advantages of the system are that it minimizes computation, increases maintainability, and reduces the technical barrier required to enter the experimental field of magnetic resonance force microscopy. Heterodyne digital control and measurement yields computational advantages. A single microprocessor-FPGA device improves system maintainability by using a single programming language. The system presented requires significantly less technical expertise to instantiate than the instrumentation of previous systems, yet integrity of performance is retained and demonstrated with experimental data.

  11. Procedure simplification: the role of single-use instruments in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Arup K; Kwiecien, Grzegorz J; Harwin, Steven F; Johnson, Aaron J; Mont, Michael A; Malkani, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    In orthopaedic surgery, surgical site contamination leading to periprosthetic infections is a major concern with important morbidity, financial and emotional burden. Single-use instruments developed for total knee arthroplasties are intended to simplify the surgical procedure, decrease the number of surgical trays that require sterilization and reprocessing, decrease the incidence of possible contamination through breaks in surgical wraps, and improve operating room efficiency. As the demand for total knee arthroplasty continues to rise, a greater burden on the healthcare system may be created. The use of single-use instruments, cutting guides, and trials will play an increasing role in total knee arthroplasty through improved operating room efficiency.

  12. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  13. An instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spherical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L; Bao, N; Jiang, Y; Han, K; Zhou, J

    2016-01-01

    It universally exists in moving particular systems that particles can be electrified, in which the particles are chemically identical, just as toner particles, coal dust, and pharmaceutical powders. However, owing to the limit of experimental instruments, so far, there are yet no experiments to illustrate whether a particle can be electrified due to a single collision between two spherical particles, and there are also no experiments to measure the charge carried by a single particle due to a single collision between two particles. So we have developed an instrument for charge measurement due to a single collision between two spheres. The instrument consists of two-sphere collision device, collision charge measurement apparatus, and particles' trajectory tracking system. By using this instrument, we can investigate the collision contact electrification due to a single collision between two spheres and simultaneously record the moving trajectories of spheres after the collision to calculate the rebound angles to identify the contribution of the triboelectrification due to the rubbing between the contact surfaces and the collision contact electrification due to the normal pressure between the contact surfaces.

  14. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  15. Single- versus dual-rod anterior instrumentation of thoracolumbar curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Mithun; Yang, Yi; Liew, Susan; Turner, Peter L; Torode, Ian P

    2016-10-01

    Single or dual-rod instrumentation can be used for the anterior fixation of the spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). We aim to compare the complications, radiographic and functional outcomes of patients with AIS who have undergone single and dual-rod instrumentation. This is a multi-centre study involving the Royal Children's, Royal Melbourne and Epworth hospitals. Three primary surgeons were involved to ensure homogeneity of surgical technique and implants. Patients with AIS and thoracolumbar curves (Lenke 5 and 6) undergoing anterior instrumentation from 1st January 2000 to 30th June 2013 were included. Radiographic data were collected from X-rays. The functional outcome was measured through the Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-30). The study included 58 patients (38 single-rod and 20 dual-rod patients). Thirty-nine patients were classified with Lenke 5 curves, while 19 patients had Lenke 6 curves. Structural interbody supports were used in 95 % of cases. In the preoperative to postoperative period, patients with single rods had an improvement of 75 and 51 % for primary and secondary curves, respectively, while patients with dual rods had an improvement of 70 and 38 % for primary and secondary curves, respectively. There were no cases of pseudoarthrosis or metalware failure in either group. Two patients (one single-rod and one dual-rod patient) required further unplanned posterior fusion. 91 % of patients were satisfied with the results of their back management. Pseudoarthrosis and metalware failure are rare complications of anterior instrumentation. Our study found no significant difference in functional or radiographic outcome between single and dual-rod instrumentation. Level III.

  16. Single port intra-gastric full thickness resection: Using "Rotation and Revolution Single Instrument Tie (RRSIT)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Goon; Ryu, Seong Yeob; Kim, Dong Yi

    2014-09-01

    Recently, minimize incisions has led to a reduction in the number of ports, and has led to transumbilical single-port surgery. We evaluated the treatment result of single-port, intragastric, full thickness resections for gastric SMTs. In addition, we introduce a novel intracorporeal knot tying method. From August 2010 to March 2011, five patients underwent single-port intragastric, full thickness gastric wedge resections. After performing a gastrostomy, a single port was inserted into the stomach. After full thickness resection, the defect in the gastric wall was sutured by full thickness interrupted suture and a new knot tying technique. The mean operative time was 129 ± 21.0 min and the mean mass size was 3.0±0.6 cm. There were two very low-risk GISTs, 2 leiomyomas, and 1 carcinoid. The post-operative course was uneventful in all patients. The mean hospital stay was 7.2±1.2 days. Single-port intra-gastric full thickness resection with novel intracorporeal knot tying method is feasible and safe. novel intracorporeal knot tying method is a very useful knot tying method. We expect the application of novel intracorporeal knot tying method to be diverse and broad.

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  18. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  19. Hardware design for new instrumentation and control system of RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Zareen Khan Abdul Jalil Khan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2010-01-01

    The design for New Instrumentation and Control system of RTP are proposed. Physical system is modular-based, comprise of several cabinets such as Reactor Protection System 1 and 2, Control Console, Information Console 1 and 2 as well as Communication Console. Reactor Protection System automatically will shut-down reactor whenever safety limit setting was approach. Control console is where the reactor operator actually controls the reactor with control the movement of control rods. Information Consoles using Liquid Crystal Display to monitor the reactor parameters. Communication Console is where the communication tools such as telephone and intercom are located. This new system will incorporated analog, digital and computer-based. Reactor Protection System will use all analog system. Reactor Control System and Reactor Monitoring System will use analog as well as computer-based system. Wide-range channel will use digital signal processor as a main component. Controlling control rod movement is using control rod button via microprocessor-based control rod controller. Automatic Flux Controller is using embedded computer for flexibility of programming. Data Acquisition System is using Programmable Logic Controller and Industrial Computer. The main software for this system will be developed using WinCC software. (author)

  20. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design and Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall C. Richmond

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish passing through dams may be injured or killed despite advances in turbinedesign, project operations and other fish bypass systems. The six-degree-of-freedom (6DOFSensor Fish device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditionsand physical stresses to which fish are exposed when they pass through complex hydraulicenvironments. It has been used to identify the locations and operations where conditions aresevere enough to injure or kill fish. During the design process, a set of governing equationsof motion for the Sensor Fish was derived and simulated to understand the design implica-tions of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. The Sensor Fishpackage includes three rotation sensors, three acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, and atemperature sensor with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. Its housing is constructed of clearpolycarbonate plastic. It is 24.5 mm in diameter and 90 mm in length and weighs about 43 g,similar to the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt. The accuracy of the pressure sensorwas determined to be within 0.2 psi. In laboratory acceptance tests, the relative errors of boththe linear acceleration and angular velocity measurements were determined to be less than5%. An exposure is defined as a significant event when the acceleration reaches predefinedthresholds. Based on the different characteristic of acceleration and rotation velocities, theexposure event is categorized as either a collision between the Sensor Fish and a solid struc-ture or shear caused by turbulence. Since its development in 2005, the 6DOF Sensor Fish hasbeen deployed successfully at many major dams in the United States.

  1. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  2. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  3. Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Instrument Design and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Christoph R.; Harlander, John M.; Brown, Charles M.; Marr, Kenneth D.; Miller, Ian J.; Stump, J. Eloise; Hancock, Jed; Peterson, James Q.; Kumler, Jay; Morrow, William H.; Mooney, Thomas A.; Ellis, Scott; Mende, Stephen B.; Harris, Stewart E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian J.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) instrument was built for launch and operation on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON) mission. The instrument was designed to measure thermospheric horizontal wind velocity profiles and thermospheric temperature in altitude regions between 90 km and 300 km, during day and night. For the wind measurements it uses two perpendicular fields of view pointed at the Earth's limb, observing the Doppler shift of the atomic oxygen red and green lines at 630.0 nm and 557.7 nm wavelength. The wavelength shift is measured using field-widened, temperature compensated Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) spectrometers, employing low order échelle gratings operating at two different orders for the different atmospheric lines. The temperature measurement is accomplished by a multichannel photometric measurement of the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen A-band around 762 nm wavelength. For each field of view, the signals of the two oxygen lines and the A-band are detected on different regions of a single, cooled, frame transfer charge coupled device (CCD) detector. On-board calibration sources are used to periodically quantify thermal drifts, simultaneously with observing the atmosphere. The MIGHTI requirements, the resulting instrument design and the calibration are described.

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  5. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didierjean, B.; Jobez, J-P.; Seguinot, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1997-01-01

    A Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) is currently manufactured in the framework of the tests of LHC-B collaboration. These extremely fast and sensible detectors (95% efficiency and 1 ns time accuracy for a single electron) could be utilized in many other applications: long base neutrino oscillations and possibly, HELLAZ. The model consists of an array of 2,048 1 x 1 mm 2 on Si strips of 50 mm thickness placed in glass cylinders of 127 mm diameter provided with Si windows and containing focalization electrodes. The electron circuits on 16 VA3 readout ceramic chips where designed, realized and tested. The stainless steel base card provided with 40 vacuum holes was already realised. The first production tests of visible light bi-alkali photocathodes operating in high vacuum will be performed soon. The design of the RICH2 counter (covering polar angles from 12 to 120 mrad) has been modified by turning the 120 mrad mirror to increase the spectrometer luminosity, i.e. to increase the length of the radiation path in gas by a factor of two. A second mirror sends the image in a region behind the magnetic field return, a region well-shielded from the LHC interaction zone. This design will provided 28 points for a β = 1 tracks and an angular uncertainty of 0.34 mrad per point. To cover the entire image 115 HPD will be necessary. The reconstruction of the complex systems of rings has been recently accomplished for events typical for RICH2, downstream, to discriminate between pions and kaons between 16 and 180 GeV/c. A simulation of 3,068 tracks has produced only 19 erroneous identifications, i.e. 0.6%. Another, simulation of 1,989 tracks with the RICH upstream resulted in 39 erroneous π/K identification, i.e. 2%. The report presents also the long base RICH experiment for detecting neutrino oscillations. A new version of 100 m length and 18.6 m diameter (27 kt of water) provided with HPDs of 250 mm diameter with 85 6 x 6 mm 2 arrays has been designed. Fifty such detectors will be

  7. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  8. GEO-CAPE Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (COEDI) Instrument Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this study is to build a breadboard instrument and prove the functionality of the optical-mechanical assembly for the Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics...

  9. Software for simulation and design of neutron scattering instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads

    The experimental technique of Neutron Scattering is constantly evolving through advances in sources and instrumentation. The latest challenges and opportunities are posed by the European Spallation Source currently under construction in Lund, as both the source dimensions and time structure are far......Stas instrument file from limited user input. All optimized guides are thoroughly characterized allowing the user to select the most appropriate solution for a specific instrument. The software has been used extensively in connection with ESS, as several guides for instruments accepted for construction have been...... is simulated between all geometries, providing a rich simulation of background including spurious signals. The MARI (ISIS, UK) powder spectrometer and MACS (NIST, USA) triple axis spectrometer are simulated, and recent measurements are recreated demonstrating the increased fidelity obtainable....

  10. Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.

  11. Insufficient joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2013-10-01

    The current articulating instruments used in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery do not appear to provide the joint forces required. Thus, we measured the joint forces of first-generation articulating laparoscopic instruments. To compare these forces with those necessary in the surgical context, we evaluated the forces sufficient to produce secure surgical ties in an animal model. The articulating instruments tested were Laparo-Angle (Cambridge Endoscopic Devices Inc, Framingham, MA), RealHand (Novare Surgical Systems Inc, Cupertino, CA), and Roticulator (Covidien Inc, Mansfield, MA). For each, we measured the angle between the end-effector and the shaft in proportion to the articulating force using a push-pull gauge. Two fixed-position configurations of the instruments were predetermined: the neutral and the fully articulated positions. The forces required to secure surgical ties for the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were evaluated using kidneys harvested from a female pig. The bending forces required to bend from the neutral position to 30° were 5.6 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 1.0 N with the Laparo-Angle and RealHand, respectively. Furthermore, the slippage forces in the fully articulated state were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.2, and 1.5 ± 0.2 N in the above order. In contrast, the mean forces to produce surgical ties of the ureter, renal artery, and renal vein were 14.5 ± 2.3, 11.5 ± 0.8, and 10.3 ± 2.3 N, respectively. The joint forces of first-generation articulating instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery are not sufficient to meet the usual operative needs. Improved articulating instruments with greater articulating forces should be developed.

  12. Meta-analytic guidelines for evaluating single-item reliabilities of personality instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Bekk, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Personality is an important predictor of various outcomes in many social science disciplines. However, when personality traits are not the principal focus of research, for example, in global comparative surveys, it is often not possible to assess them extensively. In this article, we first provide an overview of the advantages and challenges of single-item measures of personality, a rationale for their construction, and a summary of alternative ways of assessing their reliability. Second, using seven diverse samples (Ntotal = 4,263) we develop the SIMP-G, the German adaptation of the Single-Item Measures of Personality, an instrument assessing the Big Five with one item per trait, and evaluate its validity and reliability. Third, we integrate previous research and our data into a first meta-analysis of single-item reliabilities of personality measures, and provide researchers with guidelines and recommendations for the evaluation of single-item reliabilities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  14. Designing new guides and instruments using McStas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhi, E.; Hansen, T.; Wildes, A.

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing complexity of modem neutron-scattering instruments, the need for powerful tools to optimize their geometry and physical performances (flux, resolution, divergence, etc.) has become essential. As the usual analytical methods reach their limit of validity in the description...... of fine effects, the use of Monte Carlo simulations, which can handle these latter, has become widespread. The McStas program was developed at Riso National Laboratory in order to provide neutron scattering instrument scientists with an efficient and flexible tool for building Monte Carlo simulations...... of guides, neutron optics and instruments [1]. To date, the McStas package has been extensively used at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, for various studies including cold and thermal guides with ballistic geometry, diffractometers, triple-axis, backscattering and time-of-flight spectrometers...

  15. Preliminary Design and Analysis of the GIFTS Instrument Pointing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomkowski, Paul P.

    2003-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Instrument is the next generation spectrometer for remote sensing weather satellites. The GIFTS instrument will be used to perform scans of the Earth s atmosphere by assembling a series of field-of- views (FOV) into a larger pattern. Realization of this process is achieved by step scanning the instrument FOV in a contiguous fashion across any desired portion of the visible Earth. A 2.3 arc second pointing stability, with respect to the scanning instrument, must be maintained for the duration of the FOV scan. A star tracker producing attitude data at 100 Hz rate will be used by the autonomous pointing algorithm to precisely track target FOV s on the surface of the Earth. The main objective is to validate the pointing algorithm in the presence of spacecraft disturbances and determine acceptable disturbance limits from expected noise sources. Proof of concept validation of the pointing system algorithm is carried out with a full system simulation developed using Matlab Simulink. Models for the following components function within the full system simulation: inertial reference unit (IRU), attitude control system (ACS), reaction wheels, star tracker, and mirror controller. With the spacecraft orbital position and attitude maintained to within specified limits the pointing algorithm receives quaternion, ephemeris, and initialization data that are used to construct the required mirror pointing commands at a 100 Hz rate. This comprehensive simulation will also aid in obtaining a thorough understanding of spacecraft disturbances and other sources of pointing system errors. Parameter sensitivity studies and disturbance analysis will be used to obtain limits of operability for the GIFTS instrument. The culmination of this simulation development and analysis will be used to validate the specified performance requirements outlined for this instrument.

  16. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be c...

  17. Intensity-modulated near-infrared spectroscopy: instrument design issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Ken; Wickramasinghe, Yappa A.

    2000-05-01

    Tissue oxygenation instruments which rely on phase sensitive detection suffer form phase-amplitude crosstalk, i.e. the phase of the detected signal with respect to a reference signal is dependent on the average intensity of the light entering the photomultiplier tube (PMT). If an instrument that detects the phase of the scattered signal is to yield the phase accuracy required in order to provide useful clinical parameters, quantitative haemoglobin and oxy- haemoglobin concentrations (Hb), and (HbO2) and mixed arterial-venous saturation all sources of phase-amplitude effects must be understood. The phase-amplitude effect has in the past been attributed to the fact that the rise time of the detector decreases with increasing light intensity. In this work an additional phase-amplitude effect in intensity modulated near IR spectroscopy (IMNIRS) instrumentation is studied. The presence of a coherent interfering signal due to low level RF coupling at the detector output will corrupt the phase of the signal of interest and cause a phase-amplitude effect. Under certain conditions a relatively low level interfering RF signal can introduce a significant error in the slope of the phase per unit distance plot. A comparison between measured and modeled phase distortion is presented and ways to reduce the effect discussed. In addition to phase-amplitude effects, the final accuracy of the quantitative measurements made by an IMNIRS instrument depends heavily on the calibration. Calibration of the measured phase and the AC and DC components of the detected light must take into account distortions due to, (a) phase-amplitude crosstalk and system phase offset, (b) detector non-linearities, (c) variation in laser source intensity and phase with time and temperature, (d) optical probe light loss and (e) variations in detector sensitivity. Current instrument performance will be presented and discussed.

  18. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  19. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  20. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  1. Sentinel-3 coverage-driven mission design: Coupling of orbit selection and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, S.; Pirondini, F.; Palmade, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    The first satellite of the Sentinel-3 series was launched in February 2016. Sentinel-3 payload suite encompasses the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with a swath of 1270 km, the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) yielding a dual-view scan with swaths of 1420 km (nadir) and 750 km (oblique view), the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) working in Ku-band and C-band, and the dual-frequency Microwave Radiometer (MWR). In the early stages of mission and system design, the main driver for the Sentinel-3 reference orbit selection was the requirement to achieve a revisit time of two days or less globally over ocean areas with two satellites (i.e. 4-day global coverage with one satellite). The orbit selection was seamlessly coupled with the OLCI instrument design in terms of field of view (FoV) definition driven by the observation zenith angle (OZA) and sunglint constraints applied to ocean observations. The criticality of the global coverage requirement for ocean monitoring derives from the sunglint phenomenon, i.e. the impact on visible channels of the solar ray reflection on the water surface. This constraint was finally overcome thanks to the concurrent optimisation of the orbit parameters, notably the Local Time at Descending Node (LTDN), and the OLCI instrument FoV definition. The orbit selection process started with the identification of orbits with short repeat cycle (2-4 days), firstly to minimise the time required to achieve global coverage with existing constraints, and then to minimise the swath required to obtain global coverage and the maximum required OZA. This step yielded the selection of a 4-day repeat cycle orbit, thus allowing 2-day coverage with two adequately spaced satellites. Then suitable candidate orbits with higher repeat cycles were identified in the proximity of the selected altitudes and the reference orbit was ultimately chosen. Rationale was to keep the swath for global coverage as close as possible to the

  2. Thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule for irradiation experiments in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok Hoon; Ji, Dae Young

    1999-01-01

    It has been possible that various kinds of irradiation experiments are proceeded through the construction of HANARO. The non-instrumented capsule was designed for life time evaluation of nuclear material. The thermalhydraulic design of non-instrumented capsule was divided into two parts. Firstly, pressure drop experiments was performed to satisfy allowable limits on pressure drop and coolant flow rate for experimental hole IR-1 inside HANARO core. The tube diameter and lower part design of non-instrumented capsule was decided from the experiment. Secondly, thermal design to control the maximum specimen temperature was conducted by GENGTC one dimensional program

  3. Evaluation of four instruments with different working motion using artificial plastic model with C-shaped single canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Miki; Maeda, Munehiro; Katsuumi, Ichiroh; Igarashi, Masaru

    2018-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate four instruments with different working motion for preparation of a C-shaped single canal wall using the same artificial plastic models reproduced from a human tooth. One tooth with root canal morphology C1 (the shape is an uninterrupted "C" with no separation or division) was selected among three-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging data of extracted human teeth. Imaging data were then converted into STL form data, and twenty-four C-shaped root canal model blocks were manufactured using this STL form data. These blocks were randomly divided into four groups of six blocks each and instrumented as follows: stainless steel K-files (SSK), Self-Adjusting File (SAF), ProTaper NEXT (PTN) and RECIPROC (REC). Micro-CT images taken before and after canal preparation were superimposed, and instrumented canal area, percentage of instrumented canal area, part of instrumented canal area, volume of instrumented canal and time taken for instrumentation were evaluated for each group. The greatest instrumented canal area, percentage of instrumented canal area and volume of instrumented canal were as follows (in decreasing order): SSK > SAF > PTN > REC (P instrumentation was as follows (in decreasing order): SAF > SSK > PTN > REC (P instrumented all root canal walls equally. PTN and REC required less time taken for instrumentation, but showed unequal instrumentation.

  4. Optimised design of a ROTAX-type instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.

    1997-01-01

    The rotating analyser (ROTAX) spectrometer has been devised and installed at ISIS. Practical scans in (Qℎω) space with a nearly arbitrary scan direction, i.e. polarisation of q vs. Q are possible and feasible with no compromises on the resolution. Valuable technological and methodological knowledge has been compiled for an improved version of such a type of instrument. At present ROTAX lacks competitiveness with other spectrometers from an unexpectedly weak neutron flux of its particular beam-line and an unfavourable adaption of the analyser's drive power to the time frame or neutron source frequency

  5. Computational modeling and design of a new open clip surgical instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jeremy Zheng

    2009-08-01

    This research introduces a new surgical clip instrument with improved mechanism to apply the metal clips to patient's vessel/tissues in the surgical operations. The improved clip delivery system has been designed and developed in the instrument to improve the clip distal move from clip channel into jaw guide track and resolve the problems of clip accidental shooting out when clip is being loaded into jaw pair by compression spring that has been normally used in some current surgical clip instruments. With this improvement, this new surgical open clip instrument can prevent patient's vessels and tissues from being damaging because the distal move of clips is well controlled without clip drop-off incident. Plus the operational force to form the clip is lower than regular surgical instruments due to new mechanism design. In addition to the above, the manufacturing and product cost can be decreased because the dimensional tolerance of components, such as clip channel and jaw guide track, can be wider due to this new instrument design. The prototype of this new instrument is analyzed and optimized through computer aided modeling and simulation, in order to prove its feasible function, reliable performance, and mechanical advantage. All these improved features have also been tested and verified through the prototype. With some further improvement to this new instrument design and valuable evaluations from surgeon and clinical fields in next several months, the commercial availability of this surgical clip instrument will be anticipate in 1-2 years.

  6. Proceedings of a workshop on methods for neutron scattering instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P.

    1997-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop. The international gathering of about 50 participants representing 15 national facilities, universities and corporations featured oral presentations, posters, discussions and demonstrations. Participants looked at a number of issues concerning neutron scattering instruments and the tools used in instrument design. Objectives included: (1) determining the needs of the neutron scattering community in instrument design computer code and information sharing to aid future instrument development, (2) providing for a means of training scientists in neutron scattering and neutron instrument techniques, and (3) facilitating the involvement of other scientists in determining the characteristics of new instruments that meet future scientific objectives, and (4) fostering international cooperation in meeting these needs. The scope of the meeting included: (1) a review of x-ray scattering instrument design tools, (2) a look at the present status of neutron scattering instrument design tools and models of neutron optical elements, and (3) discussions of the present and future needs of the neutron scattering community. Selected papers were abstracted separately for inclusion to the Energy Science and Technology Database

  7. Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments: Technical considerations and surgical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our results clearly demonstrate that LESS retroperitoneal partial adrenalectomy can be performed safely and effectively using a custom-made single-access platform and standard laparoscopic instruments.

  8. Design and manufacturing of 05F-01K instrumented capsule for nuclear fuel irradiation in Hanaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    An instrumented capsule was developed to be able to measure fuel characteristics, such as fuel temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, fuel pellet elongation, and neutron flux, etc., during the irradiation test of nuclear fuel in Hanaro. The instrumented capsule(02F-11K) for measuring and monitoring and monitoring fuel centerline temperature and neutron flux was designed and manufactured. It was successfully irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro from March 14, 2003 to June 1, 2003 (53.84 full power days at 24 MW). In the year of 2004, 3 test fuel rods and the instrumented capsule(03F-05K) were designed and manufactured to measure fuel centerline temperature, internal pressure of fuel rod, and fuel axial deformation during irradiation test. This capsule was irradiated in the test hole OR5 of Hanaro reactor from April 26, 2004 to October 1, 2004 (59.5 EFPD at 24 {approx} 30 MW). The six typed dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been designed and manufactured to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. The 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule was designed and manufactured for a design verification test of the three dual instrumented fuel rods. The irradiation test of the 05F-01K instrumented fuel capsule will be carried out at the OR5 vertical experimental hole of Hanaro.

  9. Effects of Instrument Handle Design on Dental Hygienists' Forearm Muscle Activity During Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedbeck, Jessica R; Tolle, Susan L; McCombs, Gayle; Walker, Martha L; Russell, Daniel M

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 different commercially available instrument handle designs (A. 16 grams and 12.7 mm diameter, B. 23 grams and 11.1 mm diameter, C. 21 grams and 7.9 mm diameter and D. 18 grams and 6.35 mm diameter) on the muscle activity of four forearm muscles during a simulated scaling experience. Methods: A convenience sample of 27 (n=27) dental hygienists used a Columbia 13/14 curet with four different instrument handles to scale artificial calculus from typodont teeth. Each participant's muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography (sEMG). Results: Similar muscle activity was generated when scaling with instruments at 16, 18, and 21 grams with varying diameter handles. Instrument B generated significantly more muscle activity when compared to each of the other instrument handle designs (p=0.001, p=0.002, p=0.039). The lower left quadrant displayed significantly less muscle activity during scaling than the upper and lower right quadrants (p=0.026, p=0.000), although no significant interaction effect was found with instruments within quadrants. Most participants (62.96%) preferred instrument A, which was rated more comfortable based on weight when compared to the other instruments tested. Conclusions: Instrument handle design has an effect on forearm muscle activity when scaling in a simulated environment. The heaviest instrument with a relatively large diameter (B 11.1 mm and 23 g) generated significantly more overall mean muscle activity compared to the other three instruments. Similar amounts of muscle activity were produced by instruments weighing between 16 and 21 g. Participants' instrument preferences were more affected by handle diameter than weight. Results support the need for further research to determine the impact of these findings on muscle load related to risk of musculoskeletal disorders in a real-world setting. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  10. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation.Methods: Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reco...

  11. The Design of Instruments For Government Finance in An Islamic Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Nadeem ul; Mirakhor, Abbas

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a viable approach for the design of an instrument of government finance (and monetary management) in an Islamic economy where conventional transactions based on an ex-ante promise of a risk-free rate of return are forbidden. Resources to finance government infrastructural and development projects can be mobilized through the issuance of a national participation paper (NPP) and this instrument can also serve as an instrument of monetary management. Various concep...

  12. Neutron beam-line shield design for the protein crystallography instrument at the Lujan Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Muhrer, G.; Ferguson, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a very useful methodology for calculating absolute total (neutron plus gamma-ray) dose equivalent rates for use in the design of neutron beam line shields at a spallation neutron source. We have applied this technique to the design of beam line shields for several new materials science instruments being built at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center. These instruments have a variety of collimation systems and different beam line shielding issues. We show here some specific beam line shield designs for the Protein Crystallography Instrument. (author)

  13. Significance of analog instrumentation - design philosophy of replacement dump arrest unit at Pickering Station Candu Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.F.; McDowell, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences of opinion concerning power plant instrumentation, including safety systems. One popular view point is that modem instrumentation must be microprocessor-based to be acceptable. An alternative view point is that properly designed analog instrumentation is recommended in some applications and has proven to be viable based upon performance and experience. A practical example is discussed in detail, explaining how a combination of discrete analog circuitry, combined with discrete digital circuitry provides a robust solution to a complex instrumentation replacement problem. In this application, a microprocessor-based instrument was designed as a replacement for an obsolete analog instrument. Due to severe licensing difficulties, the instrument was redesigned as a combination of discrete analog and digital circuitry. In the implementation of this circuitry, all complex testing functions of the improved microprocessor-based instrument were accommodated and system accuracy and performance were not compromised over the micro-processor-based instrument. The instrument has met all requirements for reliability and EMI/RFI susceptibility, as well as isolation of analog outputs and the ability to withstand severe transient noise on inputs and outputs without adversely affecting performance

  14. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Salem nuclear power plant, Unit 1. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system include operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  15. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  16. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.; Mayn, B.G.

    1979-08-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria

  17. Theory of factorial design single- and multi-stratum experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ching-Shui

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together both new and old results, Theory of Factorial Design: Single- and Multi-Stratum Experiments provides a rigorous, systematic, and up-to-date treatment of the theoretical aspects of factorial design. To prepare readers for a general theory, the author first presents a unified treatment of several simple designs, including completely randomized designs, block designs, and row-column designs. As such, the book is accessible to readers with minimal exposure to experimental design. With exercises and numerous examples, it is suitable as a reference for researchers and as a textbook

  18. Online Course Design in Higher Education: A Review of National and Statewide Evaluation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Sally; Ching, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    This research identifies six online course evaluation instruments used nationally or in statewide systems. We examined the characteristics (i.e., number of standards and criteria) and coded the criteria that guide the design of online courses. We discussed the focus of the instruments and their unique features.

  19. A Workshop on Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design. Introduction and Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, Rex P.

    1996-09-01

    The future of neutron and x-ray scattering instrument development and international cooperation was the focus of the workshop on ''Methods for Neutron Scattering Instrument Design'' September 23-25 at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These proceedings are a collection of a portion of the invited and contributed presentations

  20. Model design and instrumentation experiences with continuous-flow cryogenic tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of wind tunnels that can be operated at cryogenic temperatures has placed several new demands on the ability to build and instrument wind tunnel models. The experiences at the NASA Langley Research Center relative to the design and instrumentation of models for continuous flow cryogenic wind tunnels are reviewed.

  1. Design of software platform based on linux operating system for γ-spectrometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Zhou Chen; Zhang Yongjin

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of γ-spectrometry instrument software platform based on s3c2410a processor with arm920t core, emphases are focused on analyzing the integrated application of embedded linux operating system, yaffs file system and qt/embedded GUI development library. It presented a new software platform in portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  2. Background simulations for the ATHENA X-IFU instrument: impact on the instrumental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Cea, D.; Mineo, T.; Perinati, E.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Piro, L.

    2014-07-01

    On 28 november 2013 ESA selected "The Hot and Energetic Universe" as the scientific theme for a large mission to be flown in 2028 in the second lagrangian point, and ATHENA is the mission that will address this science topic. It will carry on board the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), a 3840 pixel array based on TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters providing high resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV @ 6 keV) in the 0.3-12 keV range. Among X-IFU goals there is the detection and characterization of high redshift AGNs, Clusters of galaxies and their outskirts, and the elusive Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), so great care must be paid to the reduction of the background level. These scientific objectives will be reached if the particle background is kept lower than 0.05 cts cm-2 s-1, and to this aim, it is mandatory the use of a Cryogenic AC (CryoAC), as well as an optimized design of the cryostat and of the structures surrounding X-IFU. Our team, that is responsible for the ACD design, performed a detailed study to predict the rejection efficiency of the ACD as a function of its geometrical parameters and design choices. Since no experimental data on the background experienced by X-Ray microcalorimeters in the L2 orbit are available at the moment, the particle background levels have been calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations using the Geant4 software.

  3. Design, Construction and Measured Performance of a Single-Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design philosophy, construction and measured performances of a single stage, single entry centrifugal pump demonstration unit are presented. In the construction, close-coupled induction motor drives the centrifugal pump, which draws fluid (water) from a water storage tank and delivers same through a flow control ...

  4. Built environment instruments for walkability, bikeability, and recreation: disability and universal design relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer A; Zimmerman, Jennifer L; Rimmer, James H

    2012-04-01

    Despite a plethora of instruments that measure the built environment with respect to its effect on potential physical activity, little is known about how relevant these instruments are for people with disabilities (PWDs). This review comprises an in-depth review of instruments related to the built environment and physical activity, as well as an examination of such instruments to determine their applicability for PWDs. In this paper, the term "built environment" refers to human-made structures (e.g., urban and rural design characteristics, recreational structures) that may facilitate or impede an individual's ability to be physically active. A content analysis was conducted on 95 instruments measuring walkability, bikeability, and recreation with respect to disability and universal design (UD) relevance. Instruments were also cataloged according to other dimensions, including psychometric properties, data collection modalities, and impact or use. Roughly one third of all instruments include some disability-specific items, and only a few UD principles are consistently demonstrated across all instruments. Psychometric information is available for approximately one half of the instruments. Most instruments use objective/audit methods of data collection, with less using subjective/perceived and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. With respect to instrument impact/use, just over one half of the instruments have articles cited in the peer-reviewed literature. Recommendations for new and revised built environment instruments include more focus on specific disability populations, incorporation of all UD principles, as well as attention to psychometric quality and measurement specificity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Instruments of Inquiry: Understanding the Nature and Role of Design Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Designers employ a range of tools in most design projects, yet there are few frameworks for understanding how and why they work. On the basis of a well-established school of thought, pragmatism, this paper contributes with a coherent conceptualisation of tools in design, which I label instruments...

  6. Bragg optics computer codes for neutron scattering instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovici, M.; Yelon, W.B.; Berliner, R.R.; Stoica, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for neutron crystal spectrometer design, optimization and experiment planning are described. Phase space distributions, linewidths and absolute intensities are calculated by matrix methods in an extension of the Cooper-Nathans resolution function formalism. For modeling the Bragg reflection on bent crystals the lamellar approximation is used. Optimization is done by satisfying conditions of focusing in scattering and in real space, and by numerically maximizing figures of merit. Examples for three-axis and two-axis spectrometers are given

  7. Design of Electronic Experiments Using Computer Generated Virtual Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    is displayed on the front panel DC Voltage meter. C LABORATORY 4 DESIGN The original Laboratory 4, Transistor ( BJT ) Characteristics, experiment...voltage relations of an NPN transistor in a common-emitter circuit configuration used in both the static and dynamic operation. 5. Transistor curve...of a BJT common emitter amplifier to stated specifications, test it for prop biasing signal amplification characteristics and operational stability. 7

  8. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.

  9. The integration of real and virtual magnetic resonance imaging experiments in a single instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jonathan C; Yin, Donghui; Bernhardt, Richard H; Deng, Qunli; Procca, Andrew E; Tyson, Randy L; Lo, Kan; Tomanek, Boguslaw

    2009-09-01

    We present the design of an integrated system for performing both real and virtual (simulated) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. We emphasize the approaches used to maximize the level of integration and also the benefits that tight real-virtual integration brings for a scientific instrument. The system has been implemented for both low field (0.2 T) and high field (9.4 T) imaging systems. The simulations can run for any MRI experiment and we demonstrate the operation of the system for T(1), T(2), T(2) ( *), and diffusion contrasts.

  10. Nanofluid enhancement of mineral oil and thermal properties instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Eli

    There are two purposes of this research, to design and build a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids and to determine if the increased heat transfer capabilities of nanofluids can be applied to cooling transformers by using the heat transfer cell to measure the enhancement. The design and construction of a heat transfer cell that could accurately calculate heat transport coefficients of various fluids was successful. A heat transfer cell was built and tested on several fluids to confirm the accuracy of the design and the experiments. Three fluids were successfully tested overall for their thermal conductivity values, and one fluid was tested for its convection coefficients in the heat transfer cells. Values for the thermal conductivity and the convection coefficients were obtained during this experiment that agreed with commonly accepted values for the testing fluids. The average value for the thermal conductivities for mineral oil of the first design in the ¼" diameter cell is 0.15W/ m2c', and agrees well with the commonly accepted values of mineral oils. The value commonly accepted value of thermal conductivity for mineral oil is 0.14W/m2c' at 25°C, the first heat transfer cell yielded a thermal conductivity value of approximately 0.16W/m2 c' at roughly 25C. The heat transfer cell was also used to calculated convection coefficients of mineral oil, and values were obtained within the limits for natural convection according to Incropera, contributing more to the validity of the results from this heat transfer cell. A second heat transfer cell was designed to determine the thermal conductivities of more thermally sensitive fluids, offering a wider range of materials that can be tested. The second design places the thermocouples directly at their assumed position of the wire and the wall temperatures for calculation purposes, yielding more accurate results and can therefore more accurately calculate the

  11. Design of a streaked radiography instrument for ICF ablator tuning measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Geissel, M.; Kellogg, J. W.; Bennett, G. R.; Edens, A. D.; Atherton, B. W.; Leeper, R. J.; Hicks, D. G.; Spears, B. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Holder, J. P.; Landen, O. L.

    2008-01-01

    A streaked radiography diagnostic has been proposed as a technique to determine the ablator mass remaining in an inertial confinement fusion ignition capsule at peak velocity. This instrument, the 'HXRI-5', has been designed to fit within a National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator. The HXRI-5 will be built at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and initial testing will be done at the SNL Z-Beamlet Facility. In this paper, we will describe the National Ignition Campaign requirements for this diagnostic, the instrument design, and the planned test experiments.

  12. Experiences with the Design and Construction of Astronomical Instrumentation using CASPER: The Digital Backend System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, Richard M.; Bloss, M.; Brandt, J.; Creager, R.; Demorest, P.; Ford, J.; Jones, G.; Luo, J.; McCullough, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, J.; Watts, G.; Whitehead, M.

    2014-01-01

    NRAO recently designed and built a state-of-the-art backend system for the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory's (SHAO) 65 meter radio telescope. The machine, called the Digital Backend System (DIBAS), was created from the design of the VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) by adding nine incoherent pulsar search modes and eight coherent dedispersion timing modes to complement the 29 VEGAS spectral line modes. Together these modes cover all of the anticipated science requirements for the 65 meter except for VLBI. The VEGAS multi-beam spectrometer was recently designed and built for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) through a partnership between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the University of California at Berkeley. The VEGAS spectrometer is based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) frontend and a heterogeneous computing backend comprised of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and x86-64 CPUs. Working together, the hardware in this system provides processing power to analyze up to 8 dual-polarization or 16 single-polarization inputs, at bandwidths of up to 1.25 GHz per input. An aggregate of up to 10 GHz of bandwidth, dual polarization, may be simultaneously processed with the VEGAS spectrometer. As capable as this spectrometer is, it has no advanced pulsar capabilities such as were needed for DIBAS. To create DIBAS, VEGAS was augmented with new FPGA designs based on those built for the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) some five years ago. GUPPI was built on earlier generations of FPGA hardware designed by the CASPER project at Berkeley. Porting the old GUPPI designs to modern hardware and wider bandwidths was a good test case to determine the portability of the FPGA designs and the utility of the toolset to help move designs between generations of FPGA chips, as well as the degree of reuse that could be obtained from the VEGAS project. This paper will explore the unique aspects of the DIBAS project, including

  13. Design of a TOF-SANS instrument for the proposed long-wavelength target station at the spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Littrell, K C; Carpenter, J M; Seeger, P A

    2002-01-01

    We have designed a versatile high-data-rate SANS instrument (broad-range intense multipurpose SANS (BRIMS)) for the proposed long-wavelength target station at the SNS using the Los Alamos NISP Monte Carlo simulation package. BRIMS is designed to produce data spanning a Q range from 0.0025 to 0.7 A sup - sup 1 in a single measurement by simultaneously using neutrons with wavelengths from 1 to 14.5 A in a time-of-flight mode. The effects of various collimation choices, including multiple confocal pinhole apertures, on count rate, resolution, and Q range have been characterized with simulations using spherical particle and delta-function scatterers. We compare the anticipated performance of BRIMS with that of the premier reactor-based SANS instrument, D22, at ILL. (orig.)

  14. Hitachi's design and results in replacement of nuclear plant instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, J.; Arakida, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experience in designing and providing a highly automated control system for more efficient use of existing nuclear plants in Japan. Hitachi upgrades existing plants by replacing various equipments such as pumps and valves, and has developed a new controller. However, unlike in newly constructed plants, new equipment coexists with older equipment in existing plants, and the operator cannot easily identify the various equipment characteristics and, there is a possibility that should depend on the experience and the sense of an individual operator. Therefore, in the system with old and new equipment characteristics, we adopted the automation system in order to reduce operator's workload. In addition, we have developed an automation system that can correspond to changes in the equipment characteristics and those combinations based on a wide parameter survey that adopts an analytical code. We were able not only to reduce the operator's workload, but also to increase plant efficiency through these improvements. (authors)

  15. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent and substantial advances in biosensing, information and communication, and Lab-on-Chip (LoC) technologies, the success of Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostics and monitoring systems is still challenged by stringent requirements for robustness, cost-effectiveness, and system integration....... The pitfalls of PoC system adoption can be addressed early in the system design phase. They require a multidisciplinary design approach supported by systems engineering tools and methods. Considering this, we here present both a model and an implementation of a simple and rapid calibration scheme...... for instrument-based PoC blood biomarker analysis systems. Motivated by the complexity of associating high-accuracy biosensing using silicon nanowire field effect transistors with ease of use for the PoC system user, we propose a novel one-step, multipoint calibration method for LoC-based systems. Our approach...

  16. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...... in terms of the "as-built" instrument. It also describes the test program that led to delivery of the tested and calibrated Flight Model to NASA in 2012, and the confirmation after delivery of the key interface requirements....

  17. Advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation: considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear medicine remains a vibrant and dynamic medical specialty because it so adeptly marries advances in basic science research, technology, and medical practice in attempting to solve patients' problems. As a physicist, it is my responsibility to identify or design new instrumentation and techniques, and to implement, validate, and help apply these new approaches in the practice of nuclear medicine. At Johns Hopkins, we are currently in the process of purchasing both a single-photon/coincidence tomographic imaging system and a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Given the exciting advances that have been made, but the conflicting opinions of manufacturers and colleagues alike regarding ''best'' choices, it seemed useful to review what is new now, and what is on the horizon, to help identify all of the important considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system. It is important to note that many of the ''advances'' described here are in an early stage of development, and may never make it to routine clinical practice. Further, not all of the advances are of equal importance, or have the same degree of general clinical applicability. Please also note that the references contained herein are for illustrative purposes and are not all-inclusive; no implication that those chosen are ''better'' than others not mentioned is intended. (orig.)

  18. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of penetration/removal response of endodontic instrument made of single crystal Cu-based SMA: comparison with NiTi SMA instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, M.; Xolin, P.; Gevrey, A.-M.; Thiebaud, F.; Engels-Deutsch, M.; Ben Zineb, T.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study showing that single crystal shape memory alloy (SMA) Cu-based endodontic instruments can lead to equivalent mechanical performances compared to NiTi-based instruments besides their interesting biological properties. Following a previous finite element analysis (FEA) of single crystal CuAlBe endodontic instruments (Vincent et al 2015 J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 4128-39), prototypes with the determined geometrical parameters were machined and experimentally characterized in continuous rotation during a penetration/removal (P/R) protocol in artificial canals. The obtained mechanical responses were compared to responses of NiTi endodontic files in the same conditions. In addition, FEA was conducted and compared with the experimental results to validate the adopted modeling and to evaluate the local quantities inside the instrument as the stress state and the distribution of volume fraction of martensite. The obtained results highlight that single crystal CuAlBe SMA prototypes show equivalent mechanical responses to its NiTi homologous prototypes in the same P/R experimental conditions.

  20. Single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Yakefu; Liang, Wei-Dong; Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Maimaiti, Maierdan; Sheng, Wei-Bin

    2017-07-14

    Spinal brucellosis is a less commonly reported infectious spinal pathology. There are few reports regarding the surgical treatment of spinal brucellosis in existing literature. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of single-stage transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation for lumbosacral spinal brucellosis. From February 2012 to April 2015, 32 consecutive patients (19 males and 13 females, mean age 53.7 ± 8.7) with lumbosacral brucellosis treated by transforaminal decompression, debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation were enrolled. Medical records, imaging studies, laboratory data were collected and summarized. Surgical outcomes were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale. The changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), clinical symptoms and complications were investigated. Graft fusion was evaluated using Bridwell grading criteria. The mean follow-up period was 24.9 ± 8.2 months. Back pain and radiating leg pain was relieved significantly in all patients after operation. No implant failures were observed in any patients. Wound infection was observed in two patients and sinus formation was observed in one patient. Solid bony fusion was achieved in 30 patients and the fusion rate was 93.8%. The levels of ESR and CRP were returned to normal by the end of three months' follow-up. VAS and ODI scores were significantly improved (P brucellosis.

  1. Structural Design of Two-Cylinder Single Overhead Camshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxia; Zhang, Kangsheng; Di, Jiejian

    2018-01-01

    Due to the higher performance demand, the camshaft is the key driving part in the engine. Because it is eccentric circular section part, it is very difficult to design and manufacture this kind of axial parts. Take two-cylinder single overhead camshaft for an example, the entire process of camshaft design is analyzed. The practice has proved that the method has simple, flexible and efficient advantages, and it can greatly shorten the design of artificial computing time.

  2. Seismic design of electrical equipment and instrumentation for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    To ensure the safety of nuclear power stations at an earthquake, it is necessary to establish seismic capabilities of electrical equipment and instrumentation as well as equipment and piping. While in equipment and piping, mechanical strength is the main factor involved, in electrical equipment and instrumentation, functional sustenance is another important factor. Accordingly, the latter requires special design, and various methods of seismic qualification have been studied. Among them, the static method -- in which the rigidity of electrical equipment and instrumentation is improved, and their seismic capabilities are qualified -- is simple, convenient and universally applicable. By this static method as the base, tests and investigations were conducted on seismic capabilities of major electrical equipment and instrumentation such as control panels, metal-clad switchgears, motor control centers, local instrument panels, and batteries. Their seismic capabilities were appraised and qualified. (auth.)

  3. Design of a novel instrument for active neutron interrogation of artillery shells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Bélanger-Champagne

    Full Text Available The most common explosives can be uniquely identified by measuring the elemental H/N ratio with a precision better than 10%. Monte Carlo simulations were used to design two variants of a new prompt gamma neutron activation instrument that can achieve this precision. The instrument features an intense pulsed neutron generator with precise timing. Measuring the hydrogen peak from the target explosive is especially challenging because the instrument itself contains hydrogen, which is needed for neutron moderation and shielding. By iterative design optimization, the fraction of the hydrogen peak counts coming from the explosive under interrogation increased from [Formula: see text]% to [Formula: see text]% (statistical only for the benchmark design. In the optimized design variants, the hydrogen signal from a high-explosive shell can be measured to a statistics-only precision better than 1% in less than 30 minutes for an average neutron production yield of 109 n/s.

  4. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  5. Design of embedded hardware platform in intelligent γ-spectrometry instrument based on ARM9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Tianqi; Fang Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper described the design of embedded hardware platform based on ARM9 S3C2410A, emphases are focused on analyzing the methods of design the circuits of memory, LCD and keyboard ports. It presented a new solution of hardware platform in intelligent portable instrument for γ measurement. (authors)

  6. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    Advantage of satellite observation is its ability to monitor long term and global distribution with a single instrument. Ozone observation from space has been successful for long term monitoring purposes. Monitoring gradual increase and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere with sub-percent accuracy has become a challenging subject. Interference of cloud and aerosol in radiative transfer has to be corrected for troposphere measurement. Accurate O2-A band measurement can retrieve surface pressure and aerosol distribution property. We have selected a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) to achieve high throughput and wide spectral coverage with uniform spectral resolution. On the other hand, it is difficult to modulate short wave such as 0.76μm and avoid micro vibration interference. Prelaunch, we took special care to select optical components of excellent surface quality and isolate vibration. Design parameters such as IFOV, spectral resolution, observation interval within limited satellite resources must be carefully optimized. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global high spectral resolution data for almost 4 years. Instrument performance, radiometric calibration, radiative transfer calculation and laboratory spectroscopy are all important. The first step was to reduce bias of column-averaged dry air mole fractions (the Level 2 product) of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) and validate using well calibrated data such as TCCON. After 2 years of operation, latitudinal distribution of zonal mean and seasonal variation at these sites can be measured with better than 2ppm accuracy. However, validations are limited to ideal conditions. Next step is to evaluate consistency of measured values from long periods since launch, different surface types, and various input radiance with different instrument gain. For long term radiometric calibration, we have uses vicarious, onboard solar diffuser, and lunar calibration data. Over the ocean

  7. A new microcavity design for single molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Schleifenbaum, F.; Stupperich, C.; Failla, A.V.; Hartschuh, A.; Meixner, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new microcavity design which allows for efficient detection of single molecules by measuring the molecular fluorescence emission coupled into a resonant cavity mode. The Fabry-Perot-type microresonator consists of two silver mirrors separated by a thin polymer film doped with dye molecules in ultralow concenctration. By slightly tilting one of the mirrors different cavity lengths can be selected within the same sample. Locally, on a μm scale, the microcavity still acts as a planar Fabry-Perot resonator. Using scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, single emitters on resonance with a single mode of the microresonator can be spatially addressed. Our microcavity is demonstrated to be well-suited for investigating the coupling mechanism between single quantum emitters and single modes of the electromagnetic field. The microcavity layout could be integrated in a lab-on-a-microchip design for ultrasensitive microfluidic analytics and can be considered as an important improvement for single photon sources based on single molecules operating at room temperature

  8. Designing single-qutrit quantum gates via tripod adiabatic passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amniat-Talab

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique to implement single-qutrit quantum gates in tripod systems. It is shown by using the Morris-Shore (MS transformation, the six-state problem with 5 pulsed fields can be reduced to a basis that decouples two states from the others. This imposes three pulses not connected to the initial condition with have the same shape. Using this method, the six-state penta-pod system is reduced to a tripod system. We can design single-qutrit quantum gates by ignoring the fragile dynamical phase, and by suitable design of Rabi frequencies of the effective Hamiltonian

  9. Design and simulations of highly efficient single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Mørk, Jesper

    The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges in the si......The realization of the highly-efficient single-photon source represents not only an experimental, but also a numerical challenge. We will present the theory of the waveguide QED approach, the design challenges and the current limitations. Additionally, the important numerical challenges...

  10. New Instrumentation Reduces Operative Time in Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Using the Oxford Mobile Bearing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Berend

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Redesigned instrumentation has become available for implantation of the Oxford Mobile Bearing Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. To assess the benefit of these changes, we compared operative time of 200 Phase III and 176 Microplasty UKA done 2008-2011. An average time savings of 8.6 minutes was seen with the Microplasty design.  Additionally, the standard deviation in operative times, minimum and maximum operatives were lower in knees in which Microplasty instrumentation was utilized.  A 15% savings in operative time was seen with the new Microplasty instrumentation.

  11. Magnetic design of a spin-echo small-angle neutron-scattering instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Uca, O; Rekveldt, M T

    2003-01-01

    In a spin-echo small-angle neutron scattering instrument dipole magnets and guide field coils are used. The homogeneity of the fields should be sufficient to have linear labeling of the height with precession. Furthermore, the instrument must have a homogenous line integral over the beam cross-section. It is shown that line integral inhomogeneities are directly connected to field components perpendicular to the main field. The design parameters of these magnetic units of the setup are calculated.

  12. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp...... technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems for hearing aid instruments by using the state of art manufacturing technologies for micro components...

  13. Time-of-flight diffractometer with multiple pulse overlap - an example for the application of modern tools for instrument design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhr, U.; Bauer, G.S.; Wagner, W.

    1997-01-01

    A Time-of-Flight Diffractometer with high pulse rates, allowing multiple frame overlap, is a completely novel design of an instrument dedicated for high resolution strain-field mapping. We elaborated a detailed concept of this instrument applying analytical calculations and Monte Carlo computer simulations. Having established the instrument concept, the computer simulations will now be extended to optimize the total performance of the instrument. To illustrate the necessity and possibilities of applying modem tools for instrument design, we describe, as an example, the different steps towards the development of the detailed design of this instrument, which we intend to build at the Swiss spallation. source SINQ in the near future

  14. Research on conceptual design of simplified nuclear safety instrument and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear safety instrument and control system is directly related to the safety of the reactor. So redundant and diversity design is used to ensure the system's security and reliability. This make the traditional safety system large, more cabinets and wiring complexity. To solve these problem, we can adopt new technology to make the design more simple. The simplify conceptual design can make the system less cabinets, less wiring, but high security, strong reliability. (author)

  15. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treder, Matthias S.; Purwins, Hendrik; Miklody, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form separate information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity...

  16. Design of the fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terny, P.; Blaix, J.C.; Del Beccaro, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a fast breeder reactor single wall inner vessel. It describes first the studies that led to the optimization of the structure geometry with respect to stability behavior, and subsequently the analyses required to justify the equipment with respect to risks of fatigue, creep and progressive deformation. (orig.)

  17. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 2. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article Volume 21 Issue 2 February 2016 pp 125-150. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive-Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    tailoring the ionization method , declustering potentials, and collision energies for each specific analyte. In doing so, a single instrument can be...of both conventional explosives, homemade explosives, and their related compounds, and many of these methods require special instrumentation . A...10%, respectively, compare favorably to existing methods . Use of a single instrument for detection of multiple explosive classes also reduces the

  19. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation in surgical treatment for single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hao; Wang, Xiyang; Zhang, Penghui; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility and efficacy of surgical management of single-segment lumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) by using single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. Seventeen cases of single-segment lumbar TB were treated with single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation. The mean follow-up was 36.9 months (range: 24-62 months). The kyphotic angle ranged from 15.2-35.1° preoperatively, with an average measurement of 27.8°. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score system was used to evaluate the neurological deficits and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) used to judge the activity of TB. Spinal TB was completely cured in all 17 patients. There was no recurrent TB infection. The postoperative kyphotic angle was 6.6-10.2°, 8.1° in average, and there was no significant loss of the correction at final follow-up. Solid fusion was achieved in all cases. Neurological condition in all patients was improved after surgery. Single-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, debridement, limited decompression, 3-column reconstruction, and posterior instrumentation can be a feasible and effective method the in treatment of single-segment lumbar spinal TB.

  20. Clouds and the earth's radiant energy system (CERES) - Instrument design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopia, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the earth's reflected shortwave and emitted longwave energy and of the effect of clouds on these quantities are planned using a refined version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning instrument. The CERES instruments are being designed to accumulate earth radiance measurements with a repeatability of better than 0.5 percent over their five year life. Beginning in 1996, flights are planned on both polar and low earth orbit satellites to obtain the required temporal and spatial coverage. The design and development of CERES are discussed.

  1. Design, development, manufacturing, testing and commissioning of instrumentation for critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.K.; Gadgil, Kautubh; Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Gohel, Nilesh; Darbhe, M.D.; Bharathan, R.; Bharadhwaj, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Critical Facility (CF) is a low power research reactor. Neutronic and Process Instrumentation are important systems those ensure safety and control of the reactor. The Control and Instrumentation systems for the Critical facility have been designed, developed and commissioned by RRMD. Most of the nuclear instrumentation used here is originally designed and developed jointly by Electronics Division and RRMD during ZAC project for conversion of the earlier vacuum tube based instrumentation to the solid state circuits during 1984-85 for Zerlina, Apsara and Cirus and are in operation at Cirus and Apsara since commissioning in 1984-85. The Process Instrumentation is provided for monitoring important process parameters such as level, flow, temperature and pressure and generating trips, alarms and interlocks necessary for smooth operation of the systems and safety of personnel and equipment. The paper will provide technical information on the reactor instrumentation for both nuclear and process systems, used in Critical Facility, the associated trip and alarms logics, and their integration into the reactor monitoring control and protection system, information systems developed for Critical Facility. (author)

  2. Design and implementation of embedded ion mobility spectrometry instrument based on SOPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genwei; Zhao, Jiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yanwei; Yang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    On the hardware platform with single CYCLONE IV FPGA Chip based on SOPC technology, the control functions of IP cores of a Ion Mobility Spectrometry instrument was tested, including 32 bit Nios II soft-core processor, high-voltage module, ion gate switch, gas flow, temperature and pressure sensors, signal acquisition and communication protocol. Embedded operating system μCLinux was successfully transplanted to the hardware platform, used to schedule all the tasks, such as system initialization, parameter setting, signal processing, recognition algorithm and results display. The system was validated using the IMS diagram of Acetone reagent, and the instrument was proved to have a strong signal resolution.

  3. Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, M; Sanchez, S; Dudnik, O V; Kurbatov, E V; Timakova, T G; Tejedor, J I G; Titov, K G

    2013-01-01

    This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

  4. Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Sanchez, S.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Timakova, T. G.; Tejedor, J. I. G.; Titov, K. G.

    2013-04-01

    This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

  5. Developing an instrument model to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Utomo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at developing an instrument model to assess teacher’s creativity in designing and teaching music at school. The study was conducted by adapting the approach of Research and Development (R&D from the model designed by Borg and Gall and the cycle model design developed by Cenamo & Kalk. The development comprises two stages; the model development and dissemination. The model development encompassed of model planning, model designing, as well as the try out. While, the dissemination stage was done by presenting the research result at a conference. At the end of the study, it was proven that the assessment instrument model used to assess teachers’ creativity in designing and teaching music subject at school had met with the research aim. It was shown from the try out test on the assessment instrument model development that: (1 the assessment material, assessment technique, rater criteria, assessment object, units of observation, competence test process, time allotment, observation process, measurement criteria, as well as the measurement rubric had been considered appropriate and had provenly matched from one to another so that it can be applied well; (2 the reliability of the assessment instrument based on Intraclass Correlation Coefficients/ICC test on consistency and absolute agreement definition type as well as the Generalizability Coefficient had met the criteria.

  6. Design and evaluation of a new ergonomic handle for instruments in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C

    2014-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of illumination and projection optics for projectors with single digital micromirror devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C M; Shieh, H P

    2000-07-01

    We present a new optical system design for a projector with a single digital micromirror device (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) that improves on previous designs in terms of optical efficiency, uniformity, and contrast while yielding a low-profile and compact system. A rod integrator is incorporated with a compact relay system to maximize light efficiency and to increase illumination uniformity. The uniformity achieved by the optimized optical system was calculated to be 94%. In addition, this unique light-separator design has dual output channels to increase the image contrast by steering the off-state light away from the projection lens. This projector design provides very efficient light utilization, and we discuss how the geometrical optical efficiency of the system can be boosted to approach the theoretical maximum.

  8. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  9. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  10. IB: A Monte Carlo simulation tool for neutron scattering instrument design under PVM and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui

    2011-01-01

    Design of modern neutron scattering instruments relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulation tools for optimization. IB is one such tool written in C++ and implemented under Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface. The program was initially written for the design and optimization of the EQ-SANS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. One of its features is the ability to group simple instrument components into more complex ones at the user input level, e.g. grouping neutron mirrors into neutron guides and curved benders. The simulation engine manages the grouped components such that neutrons entering a group are properly operated upon by all components, multiple times if needed, before exiting the group. Thus, only a few basic optical modules are needed at the programming level. For simulations that require higher computer speeds, the program can be compiled and run in parallel modes using either the PVM or the MPI architectures.

  11. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  12. CONCEPTUAL AND DESIGN ISSUES IN INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR RESEARCH WITH BEREAVED PARENTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briller, Sherylyn H.; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Thurston, Celia S.; Meert, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    Many childhood deaths in the United States occur in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and parents have special needs in this death context. As an interdisciplinary research team, we discuss conceptual and design issues encountered in creating a new instrument, the Bereaved Parent Needs Assessment–PICU, for assessing parents’ needs in this setting. Using a qualitative approach, our team previously explored how the culture and related ways of providing care in one urban Midwestern children’s hospital PICU affected parents’ bereavement needs and experiences. We describe using this qualitative foundation in the development of a new quantitative instrument to more widely validate and measure bereaved parents’ needs around the time of a child’s death across multiple PICUs. We highlight a series of issues that warrant consideration in designing a research instrument for this vulnerable population including setting and context, format and content, temporality, recruitment, and content expertise. PMID:22953511

  13. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  14. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  15. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Haddam Neck Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  16. Structural qualification of the multifunctional instrument tree for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohlow, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis and methodology for qualifying the multifunctional instrument tree (MIT) structure for installation in double-shell and 100-series single-shell tanks. Structural qualification for MIT installations in specific tanks are also contained in this document

  17. Guide for design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments in the BSR and ORR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.W.

    1977-03-01

    This report is a guide for the design and application of protective instrumentation for experiments that are to be operated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor (BSR) or the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and are to be connected to the reactor power-reduction and alarm systems

  18. Design, Validation, and Use of an Evaluation Instrument for Monitoring Systemic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Boone, William; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fraser, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the design, development, validation, and use of an instrument that measures student attitudes and several environmental dimensions (i.e., standards-based teaching, home support, and peer support). Indicates that the classroom environment (standards-based teaching practices) was the strongest independent predictor of both achievement and…

  19. A Design Approach to Engage with Audience with Wearable Musical Instruments: Sound Gloves

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chi-Hsia; Tahiroglu, Koray

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of engaging the audience with new musical instruments in live performance context. We introduce design concerns that we consider influential to enhance the communication flow between the audience and the performer. We also propose and put in practice a design approach that considers the use of performance space as a way to engage with the audience. A collaborative project, Sound Gloves, presented here exemplifies such a concept by dissolving the space between pe...

  20. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kashefinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi rotary and hand K-file instruments.Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student’s t-test (P<0.05.Results: Patients treated with rotary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (P<0.001.Conclusion: The use of Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files.

  1. DESIGNING AFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON SCIENTIFIC APPROACH FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Ira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was describing the designing of instrument for affective assessment in English language teaching. The focus of the designing was only for observation sheet that will be used by English teachers during the teaching and learning process. The instrument was designed based on scientific approach that has five stages namely observing, questioning, experimenting, associating, and communicating. In the designing process, ADDIE Model was used as the method of research. The designing of instrument was considering the gap between the reality and the teachers’ need. The result showed that the designing was also notice to the affective taxonomy such as receiving, responding, valuing, organization, and characterization. Then, three key words were used as the indicator to show the five levels of affective taxonomy such as seriously, volunteer, and without asked by teacher. Furthermore, eighteen types of affective such as religious, honesty, responsible, discipline, hard work, self confidence, logical thinking, critical thinking, creative, innovative, independent, curiosity, love knowledge, respect, polite, democracy, emotional intelligence, and pluralist were put on each stage of scientific approach. So, it is hoped that can be implemented in all of context of English language teaching at schools and can assess the students’ affective comprehensively.

  2. Single-participant research design. Bringing science to managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D L; Morgan, R K

    2001-02-01

    The ongoing transition to managed health care continues to have repercussions for health care providers, perhaps the most important of which is an emphasis on accountability for demonstrating the usefulness of clinical interventions. This requirement places a premium on intervention research and highlights the historically strained relationship between psychological research and professional practice. In the midst of this challenge, researchers have increasingly criticized the logic and practice of traditional null hypothesis significance testing. This article describes the history, epistemology, and advantages of single-participant research designs for behavioral scientists and professionals in clinical settings. Although its lack of correspondence with the Fisherian tradition has precluded widespread adoption, the single-participant alternative features a design power and flexibility well suited to both basic science and applied research.

  3. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  4. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  5. Design and implementation of ATCA-based 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal test instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaojing; Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chenwu

    2014-11-01

    In order to achieve the receiving task of 100Gbps Dual Polarization-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) optical signal acquisition instrument, improve acquisition performance of the instrument, this paper has deeply researched DP-QPSK modulation principles, demodulation techniques and the key technologies of optical signal acquisition. The theories of DP-QPSK optical signal transmission are researched. The DP-QPSK optical signal transmission model is deduced. And the clock and data recovery in high-speed data acquisition and offset correction of multi-channel data are researched. By reasonable hardware circuit design and software system construction, the utilization of high performance Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA), this paper proposes a 100Gbps DP-QPSK optical signal acquisition instrument which is based on ATCA. The implementations of key modules are presented by comparison and argumentation. According to the modularization idea, the instrument can be divided into eight modules. Each module performs the following functions. (1) DP-QPSK coherent detection demodulation module; (2) deceleration module; (3) FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array); (4) storage module; (5) data transmission module; (6) clock module; (7) power module; (8) JTAG debugging, configuration module; What is more, this paper has put forward two solutions to test optical signal acquisition instrument performance. The first scenario is based on a standard STM-256 optical signal format and exploits the SignalTap of QuartusII software to monitor the optical signal data. Another scenario is to use a pseudo-random signal series to generate data, acquisition module acquires a certain amount of data signals, and then the signals are transferred to a computer by the Gigabit Ethernet to analyze. Two testing results show that the bit error rate of optical signal acquisition instrument is low. And the instrument fully meets the requirements of signal receiving system. At the same time

  6. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  7. Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS): Optomechanical and System Design for a Cubesat-compatible Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Holly A.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Colin H.; Van Gorp, Byron E.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Gross, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We discuss progress in the SWIS optomechanical design, thermal analysis, and mission plan. We also describe an innovative single drive on-board calibration system capable of addressing the stringent radiometric stability and knowledge these missions require.

  8. Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy with conventional instruments: A continuing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The feasibility of the single incision, multiport transumbilical approach(SILC for the treatment of symptomatic gallbladder calculus disease has been established. Aims: The study examines both short and long term morbidity of the SILC approach. Materials and Methods: All the 1338 patients were operated by the same surgeon through a transversely placed umbilical incision in the upper third of the umbilicus.Three conventional ports,10,5 and 5 mm were introduced through the same skin incision but through separate transfascial punctures.The instruments were those used for standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy(SLC.Patients with acute cholecystitis and calculous pancreatitis were included,while those with choledocholithiasis were excluded.Results were compared with those of SLC. Results: Forty patients had difficult gall bladders, 214 had acute cholecystitis, and 16 had calculous pancreatitis.The mean operating time was 24.7 mins as compared to 18.4 mins in SLC. Intracorporeal knotting was required in four patients. Conversion to SLC was required in 12 patients.Morrisons pouch drain was left in 3 patients.Injectable analgesics were required in 85% vs 90% (SILC vs SLC on day 1 and 25% vs 45% on day 2 and infection was seen in 6(0. 45% patients.Port site hernia was seen in 2 patients. The data was compared with that of SLC and significance calculated by the student ′t′ test. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Conclusions: Trans umbilical SILC gives comparable results to SLC, and is a superior alternative when cosmesis and postoperative pain are considered, but the operative time is significantly more.

  9. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  10. Gating circuit for single photon-counting fluorescence lifetime instruments using high repetition pulsed light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, W.R.; Potter, D.W.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    We have constructed a circuit that permits conventional timing electronics to be used in single photon-counting fluorimeters with high repetition rate excitation sources (synchrotrons and mode-locked lasers). Most commercial time-to-amplitude and time-to-digital converters introduce errors when processing very short time intervals and when subjected to high-frequency signals. This circuit reduces the frequency of signals representing the pulsed light source (stops) to the rate of detected fluorescence events (starts). Precise timing between the start/stop pair is accomplished by using the second stop pulse after a start pulse. Important features of our design are that the circuit is insensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of start and stop signals and that the reduction in the stop frequency allows the start/stop time interval to be placed in linear regions of the response functions of commercial timing electronics

  11. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph (LUMOS): instrument definition and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Fleming, Brian; West, Garrett; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Harris, Walter; Moustakas, Leonidas; O'Meara, John M.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Rigby, Jane; Schiminovich, David; Tumlinson, Jason

    2017-08-01

    The Large Ultraviolet/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR) is one of four large mission concepts currently undergoing community study for consideration by the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR is being designed to pursue an ambitious program of exoplanetary discovery and characterization, cosmic origins astrophysics, and planetary science. The LUVOIR study team is investigating two large telescope apertures (9- and 15-meter primary mirror diameters) and a host of science instruments to carry out the primary mission goals. Many of the exoplanet, cosmic origins, and planetary science goals of LUVOIR require high-throughput, imaging spectroscopy at ultraviolet (100 - 400 nm) wavelengths. The LUVOIR Ultraviolet Multi-Object Spectrograph, LUMOS, is being designed to support all of the UV science requirements of LUVOIR, from exoplanet host star characterization to tomography of circumgalactic halos to water plumes on outer solar system satellites. LUMOS offers point source and multi-object spectroscopy across the UV bandpass, with multiple resolution modes to support different science goals. The instrument will provide low (R = 8,000 - 18,000) and medium (R = 30,000 - 65,000) resolution modes across the far-ultraviolet (FUV: 100 - 200 nm) and nearultraviolet (NUV: 200 - 400 nm) windows, and a very low resolution mode (R = 500) for spectroscopic investigations of extremely faint objects in the FUV. Imaging spectroscopy will be accomplished over a 3 × 1.6 arcminute field-of-view by employing holographically-ruled diffraction gratings to control optical aberrations, microshutter arrays (MSA) built on the heritage of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), advanced optical coatings for high-throughput in the FUV, and next generation large-format photon-counting detectors. The spectroscopic capabilities of LUMOS are augmented by an FUV imaging channel (100 - 200nm, 13 milliarcsecond angular resolution, 2 × 2

  12. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M S; Purwins, H; Miklody, D; Sturm, I; Blankertz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form concurrent information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity. Here, we explore polyphonic music as a novel stimulation approach for use in a brain-computer interface. In a multi-streamed oddball experiment, we had participants shift selective attention to one out of three different instruments in music audio clips. Each instrument formed an oddball stream with its own specific standard stimuli (a repetitive musical pattern) and oddballs (deviating musical pattern). Contrasting attended versus unattended instruments, ERP analysis shows subject- and instrument-specific responses including P300 and early auditory components. The attended instrument can be classified offline with a mean accuracy of 91% across 11 participants. This is a proof of concept that attention paid to a particular instrument in polyphonic music can be inferred from ongoing EEG, a finding that is potentially relevant for both brain-computer interface and music research.

  13. Decoding auditory attention to instruments in polyphonic music using single-trial EEG classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, M. S.; Purwins, H.; Miklody, D.; Sturm, I.; Blankertz, B.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Polyphonic music (music consisting of several instruments playing in parallel) is an intuitive way of embedding multiple information streams. The different instruments in a musical piece form concurrent information streams that seamlessly integrate into a coherent and hedonistically appealing entity. Here, we explore polyphonic music as a novel stimulation approach for use in a brain-computer interface. Approach. In a multi-streamed oddball experiment, we had participants shift selective attention to one out of three different instruments in music audio clips. Each instrument formed an oddball stream with its own specific standard stimuli (a repetitive musical pattern) and oddballs (deviating musical pattern). Main results. Contrasting attended versus unattended instruments, ERP analysis shows subject- and instrument-specific responses including P300 and early auditory components. The attended instrument can be classified offline with a mean accuracy of 91% across 11 participants. Significance. This is a proof of concept that attention paid to a particular instrument in polyphonic music can be inferred from ongoing EEG, a finding that is potentially relevant for both brain-computer interface and music research.

  14. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  15. Aseismatic design of electrical equipments and instruments for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuharu; Nishizawa, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Yoshio; Miura, Takumi

    1977-01-01

    The aseismatic design of electrical instruments is carried out according to IEEE Standard 344-1971 in the USA. In Japan also, the method of aseismatic design of electrical instruments has been investigated by the representatives of electric power companies and electric machine makers since 1972. In Hitachi Ltd., the statical method of confirming aseismatic property was established on the basis of the rigid design for electrical instruments. It is convenient to examine the aseismatic property of electrical equipments by classifying them into control and switch boards, electrical appliances, equipments and circuits. It is possible to use the static method treating earthquake force as static load by avoiding resonance with the electrical equipments which have the higher natural frequency than that of buildings. The purposes of the vibration test are to prove the validity of the theoretical analysis, to clarify the vibration characteristics, and to confirm the maintenance of functions and the strength of the equipments. The vibration tests of control boards, the switch boards of enclosed type, motor control centers, the racks for instrumentation, storage batteries and electrical appliances are explained. Moreover, the vibration analysis with a computer according to finite element method is described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Design of a box trainer for objective assessment of technical skills in single-port surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeman, Tim; Sun, Siyu; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Jansen, Frank William; Meijerink, Jeroen W. J. H. J.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic single-port (SP) surgery uses only a single entry point for all instruments. The approach of SP has been applied in multiple laparoscopic disciplines owing to its improved cosmetic result. However, in SP surgery, instrument movements are further restricted, resulting in increased

  17. Designing Successful Next-Generation Instruments to Detect the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) team, Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team

    2018-01-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signifies a period of intense evolution of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM) in the early Universe caused by the first generations of stars and galaxies, wherein they turned the neutral IGM to be completely ionized by redshift ≥ 6. This important epoch is poorly explored to date. Measurement of redshifted 21 cm line from neutral Hydrogen during the EoR is promising to provide the most direct constraints of this epoch. Ongoing experiments to detect redshifted 21 cm power spectrum during reionization, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), appear to be severely affected by bright foregrounds and unaccounted instrumental systematics. For example, the spectral structure introduced by wide-field effects, aperture shapes and angular power patterns of the antennas, electrical and geometrical reflections in the antennas and electrical paths, and antenna position errors can be major limiting factors. These mimic the 21 cm signal and severely degrade the instrument performance. It is imperative for the next-generation of experiments to eliminate these systematics at their source via robust instrument design. I will discuss a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated antenna performance specifications and design strategies using the Precision Radio Interferometry Simulator (PRISim) -- a high-precision tool that I have developed for simulations of foregrounds and the instrument transfer function intended primarily for 21 cm EoR studies, but also broadly applicable to interferometer-based intensity mapping experiments. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), designed in-part based on this framework, is expected to detect the 21 cm signal with high significance. I will present this framework and the simulations, and their potential for designing upcoming radio instruments such as HERA and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  18. Using the in situ lift-out technique to prepare TEM specimens on a single-beam FIB instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekstrom, M; McLachlan, M A; Husain, S; McComb, D W; Shollock, B A

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens are today routinely prepared using focussed ion beam (FIB) instruments. Specifically, the lift-out method has become an increasingly popular technique and involves removing thin cross-sections from site-specific locations and transferring them to a TEM grid. This lift-out process can either be performed ex situ or in situ. The latter is mainly carried out on combined dual-beam FIB and scanning electron microscope (SEM) systems whereas conventional single-beam instruments often are limited to the traditional ex situ method. It is nevertheless desirable to enhance the capabilities of existing single-beam instruments to allow for in situ lift-out preparation to be performed since this technique offers a number of advantages over the older ex situ method. A single-beam FIB instrument was therefore modified to incorporate an in situ micromanipulator fitted with a tungsten needle, which can be attached to a cut-out FIB section using ion beam induced platinum deposition. This article addresses the issues of using an ion beam to monitor the in situ manipulation process as well as approaches that can be used to create stronger platinum welds between two objects, and finally, views on how to limit the extent of ion beam damage to the specimen surface.

  19. Design of an 8-40 GHz Antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.; Trent, Christopher; Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of land surface snow remains a significant challenge in the remote sensing arena. Developing the tools needed to remotely measure Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is an important priority. The Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) is being developed to address this need. WISM is an airborne instrument comprised of a dual-frequency (X- and Ku-bands) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and dual-frequency (K- and Ka-bands) radiometer. A unique feature of this instrument is that all measurement bands share a common antenna aperture consisting of an array feed reflector that covers the entire bandwidth. This paper covers the design and fabrication of the wideband array feed which is based on tightly coupled dipole arrays. Implementation using a relatively new multi-layer microfabrication process results in a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with beamformer that operates from 8 to 40 gigahertz.

  20. High accuracy calibration of a dynamic vapor sorption instrument and determination of the equilibrium humidities using single salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Svensson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    We present a procedure for accurately calibrating a dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) instrument using single salts. The procedure accounts for and tailors distinct calibration tests according to the fundamental properties of each salt. Especially relevant properties influencing the calibration...... are the heat of solution, heat of condensation, and the kinetics connected to the salt phase transition, as these influence the microclimate surrounding the salts during calibration. All these issues were dealt with to obtain precise calibration results. The DVS instrument comprises two control modes......-known equilibrium RH of each salt solution, the presented method’s results are both accurate with significant agreement and precise with small variation....

  1. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gerrard, Victoria; Gomez-Marquez, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument.

  2. Portable digital lock-in instrument to determine chemical constituents with single-color absorption measurements for Global Health Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Linnes, Jacqueline; Young, Anna; Gomez-Marquez, Jose; Gerrard, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in international health require the use of state-of-the-art technology to enable clinical chemistry for diagnostics of bodily fluids. We propose the implementation of a portable and affordable lock-in amplifier-based instrument that employs digital technology to perform biochemical diagnostics on blood, urine, and other fluids. The digital instrument is composed of light source and optoelectronic sensor, lock-in detection electronics, microcontroller unit, and user interface components working with either power supply or batteries. The instrument performs lock-in detection provided that three conditions are met. First, the optoelectronic signal of interest needs be encoded in the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform. Second, the reference signal required in the demodulation channel has to be frequency and phase locked with respect to the optoelectronic carrier signal. Third, the reference signal should be conditioned appropriately. We present three approaches to condition the signal appropriately: high-pass filtering the reference signal, precise offset tuning the reference level by low-pass filtering, and by using a voltage divider network. We assess the performance of the lock-in instrument by comparing it to a benchmark device and by determining protein concentration with single-color absorption measurements. We validate the concentration values obtained with the proposed instrument using chemical concentration measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that accurate retrieval of phase information can be achieved by using the same instrument

  3. Design and Fabrication of the Double Cladding Instrumented Fuel Rods and the Instrumented Fuel Capsule(07F-06K) for the Irradiation Test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Oh, Jong Myung; Oh, Soo Yeol; Park, Sung Jae; Sho, Man Soon; Kim, Bong Goo; Choo, Kee Nam; Kim, Young Ki

    2009-01-01

    An instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel irradiation test (hereinafter referred to as 'instrumented fuel capsule'), which is crucial for the verification of a nuclear fuel performance and safety, has been developed to measure the fuel characteristics, such as the centerline and surface temperatures of the nuclear fuel, the internal pressure of a fuel rod, the elongation of the fuel pellet and the neutron fluxes during an irradiation test at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The irradiation test of the first instrumented fuel capsule(02F-11K) was carried out for verification test at HANARO in March 2003. Through the irradiation tests of the some capsules, the design specifications and safety of the instrumented fuel capsule were verified successfully. And the dual instrumented fuel rods, which allow for two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod, have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the irradiation test using the instrumented fuel capsule. In this paper, we designed and fabricated a double cladding fuel rod to control the high temperature of nuclear fuels during an irradiation test at HANARO. And we design an instrumented fuel capsule(07F-06K) for an irradiation test of the double cladding fuel rods. We have designed and fabricated the double cladding fuel rod mockups and performed the out-pile tests using these mockups. The purposes of the out-pile tests were to analyze an effect of a gap size(between an outer cladding and an inner cladding) on the temperature and the effect of a mixture ratio of helium gas and neon gas on the temperature. Through the results of the out-pile tests, we have obtained the effects of a gap size and a gas mixture ratio on the temperature of nuclear fuels. Therefore an double cladding fuel rod and the 07F- 06K instrumented fuel capsule were designed on the base of the results of the out-pile tests using the mockups

  4. Design of a new time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering instrument at CPHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.C.; Gong, H.; Shao, B.B.; Wang, D.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhang, K.; Wei, J.; Wang, X.W.; Guan, X.L.; Loong, C.-K.; Tao, J.Z.; Zhou, L.; Ke, Y.B.

    2012-01-01

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) diffractometer is to be built at the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) of Tsinghua University, China. This SANS project strives to serve two purposes: its instrumental design, fabrication and optimization will help glean valuable scientific and engineering experiences; and its utilization will help promote fruitful domestic user programs on research of large structures in advanced materials using neutrons. The design draws experiences from other TOF SANS instruments, particularly that of the long-pulse LENS of Indiana University and also considers the source features at CPHS. The design team enjoyed the guidance and assistance from experts through international collaborations. For simultaneous collection of scattering data in the Q-range (∼7×10 -3 -1 ) with reasonable Q-resolution and high efficiency, this instrument is designed to use large area detector (1×1 m 2 ) and broad wavelength bandwidth (1-10 Å) within the first frame. It also pays attention to possible use of optical devices such as neutron guides, focusing lenses and novel detectors.

  5. Spot measurements of radionuclides in air, water and solids with a single instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von

    1998-01-01

    A unique instrument for measuring environmental radionuclides and novel methods for their concentrative sampling are described here which meet high requirements of sensitivity, easy and reliable handling, and low cost for most applications in field screening, monitoring and training. (author)

  6. Design of a Prototype Differential Die‐Away Instrument Proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinik, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.martinik@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grape, Sophie; Jansson, Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Goodsell, Alison V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tobin, Stephen J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Blekholmstorget 30, Box 250, SE-101 24 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-11

    As part of the United States (US) Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project, the traditional Differential Die-Away (DDA) method that was originally developed for waste drum assay has been investigated and modified to provide a novel application to characterize or verify spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Following the promising, yet largely theoretical and simulation based, research of physics aspects of the DDA technique applied to SNF assay during the early stages of the NGSI-SF project, the most recent effort has been focused on the practical aspects of developing the first fully functional and deployable DDA prototype instrument for spent fuel. As a result of the collaboration among US research institutions and Sweden, the opportunity to test the newly proposed instrument's performance with commercial grade SNF at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) emerged. Therefore the design of this instrument prototype has to accommodate the requirements of the Swedish regulator as well as specific engineering constrains given by the unique industrial environment. Within this paper, we identify key components of the DDA based instrument and we present methodology for evaluation and the results of a selection of the most relevant design parameters in order to optimize the performance for a given application, i.e. test-deployment, including assay of 50 preselected spent nuclear fuel assemblies of both pressurized (PWR) as well as boiling (BWR) water reactor type.

  7. Testing the Solar Probe Cup, an Instrument Designed to Touch the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis L.; Case, Anthony W.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Alterman, Ben; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Bookbinder, Jay; Korreck, Kelly E.; Stevens, Michael Louis

    2014-01-01

    Solar Probe Plus will be the first, fastest, and closest mission to the sun, providing the first direct sampling of the sub-Alfvenic corona. The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a unique re-imagining of the traditional Faraday Cup design and materials for immersion in this high temperature environment. Sending an instrument of this type into a never-seen particle environment requires extensive characterization prior to launch to establish sufficient measurement accuracy and instrument response. To reach this end, a slew of tests for allowing SPC to see ranges of appropriate ions and electrons, as well as a facility that reproduces solar photon spectra and fluxes for this mission. Having already tested the SPC at flight like temperatures with no significant modification of the noise floor, we recently completed a round of particle testing to see if the deviations in Faraday Cup design fundamentally change the operation of the instrument. Results and implications from these tests will be presented, as well as performance comparisons to cousin instruments such as those on the WIND spacecraft.

  8. [The design and application of a moxibustion instrument with less harmful smoke and direction adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongliang; Wang, Xiongjiang; Nong, Zhangsong; Wang, Kailong; Pang, Jun

    2018-02-12

    The design of a clip-on moxibustion instrument which could adjust the directions and absorb harmful granules of moxa smoke was introduced in this paper. It was designed to solve the problems in home health care and clinical treatment, such as the inconvenience of adjustment of moxibustion directions and temperature, more dust and granules of moxa smoke and inconvenience of moxibustion placement. The main part of moxibustion instrument was made up of moxibustion box, bracket and base clamp. The moxibustion box could fix moxa stick and absorb smoke granules; the bracket could be twisted to adjust the direction of moxibustion box; the base clamp was aimed to fix moxibustion box on the edge of the object to save space. This moxibustion instrument could be used for various indications of moxibustion, especially in the joints or body parts with less muscles; and it can significantly enhance the pertinence and safety of moxibustion, and reduce the labor intensity. This moxibustion instrument is original and unique, simple and reasonable, easy to operate, with low cost and good effect, which will increase new vitality for the popularization and development of moxibustion.

  9. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and Testing of a Controller for the Martian Atmosphere Pressure and Humidity Instrument DREAMS-P/H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapani Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), driven by the goal of performing a soft landing on Mars, is planning to launch the Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)[1] simultaneously with the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) as a part of the ExoMars program towards Mars in 2016. As a secondary objective, the EDM will gather meteorological data and observe the electrical environment of the landing site with its Dust characterisation, Risk assessment, and Environmental Analyser on the Martian Surface (DREAMS). The Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is participating in the project by designing, building and testing a pressure and a humidity instrument for Mars, named DREAMS-P and DREAMS-H, respectively. The instruments are based on previous FMI designs, including ones flown on board the Huygens, Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory.[2] Traditionally, the FMI pressure and humidity instruments have been controlled by an FPGA. However, the need to incorporate more autonomy and modifiability into instruments, cut the development time and component costs, stimulated interest to study a Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Microcontroller Unit (MCU) based instrument design. Thus, in the DREAMS-P/H design, an automotive MCU is used as the instrument controller. The MCU has been qualified for space by tests in and outside FMI. The DREAMS-P/H controller command and data interface utilizes a RS-422 connection to receive telecommands from and to transmit data to the Central Electronics Unit (CEU) of the DREAMS science package. The two pressure transducers of DREAMS-P and one humidity transducer of DREAMS-H are controlled by a single MCU. The MCU controls the power flow for each transducer and performs pulse counting measurements on sensor and reference channels to retrieve scientific data. Pressure and humidity measurements are scheduled and set up according to a configuration table assigned to each transducer. The configuration tables can be modified during the flight. The whole

  11. Model-based testing of a vehicle instrument cluster for design validation using machine vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingping; McMurran, Ross; Dhadyalla, Gunwant; Jones, R Peter; Mouzakitis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced testing system, combining model-based testing and machine vision technologies, for automated design validation of a vehicle instrument cluster. In the system, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) tester, supported by model-based approaches, simulates vehicle operations in real time and dynamically provides all essential signals to the instrument cluster under test. A machine vision system with advanced image processing algorithms is designed to inspect the visual displays. Experiments demonstrate that the system developed is accurate for measuring the pointer position, bar graph position, pointer angular velocity and indicator flash rate, and is highly robust for validating various functionalities including warning lights status, symbol and text displays. Moreover, the system developed greatly eases the task of tedious validation testing and makes onerous repeated tests possible

  12. Computer-aided design for routing of in-core instrumentation guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Ho; Sohn, Yong Soo; Yoon, Ki Seok; Cho, Duk Sang; Sung, Ki Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-01

    This study presents a computer design program for in-core instrumentation (ICI) guide tube routing and locations on support system, and checking the interference between ICI guide tubes in the reactor coolant system of typical pressurized water reactor. The simulation program called ICITRIC(in-core instrumentation tube routing and interference check), has been developed for routing of ICI guide tubes, locations on support system, and checking the interference between ICI guide tubes. The program, ICITRIC, has been written in FORTRAN 77 language which is available under UNIX environment. Results of this program are compared with those of the commercial code, PATRAN, and both results are almost same. Also the results may provide input data for ICI system static and dynamic analysis performed by the commercial code, SUPERPIPE. Through a process of iteration, the designer can apply initial conditions, and modify the routing until satisfied with the overall system performance. (Author) 15 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. The Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor Optimum Design for Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Edward 'Ted'; Rodriguez, Carmelo

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power plants rely on instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for monitoring, control and protection. While the earlier generations of nuclear plants were built with largely analog instrumentation systems, the industrial base has moved to digital based system. The reason for this transition to digital I and C systems lies in their important advantage over existing analog systems. In essence, the challenge is to prove that the new digital guidelines included in NUREG 0800, Standard Review Plan Chapter 7 and all associated documents provided adequate direction and safety review for an advanced control design for a new nuclear plant in the United States. This paper focuses on how one of the new designs incorporates the latest technology and meets the new NRC requirements. (authors)

  14. Considerations in Writing About Single-Case Experimental Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolasky, Richard L

    2016-12-01

    Single-case experimental design (SCED) studies are particularly useful for examining the processes and outcomes of psychological and behavioral studies. Accurate reporting of SCED studies is critical in explaining the study to the reader and allowing replication. This paper outlines important elements that authors should cover when reporting the results of a SCED study. Authors should provide details on the participant, independent and dependent variables under examination, materials and procedures, and data analysis. Particular emphasis should be placed on justifying the assumptions made and explaining how violations of these assumptions may alter the results of the SCED study.

  15. An automation design of 500 keV/10 mA electron beam machine instrumentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto

    1999-01-01

    An instrumentations automation of a 500 keV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine by using an IBM-PC/AT which equipped with an industrial type interfaces such as PCL-718 ADC-12 bit, PCLD-889 a programmable gain/multiplexer, PCLD-786 a driver relay with optocoupleur relays has designed. During the laboratory simulation tests by using a Turbo-C software proved that the whole system has functioning property. (author)

  16. Designing an economic instrument for sustainable solid waste management in the household sector

    OpenAIRE

    Welivita, Indunee

    2014-01-01

    Household Solid Waste Management has become problematic in urban areas especially in developing countries like Sri Lanka due to increased waste generation and financial constraints. The main objective of this research was to design an economic instrument with policy suggestions in order to address the household solid waste management problem in Dehiwala – the Mt. Lavinia Municipal Council area in Sri Lanka. In order to reduce the quantity of waste by encouraging sustainable solid waste manage...

  17. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems...

  18. Complete factorial design experiment for 3D load cell instrumented crank validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Valle-Casas; Rafael, Dalazen; Vinicius, Cene; Alexandre, Balbinot

    2015-08-01

    Developing of instrumentation systems for sport medicine is a promising area, that's why this research evaluates the design of a new instrumented crank arm prototype for a race bicycle projecting an experiment for indoor - outdoor comparison. This study investigated the viability of an instrumentation 3D load cell for force measurement crank, implementing a design of experiment. A Complete factorial design experiment was developed for data validation, with an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) throwing significant results for controlled factors with response variables rms, mean and variance. A software routine allowed to obtained system variables metrics for Symmetry and Cadence analysis, which came out from Effective force bilateral comparing and speed computation. Characterization allowed achieving calibration curves that were used for data conversion in force projection channels with a linearity error of 0.29% (perpendicular), 0.55% (parallel) and 0.10% (lateral). Interactions of factors resulted significant mainly for indoor tests in symmetry and cadence was significant in interactions generally for outdoor tests. Implemented system was able to generate Effective Force graph for 3D plot symmetry analysis, torque and power symmetry for specialist's analysis.

  19. [System design of small intellectualized ultrasound hyperthermia instrument in the LabVIEW environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2005-08-01

    Small-scale intellectualized medical instrument has attracted great attention in the field of biomedical engineering, and LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench) provides a convenient environment for this application due to its inherent advantages. The principle and system structure of the hyperthermia instrument are presented. Type T thermocouples are employed as thermotransducers, whose amplifier consists of two stages, providing built-in ice point compensation and thus improving work stability over temperature. Control signals produced by specially designed circuit drive the programmable counter/timer 8254 chip to generate PWM (Pulse width modulation) wave, which is used as ultrasound radiation energy control signal. Subroutine design topics such as inner-tissue real time feedback temperature control algorithm, water temperature control in the ultrasound applicator are also described. In the cancer tissue temperature control subroutine, the authors exert new improvments to PID (Proportional Integral Differential) algorithm according to the specific demands of the system and achieve strict temperature control to the target tissue region. The system design and PID algorithm improvement have experimentally proved to be reliable and excellent, meeting the requirements of the hyperthermia system.

  20. Towards sustainable design for single-use medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jacob J; Hitchcock, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Despite their sophistication and value, single-use medical devices have become commodity items in the developed world. Cheap raw materials along with large scale manufacturing and distribution processes have combined to make many medical devices more expensive to resterilize, package and restock than to simply discard. This practice is not sustainable or scalable on a global basis. As the petrochemicals that provide raw materials become more expensive and the global reach of these devices continues into rapidly developing economies, there is a need for device designs that take into account the total life-cycle of these products, minimize the amount of non-renewable materials consumed and consider alternative hybrid reusable / disposable approaches. In this paper, we describe a methodology to perform life cycle and functional analyses to create additional design requirements for medical devices. These types of sustainable approaches can move the medical device industry even closer to the "triple bottom line"--people, planet, profit.

  1. State-of-the-Art Report on the Piping and Instrumentation Design of RHRS in the Commercial NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Park, C. T.; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, B. S.; Yoon, Ju Hyeon

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the study is for system designers to understand the technical state of the piping and instrumentation design of RHRS (or SCS) in the commercial nuclear power plants, thus to design more uncomplicated and advanced system. In this study, we have reviewed the design requirements and the technical state of piping and instrumentation design. Firstly we have reviewed the design requirements, including functional, isolation, pressure relief, pump protection, test requirements, etc.. Especially we have separately reviewed the design requirements of the low temperature overpressure, including ASME code requirements. Also we have reviewed the technical state of piping and instrumentation design, including piping design, PAMS design, ESFAS design, relief valve design, and instrument/valve/pump control design. In the piping design, the technical state of design has been investigated classified by the five regions, which have a little different design features, from the RCS suction line to the LPSI header line. Commonly, the P and ID is the design output which the related design requirements of the system have been all applied, also the operations for in-service inspection, heat-up/normal/cool-down, and emergency have been all considered. If we can understand well the design bases and its meanings of the P and ID, it would be helpful for us to design more uncomplicated and advanced system

  2. Computing tools for implementing standards for single-case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ting; Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Chen, Ming-E

    2015-11-01

    In the single-case design (SCD) literature, five sets of standards have been formulated and distinguished: design standards, assessment standards, analysis standards, reporting standards, and research synthesis standards. This article reviews computing tools that can assist researchers and practitioners in meeting the analysis standards recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse: Procedures and Standards Handbook-the WWC standards. These tools consist of specialized web-based calculators or downloadable software for SCD data, and algorithms or programs written in Excel, SAS procedures, SPSS commands/Macros, or the R programming language. We aligned these tools with the WWC standards and evaluated them for accuracy and treatment of missing data, using two published data sets. All tools were tested to be accurate. When missing data were present, most tools either gave an error message or conducted analysis based on the available data. Only one program used a single imputation method. This article concludes with suggestions for an inclusive computing tool or environment, additional research on the treatment of missing data, and reasonable and flexible interpretations of the WWC standards. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Principles relating to the digital instrumentation and control design approach 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The design of the instrumentation and control of nuclear facilities uses digital systems that offer increasing computation and interconnection capabilities. They enable advanced functions to be carried out, such as calculation of the critical heat flux ratio, help to detect hardware failures in real time and provide operators with rich, flexible interfaces. However, these evolved functions may be affected by faults that make their logic systematically inadequate in certain cases, which introduces sources of failure other than random hardware failures and raises questions about the informal concept of the increased 'complexity' of instrumentation and control. Appropriate design principles shall therefore be applied so that this logic is as fault-free as possible and can be assessed by an independent body such as IRSN. This document presents the main problems associated with the design of the digital instrumentation and control of a complex facility, as well as the general principles to follow to demonstrate that a satisfactory safety level has been achieved. The doctrine elements presented in this document are the result of the experience acquired during assessments carried out for the French nuclear power plants, enhanced by exchanges with experts from the nuclear sector, and reflect French practice; they apply in other sectors in which a high level of confidence can be attributed to instrumentation and control. The normative texts cited in this document provide detailed requirements that are open to considerable interpretation, as the nature of the problem posed does not enable relevant and measurable criteria to be defined in all cases. This document aims to explain the principles underlying these detailed requirements and to give the means for interpreting them in each situation. (authors)

  4. Development of a database of instruments for resource-use measurement: purpose, feasibility, and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridyard, Colin H; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2012-01-01

    Health economists frequently rely on methods based on patient recall to estimate resource utilization. Access to questionnaires and diaries, however, is often limited. This study examined the feasibility of establishing an open-access Database of Instruments for Resource-Use Measurement, identified relevant fields for data extraction, and outlined its design. An electronic survey was sent to authors of full UK economic evaluations listed in the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (2008-2010), authors of monographs of Health Technology Assessments (1998-2010), and subscribers to the JISCMail health economics e-mailing list. The survey included questions on piloting, validation, recall period, and data capture method. Responses were analyzed and data extracted to generate relevant fields for the database. A total of 143 responses to the survey provided data on 54 resource-use instruments for inclusion in the database. All were reliant on patient or carer recall, and a majority (47) were questionnaires. Thirty-seven were designed for self-completion by the patient, carer, or guardian, and the remainder were designed for completion by researchers or health care professionals while interviewing patients. Methods of development were diverse, particularly in areas such as the planning of resource itemization (evident in 25 instruments), piloting (25), and validation (29). On the basis of the present analysis, we developed a Web-enabled Database of Instruments for Resource-Use Measurement, accessible via www.DIRUM.org. This database may serve as a practical resource for health economists, as well as a means to facilitate further research in the area of resource-use data collection. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL; idc.nasa.gov), to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  6. Design and construction of an instrument for measuring thermistor electrical characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiono; Yudi Herdiana

    2007-01-01

    In this work an instrument for measuring the electrical characteristic of thermistor has been designed and constructed. The instrument was constructed from main components i.e. a micro controller AT89C51, 3 ADC-0804, a LM35 temperature sensor and IC MAX 232. The IC MAX 232 component is used to connect the micro controller to the personal computer serially by using RS-232 standard. While ADC-0804 was used to convert the analog data (DC voltage) to the digital one so that the data was readable by the micro controller. Digital data from 3 ADC-0804 circuit which have been read by the micro controller was sent directly to the personal computer. The data from the measurement which have been stored in the personal computer was then processed to know the value of temperature and measured thermistor resistance. The processed data could be either stored in a data base or displayed in a monitor or printed in the form of table data and in the form a graph of thermistor resistance as the function of temperature. The result of measurement from measuring instrument of the characteristic of thermistor electric's had been made, being compared by measuring calibrated instrument, the deviation is about 0.33 %. (author)

  7. Design and control of a 3-DOF hydraulic driven surgical instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuntz Timo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of minimally invasive surgery techniques has steadily increased, the development of new tools for these procedures has stagnated. Indeed a new generation of surgical instruments, with tips that have multiple degrees of freedom, has been developed. However, they are facing so many technical problems that none have been able to establish themselves in the medical market. To overcome the problems these instruments are facing, a micro hydraulic power transmission system has been developed and been presented in [1]. With these driving units it was possible to design an instrument for minimally invasive surgery with a tip which is movable in 3 degrees of freedom (DOF and that is light in weight, small in size and powerful in movements and gripping. This paper presents the mechanical setup (including dimensions and materials, describes the theoretical basis for the control with the inverse kinematic model, discusses the external drives setup and gives first performance data of this novel hydraulically actuated laparoscopic instrument with 3 degrees of freedom.

  8. Design of optical instruments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22-24, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, David M.; Genberg, Victor L.; Krumweide, Gary C.; Thomas, Michael J.

    1992-09-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include optical system design, recent application of composite materials to precision optical instrument structure, development of composite mirrors and reflectos, development of composite materials for dimensionally stable structures, and structural mechanics. Papers are presented on adjustable distortion correctors, the optical design for the ATLAS multispectral scanner, an internal thermal emission analysis of an IR seeker, recent developments with the Mars Observer Camera graphite/epoxy structure, and moisture effects and control for the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrograph composite structure. Attention is also given to composite materials for precision space reflector panels, the structural design and analysis for an ultralow-CTE optical bench for the Hubbale Space Telescope corrective optics, the evaluation of high-modulus pitch/cyanate material systems for dimensionally stable structures, weight minimization of an active mirror, and a compliant optical mount design. (For individual items see A93-29782 to A93-29798)

  9. Instrumentation and control of future sodium cooled fast reactors - Design improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusoodanan, K.; Sakthivel, M.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-06-01

    India's fast reactor program started with the 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor. 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is currently under construction at Kalpakkam. Safety of PFBR is enhanced by improved design features of I and C system. Since the design of Instrumentation and control (I and C) of PFBR, considerable improvements in terms of advancement in technology and indigenization has taken place. Further improvements in I and C is proposed for solving many of the difficulties faced during the design and construction phases of PFBR. Design improvements proposed are covered in this paper which will make the implementation and maintenance of I and C of future SFRs easier. (authors)

  10. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R ampersand D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R ampersand D

  11. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R D.

  12. 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source Instrumentation Initiative conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In this APS Instrumentation Initiative, 2.5-m-long and 5-m-long insertion-device x-ray sources will be built on 9 straight sections of the APS storage ring, and an additional 9 bending-magnet sources will also be put in use. The front ends for these 18 x-ray sources will be built to contain and safeguard access to these bright x-ray beams. In addition, funds will be provided to build state-of-the-art insertion-device beamlines to meet scientific and technological research demands well into the next century. This new initiative will also include four user laboratory modules and a special laboratory designed to meet the x-ray imaging research needs of the users. The Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the APS Instrumentation Initiative describes the scope of all the above technical and conventional construction and provides a detailed cost and schedule for these activities. According to these plans, this new initiative begins in FY 1994 and ends in FY 1998. The document also describes the preconstruction R&D plans for the Instrumentation Initiative activities and provides the cost estimates for the required R&D.

  13. Design of springs in non-instrumented capsule for the HANARO irradiation test of advanced UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Kang, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    Non-instrumented capsule was designed to irradiate the large grain UO 2 pellet developed for the high burn-up LWR fuel in the HANARO reactor. The non-instrumented capsule will be irradiated for about 30 months in HANARO Outside-core (OR) region. In the non-instrumented capsule, there are four different springs such as top guide spring, bottom spring, plenum spring and fuel rod hol-down spring. To ensure the mechanical integrity of non-instrumented capsule during the long term operation, those springs were designed after the spring characteristic tests

  14. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  15. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  16. Conceptual design of instrumentation and control system for nuclear steel-making plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruoka, Kazuo; Amano, Hiroshi; Miyasugi, Takeshi; Okawa, Toshio.

    1982-01-01

    In the total system research, one of research items in a large project of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology ''Research and development of direct iron-making technology by utilizing high temperature reducing gas'', the total image of a direct iron-making pilot plant combined with a multi-purpose, high temperature gas-cooled, experimental reactor being developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was built up, and its technical problems were pointed out. In nuclear iron-making, nuclear thermal energy is taken out of a reactor, using helium as a medium, and by the pyrolysis of petroleum with the high temperature helium, the reducing gas containing CO and H 2 is obtained. Then, reduced iron is obtained by reducing iron ore pellets with the high temperature reducing gas. The conceptual design of this experimental plant was performed for two and a half years since 1978. In this paper, the outline of the instrumentation and control system and the design and evaluation methods adopted are described. The outline and the features of the experimental plant, the design of the instrumentation and control system, and the example of designing a control system with CONPAK are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Reactor instrumentation and control design and performance simulation for SP-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R. A.; Alley, A. D.; Halfen, F. J.; Brynsvold, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    The SP-100 flight system will be launched with all primary and secondary lithium in the solid state. Once in orbit, the reactor will be brought critical and maintained at a low power level while the lithium is thawed out. Once the system is thawed out, the reactor power will be controlled to provide the energy source required by the power conversion system to meet the payload electrical power requirements. The Reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem which includes the reactor control drives, instrumentation and the digital controller provides for the control of the nuclear subsystem to perform these operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic shutdown and restart under certain off-normal conditions. The design and performance of this system are described.

  18. The CLARA/NORSAT-1 solar absolute radiometer: instrument design, characterization and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Levesque, Pierre-Luc; Kopp, Greg; Andersen, Bo; Beck, Ivo; Finsterle, Wolfgang; Gyo, Manfred; Heuerman, Karl; Koller, Silvio; Mingard, Nathan; Remesal Oliva, Alberto; Pfiffner, Daniel; Soder, Ricco; Spescha, Marcel; Suter, Markus; Schmutz, Werner

    2017-10-01

    The compact lightweight absolute radiometer (CLARA) experiment aims at measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI) in space and is scheduled to fly on the Norwegian NORSAT-1 micro satellite. The CLARA experiment will contribute to the long term monitoring of the TSI variability to support the analysis of potential long term trends in the Sun’s variability. CLARA is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology radiometric scale and will provide further evidence for the TSI value on an absolute scale. In this paper we present the design, characterization, and calibration details of the CLARA instrument. The combined measurement uncertainty for the calibrated SI-traceable CLARA flight instrument is 567-912 ppm (k  =  1) depending on the measuring channel.

  19. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  20. Advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants. Design, verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on design, verification and validation of advanced control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants was held in Espoo, Finland on 20 - 23 June 1994. The meeting was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group's (IWG) on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (NPPCI) and on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (ATWR). VTT Automation together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy responded about the practical arrangements of the meeting. In total 96 participants from 21 countries and the Agency took part in the meeting and 34 full papers and 8 posters were presented. Following topics were covered in the papers: (1) experience with advanced and digital systems, (2) safety and reliability analysis, (3) advanced digital systems under development and implementation, (4) verification and validation methods and practices, (5) future development trends. (orig.)

  1. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  2. Single mode optical fiber vibration sensor: design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis-Carranza, L. E.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Perez-Sanchez, G. G.; Sierra-Calderon, A.; Rodriguez-Novelo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    This work deals with the design and development of an SMF28-based vibration detector including the fiber segment, the data acquisition via an NI-USB-6212 card, the data processing code in Visual Basic and the signal spectrum obtained via Fourier analysis. The set-up consists of a regulated voltage source at 2.6V, 300mA, which serves as the power source for a 980nm semiconductor laser operating at 150mW which is fiber coupled into a 20m-piece of SMF-28 fiber. Perpendicular to such fiber the perturbations ranged from 1 to 100 kHz, coming from a DC motor at 12 Volts. At the detection stage, a simple analog filter and a commercial photo diode were employed for data acquisition, before a transimpedance amplification stage reconstructed the signal into the National Instruments data acquisition card. At the output, the signals Fourier transformation allows the signal to be displayed in a personal computer. The presentation will include a full electrical and optical characterization of the device and preliminary sensing results, which could be suitable for structural health monitoring applications.

  3. Field instrumentation, monitoring of drilled shafts for landslide stabilization and development of pertinent design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The design method for using a single row, spaced drilled shafts, socketed into a firm rock strata, to stabilize : an unstable slope has been developed in this research. The soil arching due to the presence of spaced : drilled shafts in a slope was ob...

  4. Design and Development of Mode System for Sealed Radioactive Sources at Nuclear Instrumentation Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity is a major health hazard in nuclear field. In this project, a facility has been developed for monitoring sealed radioactive radiation sources using a computational and identification software based approach. This design software is a hybrid software using Visual Basic for computational analysis and Image Processing in MATLAB for identification of sources. This facility is developed to prevent students, lab officers and lab staff from unnecessary radiation hazards. A modular software based design has been addressed in this project with dynamic monitoring and identification of sealed radioactive radiation sources. The facility is fully automated and can controlled and handled remotely though a desktop computer based graphical user interface. This facility provides on - line activity measurement and computation features. This facility is a new state of the art design for nuclear instrumentation laboratory fulfilling the safety requirement of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Directorate of Safety. (author)

  5. Democratizing science with the aid of parametric design and additive manufacturing: Design and fabrication of a versatile and low-cost optical instrument for scattering measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Serrano, Jose M; Nadal-Serrano, Adolfo; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of rapid prototyping techniques using additive manufacturing in combination with parametric design to create low-cost, yet accurate and reliable instruments. The methodology followed makes it possible to make instruments with a degree of customization until now available only to a narrow audience, helping democratize science. The proposal discusses a holistic design-for-manufacturing approach that comprises advanced modeling techniques, open-source design strategies, and an optimization algorithm using free parametric software for both professional and educational purposes. The design and fabrication of an instrument for scattering measurement is used as a case of study to present the previous concepts.

  6. TROPOMI, the Sentinel 5 precursor instrument for air quality and climate observations: status of the current design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voors, Robert; de Vries, Johan; Bhatti, Ianjit S.; Lobb, Dan; Wood, Trevor; van der Valk, Nick; Aben, Ilse; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2017-11-01

    conditions. TROPOMI is currently in its detailed design phase. This paper gives an overview of the challenges and current performances. From unit level engineering models first results are becoming available. Early results are promising and this paper discusses some of these early H/W results. TROPOMI is the single payload on the Sentinel-5 precursor mission which is a joint initiative of the European Community (EC) and of the European Space Agency (ESA). The 2015 launch intends to bridge the data stream from OMI / SCIAMACHY and the upcoming Sentinel 5 mission. The instrument is funded jointly by the Netherlands Space Office and by ESA. Dutch Space is the instrument prime contractor. SSTL in the UK is developing the SWIR module with a significant contribution from SRON. Dutch Space and TNO are working as an integrated team for the UVN module. KNMI and SRON are responsible for ensuring the scientific capabilities of the instrument.

  7. Conceptual design of wearpack with physiology detector feature based on wearable instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Melani; Laksono, Pringgo Widyo; Priadythama, Ilham; Susmartini, Susy; Suhardi, Bambang

    2017-11-01

    Every company in Indonesia is responsible for their worker health and safety condition as mentioned in UU No I year 1970. In manufacturing industries, there are many manual tasks dealing with high work load and risk, so that they require excellent concentration and physical condition. There is no ideal way to guarantee worker safety without a real time physiological monitoring. This paper reports our ongoing study in conceptual design development of worker's clothing which is equipped with a wearable instrumentation system. The system is designed to detect and measure body temperature and pulse in real time. Some electrical components such as, LCD (liquid crystal display), LEDs (light emitting diode), batteries, and physiological sensors were assembled. All components are controlled by a wearable on board controller. LEDs is used as alert which can indicate abnormal physical conditions. The LCD was added to provide more detail information. TMP 36 and XD-58C were selected as the physiological sensors. Finally, an Arduino Lilypad was chosen for the controller. This instrumentation system was verified by accurately detected and inform physiological condition of 3 subjects. Further we are going to attach the system to a worker's clothing which was specifically designed to simplify and comfortable usage.

  8. GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF INSTRUMENTS OF COMPETENCE ASSESSMENT FROM MEASURABLE LEARNING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is not enough to improve education necessary but. There are no magic to educational problems through assessment solutions. However, the evaluation, in partnership with the methodology, should be treated as determinants of the quality and improving education. Surely, many teachers agree that it is not easy to design assessment tools that are consistent with the teaching-learning competence and, in turn, with rigorous curriculum standards and assessment of the Autonomous Community. However, this difficulty should not be considered as an impossibility. Through this article aims to contribute to building an improvement plan associated with the design of the evaluation instruments from different areas or subjects. Such a design should be based on at least the following: I want to evaluate (referring to assessment criteria and standards of assessable learning included in the instrument and I will evaluate (referencing jurisdictional situations linked to next and known student context, HOW I WILL QUALIFY (preserving the right of students to an objective evaluation and what consequences they will have the results for the different agents that make up the educational community.

  9. Contribution to harmonic balance calculations of self-sustained periodic oscillations with focus on single-reed instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farner, Snorre; Vergez, Christophe; Kergomard, Jean; Lizée, Aude

    2006-03-01

    The harmonic balance method (HBM) was originally developed for finding periodic solutions of electronical and mechanical systems under a periodic force, but has been adapted to self-sustained musical instruments. Unlike time-domain methods, this frequency-domain method does not capture transients and so is not adapted for sound synthesis. However, its independence of time makes it very useful for studying any periodic solution, whether stable or unstable, without care of particular initial conditions in time. A computer program for solving general problems involving nonlinearly coupled exciter and resonator, HARMBAL, has been developed based on the HBM. The method as well as convergence improvements and continuation facilities are thoroughly presented and discussed in the present paper. Applications of the method are demonstrated, especially on problems with severe difficulties of convergence: the Helmholtz motion (square signals) of single-reed instruments when no losses are taken into account, the reed being modeled as a simple spring.

  10. Isothermal titration calorimetry for drug design: Precision of the enthalpy and binding constant measurements and comparison of the instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Krainer, Georg; Chen, Wen-Yih; Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-12-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is one of the most robust label- and immobilization-free techniques used to measure protein - small molecule interactions in drug design for the simultaneous determination of the binding affinity (ΔG) and the enthalpy (ΔH), both of which are important parameters for structure-thermodynamics correlations. It is important to evaluate the precision of the method and of various ITC instrument models by performing a single well-characterized reaction. The binding between carbonic anhydrase II and acetazolamide was measured by four ITC instruments - PEAQ-ITC, iTC200, VP-ITC, and MCS-ITC and the standard deviation of ΔG and ΔH was determined. Furthermore, the limit of an approach to reduce the protein concentration was studied for a high-affinity reaction (K d  = 0.3 nM), too tight to be measured by direct (non-displacement) ITC. Chemical validation of the enthalpy measurements is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and manufacturing methods for the integral field unit of the nirspec instrument on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Dan; Robertson, David

    2017-11-01

    An integral field unit, to be used with the near-IR spectrometer instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is currently under development by SSTL and CfAI. Special problems in design and manufacture of the optical system are outlined, and manufacturing methods for critical optical elements are discussed. The optical system is complex, requiring a total of 95 mirrors to produce 30 output channels. Emphasis is placed on the advantages of free-form machining in aluminium. These include: resistance to launch stress, insensitivity to temperature variations from ambient to cryogenic, and the possibility of relatively complex mirror surface shapes.

  12. Designing means and specifications for model FT-619 kidney function instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongding

    1988-04-01

    In this paper, it is pointed out that the model FT-619 Kidney Function Equipment is a new cost-effective nuclear medicine instrument, which takes the leading position in China. The performance of the model FT-619,especially the lead collimated scintillation detector has reached the same level as the advanced equipment in the world market. It is also described in this article in detail that the design of the lead collimator and the shielding as well as the detection efficiency have achieved the optimum level and that a comparison has been made with foreign products

  13. Using the Rasch measurement model to design a report writing assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Wayne R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how the Rasch measurement model was used to develop an assessment instrument designed to measure student ability to write law enforcement incident and investigative reports. The ability to write reports is a requirement of all law enforcement recruits in the state of Michigan and is a part of the state's mandatory basic training curriculum, which is promulgated by the Michigan Commission on Law Enforcement Standards (MCOLES). Recently, MCOLES conducted research to modernize its training and testing in the area of report writing. A structured validation process was used, which included: a) an examination of the job tasks of a patrol officer, b) input from content experts, c) a review of the professional research, and d) the creation of an instrument to measure student competency. The Rasch model addressed several measurement principles that were central to construct validity, which were particularly useful for assessing student performances. Based on the results of the report writing validation project, the state established a legitimate connectivity between the report writing standard and the essential job functions of a patrol officer in Michigan. The project also produced an authentic instrument for measuring minimum levels of report writing competency, which generated results that are valid for inferences of student ability. Ultimately, the state of Michigan must ensure the safety of its citizens by licensing only those patrol officers who possess a minimum level of core competency. Maintaining the validity and reliability of both the training and testing processes can ensure that the system for producing such candidates functions as intended.

  14. Design of analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yahua; Wu Jizong; Zheng Weiming; Liu Quanwei; Zhang Min

    2008-01-01

    Analytical instrumentation with D-T sealed neutron generators source activation, The 14 MeV D-T sealed neutron tube with 10 9 n · s -1 neutron yield is used as generator source. The optimal structure of moderator and shield was achieved by MC computing.The instrumentation's configuration is showed. The instrumentation is made up of the SMY-DT50.8-2.1 sealed neutron tube and the high-voltage power supply system, which center is the sealed neutron generators. 6 cm Pb and 20 cm polythene is chosen as moderator, Pb, polythene and 10 cm boron-PE was chosen as shield .The sample box is far the source from 9 cm, the measurement system were made up of HPGe detector and the sample transforming system. After moderator and shield, the thermal neutron fluence rate at the point of sample is 0.93 × 10 6 n · s -1 cm -2 , which is accorded with design demand, and the laboratory and surroundings reaches the safety standard of the dose levels. (authors)

  15. Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.

    2006-08-01

    Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

  16. Design of the dual instrumented fuel rods to measure the nuclear fuel characteristics during Irradiation test at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jae Min; Oh, Jong Myung; Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Ki nam; Choi, Myung Hwan; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Boong Goo; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    The instrumented capsule for the nuclear fuel irradiation test (hereinafter referred to instrumented fuel capsule), which are crucial for the verification of a nuclear fuel performance and safety, have been developed at HANARO(High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The irradiation test of the first instrumented fuel capsule(02F-11K) was carried out in March 2003 for 1,296 MWD(Mega Watt Day) and the irradiation test of the second instrumented fuel capsule(03F-05K) was carried out in April 2004 for 1,533MWD at HANARO. Through the irradiation tests of the two capsules, the design specifications and safety of the instrumented fuel capsule were verified successfully. In the 02F-11K instrumented fuel capsule, only the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel and neutron flux were implemented. In the 03F-05K instrumented fuel capsule, the technologies for measuring the center temperature of the nuclear fuel, the internal pressure of the fuel rod, the elongation of the nuclear fuel and the neutron flux were implemented. The purpose of this paper is to develop the dual instrumented technology that enables two characteristics to be measured simultaneously in one fuel rod. Therefore, this paper presents the design of the dual instrumented fuel rods and the plan of the irradiation test for the newly designed fuel rods

  17. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  18. Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Instrument Thermal Subsystem Design and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Veronica; Mosier, Carol; Neuberger, David

    2013-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is one of two instruments on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in February of 2013. The TIRS instrument was officially added to the mission later in the flow, which led to a highly aggressive schedule that became one of the main drivers during instrument development. The thermal subsystem design of the TIRS Sensor Unit is comprised of five thermal zones which range in temperature from less than 43 Kelvin to 330 Kelvin. Most zones are proportional heater controlled, and all are within a volume of 35 cu.ft. A two-stage cryocooler is used to cool the "cold stage" including three QWIP detectors to less than 43 Kelvin, and cool the "warm stage" to 105 Kelvin. The excess power dissipation from the cryocooler is rejected via ammonia transport heat pipes to a dedicated Cryocooler Radiator with embedded ammonia heat pipes. The cryogenic subsystem includes a series of shells used to radiatively and conductively isolate the cold stage from the warmer surroundings. The Optical System (telescope) is passively cooled to 180-190 Kelvin using a "thermal link" (comprised of a Flexible Conductive Thermal Strap and an APG Bar) which couples the telescope stage to a dedicated radiator with embedded ethane heat pipes. The Scene Select Mechanism, which is responsible for moving the Scene Select Mirror to three distinct positions (including Nadir, Space, and On-board Black Body Calibrator pointing), runs nominally at 278 Kelvin and is thermally isolated from the cryogenic thermal zones. The On-board Black Body Calibrator requires a dedicated radiator which allows for a temperature range of 260-330 Kelvin at the Source. The detectors are powered by the FPE Box, which is mounted to the nadir external surface of the composite honeycomb structure. There are two additional electronics boxes which are wet-mounted directly to the spacecraft shear panel, the Main Electronics Box and Cryocooler Electronics Box; thermal

  19. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  20. Studies on Design Automation and Arithmetic Circuit Design for Single-Flux-Quantum Digital Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    小畑, 幸嗣; Obata, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Superconductive single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit technology attracts attention as a nextgeneration technology of integrated circuits because of its ultra-fast computation speedand low power consumption. In SFQ digital circuits, unlike CMOS digital circuits, apulse is used as a carrier of information and the representation of the logic values isdifferent from that in CMOS digital circuits. Therefore, design automation algorithms andstructure of arithmetic circuits suitable for SFQ digital cir...

  1. Design of a 3-Stage ADR for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument on the Astro-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; Wegel, Donald C.; Canavan, Edgar R.; DiPirro, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Astro-H mission will include the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, whose 36-pixel detector array of ultra-sensitive x-ray microcalorimeters requires cooling to 50 mK. This will be accomplished using a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design is dictated by the need to operate with full redundancy with both a superfluid helium dewar at 1.3 K or below, and with a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler. The ADR is configured as a 2-stage unit that is located in a well in the helium tank, and a third stage that is mounted to the top of the helium tank. The third stage is directly connected through two heat switches to the JT cooler and the helium tank, and manages heat flow between the two. When liquid helium is present, the 2-stage ADR operates in a single-shot manner using the superfluid helium as a heat sink. The third stage may be used independently to reduce the time-average heat load on the liquid to extend its lifetime. When the liquid is depleted, the 2nd and 3rd stages operate as a continuous ADR to maintain the helium tank at as low a temperature as possible - expected to be 1.2 K - and the 1st stage cools from that temperature as a single-stage, single-shot ADR. The ADR s design and operating modes are discussed, along with test results of the prototype 3-stage ADR.

  2. Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Timothy A.; Svard, Staffan J.; Smith, Leon E.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Jansson, Peter; Davour, Anna; Grape, Sophie; Trellue, H.; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Wittman, Richard S.; Honkamaa, Tapani; Vaccaro, Stefano; Ely, James

    2015-05-18

    The potential for gamma emission tomography (GET) to detect partial defects within a spent nuclear fuel assembly is being assessed through a collaboration of Support Programs to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In the first phase of this study, two safeguards verification objectives have been identified. The first is the independent determination of the number of active pins that are present in the assembly, in the absence of a priori information. The second objective is to provide quantitative measures of pin-by-pin properties, e.g. activity of key isotopes or pin attributes such as cooling time and relative burnup, for the detection of anomalies and/or verification of operator-declared data. The efficacy of GET to meet these two verification objectives will be evaluated across a range of fuel types, burnups, and cooling times, and with a target interrogation time of less than 60 minutes. The evaluation of GET viability for safeguards applications is founded on a modelling and analysis framework applied to existing and emerging GET instrument designs. Monte Carlo models of different fuel types are used to produce simulated tomographer responses to large populations of “virtual” fuel assemblies. Instrument response data are processed by a variety of tomographic-reconstruction and image-processing methods, and scoring metrics specific to each of the verification objectives are defined and used to evaluate the performance of the methods. This paper will provide a description of the analysis framework and evaluation metrics, example performance-prediction results, and describe the design of a “universal” GET instrument intended to support the full range of verification scenarios envisioned by the IAEA.

  3. Designing Financial Instruments for Rapid Flood Response Using Remote Sensed and Archival Hazard and Exposure Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Allaire, M.; Ceccato, P.; Haraguchi, M.; Cian, F.; Bavandi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic floods can pose a significant challenge for response and recovery. A key bottleneck in the speed of response is the availability of funds to a country or regions finance ministry to mobilize resources. Parametric instruments, where the release of funs is tied to the exceedance of a specified index or threshold, rather than to loss verification are well suited for this purpose. However, designing and appropriate index, that is not subject to manipulation and accurately reflects the need is a challenge, especially in developing countries which have short hydroclimatic and loss records, and where rapid land use change has led to significant changes in exposure and hydrology over time. The use of long records of rainfall from climate re-analyses, flooded area and land use from remote sensing to design and benchmark a parametric index considering the uncertainty and representativeness of potential loss is explored with applications to Bangladesh and Thailand. Prospects for broader applicability and limitations are discussed.

  4. Minimizing Experimental Setup Time and Effort at APS beamline 1-ID through Instrumentation Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, Erika; Almer, Jonathan; Kenesei, Peter; Mashayekhi, Ali; Okasinksi, John; Park, Jun-Sang; Ranay, Rogelio; Shastri, Sarvijt

    2016-01-01

    Sector 1-ID at the APS accommodates a number of dif-ferent experimental techniques in the same spatial enve-lope of the E-hutch end station. These include high-energy small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), high-energy diffraction microscopy (HEDM, both near and far field modes) and high-energy X-ray tomography. These techniques are frequently combined to allow the users to obtain multimodal data, often attaining 1 μm spatial resolution and <0.05º angular resolution. Furthermore, these techniques are utilized while the sam-ple is thermo-mechanically loaded to mimic real operat-ing conditions. The instrumentation required for each of these techniques and environments has been designed and configured in a modular way with a focus on stability and repeatability between changeovers. This approach allows the end station to be more versatile, capable of collecting multi-modal data in-situ while reducing time and effort typically required for set up and alignment, resulting in more efficient beam time use. Key instrumentation de-sign features and layout of the end station are presented.

  5. Mechanical Design of NESSI: New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Fernando G.; Olivares, Andres M.; Salcido, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Stephen R.; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Hrynevych, Michael A.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Boston, Penny J.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Bloemhard, Heather; hide

    2011-01-01

    NESSI: the New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument is a ground-based multi-object spectrograph that operates in the near-infrared. It will be installed on one of the Nasmyth ports of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) 2.4-meter Telescope sited in the Magdalena Mountains, about 48 km west of Socorro-NM. NESSI operates stationary to the telescope fork so as not to produce differential flexure between internal opto-mechanical components during or between observations. An appropriate mechanical design allows the instrument alignment to be highly repeatable and stable for both short and long observation timescales, within a wide-range of temperature variation. NESSI is optically composed of a field lens, a field de-rotator, re-imaging optics, an auto-guider and a Dewar spectrograph that operates at LN2 temperature. In this paper we report on NESSI's detailed mechanical and opto-mechanical design, and the planning for mechanical construction, assembly, integration and verification.

  6. Design of the high resolution optical instrument for the Pleiades HR Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamard, Jean-Luc; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Valentini, David; Renard, Christophe; Tournier, Thierry; Laherrere, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    As part of its contribution to Earth observation from space, ALCATEL SPACE designed, built and tested the High Resolution cameras for the European intelligence satellites HELIOS I and II. Through these programmes, ALCATEL SPACE enjoys an international reputation. Its capability and experience in High Resolution instrumentation is recognised by the most customers. Coming after the SPOT program, it was decided to go ahead with the PLEIADES HR program. PLEIADES HR is the optical high resolution component of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors system : ORFEO, which is developed in cooperation between France and Italy for dual Civilian and Defense use. ALCATEL SPACE has been entrusted by CNES with the development of the high resolution camera of the Earth observation satellites PLEIADES HR. The first optical satellite of the PLEIADES HR constellation will be launched in mid-2008, the second will follow in 2009. To minimize the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the camera design. The paper describes the design and performance budgets of this novel high resolution and large field of view optical instrument with emphasis on the technological features. This new generation of camera represents a breakthrough in comparison with the previous SPOT cameras owing to a significant step in on-ground resolution, which approaches the capabilities of aerial photography. Recent advances in detector technology, optical fabrication and electronics make it possible for the PLEIADES HR camera to achieve their image quality performance goals while staying within weight and size restrictions normally considered suitable only for much lower performance systems. This camera design delivers superior performance using an innovative low power, low mass, scalable architecture, which provides a versatile approach for a variety of imaging requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a mini

  7. The opto-mechanical design for GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.

  8. Design of Instrument Approach Procedure Charts Comprehension Speed of Missed Approach Instructions Coded in Text or Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Instrument approach procedure (IAP) charts are often cluttered and confusing. The quantified effects of chart design : changes on information transfer are needed by chart manufacturers to make changes uhich will enhance information transfer : and hum...

  9. How Do Different Versions of a Test Instrument Function in a Single Language? A DIF Analysis of the PIRLS 2006 German Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge inherent in cross-national research of providing instruments in different languages measuring the same construct is well known. But even instruments in a single language may be biased towards certain countries or regions due to local linguistic specificities. Consequently, it may be appropriate to use different versions of an…

  10. CRISPR library designer (CLD): software for multispecies design of single guide RNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigwer, Florian; Zhan, Tianzuo; Breinig, Marco; Winter, Jan; Brügemann, Dirk; Leible, Svenja; Boutros, Michael

    2016-03-24

    Genetic screens using CRISPR/Cas9 are a powerful method for the functional analysis of genomes. Here we describe CRISPR library designer (CLD), an integrated bioinformatics application for the design of custom single guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries for all organisms with annotated genomes. CLD is suitable for the design of libraries using modified CRISPR enzymes and targeting non-coding regions. To demonstrate its utility, we perform a pooled screen for modulators of the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway using a custom library of 12,471 sgRNAs. CLD predicts a high fraction of functional sgRNAs and is publicly available at https://github.com/boutroslab/cld.

  11. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  12. Digital study of nuclear reactor instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Gongxiang; Yang Zhijun

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the design method of nuclear reactor's digital instrument developed by authors based on the AT89C52 single chip microcomputer. Also the instrument system hardware structure and software framework are given. The instrument apply DDC112 which is responsible for the measure of lower current. When designing the instrument system, anti-interference measure of software, especially hardware is considered seriously. (authors)

  13. Suitability of open-field autorefractors as pupillometers and instrument design effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Otero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the agreement and repeatability of the pupil measurement obtained with VIP-200 (Neuroptics, PowerRef II (Plusoptix, WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko and study the effects of instrument design on pupillometry. METHODS: Forty patients were measured twice in low, mid and high mesopic. Repeatability was analyzed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw and paired t-tests. Agreement was studied with Bland-Altman plots and repeated measures ANOVA. Instrument design analysis consisted on measuring pupil size with PowerRef II simulating monocular and binocular conditions as well as with proximity cues and without proximity cues. RESULTS: The mean difference (±standard deviation between test-retest for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.09 (±0.16, -0.05 (±0.18 and -0.08 (±0.23 mm for Neuroptics, -0.05 (±0.17, -0.12 (±0.23 and -0.17 (±0.34 mm for WAM-5500, -0.04 (±0.27, -0.13 (±0.37 and -0.11 (±0.28 mm for PowerRef II. Regarding agreement with Neuroptics, the mean difference for low, mid and high mesopic conditions were, respectively: -0.48 (±0.35, -0.83 (±0.52 and -0.38 (±0.56 mm for WAM-5500, -0.28 (±0.56, -0.70 (±0.55 and -0.61 (±0.54 mm for PowerRef II. The mean difference of binocular minus monocular pupil measurements was: -0.83 (±0.87 mm; and with proximity cues minus without proximity cues was: -0.30 (±0.77 mm. CONCLUSION: All the instruments show similar repeat-ability. In all illumination conditions, agreement of Neuroptics with WAM-5500 and PowerRef II is not good enough, which can be partially induced due to their open field design.

  14. SWATH-ID: An instrument method which combines identification and quantification in a single analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Burton, Lyle; Lau, Adam; Tate, Stephen

    2017-04-07

    Data-independent acquisition (DIA) approaches, such as SWATH ® -MS, are showing great potential to reliably quantify significant numbers of peptides and proteins in an unbiased manner. These developments have enhanced interest in developing a single DIA method which integrates qualitative and quantitative analysis, eliminating the need of a pre-built library of peptide spectra which are created through data-dependent acquisition (DDA) methods or from public repositories. Here we introduce a new DIA approach, referred to as "SWATH-ID", which was developed to allow peptide identification as well as quantitation. The SWATH-ID method is composed of small Q1 windows, achieving better selectivity and thus significantly improving high-confidence peptide extractions from data files. Furthermore, the SWATH-ID approach transmits precursor ions without fragmentation as well as their fragments within the same SWATH acquisition period. This provides a single scan which includes all precursor ions within the isolation window as well as a record of all of their fragment ions, substantially negating the need for a survey scan. In this way all precursors present in a small Q1 window are associated with their fragment ions, improving the identification specificity and providing a more comprehensive and in-depth view of protein and peptide species in complex samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. MDEP Common Position No EPR-01 - Common positions on the EPR instrumentation and controls design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the EPR Working Group (EPRWG) of the Multinational Design Evaluation Program (MDEP) is to identify common positions among the regulators reviewing the EPR Instrumentation and Controls (I and C) Systems in order to: 1. Promote understanding of each country 's regulatory decisions and basis for the decisions, 2. Enhance communication among the members and with external stakeholders, 3. Identify areas where harmonization and convergence of regulations, standards, and guidance can be achieved or improved, and 4. Supports standardization of new reactor designs. Since January 2008, the EPR I and C Technical Expert Subgroup (TESG) members met five times to exchange information regarding their country 's review of the EPR I and C design. The EPR I and C TESG consists of regulators from China, Canada, Finland, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The information exchange includes presentation of each country 's review status and technical issues, sharing of guidance documents, and sharing of regulatory decision documents. The TESG focused on the following four core areas of the EPR I and C design: 1. I and C System Independence (particularly for data communications), 2. Level of Defense and Diversity (back-up systems), 3. Qualification/quality of digital platforms, 4. Categorization/classification of systems and functions. As meetings were conducted, some areas were emphasized more depending on the significance of the issues for each country. During the TESG interactions, it became apparent that there were aspects of the EPR design where the countries had common agreement. On November 2, 2009, three of the subgroup countries, France, Finland and the United Kingdom, issued a joint regulatory position on the EPR I and C design as result of the 'Groupe Permanent' meeting in France. This statement of common positions expands upon that joint regulatory position

  16. Single photon emission tomography in neurological studies: Instrumentation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, P.

    1999-01-01

    One triple head and two single head gamma camera systems were used for single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging of both patients and brain phantoms. Studies with an anatomical brain phantom were performed for evaluation of reconstruction and correction methods in brain perfusion SPET studies. The use of the triple head gamma camera system resulted in a significant increase in image contrast and resolution. This was mainly due to better imaging geometry and the use of a high resolution collimator. The conventional Chang attenuation correction was found suitable for the brain perfusion studies. In the brain perfusion studies region of interest (ROI) based semiquantitation methods were used. A ROI map based on anatomical areas was used in 70 elderly persons (age range 55-85 years) without neurological diseases and in patients suffering from encephalitis or having had a cardiac arrest. Semiquantitative reference values are presented. For the 14 patients with encephalitis the right-to-left side differences were calculated. Defect volume indexes were calculated for 64 patients with brain infarcts. For the 30 cardiac arrest patients the defect percentages and the anteroposterior ratios were used for semiquantitation. It is concluded that different semiquantitation methods are needed for the various patient groups. Age-related reference values will improve the interpretation of SPET data. For validation of the basal ganglia receptor studies measurements were performed using a cylindrical and an anatomical striatal phantom. In these measurements conventional and transmission imaging based non-uniform attenuation corrections were compared. A calibration curve was calculated for the determination of the specific receptor uptake ratio. In the phantom studies using the triple head camera the uptake ratio obtained from simultaneous transmission-emission protocol (STEP) acquisition and iterative reconstruction was closest to the true activity ratio. Conventional

  17. Reliability analysis of instrument design of noninvasive bone marrow disease detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu; Li, Ting; Sun, Yunlong

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow is an important hematopoietic organ, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) may cause a variety of complications with high death rate and short survival time. Early detection and follow up care are particularly important. But the current diagnosis methods rely on bone marrow biopsy/puncture, with significant limitations such as invasion, complex operation, high risk, and discontinuous. It is highly in need of a non-invasive, safe, easily operated, and continuous monitoring technology. So we proposed to design a device aimed for detecting bone marrow lesions, which was based on near infrared spectrum technology. Then we fully tested its reliabilities, including the sensitivity, specificity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), stability, and etc. Here, we reported this sequence of reliability test experiments, the experimental results, and the following data analysis. This instrument was shown to be very sensitive, with distinguishable concentration less than 0.002 and with good linearity, stability and high SNR. Finally, these reliability-test data supported the promising clinical diagnosis and surgery guidance of our novel instrument in detection of BMLs.

  18. Design of Simple Instrumentation System for the Quality Analysis of Milk (Casein Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Sangam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a simple instrumentation system for the analysis of casein concentration in the milk. Casein is one of the major constituent of milk and its concentration describes the quality of the milk. Normally casein is analyzed by conventional analytical methods or by using Spectrophotometric methods. Here an attempt has been made to develop a simple portable system using optical instrumentation technique. The objective of the developed system is the real time analysis of the casein concentration of the milk at the field. The system involves UV light source, UV filter, cuvette, photo detector, display unit, data Acquisition Card (DAC as peripheral with USB port. Appropriate program has been developed in visual studio 6 and turbo C. Repeated number of real time analysis was carried out for different samples of milk; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with the amount determined by standard conventional methods with an accuracy of ±1.5 %, and the response time is within 100 seconds. This system can be used in the field for the quality analysis of milk as an independent unit and can also be interfaced to PC with USB port. The system has good accuracy, less response time and low cost.

  19. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  20. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  1. An automated calibration laboratory for flight research instrumentation: Requirements and a proposed design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneill-Rood, Nora; Glover, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden), operates a diverse fleet of research aircraft which are heavily instrumented to provide both real time data for in-flight monitoring and recorded data for postflight analysis. Ames-Dryden's existing automated calibration (AUTOCAL) laboratory is a computerized facility which tests aircraft sensors to certify accuracy for anticipated harsh flight environments. Recently, a major AUTOCAL lab upgrade was initiated; the goal of this modernization is to enhance productivity and improve configuration management for both software and test data. The new system will have multiple testing stations employing distributed processing linked by a local area network to a centralized database. The baseline requirements for the new AUTOCAL lab and the design approach being taken for its mechanization are described.

  2. Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is a revision and combination of two Safety Guides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1 and No. NS-G-1.3. The revision takes into account developments in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems since the publication of the earlier Safety Guides. The main changes relate to the continuing development of computer applications and the evolution of the methods necessary for their safe, secure and practical use. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and the need for computer security. This Safety Guide references and takes into account other IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design

  3. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  4. The Systematic Evaluation of Instruments Designed to Assess Pain in Persons with Limited Ability to Communicate*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Aubin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is often underdetected and undertreated in long-term care facilities. The use of self-report measures of pain (such as the visual analogue scale is often problematic for older adults residing in long-term care because of the high prevalence of visual and auditory deficits and severe cognitive impairment. Observational measures of pain have been developed to address this concern. A systematic grid designed to assess the properties of existing observational measures of pain was used for seniors with dementia. The grid focused on the evaluation of content validity (12 items, construct validity (12 items, reliability (13 items and clinical utility (10 items. Among the 24 instruments that were evaluated, several were deemed to be promising in the assessment of pain among older persons with severe dementia. Nonetheless, additional research is needed before their routine integration in the practices of long-term care settings.

  5. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Preconceptual Design, for Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JM Ross

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1 and C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I and C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I and C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured

  6. The Effect of Femoral Cutting Guide Design Improvements for Patient-Specific Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh-Ryong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the application of patient-specific instruments (PSI for total knee arthroplasty (TKA increases the cost of the surgical procedure, PSI may reduce operative time and improve implant alignment, which could reduce the number of revision surgeries. We report our experience with TKA using PSI techniques in 120 patients from March to December 2014. PSI for TKA were created from data provided by computed tomography (CT scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; which imaging technology is more reliable for the PSI technique remains unclear. In the first 20 patients, the accuracy of bone resection and PSI stability were compared between CT and MRI scans with presurgical results as a reference; MRI produced better results. In the second and third groups, each with 50 patients, the results of bone resection and stability were compared in MRI scans with respect to the quality of scanning due to motion artifacts and experienced know-how in PSI design, respectively. The optimized femoral cutting guide design for PSI showed the closest outcomes in bone resection and PSI stability with presurgical data. It is expected that this design could be a reasonable guideline in PSI.

  7. Design and Analysis of Single-Cell Sequencing Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate

  8. Development of instrumentation for measurements of two components of velocity with a single sensing element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, C. P.; Fu, M. K.; Fan, Y.; Hultmark, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel method of obtaining two orthogonal velocity components with high spatial and temporal resolution is investigated. Both components are obtained utilizing a single sensing nanoribbon by combining the two independent operating modes of classic hot wire anemometry and the newly discovered elastic filament velocimetry (EFV). In contrast to hot wire anemometry, EFV measures fluid velocity through correlating the fluid forcing with the internal strain of the wire. In order to utilize both modes of operation, a system that switches between the two operating modes is built and characterized, and the theoretically predicted sensing response time in water is compared to experimental results. The sensing system is capable of switching between the two modes of operation at a frequency of 100 kHz with minimal attenuation with an uncompensated repetition rate up to 3 kHz or up to 10 kHz utilizing modest signal compensation. While further characterization of the sensor performance in air is needed, this methodology enables a technique for obtaining well-resolved yet cost-efficient directional measurements of flow velocities which, for example, can be used for distributed measurements of velocity or measurements of turbulent stresses with excellent spatial resolution.

  9. Flow mapping of multiphase flows using a novel single stem endoscopic particle image velocimetry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lad, N; Adebayo, D; Aroussi, A

    2011-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a successful flow mapping technique which can optically quantify large portions of a flow regime. This enables the method to be completely non-intrusive. The ability to be non-intrusive to any flow has allowed PIV to be used in a large range of industrial sectors for many applications. However, a fundamental disadvantage of the conventional PIV technique is that it cannot easily be used with flows which have no or limited optical access. Flows which have limited optical access for PIV measurement have been addressed using endoscopic PIV techniques. This system uses two separate probes which relay a light sheet and imaging optics to a planar position within the desired flow regime. This system is effective in medical and engineering applications. The present study has been involved in the development of a new endoscopic PIV system which integrates the illumination and imaging optics into one rigid probe. This paper focuses on the validation of the images taken from the novel single stem endoscopic PIV system. The probe is used within atomized spray flow and is compared with conventional PIV measurement and also pitot-static data. The endoscopic PIV system provides images which create localized velocity maps that are comparable with the global measurement of the conventional PIV system. The velocity information for both systems clearly show similar results for the spray characterization and are also validated using the pitot-static data

  10. Rational design of single-molecule magnets: a supramolecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Thorsten

    2011-01-07

    Since the discovery that Mn(12)OAc acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), an increasing number of transition metal complexes have been demonstrated to behave as SMMs. The signature of a SMM is a slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperatures accompanied by a magnetic hysteresis. The origin of SMM behaviour is the existence of an appreciable thermal barrier U for spin-reversal called magnetic anisotropy barrier which is related to the combination of a large total spin ground state (S(t)) and an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy. The extensive research on Mn(12)OAc and other SMMs has established more prerequisites for a rational development of new SMMs besides the high-spin ground state and the magnetic anisotropy: the symmetry should be at least C(3) to minimize the quantum tunneling of the magnetization through the anisotropy barrier but lower than cubic to avoid the cancellation of the local anisotropies upon projection onto the spin ground state. Based on these prerequisites, we have designed the ligand triplesalen which combines the phloroglucinol bridging unit for high spin ground states by the spin-polarization mechanism with a salen-like ligand environment for single-site magnetic anisotropies by a strong tetragonal ligand field. The C(3) symmetric, trinuclear complexes of the triplesalen ligand (talen(t-Bu(2)))(6-) exhibit a strong ligand folding resulting in an overall bowl-shaped molecular structure. This ligand folding preorganizes the axial coordination sites of the metal salen subunits for the complementary binding of three facial nitrogen atoms of a hexacyanometallate unit. This leads to a high driving force for the formation of heptanuclear complexes [M(t)(6)M(c)](n+) by the assembly of three molecular building blocks. Attractive van der Waals interactions of the tert-butyl phenyl units of two triplesalen trinuclear building blocks increase the driving force. In this respect, we have been able to synthesize the isostructural series [Mn(III)(6

  11. Higher Education and Disability: A Systematic Review of Assessment Instruments Designed for Students, Faculty, and Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Allison; Gelbar, Nicholas; Dukes, Lyman L., III; Kowitt, Jennifer; Wei, Yan; Madaus, Joseph; Lalor, Adam R.; Faggella-Luby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the literature in disability and higher education was examined, with a specific focus on assessment instruments. Published articles (n = 203) on development of new or refinement of existing instruments were reviewed for traits measured and psychometric rigor reported. Findings showed instruments are intended for professionals and…

  12. Applanation optical coherence elastography: noncontact measurement of intraocular pressure, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry with a single instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Schill, Alexander; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-02-01

    Current clinical tools provide critical information about ocular health such as intraocular pressure (IOP). However, they lack the ability to quantify tissue material properties, which are potent markers for ocular tissue health and integrity. We describe a single instrument to measure the eye-globe IOP, quantify corneal biomechanical properties, and measure corneal geometry with a technique termed applanation optical coherence elastography (Appl-OCE). An ultrafast OCT system enabled visualization of corneal dynamics during noncontact applanation tonometry and direct measurement of micro air-pulse induced elastic wave propagation. Our preliminary results show that the proposed Appl-OCE system can be used to quantify IOP, corneal biomechanical properties, and corneal geometry, which builds a solid foundation for a unique device that can provide a more complete picture of ocular health.

  13. Landing instrument packages on regolith in micro gravity: point designs for passive, self-righting landers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2012-12-01

    A small asteroid is likely to be the target of the next human exploration mission. Undoubtedly, a robotic mission will precede, whose main objective will be to characterize the target; this would have to include deployment of sensory instruments on the surface. The surface properties of small bodies are largely unknown, and this makes it essential to have detailed models for package deployment. We evaluate low cost, low risk, lander designs by considering 'pods' that have no moving parts, no guidance or thrust, that are designed to be thrown to the surface from the orbiting spacecraft. The design goal is to "encourage" the pods to land upright regardless of surface properties. With no need for guidance or articulation, these pods can be made and deployed to the surface at low cost and low risk. The challenge, of course, is to design the pods to land right-side-up, consistently, in a low gravity environment. In such an environment a body may experience cohesive forces comparable to its weight. These forces will effectively modify the physical parameters controlling a mechanical system, primarily the coefficients of friction and restitution. To make things worse, gravity will not always be pointing "down", as the presence of mass concentrations will tilt the gravity acceleration vector in unpredictable directions. We consider three point designs: (1) a weighted ellipsoidal shape, the bottom several times as dense as the top, analogous to the children's toy; (2) a pod with one side elastic and the other side inelastic; and (3) a combination of both weight distribution and material properties. We have used a discrete element model based on NVIDIA's PhysX library to design a simulation software suitable for modeling astrophysical rubble (Movshovitz, Asphaug and Korycansky, submitted). We then deploy different pod designs onto a numerical regolith testbed. Initial studies are very promising, although to date we have not included forces such as cohesion, and the effect of

  14. Design and manufacturing of non-instrumented capsule for advanced PWR fuel pellet irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, C. B.; Song, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This project is preparing to irradiation test of the developed large grain UO{sub 2} fuel pellet in HANARO for pursuit fuel safety and high burn-up in 'Advanced LWR Fuel Technology Development Project' as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. On the basis test rod is performed the nuclei property and preliminary fuel performance analysis, test rod and non-instrumented capsule are designed and manufactured for irradiation test in HANARO. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule of Advanced PWR Fuel pellet was referred the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO(DUPIC Rig-001) and 18-element HANARO fuel, was designed to ensure the integrity and the endurance of non-instrumented capsule during the long term(2.5 years) irradiation. To irradiate the UO{sub 2} pellets up to the burn-up 70 MWD/kgU, need the time about 60 months and ensure the integrity of non-instrumented capsule for 30 months until replace the new capsule. This non-instrumented irradiation capsule will be based to develope the non-instrumented capsule for the more long term irradiation in HANARO. 22 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  15. Mechanical response of nickel-titanium instruments with different cross-sectional designs during shaping of simulated curved canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H C; Kim, H J; Lee, C J; Kim, B M; Park, J K; Versluis, A

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate how different cross-sectional designs affect stress distribution in nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments during bending, torsion and simulated shaping of a curved canal. Four NiTi rotary instruments with different cross-sectional geometries were selected: ProFile and HeroShaper systems with a common triangle-based cross section, Mtwo with an S-shaped rectangle-based design and NRT with a modified rectangle-based design. The geometries of the selected files were scanned in a micro-CT and three-dimensional finite-element models were created for each system. Stiffness characteristics for each file system were determined in a series of bending and torsional conditions. Canal shaping was simulated by inserting models of the rotating file into a 45 degrees curved canal model. Stress distribution in the instruments was recorded during simulated shaping. After the instruments were retracted from the canal, residual stresses and permanent bending of their tips due to plastic deformation were determined. The greatest bending and torsional stiffness occurred in the NRT file. During simulated shaping, the instruments with triangle-based cross-sectional geometry had more even stress distributions along their length and had lower stress concentrations than the instruments with rectangle-based cross sections. Higher residual stresses and plastic deformations were found in the Mtwo and NRT with rectangle-based cross-sectional geometries. Nickel-titanium instruments with rectangle-based cross-sectional designs created higher stress differentials during simulated canal shaping and may encounter higher residual stress and plastic deformation than instruments with triangle-based cross sections.

  16. Optimum single modal and bimodal buckling design of symmetric laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, B.; Reiss, R.; Aung, W.

    1989-01-01

    Variational calculus is used to determine the design that maximizes the resistance of classical symmetric laminates against buckling. The orientations of the constituent orthotropic laminae with respect to the principal axes of the laminate are the design variables. It is shown that the optimal design may not be a point of analyticity of the buckling load. Local analytic extrema are obtained from the design derivatives of the buckling load. Nonanalytic extrema occur whenever the buckling load is a repeated eigenvalue. A novel approach, using a directional design derivative, is employed to determine nonanalytic extrema. Specific examples are presented for biaxial buckling for several different boundary conditions.

  17. Electronic design and simulation of low cost ocean tides monitoring instrument using Labcenter Proteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollanda Arief Kusuma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea level is one of ocean properties that needed to be observed. Sea level observation will give information about osean tides and tides datum. As technology became more reliable, people can develop new instrument easily. Recently, open source microcontroller “Arduino” became popular and lot of people using it to develop what we call “low-cost” instrument. But, there are several disadvantages if we build instrument directly. Simulation phase must be done before manufacture instrument. This phase will help to decrease cost and time. In this paper, we will describe the concept, algorithm, and simulation phase in manufacturing Low Cost Ocean Tides Monitoring Instrument.

  18. Design of a Single-Cell Positioning Controller Using Electroosmotic Flow and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhong-Yin Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was not only to provide a fast and automatic positioning platform for single cells, but also improved biomolecular manipulation techniques. In this study, an automatic platform for cell positioning using electroosmotic flow and image processing technology was designed. The platform was developed using a PCI image acquisition interface card for capturing images from a microscope and then transferring them to a computer using human-machine interface software. This software was designed by the Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench, a graphical language for finding cell positions and viewing the driving trace, and the fuzzy logic method for controlling the voltage or time of an electric field. After experiments on real human leukemic cells (U-937, the success of the cell positioning rate achieved by controlling the voltage factor reaches 100% within 5 s. A greater precision is obtained when controlling the time factor, whereby the success rate reaches 100% within 28 s. Advantages in both high speed and high precision are attained if these two voltage and time control methods are combined. The control speed with the combined method is about 5.18 times greater than that achieved by the time method, and the control precision with the combined method is more than five times greater than that achieved by the voltage method.

  19. Posterior instrumentation, anterior column reconstruction with single posterior approach for treatment of pyogenic osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorensek, M; Kosak, R; Travnik, L; Vengust, R

    2013-03-01

    Surgical treatment of thoracolumbar osteomyelitis consists of radical debridement, reconstruction of anterior column either with or without posterior stabilization. The objective of present study is to evaluate a case series of patients with osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine treated by single, posterior approach with posterior instrumentation and anterior column reconstruction. Seventeen patients underwent clinical and radiological evaluation pre and postoperatively with latest follow-up at 19 months (8-56 months) after surgery. Parameters assessed were site of infection, causative organism, angle of deformity, blood loss, duration of surgery, ICU stay, deformity correction, time to solid bony fusion, ambulatory status, neurologic status (ASIA impairment scale), and functional outcome (Kirkaldy-Willis criteria). Mean operating time was 207 min and average blood loss 1,150 ml. Patients spent 2 (1-4) days in ICU and were able to walk unaided 1.6 (1-2) days after surgery. Infection receded in all 17 patients postoperatively. Solid bony fusion occurred in 15 out of 17 patients (88 %) on average 6.3 months after surgery. Functional outcome was assessed as excellent or good in 82 % of cases. Average deformity correction was 8 (1-18) degrees, with loss of correction of 4 (0-19) degrees at final follow-up. Single, posterior approach addressing both columns poses safe alternative in treatment of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis of thoracic and lumbar spine. It proved to be less invasive resulting in faster postoperative recovery.

  20. Design of a single ion facility and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The use of micro-irradiation techniques in radiobiology is not new; however, the current techniques take advantage of recent developments in particle delivery, focussing detection, image processing, cell recognition and computer control. These developments have generally come from other fields, for example microbeam elemental analysis techniques and single-event upset testing of semiconductor devices. Also in radiation biology there have been important advances in developments of individual cell assays, which allow a wide range of endpoints to be studied with good accuracy at low doses. Many of the studies that are planned involve following the responses of individual cells after a programmed exposure to charged-particle traversals. To probe the radiation sensitivity of a single cell and/or its constituents with a submicron resolution several developments are needed. The essential parameters of the proposed system can be summarised as follows: a focussed beam of ions of 300nm or less at the cell; a reliable (close to 100%) single ion detection; a fast beam switch to prevent second hits; a target holder adapted for the irradiation of wet cells and a fully automated system for cell recognition and single hits. 1 fig.

  1. Single service point: it's all in the design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradigan, Pamela S; Rodman, Ruey L

    2008-01-01

    "Design thinking" principles from a leading design firm, IDEO, were key elements in the planning process for a one-desk service model, the ASK Desk, at the John A. Prior Health Sciences Library. The library administration and staff employed the methodology to enhance customer experiences, meet technology challenges, and compete in a changing education environment. The most recent renovations demonstrate how the principles were applied. The concept of "continuous design thinking" is important in the library's daily operations to serve customers most effectively.

  2. Physicians' knowledge of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of otitis media: design of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ambrose; Flowerdew, Gordon; Delaney, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To develop a survey instrument with good internal consistency and test-retest reliability to explore the level of knowledge among Nova Scotia family physicians concerning the risk factors, signs and symptoms, and treatment of otitis media and the use of pneumatic otoscopy. Prospective cohort design. Fee-for-service family practices in Nova Scotia. A convenience sample of 25 family physicians. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the survey. The constructs including "signs and symptoms of otitis media with effusion" and "comprehensive knowledge scores" showed excellent internal consistency with Kuder-Richardson 20 scores greater than 0.7 whereas the construct "signs and symptoms of acute otitis media" has a Kuder-Richardson 20 score of 0.54 after deletion of several items. The Cohen kappa and Spearman rho tests showed the survey has very good test-retest reliability. The questionnaire that we developed proved to have very good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We hope to use this questionnaire to explore the practice patterns of family physicians in managing otitis media disease.

  3. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Towards that end, let us take a closer look at the weighing design A3,12 shown in Section 3. Let us de- compose the weighing design A3,12 into several smaller components (each of which satisfy all four conditions of. Theorem 1) in two different ways: (a) three weighing de- signs with 3, 3, 6 coins, and (b) three weighing ...

  4. Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation using two Ni-Ti single file rotary systems: Anin vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singbal, Kiran; Jain, Disha; Raja, Kranthi; Hoe, Tan Ming

    2017-01-01

    Apical extrusion of debris during instrumentation is detrimental to the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using two single file rotary Ni-Ti systems. Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were sterilized and divided into two groups instrumented using: One Shape rotary Ni-Ti system with Endoflare orifice shaper (Group 1) and Neo-Niti rotary Ni-Ti system with C1 orifice shaper (Group 2). Preweighed Eppendorf tubes fitted for each tooth before instrumentation. During instrumentation, 1 mL of distilled water with a 30-gauge needle was used to irrigate after every instrument. Tips of the tooth were irrigated with 2 ml distilled water after removal from Eppendorf tubes. The total volume of irrigant in each group was the same 8 ml. All tubes were incubated at 68°C for 15 days and subsequently weighed. The difference between pre- and post-debris weights was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using independent t -test and level of significance was set at 0.05. The difference between pre- and post-weights was significantly greater for the One Shape system. The Neolix Niti single file was associated with less extrusion compared to One Shape single file system.

  5. Quantitative molecular and culture analyses of bacterial elimination in oval-shaped root canals by a single-file instrumentation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, F R F; Rôças, I N; Almeida, B M; Neves, M A S; Zoffoli, J; Siqueira, J F

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial reduction in oval-shaped root canals by a single-instrument technique was compared ex vivo with a conventional nickel-titanium rotary technique. Data obtained from two quantification methods, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture, were also compared. Oval-shaped canals of extracted teeth contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis were instrumented using either a single Reciproc instrument or the BioRaCe instrument series. Bacteriological samples were taken before (S1) and after instrumentation (S2). Bacterial quantification was performed using qPCR and culture. Intragroup analysis showed that both protocols promoted a highly significant bacterial reduction (P 0.05). As for the quantification methods, qPCR revealed significantly higher counts of E. faecalis in S1 than culture (P 0.05). The single-file technique was comparable with the conventional technique in oval-shaped canals provided the width of apical preparation, volume of irrigants and duration of irrigation are kept similar. No significant difference was observed for qPCR and culture in post-instrumentation samples, indicating that both methods can be reliably used for studies of antibacterial effectiveness. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  6. Thermal design of the EarthCARE MSI-VNS instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, J.; Coesel, M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Hof, A. van 't

    2011-01-01

    The EarthCARE satellite mission objective is the observation of clouds and aerosols from low Earth orbit. The payload will include active remote sensing instruments being the W- band Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and the ATLID LIDAR. These are supported by the passive instruments BroadBand Radiometer

  7. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Frieß, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Großmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Henzing, B.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leeuw, G. de; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Du Piesanie, A.; Pinardi, G.; Puentedura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research

  8. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI): design, execution, and early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henzing, J.S.; Leeuw, G. de; Piters, A.J.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J.C.; Roozendael, M. van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M.A.F.; Apituley, A.; Bergwerff, J.B.; Berkhout, A.J.C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clémer, K.; Fayt, C.; Friess, U.; Gast, L.F.L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.; Grossmann, K.; Hemerijckx, G.; Hendrick, F.; Herman, J.; Hermans, C.; Hoexum, M.; Hoff, G.R. van der; Irie, H.; Johnston, P.V.; Kanaya, Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Kreher, K.; Leigh, R.; Merlaud, A.; Moerman, M.M.; Monks, P.S.; Mount, G.H.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Oetjen, H.; Pazmino, A.; Perez-Camacho, M.; Peters, E.; Piesanie, A. du; Pinardi, G.; Puentadura, O.; Richter, A.; Roscoe, H.K.; Schönhardt, A.; Schwarzenbach, B.; Shaiganfar, R.; Sluis, W.; Spinei, E.; Stolk, A.P.; Strong, K.; Swart, D.P.J.; Takashima, H.; Vlemmix, T.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wagner, T.; Whyte, C.; Wilson, K.M.; Yela, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Zieger, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2011-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI’s 5 Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric

  9. The design of an instrumented rebar for assessment of corrosion in cracked reinforced concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    rebar with 17 electronically isolated corrosion sensors. Instrumented and standard rebars were cast into concrete beams and bending cracks were induced and held open using steel frames. Epoxy impregnation was used to assess and compare cracks in the concrete around the instrumented and standard rebar...... between the steel and concrete. Cracked beams with cast-in instrumented and standard rebars were ponded with a 10\\% chloride solution and the open circuit corrosion potential (OCP) of the 17 sensors was measured for up to 62 days. Measurements from the individual sensors indicate when and where active....... As bending-induced cracks reached the reinforcement, slip and separation occurred along the concrete-reinforcement interface. Cracks in the concrete surrounding standard and instrumented rebars are largely similar in appearance; however, sensors protruding from the instrumented rebar reduced the separation...

  10. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  11. Design and construction of a microcontroller based single axis solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is rapidly gaining popularity as an important means of expanding renewable energy resources. As such, it is vital that those in engineering fields understand the technologies associated with this area. This paper presents the design and construction of a microcontroller-based solar panel tracking system. Solar ...

  12. design and operations challenges of a single toggle jaw crusher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    hard rock to stress concentration and strain rate. According to Elisante [14], physical properties of materials such as: moisture content, structure, friability, density, hardness and crushing strength are important design criteria, as these affect both the life of the liners and power requirement. Olaleye [15] revealed that the.

  13. Introduction to the Design and Optimization of Experiments Using Response Surface Methodology. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for the Instrumentation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patricia L.; Miller, Benjamin I.; Nowak, Abigail Tuttle

    2006-01-01

    The study describes how to design and optimize an experiment with multiple factors and multiple responses. The experiment uses fractional factorial analysis as a screening experiment only to identify important instrumental factors and does not use response surface methodology to find the optimal set of conditions.

  14. Simple and Inexpensive 3D Printed Filter Fluorometer Designs: User-Friendly Instrument Models for Laboratory Learning and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lon A., Jr.; Chapman, Cole A.; Alaniz, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a versatile and user-friendly selection of stereolithography (STL) files and computer-aided design (CAD) models are shared to assist educators and students in the production of simple and inexpensive 3D printed filter fluorometer instruments. These devices are effective resources for supporting active learners in the exploration of…

  15. The evolution of IRRR nuclear standards from the single failure criterion and their impact on system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    One of the first industry standards developed in the United States to meet regulatory agency criteria for the design and installation of nuclear power plant control and instrumentation systems was prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., abbreviated IEEE. This was IEEE Std. 279, first issued in 1968. It was subsequently revised and reissued as IEEE Std. 279-1971 ''IEEE Standard: Criteria for Protection Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations''. Not only has the implementation of this standard had a tremendous impact on nuclear power plant design in the United States, it has been the base document from which subsequent IEEE nuclear standards have been developed. Three major concepts which are addressed by IEEE 279, and which have had a major impact upon control and instrumentation systems in nuclear power plants are the following : 1) Single failure criterion. 2) Equipment qualification. 3) Channel independence. Each of these concepts has resulted in the development of subsequent IEEE Nuclear Standards. The impact of some of these on control and instrumentation systems are discussed. (author)

  16. Design, development, and verification of the Planck low frequency instrument 70 GHz front-end and back-end modules

    OpenAIRE

    J. Varis, N..J..H.; Laaninen, M.; Kilpiä, V..H.; Jukkala, P.; Tuovinen, J.; Ovaska, S.; Sjöman, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Gaier, T.; Hoyland, R.; Meinhold, P.; Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R..C.; Cuttaia, F.

    2009-01-01

    70 GHz radiometer front-end and back-end modules for the Low Frequency Instrument of the European Space Agencys Planck Mission were built and tested. The operating principles and the design details of the mechanical structures are described along with the key InP MMIC low noise amplifiers and phase switches of the units. The units were tested in specially designed cryogenic vacuum chambers capable of producing the operating conditions required for Planck radiometers, specifically, a physical ...

  17. An instrument design and sample strategy for measuring soil respiration in the coastal temperate rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) along the northwest coast of North America is a large and complex mosaic of forests and wetlands located on an undulating terrain ranging from sea level to thousands of meters in elevation. This biome stores a dynamic portion of the total carbon stock of North America. The fate of the terrestrial carbon stock is of concern due to the potential for mobilization and export of this store to both the atmosphere as carbon respiration flux and ocean as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon flux. Soil respiration is the largest export vector in the system and must be accurately measured to gain any comprehensive understanding of how carbon moves though this system. Suitable monitoring tools capable of measuring carbon fluxes at small spatial scales are essential for our understanding of carbon dynamics at larger spatial scales within this complex assemblage of ecosystems. We have adapted instrumentation and developed a sampling strategy for optimizing replication of soil respiration measurements to quantify differences among spatially complex landscape units of the CTR. We start with the design of the instrument to ease the technological, ergonomic and financial barriers that technicians encounter in monitoring the efflux of CO2 from the soil. Our sampling strategy optimizes the physical efforts of the field work and manages for the high variation of flux measurements encountered in this difficult environment of rough terrain, dense vegetation and wet climate. Our soil respirometer incorporates an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor Inc. LI-820) and an 8300 cm3 soil respiration chamber; the device is durable, lightweight, easy to operate and can be built for under $5000 per unit. The modest unit price allows for a multiple unit fleet to be deployed and operated in an intensive field monitoring campaign. We use a large 346 cm2 collar to accommodate as much micro spatial variation as feasible and to facilitate repeated measures for tracking

  18. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Lumbar interbody fusion: a parametric investigation of a novel cage design with and without posterior instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Schmidt, Hendrik; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2012-03-01

    A finite element model of the L4-L5 human segment was employed to carry out a parametric biomechanical investigation of lumbar interbody fusion with a novel "sandwich" cage having an inner stiff core and two softer layers in the areas close to the endplates, with and without posterior fixation. Considered cage designs included: (a) cage in a homogeneous material with variable elastic modulus (19-2,000 MPa), (b) "sandwich" cage having an inner core (E=2,000 MPa) and softer layers (E=19 MPa) with variable thickness (1-2.5 mm). The latter cage was also considered in combination with posterior rods made with a material having variable elastic modulus (19-210,000 MPa). All the models were loaded with 500 N compression and moments of 7.5 Nm in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. The homogeneous cage stabilized the segment in flexion, lateral bending and axial rotation; in extension there was a destabilization up to 60% and remarkable cage movement (1 mm). The "sandwich" cage limited this phenomenon (cage movement<0.6 mm), effectively stabilized the segment in the other directions and lowered the maximal contact pressure on the endplates, reducing the risk of subsidence. Posterior fixation reduced spinal flexibility and cage movement. The soft layers of the "sandwich" cage had the potential to limit the risk of cage subsidence and to preserve a significant loading of the structure even in combination with flexible posterior instrumentation, which may have a beneficial effect in promoting bony fusion.

  20. Combinatorial instruments in the design of a heuristic for the quadratic assignment problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Oswaldo Boaventura-Netto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the use of a neighbouring structure in the design of specific heuristics for the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP. This structure is formed by the 4- and 6-cycles adjacent to a vertex in the Hasse diagram of the permutation lattice and it can be adequately partitioned in subsets of linear and quadratic cardinalities, a characteristics which frequently allows an economy in the processing time. We propose also a restart strategy and a mechanism for generating initial solutions which constitute, together with the neighbouring structure, a possible QAP-specific heuristic proposal. For the construction of these instruments we used the relaxed ordered set of QAP solutions.Este trabalho discute o uso de uma estrutura de vizinhança em heurísticas específicas para o Problema Quadrático de Alocação (PQA. Esta estrutura envolve os ciclos de comprimento 4 e 6 adjacentes a um vértice do diagrama de Hasse do reticulado das permutações e pode ser particionada em subconjuntos de cardinalidade linear e quadrática em relação à ordem da instância, o que permite frequentemente uma economia de tempo de processamento. Propõem-se ainda uma estratégia de repartida e um mecanismo de geração de soluções iniciais, que constituem, ao lado da estrutura de vizinhança, uma proposta de heurística específica para o PQA. Na construção desses instrumentos foi utilizada a noção de conjunto relaxado ordenado das soluções do PQA.

  1. Protocol for the design of an instrument to measure preadolescent children's self-report of covert aggression and bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Methods and analysis Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8–12 years (grades 4–6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. PMID:26553834

  2. Design, syntheses, characterization and single crystal X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Two multicomponent Zn-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) based building blocks, have been synthesized for designing microporous crystalline solids. Reactions between ZnTPP and 4,4¢-bipyridine (4,4¢-bpy) in two different molar ratios gave complexes. [{ZnTPP)3{m-4,4¢bpy}2] (1) and [{ZnTPP)2{m-4,4¢-bpy}] (II). Complexes I ...

  3. The design of an instrument to evaluate software for EFL/ESL pronunciation teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Gomes de Freitas Menezes Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p141 The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of an instrument to evaluate the extent to which software programs teach English as a Foreign Language and/or Second Language (EFL/ESL pronunciation following the principles of the Communicative Approach (Celce-Murcia et al, 2010, thus having the potential to develop English pronunciation. After the development of the instrument, 46 EFL/ESL teachers used it to analyze an online version of the software program Pronunciation Power 2. The responses of the participants were submitted to statistical analysis and the validity and reliability of the instrument were tested. The good reliability indexes obtained in this study suggest the instrument has some degree of validity for evaluating how well an ESL/EFL pronunciation teaching software program potentially develops English pronunciation.

  4. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  5. [Clinical study on the effects of single visit root canal treatment of chronic periapical periodontitis by two kinds of root canal preparation instruments system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuo-jun; He, Hong

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the different incidence of postoperative pain and long-term follow-up curative effects in patients with chronic periapical periodontitis undergoing single visit root canal treatment by two kinds of canal preparation instruments system. Ninety-eight permanent teeth with chronic periapical periodontitis were divided into two groups randomly. One group was prepared with nickel-titanium instruments, the other group was prepared with K files. After canal preparation, all the teeth underwent canal filling immediately. The different incidence of postoperative pain and long-term follow-up curative effects were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS13.0 software package. One week after treatment, the rate of serious symptom of periapical periodontitis in the Ni-Ti group was less than that in the K file group (P0.05 ). Nickel-titanium instrument used in treatment of chronic periapical periodontitis lead to less serious postoperative reaction than K file instruments, but the same long-term follow-up curative effects as K file instruments. Nickel-titanium instruments system is worthy of wide application in patients with chronic periapical periodontitis undergoing single visit root canal treatment.

  6. The efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment instrumentation to remove single gutta-percha cones cemented with several endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersev, H; Yilmaz, B; Dinçol, M E; Dağlaroğlu, R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate residual root filling material following removal of three newly developed root canal sealers used with a matched-taper single-cone root filling technique and to compare the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment instruments with that of a conventional manual technique. The canals of 120 palatal roots in maxillary molar teeth were instrumented with EndoWave nickel-titanium rotary instruments and filled using Hybrid Root SEAL, EndoSequence BC Sealer, Activ GP system or AH Plus with matched-taper single gutta-percha cones. The root fillings were then removed with ProTaper Universal retreatment rotary instruments or a manual technique. Buccolingual and proximal digital radiographs of the roots were exposed to determine the area of remaining filling material in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. The area percentages of remaining filling material in each third and total canal area were calculated. Data were analysed statistically with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The level of significance was set at Pretreatment technique, filling material could not be removed completely from the root canals. Significantly, more remaining filling material was observed in the apical third (Pretreatment instruments were as safe and effective as hand instruments in reaching the working length. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  8. Design of a Single-Layer Microchannel for Continuous Sheathless Single-Stream Particle Inertial Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Fei; Li, Weihua; Wang, Xiaohao

    2018-02-06

    High-throughput, high-precision single-stream focusing of microparticles has a potentially wide range of applications in biochemical analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this work, we develop a sheathless three-dimensional (3D) particle-focusing method in a single-layer microchannel. This novel microchannel consists of periodic high-aspect-ratio curved channels and straight channels. The proposed method takes advantage of both the curved channels, which induce Dean flow to promote particle migration, and straight channels, which suppress the remaining stirring effects of Dean flow to stabilize the achieved particle focusing. The 3D particle focusing is demonstrated experimentally, and the mechanism is analyzed theoretically. The effects of flow rate, particle size, and cycle number on the focusing performance were also investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that polystyrene particles with diameters of 5-20 μm can be focused into a 3D single file within seven channel cycles, with the focusing accuracy up to 98.5% and focusing rate up to 98.97%. The focusing throughput could reach up to ∼10 5 counts/min. Furthermore, its applicability to biological cells is also demonstrated by 3D focusing of HeLa and melanoma cells and bovine blood cells in the proposed microchannel. The proposed sheathless passive focusing scheme, featuring a simple channel structure, small footprint (9 mm × 1.2 mm), compact layout, and uncomplicated fabrication procedure, holds great promise as an efficient 3D focusing unit for the development of next-generation on-chip flow cytometry.

  9. Single-case research design in pediatric psychology: considerations regarding data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lindsey L; Feinstein, Amanda; Masuda, Akihiko; Vowles, Kevin E

    2014-03-01

    Single-case research allows for an examination of behavior and can demonstrate the functional relation between intervention and outcome in pediatric psychology. This review highlights key assumptions, methodological and design considerations, and options for data analysis. Single-case methodology and guidelines are reviewed with an in-depth focus on visual and statistical analyses. Guidelines allow for the careful evaluation of design quality and visual analysis. A number of statistical techniques have been introduced to supplement visual analysis, but to date, there is no consensus on their recommended use in single-case research design. Single-case methodology is invaluable for advancing pediatric psychology science and practice, and guidelines have been introduced to enhance the consistency, validity, and reliability of these studies. Experts generally agree that visual inspection is the optimal method of analysis in single-case design; however, statistical approaches are becoming increasingly evaluated and used to augment data interpretation.

  10. Instrument design of 1.5-m aperture solar optical telescope for the Solar-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yoshinori; Katsukawa, Yukio; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-11-01

    A 1.5 m aperture optical telescope is planned for the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C as one of major three observing instruments. The optical telescope is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of lower atmosphere from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere with enhanced spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric capability covering a wide wavelength region from 280 nm to 1100 nm. The opto-mechanical and -thermal performance of the telescope is crucial to attain high-quality solar observations and we present a study of optical and structural design of the large aperture space solar telescope, together with conceptual design of its accompanying focal plane instruments: wide-band and narrow-band filtergraphs and a spectro-polarimeter for high spatial and temporal observations in the solar photospheric and chromospheric lines useful for sounding physical condition of dynamical phenomena.

  11. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes. The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the certificate debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions. (author)

  12. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  13. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  14. Design of coordinated controller in nuclear power plant based on digital instrument and control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shouyu; Peng Minjun; Liu Xinkai; Zhao Qiang; Deng Xiangxin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) is a multi-input and multi-output, no-linear and time-varying complex system. The conventional PID controller is usually used in NPP control system which is based on analog instrument. The system parameters are easy to overshoot and the response time is longer in the control mode of the conventional PID. In order to improve this condition, a new coordinated control strategy which is based on expert system and the original controllers in the digital instrument and control technology was presented. In order to verify and validate it, the proposed coordinated control technology was tested by the full-scope real-time simulation system. The results prove that using digital instrument and control technology to achieve coordinated controller is feasible, the coordinated controller can effectively improve the dynamic operating characteristics of the system, and the coordinated controller is superior to the conventional PID controller in control performance. (authors)

  15. Ceramic end seal design for high temperature high voltage nuclear instrumentation cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, James D.; Cannon, Collins P.

    1979-01-01

    A coaxial, hermetically sealed end structure is described for electrical instrumentation cables. A generally tubular ceramic body is hermetically sealed within a tubular sheath which is in turn sealed to the cable sheath. One end of the elongated tubular ceramic insulator is sealed to a metal end cap. The other end of the elongated tubular insulator has an end surface which is shaped concave relative to a central conductor which extends out of this end surface. When the end seal is hermetically sealed to an instrumentation cable device and the central conductor is maintained at a high positive potential relative to the tubular metal sheath, the electric field between the central conductor and the outer sheath tends to collect electrons from the concave end surface of the insulator. This minimizes breakdown pulse noise generation when instrumentation potentials are applied to the central conductor.

  16. Designing an Instrument to Measure the QoS of a Spanish Virtual Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Beatriz Sainz; de La Torre Díez, Isabel; Salcines, Enrique García; Fernández, Javier Burón; Pernas, Francisco Díaz; Coronado, Miguel López; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    This article describes the development of an instrument, in the form of a survey, which is distributed to users of a B2C website selling electronic books in order to ascertain their satisfaction. The opinions compiled from a pilot sample and the exploratory factor analysis carried out point to factors that best summarise the quality of the application analysed here. Analysis of the initial survey, with a total of 40 items, shaped the final instrument, encompassing 18 items divided into 6 dimensions, which measure the perceptions of users of the application in order to improve the contents of the website. Subsequently, a confirmatory factorial analysis is performed, ensuring the reliability of the study and which confirms that the structure of the instrument developed truly measures service quality in accordance with the requirements of the website in terms of offering a space that fulfils consumer expectations in the Information Society.

  17. The design of an instrument to evaluate software for EFL/ESL pronunciation teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiana Gomes de Freitas Menezes; Borges, Vládia Maria Cabral; Levis, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n1p141 The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of an instrument to evaluate the extent to which software programs teach English as a Foreign Language and/or Second Language (EFL/ESL) pronunciation following the principles of the Communicative Approach (Celce-Murcia et al, 2010), thus having the potential to develop English pronunciation. After the development of the instrument, 46 EFL/ESL teachers used it to...

  18. A self-designed instrument to evaluate cavosurface angle for class I amalgam cavity preparation: A learning aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ankit; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Ballal, Vasudev; Sharma, Padmaja

    2012-07-01

    Fighting the controversies, amalgam, as a posterior restorative material has survived till date. The fate of amalgam restoration is determined by geometry of the cavity preparation and cavosurface angle is one integral part of the cavity, which decides the marginal characteristics of the restoration and health of the tooth. Low edge strength of amalgam highlights the importance of cavosurface angle. However, at the same time conservation of the tooth also should be considered. This article presents a self-designed instrument to evaluate and obtain a cavosurface angle close to 110°. The design of the instrument also helps in evaluating parameters, such as depth of the cavity, undercut angle, and allows finishing of the buccal or lingual walls.

  19. A desk evaluation review of project VIE/4/009 design and production of nuclear instruments. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A Project Desk Evaluation (PDE) is an intensive review process, using agreed guidelines, of the design, implementation, and the output of a project. This project is exclusively dealing with the design and production of nuclear instruments. The aim of this project would be to develop a viable capability for maintenance and repair of the nuclear instruments at the Dalat Research Institute (DNRI), the premier nuclear centre in Viet Nam, and also to meet the steadily increasing needs of DNRI, as well as of other national institutions, hospitals and universities engaged in the application of nuclear technologies, particularly in the southern part of the country. Project Summary with financial data is given along with training programme. 1 tab

  20. TROPOMI, the solar backscatter satellite instrument for air quality and climate, heads towards detailed design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Voors, R.; Mika, A.; Otter, G.; Valk, N.J.C. van der; Aben, I.; Hoogeveen, R.; Gloudemans, A.; Dobber, M.R.; Veefkind, P.; Levelt, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is currently planned for launch on ESA's Sentinel 5 precursor satellite in the time frame of 2014. TROPOMI is an ultraviolet-to-SWIR wavelengths imaging spectrograph that uses two-dimensional detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath

  1. Task 5c: measurement and instrumentation under subsystem design of the LLL safeguard material control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A product survey was conducted of all security products currently available on the market. Documentation is presented of the survey and a printout of the data is included. A general description is given of new but recommended instrumentation and security devices for application to fuel reprocessing plants. Security systems and hardware recommended for development, assembly, and testing are discussed briefly

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying Safety Class Instrumentation and Control System Design Description SYS 93-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WHITEHURST, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Safety Class Instrumentation and Control system (SCIC). The SCIC provides safety functions and features to protect the environment, off-site and on-site personnel and equipment. The function of the SCIC is to provide automatic trip features, valve interlocks, alarms, indication and control for the cold vacuum drying process

  3. Validating Affordances as an Instrument for Design and a Priori Analysis of Didactical Situations in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollervall, Håkan; Stadler, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the presented case study is to investigate how coherent analytical instruments may guide the a priori and a posteriori analyses of a didactical situation. In the a priori analysis we draw on the notion of affordances, as artefact-mediated opportunities for action, to construct hypothetical trajectories of goal-oriented actions that have…

  4. Resource Document for the Design of Electronic Instrument Approach Procedure Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Instrument approach procedure (IAP) charts play a large role in contributing to the success or failure of approaches and : landings. Paper IAP charts have been criticized for excessive clutter, for text sizes that are too small to read, and : for ina...

  5. The feasibility of vacuum technique in minimal invasive surgery : Improving the patient safety through instrument design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonck, D.

    2013-01-01

    Grasping in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is conducted with so called laparoscopic graspers. These graspers are generally derivatives of instruments used in open surgery. The performance of these graspers depends on the technical and medical functionality, the skills and experience of the user, the

  6. Towards Improved Teaching Effectiveness in Nigerian Public Universities: Instrument Design and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Ijeoma Aniedi; Nja, Mbe Egom

    2011-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine what is currently evaluated with respect to teaching in Nigerian public universities and to produce instruments that would be useful for examining the course and teaching effectiveness of course lecturers. Telephone interview of ten (10) professors in ten public Nigerian Universities is used to elicit…

  7. Incorporating Students' Self-Designed, Research-Based Analytical Chemistry Projects into the Instrumentation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical chemistry instrumentation laboratory, students learn analytical techniques through a well-developed procedure. Such an approach, however, does not engage students in a creative endeavor. To foster the intrinsic motivation of students' desire to learn, improve their confidence in self-directed learning activities and enhance their…

  8. Design and evaluation of a single-span bridge using ultra-high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    "Research presented herein describes an application of a newly developed material called Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to a : single-span bridge. The two primary objectives of this research were to develop a shear design procedure for possib...

  9. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; hide

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX

  10. The Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI: design, execution, and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. M. Piters

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI. The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-of-the-art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing, and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent

  11. Challenges in thermal design of industrial single-phase power inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of thermal aspects in design process of an industrial single-phase inverter, choice of its topology and components. Stringent design inputs like very high overload level, demand for natural cooling and very wide input voltage range have made conventional circuit topology inappropriate therefore asking for alternative solution. Different power losses calculations in semiconductors are performed and compared, outlining the guidelines how to choose the final topology. Some recommendations in power magnetic components design are given. Based on the final project, a 20kVA single-phase inverter for thermal power plant supervisory and control system is designed and commissioned.

  12. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  13. The balance store card for the design and validation instruments to measure the academic teacher's achievement and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor De León, Alexis; Huertas, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of faculty work is critical for the university accreditation. Moreover, particularly sensitive to this related tendency of faculty work evaluation; it is necessary to go beyond the knowledge factor and concentrating more in the degree of satisfaction of the stakeholders included in the process of university education. In this context, this research aims to design and validate the instruments directed to explore the internal academic environment of the faculty at the Centro Regi...

  14. Incorporating nonoverlap indices with visual analysis for quantifying intervention effectiveness in single-case experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossart, Daniel F; Vannest, Kimberly J; Davis, John L; Patience, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuropsychological rehabilitation frequently employs single case experimental designs (SCED) in research, but few if any, of the published studies use the effect sizes recommended by the American Psychological Association. Among the available methods for analysing single case designs, this paper focuses on nonoverlap methods. This paper provides examples and suggestions for integrating visual and statistical analysis, pointing out where contradictions may occur and how to be a critical consumer.

  15. Protocol for the design of an instrument to measure preadolescent children's self-report of covert aggression and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen Jean; Kendall, Garth Edward; Burns, Sharyn; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly

    2015-11-09

    Covert bullying in schools is associated with a range of academic, social, emotional and physical health problems. Much research has focused on bullying, but there remains a gap in understanding about covert aggression and how to most accurately and reliably measure children's own reports of this behaviour. This paper reviews relevant literature and outlines a research project that aims to develop a self-report instrument that effectively measures covert aggression and bullying. It is anticipated that this research will result in a standardised instrument that is suitable for exploring preadolescent children's experiences of covert aggressive behaviour. The data collected by the instrument will enhance health and education professionals understanding of covert bullying behaviours and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions. Relational developmental systems theory will guide the design of an online self-report instrument. The first phase of the project will include a critical review of the research literature, focus groups with children aged 8-12 years (grades 4-6) in Perth, Western Australia, and expert review. The instrument will be explored for content and face validity prior to the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The study has been approved by the Curtin University of Human Research Ethics Committee (RDHS-38-15) and by the Executive Principal of the participating school. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Preliminary design requirements document for the initial single-shell tank retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzel, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The scope of this Preliminary Design Requirements Document is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to demonstrate and accomplish the initial single-shell tank saltcake retrieval from selected tanks. This document sets forth functions, requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System. System and physical interfaces between the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project and the Tank Waste Remediation are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design to be documented by the project.

  17. Design and Elementary Evaluation of a Highly-Automated Fluorescence-Based Instrument System for On-Site Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, highly-automated instrument system used for on-site detection of foodborne pathogens based on fluorescence was designed, fabricated, and preliminarily tested in this paper. A corresponding method has been proved effective in our previous studies. This system utilizes a light-emitting diode (LED to excite fluorescent labels and a spectrometer to record the fluorescence signal from samples. A rotation stage for positioning and switching samples was innovatively designed for high-throughput detection, ten at most in one single run. We also developed software based on LabVIEW for data receiving, processing, and the control of the whole system. In the test of using a pure quantum dot (QD solution as a standard sample, detection results from this home-made system were highly-relevant with that from a well-commercialized product and even slightly better reproducibility was found. And in the test of three typical kinds of food-borne pathogens, fluorescence signals recorded by this system are highly proportional to the variation of the sample concentration, with a satisfied limit of detection (LOD (nearly 102–103 CFU·mL−1 in food samples. Additionally, this instrument system is low-cost and easy-to-use, showing a promising potential for on-site rapid detection of food-borne pathogens.

  18. TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

    2006-11-07

    This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

  19. Design and development of control instrumentation for the superconducting Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gopal; Kapatral, R.S.; Jha, K.; Rathod, N.C.; Sujo, C.I.; Ananthakrishnan, T.S.; Narsaiah, A.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.; Singh, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Electronics Division, BARC is developing the required control instrumentation for the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) coming up at TIFR. This consists of RF systems, CAMAC instruments and the Control and Information System. The control system consists of several identical Local Control Stations (LCS) connected over a LAN to a Main Control Station (MCS). Each LCS consists of a PC, CAMAC crates with functional Modules and RF systems. The MCS will contain two PCs running identical software. Each LCS will cater to two LINAC module each consisting of one cryostat and four resonators. This paper discusses different systems developed and under development in the Electronics Division which play an important role in the control of the LINAC. (author)

  20. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  1. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware of....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  2. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware of....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  3. Rodent bone densitometer on the International Space Station: Instrument design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul; Todd, Paul; Boland, Eugene

    2016-07-01

    The study of bone loss dynamics, mechanisms and countermeasures has been a publicly stated purpose of biomedical research aboard the International Space Station. Rodent research has always played a major role in terrestrial laboratories studying bone loss. The "gold standard" for assessing bone loss in human patients has been dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). DEXA is also widely applied to the study of bone loss in laboratory animals, so this technology has been added to the ISS inventory of analytical tools in the form of the ISS Bone Densitometer (BD) designed, constructed, tested and integrated by Techshot, Inc. (Greenville, Indiana, USA). The BD is a re-packaged COTS device known as PIXImus (GE-Lunar, USA), which was installed on ISS in November 2014 after launching on SpaceX-4. To facilitate operations in microgravity and to meet spaceflight facility and safety requirements the commercial x-ray source, control electronics and imaging system were modified and packaged by Techshot into a drawer that fits into a single EXPRESS Locker replacement. A space-rated "Exam Box" is also supplied for containment of the anesthetized subject during transfer into the BD and during exposure. The commercial software package controls four paired-energy exposures, 80 and 35 kV, and applies DEXA algorithms to the fluorescence images and displays bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, lean mass, fat mass, total mass and per cent fat. The BD is therefore also a means for measuring mass and body composition making it a versatile tool for many types of rodent studies on orbit. The BD has been operated multiple times on orbit, and its performance has not differed significantly from its performance on the ground. It has been shown to measure body mass with a precision of +/- 0.1 g and on-orbit accuracy of -0.3 g. It is expected to detect BMD losses of approximately 2%. The image data are stored in a manner that allows post-test data analysis especially including the

  4. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, A K; Rehm, C

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to 'see' the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  5. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.

    2014-07-01

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to "see" the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  6. The SPOT-HRV instrument - An overview of design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midan, J. P.

    1983-10-01

    The SPOT spacecraft's High Visible Resolution (HVR) earth resources sensor performance requirements, system and subsystem design features, and technology development considerations, are discussed. Attention is given to such problem areas involving extensive design tradeoff analyses and testing as those uncovered by mechanical design and thermal distortion studies and SNR analysis and calibration considerations. The SPOT spacecraft will be placed in orbit in 1985.

  7. Design automation of switching mode high voltage power supply for nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-araby, S.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an automation procedure for the design of switching mode high voltage power supplies, using Pc programming facility. The procedure permits the selection of a ready made or designed ferrite transformer. This selection could be achieved according to the designer desire; as the program includes complete information about ready made ferrite transformer through complete database. The procedure is based on suggested template circuit. Micro-Cap IV simulation package is used to verify the desired high voltage power supply design. Simulation results agree quite well with suggested procedure's results. Design aspects and development needed to increase automation capabilities are also discussed

  8. Accuracy of genomic selection to predict maize single-crosses obtained through different mating designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristche-Neto, Roberto; Akdemir, Deniz; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2018-02-14

    Testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Even though many papers have been published about genomic prediction (GP) in maize, the best mating design to build the training population has not been defined yet. Such design must maximize the accuracy given constraints on costs and on the logistics of the crosses to be made. Hence, the aims of this work were: (1) empirically evaluate the effect of the mating designs, used as training set, on genomic selection to predict maize single-crosses obtained through full diallel and North Carolina design II, (2) and identify the possibility of reducing the number of crosses and parents to compose these training sets. Our results suggest that testcross is the worst mating design to use as a training set to predict maize single-crosses that would be obtained through full diallel or North Carolina design II. Moreover, North Carolina design II is the best training set to predict hybrids taken from full diallel. However, hybrids from full diallel and North Carolina design II can be well predicted using optimized training sets, which also allow reducing the total number of crosses to be made. Nevertheless, the number of parents and the crosses per parent in the training sets should be maximized.

  9. Data base architecture for instrument characteristics critical to spacecraft conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Allen, Cheryl L.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft designs are driven by the payloads and mission requirements that they support. Many of the payload characteristics, such as mass, power requirements, communication requirements, moving parts, and so forth directly affect the choices for the spacecraft structural configuration and its subsystem design and component selection. The conceptual design process, which translates mission requirements into early spacecraft concepts, must be tolerant of frequent changes in the payload complement and resource requirements. A computer data base was designed and implemented for the purposes of containing the payload characteristics pertinent for spacecraft conceptual design, tracking the evolution of these payloads over time, and enabling the integration of the payload data with engineering analysis programs for improving the efficiency in producing spacecraft designs. In-house tools were used for constructing the data base and for performing the actual integration with an existing program for optimizing payload mass locations on the spacecraft.

  10. Behavioral modeling and simulation for the design process of aerospatial micro-instrumentation based on MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, L.; Lorente, B.; Ferrer, C.

    2006-05-01

    The extended use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in the development of new microinstrumentation for aerospatial applications, which combine extreme sensitivity, accuracy and compactness, introduced the need to simplify their design process in order to reduce the design time and cost. The recent apparition of analogue and mixed signal extensions of hardware descriptions languages (VHDL-AMS, Verilog-AMS and SystemC-AMS) permits to co-simulate the HDL (VHDL and Verilog) design models for the digital signal processing and communication circuitry with behavioral models for the non digital parts (analog and mixed signal processing, RF circuitry and MEMS components). Since the beginning of the microinstrumentation design process the modeling and simulation could help to define better the specifications and in the architecture selection and in the SoC design process in a more realistic environment. We will present our experience in the application of these languages in the design of microinstruments by using behavioral modeling of MEMS.

  11. The impact of data highway architectures on control and instrumentation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, T.; Hepburn, A.; Olmstead, R.

    1980-01-01

    Digital computers have been successfully used in control functions in all CANDU stations since the first commercial demonstration plant. In each successive station design, the computer systems have been enhanced and expanded in their scope of application. The excellent performance of computers in the past provides a basis for expansion of the computer's responsibilities in a new design currently under study. In this new computer system, we intend to add the diverse interlock logic used by individual subsystems in the nuclear steam plant. In current designs this logic is implemented by relays through the extensive use of modern distributed control techniques. The main reason to implement a distributed control system is the advantages it offers in the design and engineering of control/instrumenation systems. By implementing more logic in software, we intend to improve design flexibility and to reduce the impact of late design alterations upon the overall construction schedule. The extensive use of data highways, replacing trunk cabling, should reduce the installation and commissioning effort as well. In this paper we briefly describe the engineering design process as it exists today, and identify some of the problems in this area. We will then look at a new control system architecture and some mechanized tools which become possible with this new approach to aid the design team, project management, and the field commissioning crew. (auth)

  12. The impact of instrumentation and control requirements on the design changes of the Westinghouse ''NSSS'' of Almaraz, Lemoniz and Asco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerini, P.M.; Naredo, F.P.; Williams, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    For the nuclear power plants Almaraz, Lemoniz and Asco the NSSS set is supplied by Westinghouse. Purchasing contracts were signed in 1971 and projects design took into account the compliance with the regulatory requirements for licensing, issued and standing that time. Since 1971 licensing regulations have been subjected to a deep revision due to the issue of new standards and guides and revision of other affecting altogether the engineering design of nuclear power plants. This situation was reasonably reflected on several consecutive design revisions for the case of the Almaraz, Lemoniz and Asco Nuclear plants. This impact, from the viewpoint of the instrumentation and control context, and referred to the NSSS is analyzed in the report. In particular, attention is paid to the safeguards actuation logic, testing capability and physical separation criteria as contemplated into the regulatory requirements starting from 1971.(J.E.de C)

  13. A Multi-Stage Human Factors and Comfort Assessment of Instrumented Insoles Designed for Use in a Connected Health Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Harte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearable electronics are gaining widespread use as enabling technologies, monitoring human physical activity and behavior as part of connected health infrastructures. Attention to human factors and comfort of these devices can greatly positively influence user experience, with a subsequently higher likelihood of user acceptance and lower levels of device rejection. Here, we employ a human factors and comfort assessment methodology grounded in the principles of human-centered design to influence and enhance the design of an instrumented insole. A use case was developed and interrogated by stakeholders, experts, and end users, capturing the context of use and user characteristics for the instrumented insole. This use case informed all stages of the design process through two full design cycles, leading to the development of an initial version 1 and a later version 2 prototype. Each version of the prototype was subjected to an expert human factors inspection and controlled comfort assessment using human volunteers. Structured feedback from the first cycle of testing was the driver of design changes implemented in the version 2 prototype. This prototype was found to have significantly improved human factors and comfort characteristics over the first version of the prototype. Expert inspection found that many of the original problems in the first prototype had been resolved in the second prototype. Furthermore, a comfort assessment of this prototype with a group of young healthy adults showed it to be indistinguishable from their normal footwear. This study demonstrates the power and effectiveness of human factors and comfort assessment methodologies in influencing and improving the design of wearable devices.

  14. Instrument technology for magnetosphere plasma imaging from high Earth orbit. Design of a radio plasma sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D. Mark; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radio sounding techniques for the study of the ionospheric plasma dates back to G. Briet and M. A. Tuve in 1926. Ground based swept frequency sounders can monitor the electron number density (N(sub e)) as a function of height (the N(sub e) profile). These early instruments evolved into a global network that produced high-resolution displays of echo time delay vs frequency on 35-mm film. These instruments provided the foundation for the success of the International Geophysical Year (1958). The Alouette and International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) programs pioneered the used of spaceborne, swept frequency sounders to obtain N(sub e) profiles of the topside of the ionosphere, from a position above the electron density maximum. Repeated measurements during the orbit produced an orbital plane contour which routinely provided density measurements to within 10%. The Alouette/ISIS experience also showed that even with a high powered transmitter (compared to the low power sounder possible today) a radio sounder can be compatible with other imaging instruments on the same satellite. Digital technology was used on later spacecraft developed by the Japanese (the EXOS C and D) and the Soviets (Intercosmos 19 and Cosmos 1809). However, a full coherent pulse compression and spectral integrating capability, such as exist today for ground-based sounders (Reinisch et al., 1992), has never been put into space. NASA's 1990 Space Physics Strategy Implementation Study "The NASA Space Physics Program from 1995 to 2010" suggested using radio sounders to study the plasmasphere and the magnetopause and its boundary layers (Green and Fung, 1993). Both the magnetopause and plasmasphere, as well as the cusp and boundary layers, can be observed by a radio sounder in a high-inclination polar orbit with an apogee greater than 6 R(sub e) (Reiff et al., 1994; Calvert et al., 1995). Magnetospheric radio sounding from space will provide remote density measurements of

  15. Evaluation procedures for single axis sinusoidal test to design spectrum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, P.C.; Javid, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two simple procedures are provided in this paper for the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of a single frequency single axis test. For the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of single frequency test to meet broad-band response spectrum requirements, the proposed procedure is based on the equivalence of maximum response of a dynamic system when it is subjected to either type of design input. The required information used for the evaluation is usually recorded and available in the test report. This procedure is applicable to systems with or without closely-spaced modes. When evaluating against broad-band design spectra and multi-axes requirements, an empirical procedure is proposed and it has been found conservative. These two proposed procedures provide a quick assessment on the adequacy of a single frequency test performed earlier. The use of these procedures may eliminate the need of expensive and time consuming equipment re-testing. (orig./HP)

  16. DESIGN, PROTOTYPE AND MEASUREMENT OF A SINGLE-CELL DEFLECTING CAVITY FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang, Guangfeng Cheng, Gianluigi Ciovati, Peter Kneisel, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Larry Turlington, Alireza Nassiri, Geoff Waldschmidt

    2009-05-01

    After the design optimization of a squashed elliptical shape, single-cell, superconducting (SC) deflecting cavity at 2.815 GHz, a copper prototype has been bench measured to determine its rf properties and the effectiveness of waveguide damping of parasitic modes [1]. RF cold tests were also performed at 2K on niobium single-cell and two-cell prototype cavities. Details of impedance calculation using wakefiled analysis of the single-cell cavity are shown to meet the strict 200 mA beam stability requirement of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab where a total of 16 single-cell cavities will be divided into two cryomodule. The design of higher-order mode (HOM) waveguide damping, the simulations of the Lorenz force detuning, and the prototype of on-cell damping are presented.

  17. Specimen design and instrumentation for monitoring fatigue crack growth initiating at ply drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Di Crescenzo, Leonardo; McGugan, Malcolm

    Unpredictable and excessive loads, for example caused by aerodynamic interaction between different turbines, can accelerate fatigue damage in wind turbine blades (Ghosal et. al (2000)). Fatigue damage can also initiate in the early service life of a wind turbine blade in regions of stress...... materials and a structural health monitoring system (McGugan et al. (2015)). In this approach, a distribution of damage types within the blades is accepted as long as they can be detected by structural health monitoring techniques and their severity evaluated by material damage models. The present work aims...... embedding fibre Bragg grating sensors. c) Instrumentation of the test specimen e.g. strain gauges, acoustic emission sensors, fibre Bragg grating sensors. Selected static and cyclic results will be presented showing that certain damage types (cracks at ply drops) are stable and thus not critical...

  18. Advances in field-flow fractionation for the analysis of biomolecules: instrument design and hyphenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachermeyer, Samantha; Ashby, Jonathan; Zhong, Wenwan

    2012-09-01

    Field-flow fractionation (FFF) separates analytes by use of an axial channel-flow and a cross-field. Its soft separation capability makes it an ideal tool for initial fractionation of complex mixtures, but large elution volumes and high flow rates have limited its applicability without significant user handling. Recent advances in instrumentation and miniaturization have successfully reduced channel size and elution speed, and thus the volume of each fraction, making it possible to conveniently couple FFF with orthogonal separation techniques for improved resolution. More detailed analysis can also be performed on the fractions generated by FFF by use of diverse analytical techniques, including MS, NMR, and even X-ray scattering. These developmental trends have given FFF more power in the analysis of different types of molecule, and will be the direction of choice for further advances in FFF technology.

  19. [Design thinking and clinical basic operation rules of the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shou-qian

    2009-03-01

    Shu-needle therapy is a transcutaneous, close and micro-traumatic treatment technique founded on the basis of the theoretical system and the treatment thought of TCM acupuncture eye surgery. This therapy uses the needling instrument for Shu-needle therapy of original creation to relieve pressure, relieve tension, relieve spasm, relieve rigid, etc. for chronic pain, and achieves unique clinical therapeutic effects, and it originally creates the diagnostic and therapeutic system of special acupoint selection for human chronic pain and difficult diseases of the vegetable nerves and important treatment rules, in combination with modern medicine. Shu-needle therapy mixes TCM surgery with the cream of other special acupuncture therapies, and it is a new development and supplement of special needling therapies such as small needle knife, etc. and traditional acupuncture treatment.

  20. The Instrumentation of a Microfluidic Analyzer Enabling the Characterization of the Specific Membrane Capacitance, Cytoplasm Conductivity, and Instantaneous Young's Modulus of Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Huang, Chengjun; Fan, Beiyuan; Long, Rong; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Wang, Junbo; Wu, Min-Hsien; Chen, Jian

    2017-06-19

    This paper presents the instrumentation of a microfluidic analyzer enabling the characterization of single-cell biophysical properties, which includes seven key components: a microfluidic module, a pressure module, an imaging module, an impedance module, two LabVIEW platforms for instrument operation and raw data processing, respectively, and a Python code for data translation. Under the control of the LabVIEW platform for instrument operation, the pressure module flushes single cells into the microfluidic module with raw biophysical parameters sampled by the imaging and impedance modules and processed by the LabVIEW platform for raw data processing, which were further translated into intrinsic cellular biophysical parameters using the code developed in Python. Based on this system, specific membrane capacitance, cytoplasm conductivity, and instantaneous Young's modulus of three cell types were quantified as 2.76 ± 0.57 μF/cm², 1.00 ± 0.14 S/m, and 3.79 ± 1.11 kPa for A549 cells ( n cell = 202); 1.88 ± 0.31 μF/cm², 1.05 ± 0.16 S/m, and 3.74 ± 0.75 kPa for 95D cells ( n cell = 257); 2.11 ± 0.38 μF/cm², 0.87 ± 0.11 S/m, and 5.39 ± 0.89 kPa for H460 cells ( n cell = 246). As a semi-automatic instrument with a throughput of roughly 1 cell per second, this prototype instrument can be potentially used for the characterization of cellular biophysical properties.

  1. CAS-ATLID (co-alignment sensor of ATLID instrument) thermo-structural design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Serrano, Javier; González, David; Rodríguez, Gemma; Manjón, Andrés.; Vásquez, Eloi; Carretero, Carlos; Martínez, Berta

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the main thermo-mechanical design features and performances of the Co-Alignment Sensor (CAS) developed by LIDAX and CRISA under ESA program with AIRBUS Defence and Space as industry prime.

  2. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  3. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U H; Pešić, Z D; Fanis, A De; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  4. In-core Instrument Subcritical Verification (INCISV) - Core Design Verification Method - 358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prible, M.C.; Heibel, M.D.; Conner, S.L.; Sebastiani, P.J.; Kistler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    According to the standard on reload startup physics testing, ANSI/ANS 19.6.1, a plant must verify that the constructed core behaves sufficiently close to the designed core to confirm that the various safety analyses bound the actual behavior of the plant. A large portion of this verification must occur before the reactor operates at power. The INCISV Core Design Verification Method uses the unique characteristics of a Westinghouse Electric Company fixed in-core self powered detector design to perform core design verification after a core reload before power operation. A Vanadium self powered detector that spans the length of the active fuel region is capable of confirming the required core characteristics prior to power ascension; reactivity balance, shutdown margin, temperature coefficient and power distribution. Using a detector element that spans the length of the active fuel region inside the core provides a signal of total integrated flux. Measuring the integrated flux distributions and changes at various rodded conditions and plant temperatures, and comparing them to predicted flux levels, validates all core necessary core design characteristics. INCISV eliminates the dependence on various corrections and assumptions between the ex-core detectors and the core for traditional physics testing programs. This program also eliminates the need for special rod maneuvers which are infrequently performed by plant operators during typical core design verification testing and allows for safer startup activities. (authors)

  5. Measurements of total odd nitrogen (NOy aboard MOZAIC in-service aircraft: instrument design, operation and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Volz-Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A small system for the unattended measurement of total odd nitrogen (NOy, i.e., the sum of NO and its atmospheric oxidation products aboard civil in-service aircraft in the framework of MOZAIC is described. The instrument employs the detection of NO by its chemiluminescence with O3 in combination with catalytic conversion of the other NOy compounds to NO at 300°C on a gold surface in the presence of H2. The instrument has a sensitivity of 0.4-0.7cps/ppt and is designed for unattended operation during 1-2 service cycles of the aircraft (400-800 flight hours. The total weight is 50kg, including calibration system, compressed gases, mounting, and safety measures. The layout and inlet configuration are governed by requirements due to the certification for passenger aircraft. Laboratory tests are described regarding the conversion efficiency for NO2 and HNO3 (both >98%. Interference by non-NOy species is 3CN and NH3, -5% for N2O (corresponding to y from ambient N2O and 100% for HCN. The time response of the instrument is 2. The response for HNO3 is nonlinear: 20s for 67%, 60s for 80%, and 150s for 90% response, respectively.

  6. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  7. Mixed response and time-to-event endpoints for multistage single-arm phase II design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xin; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2015-06-04

    The objective of phase II cancer clinical trials is to determine if a treatment has sufficient activity to warrant further study. The efficiency of a conventional phase II trial design has been the object of considerable debate, particularly when the study regimen is characteristically cytostatic. At the time of development of a phase II cancer trial, we accumulated clinical experience regarding the time to progression (TTP) for similar classes of drugs and for standard therapy. By considering the time to event (TTE) in addition to the tumor response endpoint, a mixed-endpoint phase II design may increase the efficiency and ability of selecting promising cytotoxic and cytostatic agents for further development. We proposed a single-arm phase II trial design by extending the Zee multinomial method to fully use mixed endpoints with tumor response and the TTE. In this design, the dependence between the probability of response and the TTE outcome is modeled through a Gaussian copula. Given the type I and type II errors and the hypothesis as defined by the response rate (RR) and median TTE, such as median TTP, the decision rules for a two-stage phase II trial design can be generated. We demonstrated through simulation that the proposed design has a smaller expected sample size and higher early stopping probability under the null hypothesis than designs based on a single-response endpoint or a single TTE endpoint. The proposed design is more efficient for screening new cytotoxic or cytostatic agents and less likely to miss an effective agent than the alternative single-arm design.

  8. An instrument for real time detection of contamination in space environmental tests chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. G.; Harmon, H. N.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for in situ vacuum detection of surface reflectance changes at 1216A was designed. Using successive reflections, this instrument is more sensitive as an indicator of reflectance changes than similar instruments having only a single reflection. The selection of each component of the instrument and its operational performance is discussed.

  9. Draft design requirements for instrumentation and control systems in next generation nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo

    1995-01-01

    The basic requirements of I and C system development for the next generation nuclear power plants in Korea has been reviewed with respect to the conventional I and C systems. The typical characteristics of the advanced I and C systems for next generation are extensive application of the digital technologies in order to enhance safety and reliability of the integrated I and C systems. The advanced I and C systems are also applied to advanced man-machine interface technology to improve human factor problems in nuclear power plants. The I and C system design requirement in EPRI's utility requirements document have been evaluated. For the development of the Korean I and C design requirements, the various types of design for I and C systems have been reviewed and incorporated. The draft Korean I and C design requirements are: (1) Improvement of plant availability and reliability, (2) Improvement of the maintainability, (3) Software quality improvement and hardware qualification, (4) Improvement of the operator support functions. On the licensing concerns, the common mode failure design criteria and the software verification and validation methodology are under discussion. (orig.) (5 refs.)

  10. Instrumentalization of origami in construction of folded plate structures - design, research and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestorović Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the origami used as an abstract tool to describe and represent the form and the structure of physical objects. In that respect, the potentials of this interdisciplinary technique as a medium of exploration of structural forms was introduced in the semester project done within the course Structural Systems at the Belgrade University, Faculty of Architecture. The technique was used as an interface to gain cognitive experience on spatial transformation and computational design. Throughout the intensive project period divided into three successive stages, the objective was to test method which enabled students to analyze geometrical principles of folding in order to apply these principles in the development of new designs. The generative algorithm inspired by the technique of paper folding assisted form-finding. Resulting shapes were verified by a production of small scale prototype models. The applied method, as a guiding design principle, facilitated formal exploration and augmentation of the design process. At the end of the course, students got cognitive experience on structural forms, while this simple technique delivered richness in terms of design solutions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36008

  11. Vernier Caliper and Micrometer Computer Models Using Easy Java Simulation and Its Pedagogical Design Features--Ideas for Augmenting Learning with Real Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Loo Kang; Ning, Hwee Tiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the customization of Easy Java Simulation models, used with actual laboratory instruments, to create active experiential learning for measurements. The laboratory instruments are the vernier caliper and the micrometer. Three computer model design ideas that complement real equipment are discussed. These ideas involve (1) a…

  12. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  13. Design methodology of single-feed compact near-isotropic antenna design

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen

    2017-06-07

    The abundance of mobile wireless devices is giving rise to a new paradigm known as Internet of Things. In this paradigm, wireless devices will be everywhere and communicating with each other. Since they will be oriented randomly in the environment, they should be able to communicate equally in all directions in order to have stable communication link. Hence, compact near isotropic antennas are required, which can enable orientation insensitive communication. In this paper, we propose a simple design methodology to design a compact near-isotropic wire antenna based on equal vector potentials. As a proof of concept, a quarter wavelength monopole antennas has been designed that is wrapped on a 3D-printed box keeping the vector potentials in three orthogonal different directions equal. By optimizing the dimension of the antenna arms, a nearly isotropic radiation pattern is thus achieved. The results show that the antenna has a maximum gain of 2.2dBi at 900 MHz with gain derivation of 9.4dB.

  14. NASA's Design and Development of a Field Goniometer Instrument Using Solid Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark; Sasaki, Glen; Jennings, Ernest (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With NASA suffering severe funding cutbacks, engineers at NASA are required to produce state-of-the-art hardware with limited personnel and financial resources. In light of these constraints, the new NASA mandate is to build better, faster and cheaper. In April of 1998, Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program contracted to the Systems Engineering Division at NASA Ames Research Center to develop a device known as a Field Goniometer. A Field Goniometer is a device that measures bi-directional reflectance of a target, such as vegetation, relative to the sun and an imaging system in an aircraft or spacecraft. The device is able to provide a spectral fingerprint of the surface it is measuring in wavelengths from 350nm-2500nm using a hyperspectral imager. To accomplish this project, several obstacles had to be overcome. First, the design had to be completed in less than four months. Second, due to the complexity of the design, the use of solid modeling was highly desirable but most of the group's solid modelers were assigned to other jobs. Third, the amount of funding available from the customer was one half to one third the funding typically expended for a job of this nature. Our choices for this project were to design with standard 2-D CAD systems currently used in-house or train additional engineers on our existing solids package or purchase a new solid model package. The use of a 2D CAD system was very undesirable due to the complexity of the design. Using our existing solids modeler would have required a learning curve for our engineers that would be incompatible with our schedule. Prior to this project, a member of our design group researched the solid modeling industry and decided to purchase SolidWorks. After examining the product for ease of use, modeling capability, training time required and cost, we decided our highest probability of success would be to design with Solidworks. During the design phase, our fabrication group was able to provide

  15. Enhancing the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design: Bridging the research-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jessie M; Kwee, Janelle L; Hu, Monica; McDonald, Marvin J

    2017-09-01

    Systematic case study designs are emerging as alternative paradigm strategies for psychotherapy and social science research. Through enhanced sensitivity to context, these designs examine idiographic profiles of causal processes. We specifically advocate the use of the hermeneutic single-case efficacy design (HSCED). HSCED has recently been used to investigate the efficacy of an existing therapy with a new population (Observed and Experiential Integration for athlete performance barriers) and an emerging therapy (Lifespan Integration Therapy). We describe innovations in HSCED that were implemented for these studies. These developments include (a) integrating psychotherapists as case developers, (b) incorporating multiple cases in one investigation, and (c) tailoring the repertoire of assessment tools. These extensions strategically incorporated principles of contextual paradigms in HSCED, thus complementing single-case designs that neglect idiographic contexts. We discuss recommendations for using HSCED in practice-based research, highlighting its potential as a bridge to address the research-practice gap.

  16. Developing Accounting Information System Course Content for Iraqi Higher Education Institution: An Instrument Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.

  17. Instrumentation for the analysis of respiratory system disorders during sleep: Design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Pedro Lopes; de Andrade Lemes, Lucas Neves

    2002-11-01

    Sleep breathing disorders are estimated to be present in 2%-4% of middle-aged adults. Serious adverse consequences, such as systemic arterial hypertension, myocardial infraction, and cerebrovascular disease, can be related to these conditions. Intellectual deficits associated with attention, memory, and problem-solving have also been associated with a poor quality of sleep. The main causes of these disorders are obstructions resulting from repetitive narrowing and closure of the pharyngeal airway, which have been monitored by indirect measurements of temperature, displacement, and other highly invasive procedures. The measurement of mechanical impedance of the respiratory system by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently been suggested to quantify the respiratory obstruction during sleep. It is claimed that the noninvasive and dynamic characteristics of this technique would allow a noninvasive and accurate analysis of these events. In spite of this high scientific and clinical potential, there is no detailed description of a complete instrumentation system to implement this promising technique in sleep studies. In this context, the purpose of this study was twofold: (1) describe the development of a new computer-based system for identification of the mechanical impedance of the respiratory system during sleep by the FOT and (2) evaluate the performance of this device in the description of respiratory events in conditions including no, mild, serious disease, and therapeutic procedures. These evaluations confirmed the desirable features achieved in laboratory tests and the high scientific and clinical potential of this system.

  18. Empirical approach to outdoor WBGT from meteorological data and performance of two different instrument designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas E; Barrow, Christina A

    2013-01-01

    The wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) is a common method to assess the environmental contribution to heat stress as part of an occupational exposure assessment. The two purposes of this study were (1) to compare empirical relationships of some meteorological conditions to WBGT, and (2) to evaluate a smaller globe and alternative method to assess natural wet bulb using a relative humidity sensor. Data were collected in six West-central Florida locations over multiple days for a total of 14 measurement days. Multiple linear regression was used to explore relationships relevant to the two purposes. It was clear that estimating WBGT directly from meteorological data or through estimates of the components of WBGT can be accomplished with a 95% confidence of ± 2°C-WBGT. The 50 mm globe size is a reasonable approximation of the standard size (150 mm). The relative humidity method of the waterless natural wet bulb provides a very good estimation of natural wet bulb temperature. The determination of WBGT from the electronic instruments (small globe with or without the relative humidity method) provided a good estimate of the WBGT.

  19. Safari: instrument design of the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for spica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellema, W.; Pastor, C.; Naylor, D.; Jackson, B.; Sibthorpe, B.; Roelfsema, P.

    2017-11-01

    The next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy will be made by the Japanese-led SPICA mission, which is anticipated to be launched late 2020's as the next large astrophysics mission of JAXA, in partnership with ESA and with key European contributions. Filling in the gap between JWST and ALMA, the SPICA mission will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 3m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, high spatial resolution and large collecting area. Making full advantage of the deeply cooled telescope (definition and out-of-band filtering by quasioptical elements, the control of straylight, diffraction and thermal emission in the long-wavelength limit, and how we interface to the large-format FPA arrays at one end and the SPICA telescope assembly at the other end. We will briefly discuss the key performance drivers with special emphasis on the optical techniques adopted to overcome issues related to very low background operation of SAFARI. A summary and discussion of the expected instrument performance and an overview of the astronomical capabilities finally conclude the paper.

  20. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  1. Engineering Design in the Primary School: Applying STEM Concepts to Build an Optical Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; English, Lyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Internationally there is a need for research that focuses on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education to equip students with the skills needed for a rapidly changing future. One way to do this is through designing engineering activities that reflect real-world problems and contextualise students' learning of STEM concepts.…

  2. Design and analysis of a radial diffuser in a single-stage centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Gao Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial diffusers can improve the flow uniformity in pumps and affect the hydraulic performance of centrifugal pumps directly. The diffusion coefficient d is an important parameter in fluid machinery but it has seldom been used in the diffuser design of single-stage centrifugal pumps. To improve the design method of radial diffuser use in centrifugal pumps, the diffusion coefficient was introduced into the design of radial diffusers based on a single-arc hydraulic design method and it was found that the vane outlet angle, vane outlet thickness and vane number have a significant impact on the design results. A single-stage centrifugal pump with a radial diffuser was selected as the research model. The inner flow was simulated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD program CFX and verified by experiment. The results indicate that the head and efficiency of the pump are best when the vane outlet angle is 6°. The flow area decreases and the flow velocity at radial diffuser outlet increase when the outlet thickness is greater than 2 mm. The hydraulic loss is minimum and the head and efficiency are better when the vane number is 8 at different flow rates. So, the optimal range of the diffusion coefficient for the model pump is around 1.6 to 2. The study indicates that it is feasible to design radial diffusers according to the diffusion coefficient.

  3. A layout designer's data projection reticle. [for optimum indicator instrument location in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The designer's projection reticle is a modified surplus weapons sighting device consisting of a 3.5 cm diameter, 8.9 focal length coated objective lens. It is placed 1.5 cm in front of a clear flat glass plate on which the aluminized reflective pattern has been deposited. Reflected light passes through the objective lens, off the front surface of the coating, and off the rear coated surface of the objective lens. Several reticle patterns have been designed and tested, and other patterns are in the planning stage. The device may be used for a variety of applications including determining the optimum locations on a cockpit panel for luminous warning indicators requiring rapid manual responses.

  4. Design of Instrumentation Suitable for the Investigation of Charge Buildup Phenomena at Synchronous Orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    plates and other surfaces, while the cylindrical plates are ser- rated :nd blackened to reduce the detection of scattered solar UV. The SEM s have +500V...and this contributes counts from solar UV, adding further to SEM de- gradation in those ESA s. The general ESA design thus includes capabilities to...may be used when the RSPD is on the satellite. Both pieces of ground support equipment are completely self-contained. Each is packaged in a suitcase

  5. NASA/LMSC instrument design and fabrication. [coherent lidar airborne shear sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targ, Russel

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed are: (1) class-10 flight test program; (2) class system requirements; (3) Doppler wind velocity measurement; (4) systems specifications rational; (5) signal-to-noise equation for remote atmospheric sensing laser velocimeter; (6) variation of signal-to-noise ratios and true wind velocity with distance; (7) velocity error as a function of signal-to-noise ratio, with turbulence; and (8) final class optomechanical design on NASA B/737.

  6. Design of optimal fast scanning trajectory for the mechanical scanner of measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian; Ge, Yaozheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of the optimal scanning mode for the family of scanning probe microscopes. Based on different values of the maximum acceleration (deceleration) rate and maximum speed of X- and Y- axes of the mechanical scanner encountered in practice due to different mechanical design and loads, the design procedure of the optimal fast scanning mode is presented, which is found to be sensitive to the specific parameters of the scanning motion. By utilizing the simultaneous motion of the two axes, the fast raster scanning mode proposed can improve the scanning efficiency by 29% when comparing with the conventional raster (CR) scanning mode, if the scanning speeds of both axes are identical. In addition, the optimal fast mode provided by us has no effects on the image accuracy such as image degradation, image distortion when the efficiency is evaluated. No further difficulties are introduced to the control of the mechanical scanner and the data acquisition process. This optimal scanning mode is useful when the response time of the probe is very fast (such as ultrasonic probe in scanning acoustic microscope (SAM)), and the main limitations are due to the mechanical scanner. By applying different loads for both axes, the experiments with different scanning areas and scanning modes are conducted in a self-developed SAM. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis and confirm the validation of our proposed optimal fast scanning mode and its superiority over the CR scanning mode. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Improving Treatment Plan Implementation in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…

  8. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  9. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  10. Applying Quality Indicators to Single-Case Research Designs Used in Special Education: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jeremy D.; Dattilo, John; Rusch, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how specific guidelines and heuristics have been used to identify methodological rigor associated with single-case research designs based on quality indicators developed by Horner et al. Specifically, this article describes how literature reviews have applied Horner et al.'s quality indicators and evidence-based criteria.…

  11. Anterior single implants with different neck designs : 5 Year results of a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    BACKGROUND: The design of the implant neck might be significant for preservation of marginal bone. PURPOSE: To compare the 5-year radiographic and clinical outcome of single anterior implants provided with a smooth neck, a rough neck or a scalloped rough neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 93 Patients with

  12. Single implants with different neck designs in the aesthetic zone : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Tymstra, Nynke; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare single implants in the aesthetic zone with different neck designs for marginal bone-level changes and clinical outcome measures. Materials and methods: Ninety-three patients with a missing anterior tooth in the maxilla were randomly assigned to be treated with an implant with

  13. Procedural Sensitivities of Effect Sizes for Single-Case Designs with Directly Observed Behavioral Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2018-01-01

    A wide variety of effect size indices have been proposed for quantifying the magnitude of treatment effects in single-case designs. Commonly used measures include parametric indices such as the standardized mean difference, as well as non-overlap measures such as the percentage of non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and non-overlap…

  14. Design of Water Temperature Control System Based on Single Chip Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hanhong; Yan, Qiyan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we mainly introduce a multi-function water temperature controller designed with 51 single-chip microcomputer. This controller has automatic and manual water, set the water temperature, real-time display of water and temperature and alarm function, and has a simple structure, high reliability, low cost. The current water temperature controller on the market basically use bimetal temperature control, temperature control accuracy is low, poor reliability, a single function. With the development of microelectronics technology, monolithic microprocessor function is increasing, the price is low, in all aspects of widely used. In the water temperature controller in the application of single-chip, with a simple design, high reliability, easy to expand the advantages of the function. Is based on the appeal background, so this paper focuses on the temperature controller in the intelligent control of the discussion.

  15. Comparison between 4.0-mm stainless steel and 4.75-mm titanium alloy single-rod spinal instrumentation for anterior thoracoscopic scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Hwan; Ugrinow, Valerie L; Upasani, Vidyadhar V; Pawelek, Jeff B; Newton, Peter O

    2008-09-15

    Retrospective review of a consecutive, single surgeon case series. To compare minimum 2-year postoperative outcomes between 4.0-mm stainless steel and 4.75-mm titanium alloy single-rod anterior thoracoscopic instrumentation for the treatment of thoracic idiopathic scoliosis. Advances in anterior thoracoscopic spinal instrumentation for scoliosis have attempted to mitigate the postoperative complications of rod failure, pseudarthrosis, and deformity progression. Biomechanical data suggest that the 4.75-mm titanium construct has a lower risk of fatigue failure compared to the 4.0-mm stainless steel construct. Sixty-four consecutive anterior thoracoscopic spinal instrumentation cases in patients with thoracic scoliosis performed by a single surgeon and with minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. The first 34 cases used a 4.0-mm stainless steel (SS) construct, whereas the subsequent 30 cases used a 4.75-mm titanium (Ti) alloy instrumentation system. The first 10 SS cases and the first 5 Ti cases were excluded from the statistical comparison to account for a potential learning curve effect. A multivariate analysis of variance (P 0.13). The average follow-up in the SS group was, however, significantly longer than in the Ti group (4.0 +/- 1.4 years vs. 2.3 +/- 1.0 years; P = 0.001). Preop main thoracic Cobb angles were similar between the 2 groups (P = 0.62); however, the 2-year main thoracic Cobb was significantly smaller (P = 0.03) and the 2-year percent correction was significantly greater in the Ti group (P = 0.03). Five patients (21%) in the SS group had a pseudarthrosis, 3 (13%) experienced rod failure, and 2 (8%) required a revision posterior spinal fusion. In the Ti group, 2 patients (8%) had a pseudarthrosis, and no patient experienced rod failure or required a revision procedure. Although the average follow-up in the Ti group was significantly shorter than in the SS group, the 4.75-mm titanium alloy construct resulted in improved maintenance of

  16. Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oess, Ninja P; Wanek, Johann; Curt, Armin

    2012-01-17

    The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury) requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL), typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics) is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI). A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92) with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. The device satisfied the desired system requirements in terms of low cost, stable sensor signal over time, full

  17. Design and evaluation of a low-cost instrumented glove for hand function assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oess Ninja P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of hand function impairment following a neurological disorder (stroke and cervical spinal cord injury requires sensitive, reliable and clinically meaningful assessment tools. Clinical performance measures of hand function mainly focus on the accomplishment of activities of daily living (ADL, typically rather complex tasks assessed by a gross ordinal rating; while the motor performance (i.e. kinematics is less detailed. The goal of this study was to develop a low-cost instrumented glove to capture details in grasping, feasible for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings. Methods Different sensor types were tested for output signal stability over time by measuring the signal drift of their step responses. A system that converted sensor output voltages into angles based on pre-measured curves was implemented. Furthermore, the voltage supply of each sensor signal conditioning circuit was increased to enhance the sensor resolution. The repeatability of finger bending trajectories, recorded during the performance of three ADL-based tasks, was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Moreover, the accuracy of the glove was evaluated by determining the agreement between angles measured with the embedded sensors and angles measured by traditional goniometry. In addition, the feasibility of the glove was tested in four patients with a pathological hand function caused by a cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI. Results A sensor type that displayed a stable output signal over time was identified, and a high sensor resolution of 0.5° was obtained. The evaluation of the glove's reliability yielded high ICC values (0.84 to 0.92 with an accuracy error of about ± 5°. Feasibility testing revealed that the glove was sensitive to distinguish different levels of hand function impairment in cSCI patients. Conclusions The device satisfied the desired system requirements

  18. From theory based policy evaluation to SMART Policy Design: Lessons learned from 20 ex-post evaluations of energy efficiency instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmelink, Mirjam; Harmsen, Robert; Nilsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of an in-depth ex-post analysis of 20 energy efficiency policy instruments applied across different sectors and countries. Within the AID-EE project, we reconstructed and analysed the implementation process of energy efficiency policy instruments with the aim to identify key factors behind successes and failures. The analysis was performed using a uniform methodology called 'theory based policy evaluation'. With this method the whole implementation process is assessed with the aim to identify: (i) the main hurdles in each step of the implementation process, (ii) key success factors for different types of instruments and (iii) the key indicators that need to be monitored to enable a sound evaluation of the energy efficiency instruments. Our analysis shows that: Energy efficiency policies often lack quantitative targets and clear timeframes; Often policy instruments have multiple and/or unclear objectives; The need for monitoring information does often not have priority in the design phase; For most instruments, monitoring information is collected on a regular basis. However, this information is often insufficient to determine the impact on energy saving, cost-effectiveness and target achievement of an instrument; Monitoring and verification of actual energy savings have a relatively low priority for most of the analyzed instruments. There is no such thing as the 'best' policy instrument. However, typical circumstances in which to apply different types of instruments and generic characteristics that determine success or failure can be identified. Based on the assessments and the experience from applying theory based policy evaluation ex-post, we suggest that this should already be used in the policy formulation and design phase of instruments. We conclude that making policy theory an integral and mandated part of the policy process would facilitate more efficient and effective energy efficiency instruments

  19. Waste, recycling, and 'Design for Environment': Roles for markets and policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcott, Paul; Walls, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Households sometimes have two recycling options. Curbside recycling collections are convenient, but do not provide payment. Alternatively, payment might be available from 'reverse vending machines' or drop-off centers, but some transaction costs would be incurred. We examine policies to encourage efficient product design and recycling in a setting with these two recycling options plus the option of putting recyclables in the trash. We find value in having two parallel recycling options. Constrained optimal outcomes can be attained by combining a 'deposit-refund' with a modest disposal fee. Furthermore, producers should not be permitted to keep deposits, that are not claimed by consumers. (author)

  20. Design and implementation of the control system for nuclear plant VVER-1000. Instrumentation (program technical complexes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siora, A.; Tokarev, V.; Bakhmach, E.

    2004-01-01

    Program-technical complexes (PTC) are designed as control and protection systems in water-moderated atomic reactors, including emergency and preventive systems, automatic control, unloading, reactor capacity limitation and accelerated preventive protection systems. Utilization of programmable logic integrated circuits from world leading manufacturers makes the complexes simple in structure, compact, with low energy demands and mutually independent for key and supporting functions The results of PTC assessment and implementation in Ukraine are outlined. Opportunities for a future development of RADIJ company in the area of control and protection systems for VVER reactors are also discussed

  1. Design of Stress-Strain Measuring System for Bulldozing Plate Based on Virtual Instrument Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S C; Li, J Q; Zhang, R

    2006-01-01

    Soil is a kind of discrete, multiphase compound that is composed of soil particles, liquid and air. When soil is disturbed by bulldozing plate, the mechanical behavior of the soil will become very complex. Based on the law of action and reaction, the dynamic mechanical behavior of disturbed soil was indirectly analyzed by measuring and studying the forces on the bulldozing plate by soil currently, so a stress-strain virtual measuring system for bulldozing plate, which was designed by the graphical programming language DASYLab, was used to measure the horizontal force Fz acting on the bulldozing plate. In addition, during the course of design, the experimental complexities and the interferential factors influencing on signal logging were analyzed when bulldozing plate worked, so the anti-jamming methods of hardware and software technology were adopted correlatively. In the end, the horizontal force Fz was analyzed with Error Theory, the result shown that the quantificational analysis of Fz were identical to the qualitative results of soil well, and the error of the whole test system is under 5 percent, so the tress-strain virtual measuring system was stable and credible

  2. Single freeform surface design for prescribed input wavefront and target irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösel, Christoph; Gross, Herbert

    2017-09-01

    In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed. Instead, a predefined input ray direction vector field and irradiance distribution on a source plane, which has to be redistributed by a single freeform surface to give the predefined target irradiance, is considered. To solve this design problem, a partial differential equation (PDE) or PDE system, respectively, for the unknown surface and its corresponding ray mapping is derived from energy conservation and the ray-tracing equations. In contrast to former PDE formulations of the single freeform design problem, the derived PDE of Monge-Ampère type is formulated for general zero-étendue sources in Cartesian coordinates. The PDE system is discretized with finite differences, and the resulting nonlinear equation system is solved by a root-finding algorithm. The basis of the efficient solution of the PDE system builds the introduction of an initial iterate construction approach for a given input direction vector field, which uses optimal mass transport with a quadratic cost function. After a detailed description of the numerical algorithm, the efficiency of the design method is demonstrated by applying it to several design examples. This includes the redistribution of a collimated input beam beyond the paraxial approximation, the shaping of point source radiation, and the shaping of an astigmatic input wavefront into a complex target irradiance distribution.

  3. Report of the Survey on the Design Review of New Reactor Applications. Volume 1 - Instrumentation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Steven

    2014-06-01

    At the tenth meeting of the CNRA Working Group on the Regulation of New Reactors (WGRNR) in March 2013, the members agreed to present the responses to the Second Phase, or Design Phase, of the Licensing Process Survey as a multi-volume text. As such, each report will focus on one of the eleven general technical categories covered in the survey. The general technical categories were selected to conform to the topics covered in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Guide GS-G-4.1. This report, which is the first volume, provides a discussion of the survey responses related to Instrumentation and Control (I and C). The Instrumentation and Control category includes the twelve following technical topics: Reactor trip system, actuation systems for Engineered Safety Features (ESF), safe shutdown system, safety-related display instrumentation, information and interlock systems important to safety, controls systems, main control room, supplementary control room, diverse I and C systems, data communication systems, software reliability and cyber-security. For each technical topic, the member countries described the information provided by the applicant, the scope and level of detail of the technical review, the technical basis for granting regulatory authorisation, the skill sets required and the Level of effort needed to perform the review. Based on a comparison of the information provided in response to the survey, the following observations were made: - Among the regulatory organisations that responded to the survey, there are similarities in the design information provided by an applicant. In most countries, the design information provided by an applicant includes, but is not limited to, a description of the I and C system design and functions, a description of the verification and validation programmes, and provisions for analysis, testing, and inspection of various I and C systems. - In addition to the regulations, it is a common practice for countries

  4. “Visual design and dance”: dance as a research instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Barbiani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an unpublished document written by the choreographer Anna Halprin in 1943, aimed to organize a dance course entitled "Visual design and dance" for the students of the Barbara Mettler’s School in New Hampshire. In a moment in which modern dance had reached a great expansion in spite of the Second World War, the young Anna resigned the opportunity to dance on the Broadway stages, where were performing the best choreographers such as Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey and Hanya Holm, to undertake a personal and innovative research of experimentation, of which this document is witness and where is already possible recognize the influence of her husband, landscape architect Lawrence Halprin, and the stimulating environment of Harvard and the Bauhaus masters as Walter Gropius and Lazlo Moholy-Nagy.

  5. Multi-disciplinary design optimization and performance evaluation of a single stage transonic axial compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sae Il; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Kyu Hong; Park, Tae Choon; Lim, Byeung Jun; Kang, Young Seok

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary design optimization method, which integrates aerodynamic performance and structural stability, was utilized in the development of a single-stage transonic axial compressor. An approximation model was created using artificial neural network for global optimization within given ranges of variables and several design constraints. The genetic algorithm was used for the exploration of the Pareto front to find the maximum objective function value. The final design was chosen after a second stage gradient-based optimization process to improve the accuracy of the optimization. To validate the design procedure, numerical simulations and compressor tests were carried out to evaluate the aerodynamic performance and safety factor of the optimized compressor. Comparison between numerical optimal results and experimental data are well matched. The optimum shape of the compressor blade is obtained and compared to the baseline design. The proposed optimization framework improves the aerodynamic efficiency and the safety factor.

  6. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Design, installation ampersand automatic monitoring of structural and equipment instrumentation for concrete growth mitigation project at Saunders GS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danay, A.; Adeghe, L.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1994-01-01

    For over twenty years, R.H. Saunders hydraulic generating station on the St. Lawrence River near Cornwall, Ontario, Canada, has been experiencing operational and structural problems attributable to excessive concrete distortions, which required costly maintenance work and extended outages. In 1990, following diagnosis of concrete growth due to mild alkali-silica reaction as the cause of these problems, a Stage 1 Rehabilitation Plan was prepared and executed during the fall of 1992 and early 1993. The major components of the remedial plan were: (a) slot cutting at the contraction joints between Units in order to relieve cumulated stresses and allow further expansion without deforming the turbine-generators, and, (b) installation of an integrated instrumentation system to monitor closely the structural response of the first cut and to collect data required for definition and detailed planning of future slot cutting programs. This paper presents the design criteria, installation, and commissioning of this instrumentation system, as well as the operation and attributes of the Automated Data Acquisition

  8. The Double Star magnetic field investigation: instrument design, performance and highlights of the first year's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carr

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary objectives of the Double Star mission is the accurate measurement of the magnetic field vector along the orbits of the two spacecraft. The magnetic field is an essential parameter for the understanding of space plasma processes and is also required for the effective interpretation of data from the other instruments on the spacecraft. We present the design of the magnetic field instrument onboard both of the Double Star spacecraft and an overview of the performance as measured first on-ground and then in-orbit. We also report the results of in-flight calibration of the magnetometers, and the processing methods employed to produce the final data products which are provided to Double Star investigators, and the wider community in general. Particular attention is paid to the techniques developed for removing magnetic interference generated by the solar arrays on the first (equatorial orbiting spacecraft. Results from the first year of operations are reviewed in the context of combined observations by Double Star and Cluster, and examples given from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date.

  9. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Design and Instrumentation of a Measurement and Calibration System for an Acoustic Telemetry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Deng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS is an active sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, for detecting and tracking small fish. It is used primarily for evaluating behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System to the Pacific Ocean. It provides critical data for salmon protection and development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities. The objective of this study was to design and build a Measurement and Calibration System (MCS for evaluating the JSATS components, because the JSATS requires comprehensive acceptance and performance testing in a controlled environment before it is deployed in the field. The MCS consists of a reference transducer, a water test tank lined with anechoic material, a motion control unit, a reference receiver, a signal conditioner and amplifier unit, a data acquisition board, MATLAB control and analysis interface, and a computer. The fully integrated MCS has been evaluated successfully at various simulated distances and using different encoded signals at frequencies within the bandwidth of the JSATS transmitter. The MCS provides accurate acoustic mapping capability in a controlled environment and automates the process that allows real-time measurements and evaluation of the piezoelectric transducers, sensors, or the acoustic fields. The MCS has been in use since 2009 for acceptance and performance testing of, and further improvements to, the JSATS.

  11. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have precluded widespread implementation and acceptance of the SCED as a viable complementary methodology to the predominant group design. This article includes a description of the research design, measurement, and analysis domains distinctive to the SCED; a discussion of the results within the framework of contemporary standards and guidelines in the field; and a presentation of updated benchmarks for key characteristics (e.g., baseline sampling, method of analysis), and overall, it provides researchers and reviewers with a resource for conducting and evaluating SCED research. The results of the systematic review of 409 studies suggest that recently published SCED research is largely in accordance with contemporary criteria for experimental quality. Analytic method emerged as an area of discord. Comparison of the findings of this review with historical estimates of the use of statistical analysis indicates an upward trend, but visual analysis remains the most common analytic method and also garners the most support amongst those entities providing SCED standards. Although consensus exists along key dimensions of single-case research design and researchers appear to be practicing within these parameters, there remains a need for further evaluation of assessment and sampling techniques and data analytic methods. PMID:22845874

  12. Design, implementation, and demographic differences of HEAL: a self-report health care leadership instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly R; McManigle, John E; Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin M; Little Jones, Amy; Dekker, Travis J; Little, Barrett A; Doty, Joseph P; Taylor, Dean C

    2016-01-01

    The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL]) to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016). When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in “360” evaluation formats. PMID:29355186

  13. Design, implementation, and demographic differences of HEAL: a self-report health care leadership instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly R; McManigle, John E; Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin M; Little Jones, Amy; Dekker, Travis J; Little, Barrett A; Doty, Joseph P; Taylor, Dean C

    2016-01-01

    The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL]) to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness ( P =0.016). When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the survey is refined and further administered, HEAL will be used not only as a self-assessment tool but also in "360" evaluation formats.

  14. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubach, K.

    1982-01-01

    For better understanding of the specification for seismic instrumentation of a nuclear power plant, the lecture gives some fundamental remarks to the seismic risk in the Federal Republic of Germany and to the data characterizing an earthquake event. Coming from the geophysical properties of an earthquake, the quantities are explained which are used in the design process of nuclear power plants. This process is shortly described in order to find the requirements for the specification of the seismic instrumentation. In addition the demands of licensing authorities are given. As an example the seismic instrumentation of KKP-1, BWR, is shown. The paper deals with kind and number of instruments, their location in the plant and their sensitivity and calibration. Final considerations deal with the evaluation of measured data and with plant operation after an earthquake. Some experience concerning the earthquake behaviour of equipment not designed to withstand earthquake loads is mentioned. This experience has initiated studies directed to quantification of the degree of conservatism of the assumptions in the seismic design of nuclear power plants. A final garget of these studies are more realistic design rules. (RW)

  15. Design, implementation, and demographic differences of HEAL: a self-report health care leadership instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy KR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly R Murphy, John E McManigle, Benjamin M Wildman-Tobriner, Amy Little Jones, Travis J Dekker, Barrett A Little, Joseph P Doty, Dean C Taylor Duke Healthcare Leadership Program, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: The medical community has recognized the importance of leadership skills among its members. While numerous leadership assessment tools exist at present, few are specifically tailored to the unique health care environment. The study team designed a 24-item survey (Healthcare Evaluation & Assessment of Leadership [HEAL] to measure leadership competency based on the core competencies and core principles of the Duke Healthcare Leadership Model. A novel digital platform was created for use on handheld devices to facilitate its distribution and completion. This pilot phase involved 126 health care professionals self-assessing their leadership abilities. The study aimed to determine both the content validity of the survey and the feasibility of its implementation and use. The digital platform for survey implementation was easy to complete, and there were no technical problems with survey use or data collection. With regard to reliability, initial survey results revealed that each core leadership tenet met or exceeded the reliability cutoff of 0.7. In self-assessment of leadership, women scored themselves higher than men in questions related to patient centeredness (P=0.016. When stratified by age, younger providers rated themselves lower with regard to emotional intelligence and integrity. There were no differences in self-assessment when stratified by medical specialty. While only a pilot study, initial data suggest that HEAL is a reliable and easy-to-administer survey for health care leadership assessment. Differences in responses by sex and age with respect to patient centeredness, integrity, and emotional intelligence raise questions about how providers view themselves amid complex medical teams. As the

  16. Hybrid laparoendoscopic single-site surgery of upper urinary tract with the use of mini-laparoscopic instruments: cosmetic outcome and midterm oncological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kyriazis, Jason; Kamal, Wissam; Porpiglia, Francesco; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mini-laparoscopic instruments in combination with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) instruments for the performance of oncological urological surgery. Thirty-five patients underwent oncological hybrid LESS either mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS partial nephrectomy (LESS-PN, n = 12) or mini-laparoscopic-assisted LESS radical nephrectomy (LESS-RN, n = 23). Perioperative data were prospectively collected. The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) was used for the evaluation of the cosmetic outcome. Mean tumor size treated by LESS-PNs was 28.8 (IQR 20.5-37.3) mm. Average operative time and blood loss were 123 (IQR 112.5-145) min and 158.3 (IQR 100-200) ml, respectively. Renal artery clamping took place in seven cases. LESS-RN was performed in cases with a mean tumor size of 60 (IQR 48-71.5) mm. The average operative time was 116.8 (IQR 100-130) min. Average blood loss was 137 (IQR 100-150) ml. Complications were limited to grade II according to Clavien classification. The oncological outcome, including midterm results, was directly comparable to the literature. Patients reported low pain scores and high satisfaction in terms of postoperative scarring. The POSAS scores confirmed the excellent cosmetic outcome of hybrid LESS. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instrumentation as routine equipment of oncological surgery provided an efficient option for urologic surgery. The combination of mini-laparoscopic and LESS instruments improves the intraoperative ergonomics of LESS-PN and LESS-RN. The provided surgical and oncological outcome compares favorably to the LESS and conventional laparoscopic literature.

  17. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  18. Direct Training to Improve Educators' Treatment Integrity: A Systematic Review of Single-Case Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M; Kurtz, Kathryn D; Mueller, Marlana R

    2017-06-15

    In consultation, school psychologists may offer educators direct training to support the implementation of classroom interventions aimed to improve student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review of single-case design research studies during which educators received direct training to implement a classroom intervention, specifically instructions, modeling, practice, and feedback. Two doctoral students in school psychology screened 228 articles and evaluated 33 studies to determine if direct training is effective and an evidence-based practice per single-case design standards proposed by the What Works Clearinghouse. Results of the review indicate that there is support for the practice to be deemed evidence-based and associated with better intervention implementation than before its application. Implications include direct training being considered for intensive, complex interventions to promote educator success with implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Design methodology for a special single winding based bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurjya Dev Choudhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless switched reluctance motors (BSRMs have both magnetic bearing as well as conventional motor characteristics which make them suitable for diverse industrial applications. This study proposes a design methodology for a BSRM in order to calculate the appropriate geometrical dimensions essential for realising a minimum levitation force at every orientation of rotor. It is based on the stator–rotor overlap angle and helps in reducing the complexities associated with the self-bearing operation of a switched reluctance motor (SRM. Different from a conventional SRM, the motor under study deploys a special single set parallel winding scheme for simultaneous production of torque as well as radial force. An analytical model incorporating this single set winding is developed for calculating the torque and the radial force. The proposed bearingless design is verified by developing a two-dimensional finite-element model of a 12/8 SRM in ANSYS Maxwell.

  20. Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier for Traction: Control System Design and Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converters control structure design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signaling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7kVA

  1. Design of a multi beam klystron cavity from its single beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Deepender, E-mail: dkc@ceeri.ernet.in; Joshi, L. M. [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani (India); Janyani, Vijay [Department of ECE, MNIT, Jaipur (India)

    2016-03-09

    The klystron is a well-known microwave amplifier which uses kinetic energy of an electron beam for amplification of the RF signal. There are some limitations of conventional single beam klystron such as high operating voltage, low efficiency and bulky size at higher power levels, which are very effectively handled in Multi Beam Klystron (MBK) that uses multiple low purveyance electron beams for RF interaction. Each beam propagates along its individual transit path through a resonant cavity structure. Multi-Beam klystron cavity design is a critical task due to asymmetric cavity structure and can be simulated by 3D code only. The present paper shall discuss the design of multi beam RF cavities for klystrons operating at 2856 MHz (S-band) and 5 GHz (C-band) respectively. The design approach uses some scaling laws for finding the electron beam parameters of the multi beam device from their single beam counter parts. The scaled beam parameters are then used for finding the design parameters of the multi beam cavities. Design of the desired multi beam cavity can be optimized through iterative simulations in CST Microwave Studio.

  2. Single-pole recording head design for 100 Gbpsi perpendicular magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kaori; Ise, Kazuyuki; Honda, Naoki; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    In developing a perpendicular recording head, writability, head induced erasure and head skew problem are major concerns for achieving 100 Gbpsi recording. Sufficient overwrite performance of the single-pole head with a trackwidth down to 0.26 μm and clear MFM images of 0.16 μm recorded signals were obtained. Furthermore, high stray field robustness was realized with a newly designed head accompanied by a high head efficiency

  3. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  4. High Capacity Single Table Performance Design Using Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    High Capacity Single Table Performance Design Using Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL by Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey ARL-CR-0689...Partitioning in Oracle or PostgreSQL Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Prepared by... PostgreSQL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-07-F-0023 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Travis Parker and Paul Ritchey  5d. PROJECT

  5. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  6. Single-Case Experimental Designs to Evaluate Novel Technology-Based Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Rachel N; Raiff, Bethany R

    2013-01-01

    Technology-based interventions to promote health are expanding rapidly. Assessing the preliminary efficacy of these interventions can be achieved by employing single-case experiments (sometimes referred to as n-of-1 studies). Although single-case experiments are often misunderstood, they offer excellent solutions to address the challenges associated with testing new technology-based interventions. This paper provides an introduction to single-case techniques and highlights advances in developing and evaluating single-case experiments, which help ensure that treatment outcomes are reliable, replicable, and generalizable. These advances include quality control standards, heuristics to guide visual analysis of time-series data, effect size calculations, and statistical analyses. They also include experimental designs to isolate the active elements in a treatment package and to assess the mechanisms of behavior change. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues related to the generality of findings derived from single-case research and how generality can be established through replication and through analysis of behavioral mechanisms. PMID:23399668

  7. Vernier caliper and micrometer computer models using Easy Java Simulation and its pedagogical design feature-ideas to augment learning with real instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Loo Kang; Ning, Hwee Tiang

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the customization of EJS models, used together with actual laboratory instruments, to create an active experiential learning of measurements. The laboratory instruments are the vernier caliper and the micrometer. Three computer model design ideas that complement real equipment are discussed in this article. They are 1) the simple view and associated learning to pen and paper question and the real world, 2) hints, answers, different options of scales and inclusion of zero...

  8. Single-case experimental designs to assess intervention effectiveness in rehabilitation: A practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny-Pacini, Agata; Evans, Jonathan

    2017-12-15

    Single-case experimental designs (SCED) are experimental designs aiming at testing the effect of an intervention using a small number of patients (typically one to three), using repeated measurements, sequential (±randomized) introduction of an intervention and method-specific data analysis, including visual analysis and specific statistics. The aim of this paper is to familiarise professionals working in different fields of rehabilitation with SCEDs and provide practical advice on how to design and implement a SCED in clinical rehabilitation practice. Research questions suitable for SCEDs and the different types of SCEDs (e.g., alternating treatment designs, introduction/withdrawal designs and multiple baseline designs) are reviewed. Practical steps in preparing a SCED design are outlined. Examples from different rehabilitation domains are provided throughout the paper. Challenging issues such as the choice of the repeated measure, assessment of generalisation, randomization, procedural fidelity, replication and generalizability of findings are discussed. Simple rules and resources for data analysis are presented. The utility of SCEDs in physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of a Channel Error Simulator using Virtual Instrument Techniques for the Initial Testing of TCP/IP and SCPS Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-Hai

    1999-01-01

    There exists a need for designers and developers to have a method to conveniently test a variety of communications parameters for an overall system design. This is no different when testing network protocols as when testing modulation formats. In this report, we discuss a means of providing a networking test device specifically designed to be used for space communications. This test device is a PC-based Virtual Instrument (VI) programmed using the LabVIEW(TM) version 5 software suite developed by National Instruments(TM)TM. This instrument was designed to be portable and usable by others without special, additional equipment. The programming was designed to replicate a VME-based hardware module developed earlier at New Mexico State University (NMSU) and to provide expanded capabilities exceeding the baseline configuration existing in that module. This report describes the design goals for the VI module in the next section and follows that with a description of the design of the VI instrument. This is followed with a description of the validation tests run on the VI. An application of the error-generating VI to networking protocols is then given.

  10. Designing siRNA that distinguish between genes that differ by a single nucleotide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne S Schwarz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, the guides that direct RNA interference (RNAi, provide a powerful tool to reduce the expression of a single gene in human cells. Ideally, dominant, gain-of-function human diseases could be treated using siRNAs that specifically silence the mutant disease allele, while leaving expression of the wild-type allele unperturbed. Previous reports suggest that siRNAs can be designed with single nucleotide specificity, but no rational basis for the design of siRNAs with single nucleotide discrimination has been proposed. We systematically identified siRNAs that discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of two disease genes: the human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene, which contributes to the progression of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through the gain of a toxic property, and the huntingtin (HTT gene, which causes Huntington disease when its CAG-repeat region expands beyond approximately 35 repeats. Using cell-free RNAi reactions in Drosophila embryo lysate and reporter assays and microarray analysis of off-target effects in cultured human cells, we identified positions within an siRNA that are most sensitive to mismatches. We also show that purine:purine mismatches imbue an siRNA with greater discriminatory power than other types of base mismatches. siRNAs in which either a G:U wobble or a mismatch is located in the "seed" sequence, the specialized siRNA guide region responsible for target binding, displayed lower levels of selectivity than those in which the mismatch was located 3' to the seed; this region of an siRNA is critical for target cleavage but not siRNA binding. Our data suggest that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of many genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.

  11. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. The performance of single and multi-collector ICP-MS instruments for fast and reliable 34S/32S isotope ratio measurements†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröfrock, Daniel; Irrgeher, Johanna; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The performance and validation characteristics of different single collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers based on different technical principles (ICP-SFMS, ICP-QMS in reaction and collision modes, and ICP-MS/MS) were evaluated in comparison to the performance of MC ICP-MS for fast and reliable S isotope ratio measurements. The validation included the determination of LOD, BEC, measurement repeatability, within-lab reproducibility and deviation from certified values as well as a study on instrumental isotopic fractionation (IIF) and the calculation of the combined standard measurement uncertainty. Different approaches of correction for IIF applying external intra-elemental IIF correction (aka standard-sample bracketing) using certified S reference materials and internal inter-elemental IIF (aka internal standardization) correction using Si isotope ratios in MC ICP-MS are explained and compared. The resulting combined standard uncertainties of examined ICP-QMS systems were not better than 0.3–0.5% (uc,rel), which is in general insufficient to differentiate natural S isotope variations. Although the performance of the single collector ICP-SFMS is better (single measurement uc,rel = 0.08%), the measurement reproducibility (>0.2%) is the major limit of this system and leaves room for improvement. MC ICP-MS operated in the edge mass resolution mode, applying bracketing for correction of IIF, provided isotope ratio values with the highest quality (relative combined measurement uncertainty: 0.02%; deviation from the certified value: <0.002%). PMID:27812369

  14. The performance of single and multi-collector ICP-MS instruments for fast and reliable34S/32S isotope ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanousek, Ondrej; Brunner, Marion; Pröfrock, Daniel; Irrgeher, Johanna; Prohaska, Thomas

    2016-11-14

    The performance and validation characteristics of different single collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers based on different technical principles (ICP-SFMS, ICP-QMS in reaction and collision modes, and ICP-MS/MS) were evaluated in comparison to the performance of MC ICP-MS for fast and reliable S isotope ratio measurements. The validation included the determination of LOD, BEC, measurement repeatability, within-lab reproducibility and deviation from certified values as well as a study on instrumental isotopic fractionation (IIF) and the calculation of the combined standard measurement uncertainty. Different approaches of correction for IIF applying external intra-elemental IIF correction (aka standard-sample bracketing) using certified S reference materials and internal inter-elemental IIF (aka internal standardization) correction using Si isotope ratios in MC ICP-MS are explained and compared. The resulting combined standard uncertainties of examined ICP-QMS systems were not better than 0.3-0.5% ( u c,rel ), which is in general insufficient to differentiate natural S isotope variations. Although the performance of the single collector ICP-SFMS is better (single measurement u c,rel = 0.08%), the measurement reproducibility (>0.2%) is the major limit of this system and leaves room for improvement. MC ICP-MS operated in the edge mass resolution mode, applying bracketing for correction of IIF, provided isotope ratio values with the highest quality (relative combined measurement uncertainty: 0.02%; deviation from the certified value: <0.002%).

  15. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  16. Photonic-crystal membranes for optical detection of single nano-particles, designed for biosensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grepstad, Jon Olav; Kaspar, Peter; Solgaard, Olav; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Sudbø, Aasmund S

    2012-03-26

    A sensor designed to detect bio-molecules is presented. The sensor exploits a planar 2D photonic crystal (PC) membrane with sub-micron thickness and through holes, to induce high optical fields that allow detection of nano-particles smaller than the diffraction limit of an optical microscope. We report on our design and fabrication of a PC membrane with a nano-particle trapped inside. We have also designed and built an imaging system where an optical microscope and a CCD camera are used to take images of the PC membrane. Results show how the trapped nano-particle appears as a bright spot in the image. In a first experimental realization of the imaging system, single particles with a radius of 75 nm can be detected.

  17. Conceptual Design of a Single-Aisle Turboelectric Commercial Transport With Fuselage Boundary Layer Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welstead, Jason R.; Felder, James L.

    2016-01-01

    A single-aisle commercial transport concept with a turboelectric propulsion system architecture was developed assuming entry into service in 2035 and compared to a similar technology conventional configuration. The turboelectric architecture consisted of two underwing turbofans with generators extracting power from the fan shaft and sending it to a rear fuselage, axisymmetric, boundary layer ingesting fan. Results indicate that the turbo- electric concept has an economic mission fuel burn reduction of 7%, and a design mission fuel burn reduction of 12% compared to the conventional configuration. An exploration of the design space was performed to better understand how the turboelectric architecture changes the design space, and system sensitivities were run to determine the sensitivity of thrust specific fuel consumption at top of climb and propulsion system weight to the motor power, fan pressure ratio, and electrical transmission efficiency of the aft boundary layer ingesting fan.

  18. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  19. Cost Optimal Design of a Single-Phase Dry Power Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Basak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dry type transformers are preferred to their oil-immersed counterparts for various reasons, particularly because their operation is hazardless. The application of dry transformers was limited to small ratings in the earlier days. But now these are being used for considerably higher ratings.  Therefore, their cost-optimal design has gained importance. This paper deals with the design procedure for achieving cost optimal design of a dry type single-phase power transformer of small rating, subject to usual design constraints on efficiency and voltage regulation. The selling cost for the transformer has been taken as the objective function. Only two key variables have been chosen, the turns/volt and the height: width ratio of window, which affects the cost function to high degrees. Other variables have been chosen on the basis of designers’ experience. Copper has been used as conductor material and CRGOS as core material to achieve higher efficiency, lower running cost and compact design. The electrical and magnetic loadings have been kept at their maximum values without violating the design constraints. The optimal solution has been obtained by the method of exhaustive search using nested loops.

  20. Shape-designed single-polymer micelles: a proof-of-concept simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    Much effort has been directed towards self-assembling nanostructures. Strong, local interactions between specific building blocks often determine these structures (e.g., globular proteins). We seek to produce designed structures that are instead determined by collective effects of weak interactions (e.g., surfactant self-assembly). Such structures may reversibly change conformation or disassemble in response to changing solvent conditions, and, being soft, have potential to adapt to fluctuating or unknown application-imposed shape requirements. Concretely, we aim to realize such a structure in the form of a single polymer micelle--an amphiphilic polymer exhibiting a condensed, phase-segregated conformation when immersed in solvent. Connecting all amphiphiles into a single chain provides geometric constraints controlling the surface curvature profile, thus dictating a non-trivial shape. We present 2D Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of such soft, shape-designed micelles. Preliminary results demonstrate a stable concave ``dimple'' in a micelle composed of a single A-B multiblock linear copolymer. We discuss both current limitations on shape robustness and effects of block asymmetry, block molecular weights and overall chain length on micelle shape. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  1. HORACE: Software for the analysis of data from single crystal spectroscopy experiments at time-of-flight neutron instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewings, R. A.; Buts, A.; Le, M. D.; van Duijn, J.; Bustinduy, I.; Perring, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    The HORACE suite of programs has been developed to work with large multiple-measurement data sets collected from time-of-flight neutron spectrometers equipped with arrays of position-sensitive detectors. The software allows exploratory studies of the four dimensions of reciprocal space and excitation energy to be undertaken, enabling multi-dimensional subsets to be visualized, algebraically manipulated, and models for the scattering to simulated or fitted to the data. The software is designed to be an extensible framework, thus allowing user-customized operations to be performed on the data. Examples of the use of its features are given for measurements exploring the spin waves of the simple antiferromagnet RbMnF3 and ferromagnetic iron, and the phonons in URu2Si2.

  2. Instrument for all-fiber structure measurement of ultra-low turbidity by using single photon detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feihu; Hu, Juntao; Wang, Huanqin; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo; Lü, Liang; Kong, Deyi; Zhang, Jian; Han, Xia; Wang, Tianli

    2017-10-01

    An all-fiber structure detection system based on single photon detection technique(SPDT) has been developed to measure the ultra-low turbidity ofliquids. To assure the measurement accuracy,the total intensity of transmission light has been detected and quantified as number of photons by avalanche photodiode (APD) which has the advantage of high sensitivity.A fresh all-fiber structure optical fiber probe based on SPDT is applied in the system to reduce the volume and fluctuation of traditional transmission-light measurement system,in which the all-fiber structure probe is used to delivery and collection of transmission light.On the basis of Beer-Lambert (B-L) transmission law,a test system has been established and carried out a series of experiments.By combining B-Llaw with the principle of SPDT,a novel model for detecting turbidity has been proposed to explain the experimental results.The results have shown a well exponential relationship over the range of 0.01-1NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units).It also has showna good linear relationship with a resolution as high as 0.01NTUin the range of 0.01-0.09 NTU.When it is 1 secondofthe sampling time,the mean error of measurement result can be controlled within 5% of full scale.In addition,the new detection structure proposed in this paper, which makes the system more compact and more suitable in the small special space.

  3. Comparison of functional outcomes following surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in single level low grade lumbar degenerative versus isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups.

  4. Design and implementation of a wireless (Bluetooth) four channel bio-instrumentation amplifier and digital data acquisition device with user-selectable gain, frequency, and driven reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmanescu, Alin; Miller, Benjamin; Magno, Terence; Ahmed, Assad; Kremenic, Ian

    2006-01-01

    A portable, multi-purpose Bio-instrumentation Amplifier and Data AcQuisition device (BADAQ) capable of measuring and transmitting EMG and EKG signals wirelessly via Bluetooth is designed and implemented. Common topologies for instrumentation amplifiers and filters are used and realized with commercially available, low-voltage, high precision operational amplifiers. An 8-bit PIC microcontroller performs 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion of the amplified and filtered signals and controls a Bluetooth transceiver capable of wirelessly transmitting the data to any Bluetooth enabled device. Electrical isolation between patient/subject, circuitry, and ancillary equipment is achieved by optocoupling components. The design focuses on simplicity, portability, and affordability.

  5. A design of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guansheng; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xuan; Shi, Gentai; Bai, Haojie

    2018-03-01

    In order to achieve multi-color temperature and multi-magnitude output, magnitude and temperature can real-time adjust, a new type of calibration single star simulator was designed with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in this article. xenon lamp and halogen tungsten lamp were used as light source. The control of spectrum band and temperature of star was realized with different multi-beam narrow band spectrum with light of varying intensity. When light source with different spectral characteristics and color temperature go into the magnitude regulator, the light energy attenuation were under control by adjusting the light luminosity. This method can completely satisfy the requirements of calibration single star simulator with adjustable magnitude and optical spectrum output in order to achieve the adjustable purpose of magnitude and spectrum.

  6. Measurement of the trajectory of different NiTi rotary instruments in an artificial canal specifically designed for cyclic fatigue tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Cordaro, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the trajectory of NiTi rotary instruments of the same size but different design in an artificial root canal manufactured for cyclic fatigue test. Eight groups of instruments with tip size 25, 0.06 taper with different design were tested in a simulated root canal with an angle of curvature of 60 degrees and radius of curvature of 5 mm milled in a stainless steel block with a tapered shape corresponding to the dimensions of the instruments tested. Geometric analysis of the trajectory that each instrument followed inside the artificial canal was performed on digital images, determining 3 parameters: angle and radius of the curvature and the position of the center of the curvature. Mean values were then calculated for each group. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Holm t test to determine any statistical difference (P .05). The results of the present study emphasized the importance of using an artificial canal specifically constructed on the dimensions of the instrument tested to reduce this approximation in cyclic fatigue tests. The artificial canal manufactured for the present study seems to guarantee that different NiTi rotary instruments may follow a precise and repeteable trajectory in terms of radius and angle of curvature.

  7. Study on a conceptual design of a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental suites at materials and life science facility (MLF) of J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Nakatani, Takeshi; Torii, Shuki; Higemoto, Wataru; Otomo, Toshiya

    2006-02-01

    The JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency)-KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) joint project, Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), is now under construction. Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) is one of planned facilities in this research complex. The neutron and muon sources will be installed at MLF and world's highest class intensive beam, which is utilized for variety of scientific research subject, will be delivered. To discuss the necessary computing environments for neutron and muon instruments at J-PARC, the MLF computing environment group (MLF-CEG) has been organized. We, members of the DAQ subgroup (DAQ-SG) are responsible for considering data acquisition and instrument control systems for the experimental suites at MLF. In the framework of the MLF-CEG, we are surveying the computer resources which is required for data acquisition and instrument control at future instruments, current situation of existing facilities and possible solutions those we can achieve. We are discussing the most suitable system that can bring out full performance of our instruments. This is the first interim report of the DAQ-SG, in which our activity of 2003-2004 is summarized. In this report, a conceptual design of the software, the related a data acquisition and instrument control system for experimental instruments at MLF are proposed. (author)

  8. Solar Probe Plus: Motor Controllers Design for Manipulator for Calibration Purposes of SPAN-A and SPAN-B Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juache Aguilar, K.

    2015-12-01

    In preparation for the 2018 launch of Solar Probe Plus, and for the pre-flight tests of the SWEAP package, the instrument manipulator has been updated and modernized. Calibration of the Electrostatic Analyzers (ESA) is the critical last stop before launching instruments into space. The current method of controlling the instrument manipulator requires a dedicated computer, operating system, and power supplies. A novel solution integrates the power supplies, data acquisition, motor controller, and commanding microcontroller into one small enclosure. The system will also include software integration that communicates via Ethernet with electrical ground support equipment (EGSE) for full scripting automation during instrument calibration.

  9. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  10. Design of measuring instrument with whole direct method for bed shear stress under two-dimensional water-flow co-action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-long; Zuo, Qi-hua; Zhou, Yi-ren; Shen, Yu-sheng; Li, Lan-xi

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims at the design and making of measuring instrument of whole direct method for bed shear stress under two-dimensional water-flow co-action. The instrument combines the traditional strain gauge with a precise pressure gauge, and adopts the method directly measuring the difference between the lateral hydrodynamic pressure and different head pressures on both sides of the force plate. As a result, such an instrument solves a technical puzzle of the past strain gauge, i.e. the difficulty to set apart shear stress and lateral force. Static force test and sink test both prove that the instrument is precise, stable and applicable to the measurement of rough beds with different shear stresses.

  11. Design and Development of a Solar Thermal Collector with Single Axis Solar Tracking Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Theebhan Mogana; Long Chua Yaw; Tiong Tay Tee

    2016-01-01

    The solar energy is a source of energy that is abundant in Malaysia and can be easily harvested. However, because of the rotation of the Earth about its axis, it is impossible to harvest the solar energy to the maximum capacity if the solar thermal collector is placed fix to a certain angle. In this research, a solar thermal dish with single axis solar tracking mechanism that will rotate the dish according to the position of the sun in the sky is designed and developed, so that more solar ray...

  12. ACCELERATORS: Design of a 450 MHz β = 0.2 single spoke cavity at PKU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhong-Yuan; Lu, Xiang-Yang; Zhao, Kui

    2009-04-01

    The design of a 450 MHz β = 0.2 superconducting single spoke cavity has been finished at Peking University. A theoretical model and a numerical simulation are used to study the relationship between the RF performance and the geometric parameters of the cavity. In this paper, the optimization of the spoke cavity is described in detail. The RF simulation gives the optimum parameters Epk/Eacc of 2.65 and Bpk/Eacc of 5.22 mT/(MV/m). The mechanical properties of the cavity are also studied. Two stiff ribs are used to offer a credible mechanical stability.

  13. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  14. Optimized design and performance of a shared pump single clad 2 μm TDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, Robert E.; Romano, Clément; Delavaux, Jean-Marc

    2018-05-01

    We report the design, experimental performance, and simulation of a single stage, co- and counter-pumped Tm-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) in the 2 μm signal wavelength band with an optimized 1567 nm shared pump source. We investigate the dependence of output power, gain, and efficiency on pump coupling ratio and signal wavelength. Small signal gains of >50 dB, an output power of 2 W, and small signal noise figures of data. We also discuss performance tradeoffs with respect to amplifier topology for this simple and efficient TDFA.

  15. Bayesian unknown change-point models to investigate immediacy in single case designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Prathiba; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-12-01

    Although immediacy is one of the necessary criteria to show strong evidence of a causal relation in single case designs (SCDs), no inferential statistical tool is currently used to demonstrate it. We propose a Bayesian unknown change-point model to investigate and quantify immediacy in SCD analysis. Unlike visual analysis that considers only 3-5 observations in consecutive phases to investigate immediacy, this model considers all data points. Immediacy is indicated when the posterior distribution of the unknown change-point is narrow around the true value of the change-point. This model can accommodate delayed effects. Monte Carlo simulation for a 2-phase design shows that the posterior standard deviations of the change-points decrease with increase in standardized mean difference between phases and decrease in test length. This method is illustrated with real data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A systematic approach to definitive planning and designing single and multiple unit implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Sanjay; Markose, Sony; Paprocki, Gregory; Wicks, Russell

    2014-12-01

    With an increase in the availability of implant restorative components, the selection of an appropriate implant abutment for a given clinical situation has become more challenging. This article describes a systematic protocol to help the practitioner more thoughtfully select abutments for single and multiple unit fixed implant prostheses. The article examines the evaluation, planning, design, and fabrication processes for the definitive restoration. It includes an assessment of a variety of factors, namely restorative space, soft and hard tissues, the location of the implant platform, the type of platform connection, platform switching indications, tissue collar heights, emergence profile, implant angulation, and finally the design and esthetic options for the final implant abutment. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. ICU architectural design affects the delirium prevalence: a comparison between single-bed and multibed rooms*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Guardian, Lilian; Tiengo, Tatiane; Dos Santos, Lucio Souza; Junior, Pedro Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Delirium risk factors are related to the patients' acute and chronic clinical condition, treatment, and environment. The environmental risk factors are essentially determined by the ICU architectural design. Although there are countless architectural variations among the ICUs, all can be classified as single- or multibed rooms. Our objectives were to compare the ICU delirium prevalence and characteristics (coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and delirium motoric subtypes) of critically ill patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. Retrospective. ICU of a teaching oncologic hospital with 31 beds. Twenty-three beds distributed in one multibed room with 13 beds and other with 10 beds. Eight beds distributed in single-bed rooms. All adult patients admitted from February to November 2011. None. We evaluated 1,587 patients and included 1,253 patients. Patients' characteristics at ICU admission and their outcomes along the ICU stay were not different between patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. One hundred sixty-three patients (13.0%) had delirium, and the prevalence was significantly lower in patients admitted in single-bed rooms (6.8% × 15.1%; p < 0.01). This lower prevalence occurred in patients admitted due to a medical (11.0% × 25.6%; p < 0.01) or postoperative (5.0% × 11.4%; p < 0.01) reason. However, the coma/delirium-free days, the first day in delirium, and the delirium motoric subtypes were not different between the single- and multibed rooms. The risk factors associated with delirium were admission in multibed rooms (odds ratio, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.13-7.62), older age, ICU-acquired infection, and higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Critically ill patients admitted in single-bed rooms have a lower prevalence of delirium than those admitted in multibed rooms. However, coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and motoric subtypes were not different.

  18. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  19. A throttle-less single-rod hydraulic cylinder positioning system: Design and experimental evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jalayeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern industrial tote dumpers and lifters are equipped with long-stroke single-rod hydraulic cylinders. For years, valve-controlled cylinders have been used in tote dumpers. Valve-controlled actuators are highly inefficient due to huge power losses in throttling valves. They also need a cooling system to remove the wasted heat energy from the hydraulic oil. This article introduces a low-cost throttle-less hydraulic circuit to control the single-rod cylinder of a tote dumper. The system consists of a motor-driven gear pump, an On/Off solenoid valve, to redirect the differential flow of the single-rod hydraulic cylinder and a counterbalance valve, which makes the circuit controllable for assisting loads and keeps the load in position with no effort from the hydraulic pump. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the circuit. A test rig has been designed to simulate a lifting load. The energy efficiency of the circuit is determined by comparing a valve-controlled circuit with the proposed circuit. The proposed circuit composition is not only efficient and simple but is also accurate in terms of position response using a proportional controller. The circuit is easy to control since the only needed measurement is the displacement of the actuator. The circuit, however, does not recycle energy.

  20. Hydraulic design of pine needles: one-dimensional optimization for single-vein leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Stone, Howard A; Leigh, Andrea; Boyce, C Kevin; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-05-01

    Single-vein leaves have the simplest hydraulic design possible, yet even this linear water delivery system can be modulated to improve physiological performance. We determined the optimal distribution of transport capacity that minimizes pressure drop per given investment in xylem permeability along the needle for a given length without a change in total water delivery, or maximizes needle length for a given pressure difference between petiole and needle tip. This theory was tested by comparative analysis of the hydraulic design of three pine species that differ in the length of their needles [Pinus palustris (Engl.) Miller, approximately 50 cm; Pinus ponderosa Lawson & Lawson, approximately 20 cm and Pinus rigida Miller, approximately 5 cm]. In all three species, the distribution of hydraulic permeability was similar to that predicted by the optimum solution. The needles of P. palustris showed an almost perfect match between predicted and actual hydraulic optimum solution, providing evidence that vein design is a significant factor in the hydraulic design of pine leaves.