WorldWideScience

Sample records for single impact load

  1. Role of Inelastic Transverse Compressive Behavior and Multiaxial Loading on the Transverse Impact of Kevlar KM2 Single Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Sockalingam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High-velocity transverse impact of ballistic fabrics and yarns by projectiles subject individual fibers to multi-axial dynamic loading. Single-fiber transverse impact experiments with the current state-of-the-art experimental capabilities are challenging due to the associated micron length-scale. Kevlar® KM2 fibers exhibit a nonlinear inelastic behavior in transverse compression with an elastic limit less than 1.5% strain. The effect of this transverse behavior on a single KM2 fiber subjected to a cylindrical and a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP transverse impact is studied with a 3D finite element model. The inelastic behavior results in a significant reduction of fiber bounce velocity and projectile-fiber contact forces up to 38% compared to an elastic impact response. The multiaxial stress states during impact including transverse compression, axial tension, axial compression and interlaminar shear are presented at the location of failure. In addition, the models show a strain concentration over a small length in the fiber under the projectile-fiber contact. A failure criterion, based on maximum axial tensile strain accounting for the gage length, strain rate and multiaxial loading degradation effects are applied to predict the single-fiber breaking speed. Results are compared to the elastic response to assess the importance of inelastic material behavior on failure during a transverse impact.

  2. Dual-task and anticipation impact lower limb biomechanics during a single-leg cut with body borne load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymore, Kayla D; Cameron, Sarah E; Kaplan, Jonathan T; Ramsay, John W; Brown, Tyler N

    2017-12-08

    This study quantified how a dual cognitive task impacts lower limb biomechanics during anticipated and unanticipated single-leg cuts with body borne load. Twenty-four males performed anticipated and unanticipated cuts with and without a dual cognitive task with three load conditions: no load (∼6 kg), medium load (15% of BW), and heavy load (30% of BW). Lower limb biomechanics were submitted to a repeated measures linear mixed model to test the main and interaction effects of load, anticipation, and dual task. With body borne load, participants increased peak stance (PS) hip flexion (p = .004) and hip internal rotation (p = .001) angle, and PS hip flexion (p = .001) and internal rotation (p = .018), and knee flexion (p = .016) and abduction (p = .001) moments. With the dual task, participants decreased PS knee flexion angle (p biomechanical adaptations thought to increase risk of musculoskeletal injury, but neither anticipation nor dual task exaggerated those biomechanical adaptations. With a dual task, participants adopted biomechanics known to increase injury risk; whereas, participants used lower limb biomechanics thought to decrease injury risk during unanticipated cuts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The breakage behaviour of Aspirin under quasi-static indentation and single particle impact loading: effect of crystallographic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanmi, D; Roberts, K J; Ghadiri, M; Ding, Y

    2011-06-15

    The influence of crystallographic structural anisotropy on the breakage behaviour of Aspirin under impact loading is highlighted. Under both quasi-static testing conditions, using nano-indentation, and dynamic impact tests, Aspirin demonstrates clear anisotropy in its slip and fracture behaviour. During nano-indentation on the (100) and (001) faces, cracks were propagated along the [010] direction. While the hardness was found to be comparatively similar for both these faces, it was observed that slip due to plastic deformation occurred more readily on the (100) than the (001) crystal planes suggesting the former as the preferred slip plane. Furthermore, the fracture toughness on the (001) planes was found to be distinctly lower than that of the (100) planes, indicating the former as the preferred cleavage plane. Observations of the crystal morphology of damaged particles after dynamic impact testing showed that both the chipping and fragmentation of Aspirin mostly occurred via cleavage in a manner consistent with the observed fracture behaviour following nano-indentation. This work highlights the importance of cleavage as a dominant factor underpinning the fracture mechanism of Aspirin under both quasi-static and impact loading conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical and molecular dynamics studies on the impact loading of single-layered graphene sheet by fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Amin; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Saeid

    2018-04-01

    Normal impact performance of a system including a fullerene molecule and a single-layered graphene sheet is studied in the present paper. Firstly, through a mathematical approach, a new contact law is derived to describe the overall non-bonding interaction forces of the "hollow indenter-target" system. Preliminary verifications show that the derived contact law gives a reliable picture of force field of the system which is in good agreements with the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Afterwards, equation of the transversal motion of graphene sheet is utilized on the basis of both the nonlocal theory of elasticity and the assumptions of classical plate theory. Then, to derive dynamic behavior of the system, a set including the proposed contact law and the equations of motion of both graphene sheet and fullerene molecule is solved numerically. In order to evaluate outcomes of this method, the problem is modeled by MD simulation. Despite intrinsic differences between analytical and MD methods as well as various errors arise due to transient nature of the problem, acceptable agreements are established between analytical and MD outcomes. As a result, the proposed analytical method can be reliably used to address similar impact problems. Furthermore, it is found that a single-layered graphene sheet is capable of trapping fullerenes approaching with low velocities. Otherwise, in case of rebound, the sheet effectively absorbs predominant portion of fullerene energy.

  5. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  6. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  7. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter. ... KK Mishra, R Gupta ... load varies from time to time, the non linear load ranging from voltage source type harmonic load (VSHL) dominant to current source type harmonic ...

  8. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nischal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework.

  9. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    . It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning.......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed...... to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation...

  10. Structural Impact of Construction Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  11. Load compensation for single phase system using series active filter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Active power filter (APF), current source type of harmonic load ... Single phase active filters could attract less attention than three phase due to its low ..... Generalised single-phase p-q theory for active power filtering: simulation and.

  12. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  13. Impact loads on nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The first step in evaluation of a NPP design for protection against impact loading, is to identify those events that may be credible for a particular site. In connection with external, man-made events IAEA Safety Series No.50-SG-S5 provides a methodology for selecting the events that need to be considered. This presentation deals with modelling of interface forces in projectile impact against unyielding structures, vibrations induced by impact, penetration, scabbing and perforation effects

  14. Precast concrete sandwich panels subjected to impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Matthew W.

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are a relatively new product in the construction industry. The design of these panels incorporates properties that allow for great resilience against temperature fluctuation as well as the very rapid and precise construction of facilities. The concrete sandwich panels investigated in this study represent the second generation of an ongoing research and development project. This second generation of panels have been engineered to construct midsized commercial buildings up to three stories in height as well as residential dwellings. The panels consist of a double-tee structural wythe, a foam core and a fascia wythe, joined by shear connectors. Structures constructed from these panels may be subjected to extreme loading including the effects of seismic and blast loading in addition to wind. The aim of this work was to investigate the behaviour of this particular sandwich panel when subjected to structural impact events. The experimental program consisted of fourteen concrete sandwich panels, five of which were considered full-sized specimens (2700 mm X 1200mm X 270 mm) and nine half-sized specimens (2700mm X 600mm X 270 mm) The panels were subjected to impact loads from a pendulum impact hammer where the total energy applied to the panels was varied by changing the mass of the hammer. The applied loads, displacements, accelerations, and strains at the mid-span of the panel as well as the reaction point forces were monitored during the impact. The behaviour of the panels was determined primarily from the experimental results. The applied loads at low energy levels that caused little to no residual deflection as well as the applied loads at high energy levels that represent catastrophic events and thus caused immediate failure were determined from an impact on the structural and the fascia wythes. Applied loads at intermediate energy levels representing extreme events were also used to determine whether or not the panels could withstand

  15. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. Examples are given for bricks with viscoelastic materials as missiles against a rigid target. (Auth.)

  16. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  17. On-Line Impact Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sekuła

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Adaptive Impact Absorption (AIA is a research area of safety engineering devoted to problems of shock absorption in various unpredictable scenarios of collisions. It makes use of smart technologies (systems equipped with sensors, controllable dissipaters and specialised tools for signal processing. Examples of engineering applications for AIA systems are protective road barriers, automotive bumpers or adaptive landing gears. One of the most challenging problems for AIA systems is on-line identification of impact loads, which is crucial for introducing the optimum real-time strategy of adaptive impact absorption. This paper presents the concept of an impactometer and develops the methodology able to perform real-time impact load identification. Considered dynamic excitation is generated by a mass M1 impacting with initial velocity V0. An analytical formulation of the problem, supported with numerical simulations and experimental verifications is presented. Two identification algorithms based on measured response of the impacted structure are proposed and discussed. Finally, a concept of the AIA device utilizing the idea of impactometer is briefly presented.

  18. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  19. Impact load time histories for viscoelastic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoykovich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Generation of the impact load time history at the contact point between a viscoelastic missile and its targets is presented. In the past, in the case of aircraft striking containment shell structure, the impact load time history was determined on the basis of actual measurements by subjecting a rigid wall to aircraft crash. The effects of elastic deformation of the target upon the impact load time history is formulated in this paper. The missile is idealized by a linear mass-spring-dashpot combination using viscoelastic models. These models can readily be processed taking into account the elastic as well as inelastic deformations of the missiles. The target is assumed to be either linearly elastic or rigid. In the case of the linearly elastic target, the normal mode theory is used to express the time-dependent displacements of the target which is simulated by lumped masses, elastic properties and dashpots in discrete parts. In the case of Maxwell viscoelastic model, the time-dependent displacements of the missile and the target are given in terms of the unknown impact load time history. This leads to an integral equation which may be solved by Laplace transformation. The normal mode theory is provided. The target structure may be composed of different materials with different components. Concrete and steel structural components have inherently different viscous friction damping properties. Hence, the equivalent modal damping depends on the degree of participation of these components in the modal response. An approximate rule for determining damping in any vibration mode by weighting the damping of each component according to the modal energy stored in each component is considered

  20. Initial transformer sizing for single-phase residential load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.C.; Hoad, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The purchase of distribution transformers represents a significant capital investment per year for an electric utility. Choosing the correct thermal and economic size transformer can help control this investment. This paper describes a method for determining the correct economic size of distribution transformers using end-use appliance load profiles and the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.91-1981 thermal model. Although applied only to single family and multifamily residential load in this paper, the method can be extended to other types of load such as commercial or industrial

  1. Concrete structures under impact and impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauk, G.

    1982-05-01

    This book contains papers contributed to the RILEM/CEB/IABSE/IASS-Interassociation Symposium on 'Concrete Structures under Impact and Impulsive Loading'. The essential aim of this symposium is to provide an international forum for the exchange of information on existing and current research relating to impact problems as well as to identify areas to which further research activities should be directed. The subject of the symposium is far ranging. Fifty five papers were proposed and arranged in six technical sessions, a task which sometimes posed difficulties for the Organization Committee and the Advisory Group, because some of the papers touched several topics and were difficult to integrate. However, we are confident that these minor difficulties were solved to the satisfaction of everyone involved. Each session of the symposium is devoted to a major subject area and introduced by a distinguished Introductory Reporter. The large international attendance, some 21 countries are represented, and the large number of excellent papers will certainly produce a lively discussion after each session and thus help to further close the gaps in our knowledge about the behaviour of structures and materials under impact and impulsive loading. (orig./RW)

  2. Dynamical load factor of impact loaded shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamical loaded structures can be analysed by spectral representations, which usually lead to an enormous computational effort. If it is possible to find a fitting dynamical load factor, the dynamical problem can be reduced to a statical one. The computation of this statical problem is much simpler. The disadvantage is that the dynamical load factor usually leads to a very rough approximation. In this paper it will be shown, that by combination of these two methods, the approximation of the dynamical load factor can be improved and the consumption of computation time can be enormously reduced. (Auth.)

  3. Damage Accumulation in Vertical Breakwaters due to Combined Impact Loading and Pulsating Wave Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical wall breakwaters used to protect for example an harbour from large waves usually consist of large concrete caissons placed on the seabed. The wave loads can be divided in two types, pulsating and impact loads. For some types of breakwaters especially the impact wave loads can be very large...

  4. Short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for space heating in a single-family house. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses located in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts. Every hour the hourly heat load for each...... house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used. The models are optimized to fit the individual...... noise and that practically all correlation to the climate variables are removed. Furthermore, the results show that the forecasting errors mainly are related to: unpredictable high frequency variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), shifts in resident behavior patterns...

  5. Study on Mechanical Properties of Barite Concrete under Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. F.; Cheng, K.; Wu, D.; Gan, Y. C.; Tao, Q. W.

    2018-03-01

    In order to research the mechanical properties of Barite concrete under impact load, a group of concrete compression tests was carried out under the impact load by using the drop test machine. A high-speed camera was used to record the failure process of the specimen during the impact process. The test results show that:with the increase of drop height, the loading rate, the peak load, the strain under peak load, the strain rate and the dynamic increase factor (DIF) all increase gradually. The ultimate tensile strain is close to each other, and the time of impact force decreases significantly, showing significant strain rate effect.

  6. Load Insensitive, Low Voltage Quadrature Oscillator Using Single Active Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a load insensitive quadrature oscillator using single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor operated at low voltage is proposed. The proposed circuit employs single active element, three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed oscillator offers two load insensitive quadrature current outputs and three quadrature voltage outputs simultaneously. Effects of non-idealities along with the effects of parasitic are further studied. The proposed circuit enjoys the feature of low active and passive sensitivities. Additionally, a resistorless realization of the proposed quadrature oscillator is also explored. Simulation results using PSPICE program on cadence tool using 90 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process parameters confirm the validity and practical utility of the proposed circuit.

  7. DYNAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS OF BLAST RESISTANT DOOR USING BLAST LOAD MODELED AS IMPACT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Pranata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A blast resistant single door was designed to withstand a 0.91 bar blast pressure and 44 ms blast duration. The analysis was done using Dynamic Time History Analysis using Blast Load modeled as Impact Load for given duration. The material properties used have been modified to accommodate dynamic effects. The analysis was done using dynamic finite element method (fem for time of the blast duration, and the maximum/minimum internal forces and displacement were taken from the time history output, in order to know the behavior under blast load and estimate the safety margin of the door. Results obtained from this research indicated that the maximum z-displacement is 1.709 mm, while in the term of serviceability, the permitted is 25 mm. The maximum reaction force is 73,960 N, while the maximum anchor capacity is 82,069 N. On blast condition, the maximum frame stress is 71.71 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 45.28 MPa. While on rebound condition, the maximum frame stress is 172.11 MPa, the maximum hinge shear stress is 29.46 MPa. The maximum door edge rotation is 0.44 degree, which is not exceed the permitted boundary (1.2 degree. Keywords: Dynamic time history, blast resistant door, single door, finite element method.

  8. Impact loads on beams on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.S.V.; Prasad, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Quite often, complex structural components are idealised as beams in engineering analysis and design. Also, equations governing the responses of shallow shells are mathematically equivalent to the equations governing the responses of beams on elastic foundations. Hence with possible applications in several technical disciplines, the behaviour of beams on elastic foundations subjected to impact loads is studied in detail in the present investigation both analytically and experimentally. The analytical methods include analysis and energy method. The effect of foundation parameters (stiffness, and damping constants) on the dynamic responses of the beam-foundation system has been analysed. In modal analysis, the free-vibration equation has been solved by replacing the applied impulse by suitable initial conditions and the solution has been obtained as the linear combination of an infinite sequence of discrete eigen-vectors. In the energy method, the beam-foundation system is treated to be under forced vibrations and the forcing function has been obtained using the Hertz's law of impact. In the case of free-free end conditions of the beam, the rigid body modes and the elastic modes have been superposed to obtain the total response. The responses predicted using modal analysis are higher than those obtained using energy method. From the present study it is observed that model analysis is preferable to energy method. (Auth.)

  9. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of military aircraft and proximity to commercial air routes requires the analysis of aircraft impact effect on nuclear power plant facilities in Europe. The typical approach on recent projects has been the hardening of safety-related buildings and/or protection of redundant safety-related equipment through separation. The 'hardened-building' approach has led to the consideration of severe shock and vibration caused by the aircraft impact and development of corresponding floor response spectra for component design. Conservatively calculated loads resulting from these are in some cases quite severe. The reactor auxiliary system building (Soft Shell Hardcore design) allows a more defensive alternate in the form of a partially softened design. In this approach the equipment layout is arranged such that equipment performing either safety functions or having the potential for significant release of radioactivity (upon destruction) is located in the central area of the plant and is enclosed in thick concrete walls for shielding and protection purposes. The non-safety class equipment is arranged in the area peripheral to the hardened central area and enclosed in thin concrete walls. Since the kinetic energy of the impacting aircraft is absorbed by the collapsed thin walls and ceilings, the vibrational effect on the safety class equipment is drastically reduced. In order to achieve the objective of absorbing high kinetic energy and yet reduce the shock and vibration effects, the softened exterior walls require low resistance and high ductility. This investigation determines the feasibility of two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model. (Auth.)

  10. Immediate loading with single-piece implant following extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata Dwivedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dental implantology had evolved over a number of years, many dental surgeons are unaware of the concept of immediate loading with the use of one-piece implant that began in the early 1960s. The goal of successful prosthodontics rehabilitation is to provide function, esthetics, and comfort to the patient. The aim of this literature is to provide an overview of one-piece implant, with its advantages and disadvantages over conventional two-piece implant. Immediate prosthetic of a one-piece system allows for a better tissue healing and better adhesion of gingival mucosa to form a collar which is healthy and adherent to the implant, avoiding a second surgical procedure, and also includes a very important aspect esthetics. This article describes a case report of immediate loading with single-piece implant following extraction.

  11. Single-source mechanical loading system produces biaxial stresses in cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J. F.; Stafford, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Single-source mechanical loading system proportions axial-to-hoop tension loads applied to cylindrical specimens. The system consists of hydraulic, pneumatic, and lever arrangements which produce biaxial loading ratios.

  12. 30 CFR 77.806 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.806 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads, such as transformer primaries, shall be connected phase to phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  13. 30 CFR 77.905 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.905 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads shall be connected phase-to-phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  14. Load function modelling for light impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingmueller, O.

    1982-01-01

    For Pile Integrity Testing light weight drop hammers are used to induce stress waves. In the computational analysis of one-dimensional wave propagation a load function has to be used. Several mechanical models and corresponding load functions are discussed. It is shown that a bell-shaped function which does not correspond to a mechanical model is in best accordance with test results and does not lead to numerical disturbances in the computational results. (orig.) [de

  15. Bearing Capacity of Foundations subjected to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    1996-01-01

    In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless it is com......In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless...

  16. Assessing the performance of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ozbolt, Josko; Hofmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures housing nuclear facilities must qualify against much stringent requirements of operating and accidental loads than conventional structures. One such accidental load that must be considered while assessing the performance of safety related RC structures is impact load. It is known that the behavior of concrete/reinforced concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. The RC structural members subjected to impact loads behave quite differently as compared to the same subjected to quasi-static loading due to the strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, and ductility as well as to the activation of inertia forces. Moreover, for concrete structures, which exhibit damage and fracture phenomena, the failure mode and cracking pattern depend significantly on loading rate. In general, there is a tendency that with the increase of loading rate the failure mode changes from mode-I to mixed mode. In order to assess the performance of existing structures against impact loads that may be generated mainly due to man-made accidental conditions, it is important to have models that can realistically predict the impact behavior of concrete structures. The present paper focuses on a relatively new approach for 3D finite element analysis of RC structures under impact loads. The approach uses rate sensitive micro-plane model as constitutive law for concrete, while the strain-rate influence is captured by the activation energy. Inertia forces are implicitly accounted for through dynamic finite element analysis. It is shown with the help of different examples that the approach can very well simulate the behavior of RC structural elements under high rate loading. (author)

  17. Nonlinear analysis of a reactor building for airplane impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, T.; Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

  18. Immediate non-occlusal loading of single implants in the aesthetic zone : A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    P>Aim This study compared the outcome of immediate non-occlusal loading with conventional loading for single implants in the maxillary aesthetic zone. It was hypothesized that immediate non-occlusal loading is not inferior to conventional loading. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with a

  19. Investigating the tension load of rubber composites by impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work deals with establishing the tension load by impact dynamic testing of rubber composite con- veyor belts. ... top layer ('top cover'), a fabric carcass which provide tensile strength, skim ... components of machines like CBs [20]. CBs of ...

  20. Structural design for aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model

  1. BEARING CAPACITY OF A HORIZONTALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE SUPPORT WITH SLEEPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supports of a overhead wiring used in transport take up substantial loads both because of wires and constructions holding them and wind, dynamic and other extraordinary impacts. In case of using single-member piles a question about their stability appears. For this reason different sleepers constructions are used. In order to improve the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded single pile supports of the contact systems used in urban, road and rail transport, power lines, etc.., it is recommended to use sleepers as horizontally laid under the ground in the depth of support beams. The calculation methods for different support sleepers of different lengths and cross sections are not well investigated. The proposed calculation method allows determining the carrying capacity of horizontally loaded bearings with soil pieces of different structural dimensions and their location in the soil, which allows choosing the best option for cost and material consumption. The calculations offered by the authors prove the efficiency of sleepers use in order to increase the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded piles and the possibility to chose their size.

  2. Normal dynamic deformation characteristics of non-consecutive jointed rock masses under impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sheng; Jiang, Bowei; Sun, Bing

    2017-08-01

    In order to study deformation characteristics of non-consecutive single jointed rock masses under impact loads, we used the cement mortar materials to make simulative jointed rock mass samples, and tested the samples under impact loads by the drop hammer. Through analyzing the time-history signal of the force and the displacement, first we find that the dynamic compression displacement of the jointed rock mass is significantly larger than that of the intact jointless rock mass, the compression displacement is positively correlated with the joint length and the impact height. Secondly, the vertical compressive displacement of the jointed rock mass is mainly due to the closure of opening joints under small impact loads. Finally, the peak intensity of the intact rock mass is larger than that of the non-consecutive jointed rock mass and negatively correlated with the joint length under the same impact energy.

  3. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, J. W.; Zeng, X. L.; Li, Y.; E, J. C.; Huang, J. Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Z. [Physics Division P-25, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantify lattice deformation and fracture; fracture is dominated by splitting cracks followed by wing cracks, and diffraction peaks are broadened likely due to mosaic spread. Our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for studying high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.

  4. Residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevkat, Ercan; Tumer, Hikmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact loading reduces the torsional strength of composite shaft. • Impact energy level determines the severity of torsional strength reduction. • Hybrid composite shafts can be manufactured by mixing two types of filament. • Maximum torque capacity of shafts can be estimated using finite element method. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings. E-glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and E-glass–carbon/epoxy hybrid composite shafts were manufactured by filament winding method. Composite shafts were impacted at 5, 10, 20 and 40 J energy levels. Force–time and energy–time histories of impact tests were recorded. One composite shaft with no impact, and four composite shafts with impact damage, five in total, were tested under torsion. Torque-twisting angle relations for each test were obtained. Reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle induced by impact loadings were calculated. While 5 J impact did not cause significant reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle, remaining impact loadings caused 34–67% reduction at maximum torque, and 30–61% reduction at maximum twisting angle. Reductions increased with increasing energy levels and varied depending on the material of composite shafts. The 3-D finite element (FE) software, Abaqus, incorporated with an elastic orthotropic model, was then used to simulate the torsion tests. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was achieved

  5. Impact loading of a space nuclear powerplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny I. Kraus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Preferred formulation of the problem in two space dimensions are described for solving the three fundamental equations of mechanics (conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. Models of the behavior of materials provide the closure to the three fundamentals equations for applications to problems in compressible fluid flow and solid mechanics. Models of fracture and damage are described. A caloric model of the equation of state is proposed to describe thermodynamic properties of solid materials with the phase transitions. Two-dimensional problems of a high-velocity impact of a space nuclear propulsion system reactor are solved. High-velocity impact problems of destruction of reactor are solved for the two cases: 1 at its crash landing on the Earth surface (the impact velocity being up to 400 m/s; 2 at its impact (with velocity up to 16 km/s with the space debris fragments.

  6. Development of a Spring-Loaded Impact Device to Deliver Injurious Mechanical Impacts to the Articular Cartilage Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G.; Song, Yingjie; Taboas, Juan M.; Chen, Faye H.; Melvin, Gary M.; Manner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic impacts on the articular joint surface in vitro are known to lead to degeneration of the cartilage. The main objective of this study was to develop a spring-loaded impact device that can be used to deliver traumatic impacts of consistent magnitude and rate and to find whether impacts cause catabolic activities in articular cartilage consistent with other previously reported impact models and correlated with the development of osteoarthritic lesions. In developing the spring-loaded impactor, the operating hypothesis is that a single supraphysiologic impact to articular cartilage in vitro can affect cartilage integrity, cell viability, sulfated glycosaminoglycan and inflammatory mediator release in a dose-dependent manner. Design: Impacts of increasing force are delivered to adult bovine articular cartilage explants in confined compression. Impact parameters are correlated with tissue damage, cell viability, matrix and inflammatory mediator release, and gene expression 24 hours postimpact. Results: Nitric oxide release is first detected after 7.7 MPa impacts, whereas cell death, glycosaminoglycan release, and prostaglandin E2 release are first detected at 17 MPa. Catabolic markers increase linearly to maximal levels after ≥36 MPa impacts. Conclusions: A single supraphysiologic impact negatively affects cartilage integrity, cell viability, and GAG release in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings showed that 7 to 17 MPa impacts can induce cell death and catabolism without compromising the articular surface, whereas a 17 MPa impact is sufficient to induce increases in most common catabolic markers of osteoarthritic degeneration. PMID:26069650

  7. Hen's eggshell strength under impact loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Dvořáková, Pavla; Buchar, J.; Severa, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, 3-4 (2009), s. 350-357 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA201990701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : numerical simulation * egg * bar impact Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.313, year: 2009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=2&SID=Q14@FMepD39GcdkPk4D&page=1&doc=5&colname=WOS

  8. Response of masonry structure under impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovicka, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with interaction of a short gaseous impact wave with a plate structure. Analyses of dynamic bending, depending on the parameters of the structure and the impact wave (i.e. the stress and displacement field produced by the resulting incident and reflected wave) have been made by FEM. The calculated data was based on the real material properties of this structure. Pressures greater than computed limit pressures result in the failure of the structure. The calculated and experimental data are compared. (author)

  9. Functional adaptation to loading of a single bone is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Susannah J; Behan, Mary; Smith, Lesley; Oldenhoff, William E; Markel, Mark D; Kalscheur, Vicki L; Hao, Zhengling; Miletic, Vjekoslav; Muir, Peter

    2008-09-01

    Regulation of load-induced bone formation is considered a local phenomenon controlled by osteocytes, although it has also been hypothesized that functional adaptation may be neuronally regulated. The aim of this study was to examine bone formation in multiple bones, in response to loading of a single bone, and to determine whether adaptation may be neuronally regulated. Load-induced responses in the left and right ulnas and humeri were determined after loading of the right ulna in male Sprague-Dawley rats (69 +/- 16 days of age). After a single period of loading at -760-, -2000-, or -3750-microepsilon initial peak strain, rats were given calcein to label new bone formation. Bone formation and bone neuropeptide concentrations were determined at 10 days. In one group, temporary neuronal blocking was achieved by perineural anesthesia of the brachial plexus with bupivicaine during loading. We found right ulna loading induces adaptive responses in other bones in both thoracic limbs compared with Sham controls and that neuronal blocking during loading abrogated bone formation in the loaded ulna and other thoracic limb bones. Skeletal adaptation was more evident in distal long bones compared with proximal long bones. We also found that the single period of loading modulated bone neuropeptide concentrations persistently for 10 days. We conclude that functional adaptation to loading of a single bone in young rapidly growing rats is neuronally regulated and involves multiple bones. Persistent changes in bone neuropeptide concentrations after a single loading period suggest that plasticity exists in the innervation of bone.

  10. Impact loads on the pressure vessel top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Malmberg, T.; Messemer, G.

    1995-01-01

    A steam explosion can cause core melt to be bounced against the internal side of the RPV top. The bouncing velocity up to which the top can withstand the impact is to be determined. Plausible assumptions about a core melt mass of 80000 kg result in a tolerable maximum bouncing velocity of about 200 m/s. Reliable estimates are expected from the BERDA experiments simulating a pessimistic course of events on a 1:10 scale. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of Dynamic Properties of Piezoelectric Structure under Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of the dynamic properties is established for a piezoelectric structure under impact load, without considering noise and perturbations in this paper. Based on the general theory of piezo-elasticity and impact mechanics, the theoretical solutions of the mechanical and electrical fields of the smart structure are obtained with the standing and traveling wave methods, respectively. The comparisons between the two methods have shown that the standing wave method is better for studying long-time response after an impact load. In addition, good agreements are found between the theoretical and the numerical results. To simulate the impact load, both triangle and step pulse loads are used and comparisons are given. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters is discussed so as to provide some advices for practical use. It can be seen that the proposed analytical model would benefit, to some extent, the design and application (especially the airport runway of the related smart devices by taking into account their impact load performance.

  12. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  13. Performance of Railway Sleepers with Holes under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chie Hong; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Mlilo, Nhlanganiso

    2017-12-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers are essential structural components of railway track structures, with the purpose of redistributing wheel loads from the rails to the ground. To facilitate cables and signalling equipment, holes are often generated in these prestressed concrete sleepers. However, the performance of these sleepers under impact loading may be a concern with the addition of these holes. Numerical modelling using finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal tool that enables static and dynamic simulation and can perform analyses of basic/advanced linear and nonlinear problems, without incurring a huge cost in resources like standard experimental test methods would. This paper will utilize the three-dimensional FE modelling software ABAQUS to investigate the behaviour of the prestressed concrete sleepers with holes of varying sizes upon impact loading. To obtain the results that resemble real-life behaviour of the sleepers under impact loading, the material properties, element types, mesh sizes, contact and interactions and boundary conditions will be defined as accurately as possible. Both Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) and Brittle Cracking models will be used in this study. With a better understanding of how the introduction of holes will influence the performance of prestressed sleepers under impact loading, track and railway engineers will be able to generate them in prestressed concrete sleepers without compromising the sleepers’ performance during operation

  14. Failure analysis of prestressed concrete beam under impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Sonoda, Y.; Kobayashi, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a failure analysis of prestressed concrete (PC) beam under impact loading. At first, the failure analysis of PC beam section is performed by using the discrete section element method in order to obtain the dynamic bending moment-curvature relation. Secondary, the failure analysis of PC beam is performed by using the rigid panel-spring model. Finally, the numerical calculation is executed and is compared with the experimental results. It is found that this approach can simulate well the experiments at the local and overall failure of the PC beam as well as the impact load and the displacement-time relations. (author)

  15. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  16. Quantitative analysis of impact measurements using dynamic load cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J. Maranzano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is used to estimate material properties from a short duration transient impact force measured by dropping spheres onto rectangular coupons fixed to a dynamic load cell. The contact stress between the dynamic load cell surface and the projectile are modeled using Hertzian contact mechanics. Due to the short impact time relative to the load cell dynamics, an additional Kelvin–Voigt element is included in the model to account for the finite response time of the piezoelectric crystal. Calculations with and without the Kelvin–Voigt element are compared to experimental data collected from combinations of polymeric spheres and polymeric and metallic surfaces. The results illustrate that the inclusion of the Kelvin–Voigt element qualitatively captures the post impact resonance and non-linear behavior of the load cell signal and quantitatively improves the estimation of the Young's elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. Mathematically, the additional KV element couples one additional differential equation to the Hertzian spring-dashpot equation. The model can be numerically integrated in seconds using standard numerical techniques allowing for its use as a rapid technique for the estimation of material properties. Keywords: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Dynamic load cell

  17. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penitente Gabriella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz and two portable force platforms (500 Hz were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg. Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force 0.8 × body weight. These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001 differences were observed in peak force (t(24 = 4.75, ES = 3.37 and time to peak force (t(24 = 2.07, ES = 1.56. Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault.

  18. The dynamic behavior of mortar under impact-loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuaki; Inoue, Kenji; Misawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kyoji; Hayashi, Shizuo; Kondo, Ken-Ichi; Riedel, Werner

    2007-06-01

    Concrete and mortar are the most fundamental structural material. Therefore, considerable interest in characterizing the dynamic behavior of them under impact-loading exists. In this study, plate impact experiments have been performed to determine the dynamic behavior of mortar. Longitudinal and lateral stresses have been directly measured by means of embedded polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) gauges up to 1 GPa. A 200 mm-cal. powder gun enable us to measure longitudinal and lateral stresses at several point from the impact surface, simultaneously. The shear strength under impact-loading has been obtained from measured longitudinal and lateral stresses. The longitudinal stress profile shows a two-wave structure. It is indicated that this structure is associated with the onset of pore compaction and failure of mortar by comparing with hydrocode simulations using an elastic-plastic damage model for concrete.

  19. Investigating the tension load of rubber composites by impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work deals with establishing the tension load by impact dynamic testing of rubber ... Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology, Technical University of Košice, Institute of Logistics, Park Komenského 14, 043 84 ...

  20. Dynamic analysis of reactor containment subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaotian; He Shuyan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic character of reactor containment subjected to aircraft impact loading is analyzed with MSC.DYTRAN program. The displacement of concrete and velocity curve of airplane is obtained. The results of the different material model are compared with empirical formula. It is concluded that reasonable result can be obtained using cap model for concrete

  1. Dynamic strength of rock with single planar joint under various loading rates at various angles of loads applied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Shu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Intact rock-like specimens and specimens that include a single, smooth planar joint at various angles are prepared for split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB testing. A buffer pad between the striker bar and the incident bar of an SHPB apparatus is used to absorb some of the shock energy. This can generate loading rates of 20.2–4627.3 GPa/s, enabling dynamic peak stresses/strengths and associated failure patterns of the specimens to be investigated. The effects of the loading rate and angle of load applied on the dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens are examined. Relevant experimental results demonstrate that the failure pattern of each specimen can be classified as four types: Type A, integrated with or without tiny flake-off; Type B, slide failure; Type C, fracture failure; and Type D, crushing failure. The dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens that have similar failure patterns increase linearly with the loading rate, yielding high correlations that are evident on semi-logarithmic plots. The slope of the failure envelope is the smallest for slide failure, followed by crushing failure, and that of fracture failure is the largest. The magnitude of the plot slope of the dynamic peak stress against the loading rate for the specimens that are still integrated after testing is between that of slide failure and crushing failure. The angle of application has a limited effect on the dynamic peak stresses/strengths of the specimens regardless of the failure pattern, but it affects the bounds of the loading rates that yield each failure pattern, and thus influences the dynamic responses of the single jointed specimen. Slide failure occurs at the lowest loading rate of any failure, but can only occur in single jointed specimen that allows sliding. Crushing failure is typically associated with the largest loading rate, and fracture failure may occur when the loading rate is between the boundaries for slide failure and crushing

  2. Dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete beam subjected to impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro; Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Sato, Koichi; Takano, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to find out the impact behavior of reinforced concrete beams by means of experiment. The reinforced concrete is widely used for such an important structure as the building facilities of the nuclear power plant, and so the impact behavior of the reinforced concrete structures must be examined to estimate the resistance of concrete containment against impact load and to develope the reasonable and reliable design procedure. The impact test on reinforced concrete beam which is one of the most basic elements in the structure was conducted. Main results are summarized as follows. 1) Bending failure occured on static test. On the other hand, shear failure occured in the case of high impact velocity on impact test. 2) Penetration depth and residual deflection are approximately proportional to V 2 (V: velocity at impact). 3) Flexural wave propagates about at the speed of 2000 m/s. 4) The resistance of reinforced concrete beam against the impact load is fairly good. (author)

  3. Recruitment of single human low-threshold motor units with increasing loads at different muscle lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Cresswell, A G

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the recruitment behaviour of low threshold motor units in flexor digitorum superficialis by altering two biomechanical constraints: the load against which the muscle worked and the initial muscle length. The load was increased using isotonic (low load), loaded dynamic (intermediate load) and isometric (high load) contractions in two studies. The initial muscle position reflected resting muscle length in series A, and a longer length with digit III fully extended in series B. Intramuscular EMG was recorded from 48 single motor units in 10 experiments on five healthy subjects, 21 units in series A and 27 in series B, while subjects performed ramp up, hold and ramp down contractions. Increasing the load on the muscle decreased the force, displacement and firing rate of single motor units at recruitment at shorter muscle lengths (Precruitment pattern was observed between loaded dynamic and isotonic contractions, but not between isometric and loaded dynamic contractions. Thus, the recruitment properties of single motor units in human flexor digitorum superficialis are sensitive to changes in both imposed external loads and the initial length of the muscle.

  4. Reduced phrenic motoneuron recruitment during sustained inspiratory threshold loading compared to single-breath loading: a twitch interpolation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Raux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganisation and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganisation between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment, we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganisation should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope. Fourteen healthy subjects (age: 21 – 40 years were studied. Bilateral phrenic stimulation was delivered at rest, upon prepared and targeted voluntary inspiratory efforts (vol, upon unprepared inspiratory efforts against a single-breath inspiratory threshold load (single-breath, and upon sustained inspiratory efforts against the same type of load (continuous. The slope of the relationship between diaphragm twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and the underlying transdiaphragmatic pressure was –1.1 ± 0.2 during vol, –1.5 ± 0.7 during single-breath, and -0.6 ± 0.4 during continuous (all slopes expressed in percent of baseline.percent of baseline-1 all comparisons significant at the 5% level. The contribution of the diaphragm to inspiration, as assessed by the gastric pressure to transdiaphragmatic pressure ratio, was 31 ± 17 % during vol, 22 ± 16 % during single-breath (p=0.13, and 19 ± 9 % during continuous (p = 0.0015 vs. vol. This study shows that the relationship between the amplitude of the transdiaphragmatic pressure produced by a diaphragm twitch and its counterpart produced by the underlying diaphragm contraction is not unequivocal. If twitch interpolation is interpreted as

  5. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure–MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure–MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes. (paper)

  6. Nonlinear system identification of smart structures under high impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarp Arsava, Kemal; Kim, Yeesock; El-Korchi, Tahar; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to develop numerical models for the prediction and analysis of the highly nonlinear behavior of integrated structure control systems subjected to high impact loading. A time-delayed adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (TANFIS) is proposed for modeling of the complex nonlinear behavior of smart structures equipped with magnetorheological (MR) dampers under high impact forces. Experimental studies are performed to generate sets of input and output data for training and validation of the TANFIS models. The high impact load and current signals are used as the input disturbance and control signals while the displacement and acceleration responses from the structure-MR damper system are used as the output signals. The benchmark adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used as a baseline. Comparisons of the trained TANFIS models with experimental results demonstrate that the TANFIS modeling framework is an effective way to capture nonlinear behavior of integrated structure-MR damper systems under high impact loading. In addition, the performance of the TANFIS model is much better than that of ANFIS in both the training and the validation processes.

  7. Experimental Study on Pipe Sections against Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜCÜYEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pipelines are significant structural systems that transfer necessary materials from one place to another. They are under the effect of static and dynamic loads during their service lives. Investigations have become important to determine the effects of sudden dynamic loads with technological developments. Researchers study the mechanical properties of different materials and structural members under dynamic effects such as earthquake, wind, blast, rock falling and vehicle crushing. For this purpose, different test setups have been developed to investigate the behaviour of test members. In this study, galvanized and water filled galvanized pipe sections having three different diameter values are produced in a laboratory to perform tests under impact loading. The behaviour of the pipes is determined by free falling test apparatus. In addition, measurement devices as accelerometer, dynamic force sensor, lvdt, and data logger are used in the experimental program. So, acceleration, impact force, and displacement values are obtained during the tests. Besides, damage developments of the pipes are also observed to determine the impact resistances of test members. The results are compared to each other and it is stated that while acceleration and impact force values decrease, displacement values increase as the test members approach to collapse damage situation.

  8. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V; Ashcroft, I A

    2011-01-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  9. Grid faults' impact on wind turbine structural loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Iov, F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to illustrate the impact of the grid faults on the wind turbine structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in detailed power system simulation tools, which by applying simplified mechanical models, are not able to provide a throughout insight...... on the structural loads caused by sudden disturbances on the grid. On the other hand, structural loads of the wind turbine are typically assessed in advanced aerolastic computer codes, which by applying simplified electrical models do not provide detailed electrical insight. This paper presents a simulation...... strategy, where the focus is on how to access a proper combination of two complimentary simulations tools, such as the advanced aeroelastic computer code HAWC2 and the detailed power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, in order to provide a whole overview of both the structural and the electrical behaviour...

  10. Attrition of limestone by impact loading in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizio Scala; Fabio Montagnaro; Piero Salatino [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy). Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione

    2007-09-15

    The present study addresses limestone attrition and fragmentation associated with impact loading, a process which may occur extensively in various regions of fluidized bed (FB) combustors/gasifiers, primarily the jetting region of the bottom bed, the exit region of the riser, and the cyclone. An experimental protocol for the characterization of the propensity of limestone to undergo attrition/fragmentation by impact loading is reported. The application of the protocol is demonstrated with reference to an Italian limestone whose primary fragmentation and attrition by surface wear have already been characterized in previous studies. The experimental procedure is based on the characterization of the amount and particle size distribution of the debris generated upon the impact of samples of sorbent particles against a target. Experiments were carried out at a range of particle impact velocities between 10 and 45 m/s, consistent with jet velocities corresponding to typical pressure drops across FB gas distributors. The protocol has been applied to either raw or preprocessed limestone samples. In particular, the effect of calcination, sulfation, and calcination/recarbonation cycles on the impact damage suffered by sorbent particles has been assessed. The measurement of particle voidage and pore size distribution by mercury intrusion was also accomplished to correlate fragmentation with the structural properties of the sorbent samples. Fragmentation by impact loading of the limestone is significant. Lime displays the largest propensity to undergo impact damage, followed by the sorbent sulfated to exhaustion, the recarbonated sorbent, and the raw limestone. Fragmentation of the raw limestone and of the sulfated lime follows a pattern typical of the failure of brittle materials. The fragmentation behavior of lime and recarbonated lime better conforms to a disintegration failure mode, with an extensive generation of very fine fragments. 27 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab.

  11. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  12. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of an adhesively bonded single lap joint subjected to eccentric loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    is benchmarking of computational tools. The test is based on a Single Lap Joint subjected to Eccentric Loading (SLJ-EL). The basic concept that lies behind this configuration is that the applied in-plane tensile load leads the adhesive layer to develop normal stresses, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses...

  14. Cargo response to railcar impact and tiedown load analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study that investigated the loads produced during coupling of railcars carrying heavy shipping containers is described. The structural model of the impact event is represented by a lumped parameter technique. Each discrete mass lump possesses longitudinal, vertical, and rotational degrees of freedom. The resulting computer simulation provides for nonlinear railcar coupler stiffness and linear damping forces in the coupler and container tiedowns. Results include response to parametric variations in container weight, impact speed, and tiedown stiffness. Container dynamic response and tiedown loads are found to depend heavily on these parameters. Also, railcar bending and subsequent vertical motion are shown to be important contributors to these responses. When experimentally substantiated, the model can serve as a useful tool in the design and evaluation of shipping container tiedown structures

  15. Behaviour of fiber reinforced concrete slabs under impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelsewig, M.; Stilp, A.; Pahl, H.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of steel fiber reinforced concrete slabs under impact loads has been investigated. The results obtained show that fracturing and spallation effects are reduced to a large extend due to the high energy absorption and the increased yield strength of this material. Crater depths are comparable to those obtained using normal concrete targets. Systematic tests using different fiber types and dimensions show that the terminal ballistic behaviour is strongly dependent on these parameters. (orig.) [de

  16. Load and wear experiments on the impact hammer of a vertical shaft impact crusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J H; Fang, H Y; Luo, M

    2015-01-01

    Impact hammers are important components of impact crushers, and are often shortlived due to the high-impact nature of their use. Wear-resistant alloys are welded to the surface of impact hammers to prolong their service life. In this paper, a simulation model of the rotor and impact hammers in impact crushers was designed to utilize the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The wear-resistant alloy on each impact hammer was divided into twenty-two action regions. The load distribution on each alloy block is affected by the structural and manufacturing parameters of the impact crusher. The wear distribution of the impact hammer was measured by shape morphology according to relative impact crushers. The results demonstrated that the real measurements of wear distribution on the impact hammer were similar to simulated load distribution measurements on the same surface. The study of load distribution of impact hammers by DEM established a theoretical foundation on which to base the optimal design of impact crushers. (paper)

  17. Mechanical Model for Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanxiang

    Concrete is a geo-material which is used substantively in the civil building and military safeguard. One coupled model of damage and plasticity to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loading is proposed in this research work. The concrete is assumed as homogeneous continuum with pre-existing micro-cracks and micro-voids. Damage to concrete is caused due to micro-crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, and defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density. It induces a decrease of strength and stiffness of concrete. Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material voids. It produces the plastic strain in the concrete and, at the same time, an increase of the bulk modulus. In terms of crack growth model, micro-cracks are activated, and begin to propagate gradually. When crack density reaches a critical value, concrete takes place the smashing destroy. The model parameters for mortar are determined using plate impact experiment with uni-axial strain state. Comparison with the test results shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the impact behavior of concrete. The proposed model may be used to design and analysis of concrete structures under impact and shock loading. This work is supported by State Key Laboratory of Explosion science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology (YBKT14-02).

  18. The impact of cognitive load on reward evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigolson, Olave E; Hassall, Cameron D; Satel, Jason; Klein, Raymond M

    2015-11-19

    The neural systems that afford our ability to evaluate rewards and punishments are impacted by a variety of external factors. Here, we demonstrate that increased cognitive load reduces the functional efficacy of a reward processing system within the human medial-frontal cortex. In our paradigm, two groups of participants used performance feedback to estimate the exact duration of one second while electroencephalographic (EEG) data was recorded. Prior to performing the time estimation task, both groups were instructed to keep their eyes still and avoid blinking in line with well established EEG protocol. However, during performance of the time-estimation task, one of the two groups was provided with trial-to-trial-feedback about their performance on the time-estimation task and their eye movements to induce a higher level of cognitive load relative to participants in the other group who were solely provided with feedback about the accuracy of their temporal estimates. In line with previous work, we found that the higher level of cognitive load reduced the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, a component of the human event-related brain potential associated with reward evaluation within the medial-frontal cortex. Importantly, our results provide further support that increased cognitive load reduces the functional efficacy of a neural system associated with reward processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Saferooms Subjected to Tornado Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfilko, Y.; Amaral de Arruda, F.; Varela, B.

    2017-10-01

    A Tornado is one of the most dreadful and unpredictable events in nature. Unfortunately, weather and geographic conditions make a large portion of the United States prone to this phenomenon. Tornado saferooms are monolithic reinforced concrete protective structures engineered to guard against these natural disasters. Saferooms must withstand impacts and wind loads from EF-5 tornadoes - where the wind speed reaches up to 150 m/s (300 mph) and airborne projectiles can reach up to 50 m/s (100 mph). The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of a saferoom under impact from tornado-generated debris and tornado-dragged vehicles. Numerical simulations were performed to model the impact problem using explicit dynamics and energy methods. Finite element models of the saferoom, windborne debris, and vehicle models were studied using the LS-DYNA software. RHT concrete material was used to model the saferoom and vehicle models from NCAC were used to characterize damage from impacts at various speeds. Simulation results indicate good performance of the saferoom structure at vehicle impact speeds up to 25 meters per second. Damage is more significant and increases nonlinearly starting at impact velocities of 35 m/s (78 mph). Results of this study give valuable insight into the dynamic response of saferooms subjected to projectile impacts, and provide design considerations for civilian protective structures. Further work is being done to validate the models with experimental measurements.

  20. Pipe/duct system design for tornado missile impact loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Wang, S.; Johnson, W., E-mail: whjohnso@bechtel.com

    2014-04-01

    For nuclear power plant life extension projects, it may be convenient and in some instances necessary to locate safety-related steel ducts and pipes outside of the main structures, exposing them to extreme environmental loads such as tornado missile impact. Examples of this application include emergency firewater lines and Control Room vent ducts. A typical exposed commodity run could be comprised of a rectangular or circular cross-section with horizontal and vertical segments supported at variable spans off of roof and wall panels, respectively. Efficient and economical design of such a tornado-impacted duct or pipe system, consisting of the commodity and its supports, must exploit all of the system's capability to absorb the impact energy by deforming plastically to the fullest extent allowable. Energy can be absorbed locally in the vicinity of impact on the commodity, globally through rotation at flexural plastic hinges, and through yielding of the supports. In this paper a simplified NDOF lumped parameter nonlinear analysis methodology is presented and applied to the coupled commodity/support system subjected to tornado impulse loading. The analysis methodology is confirmed using a detailed ANSYS nonlinear finite element model. Optimization of the initial trial design is achieved by progressively decreasing the support resistances, while monitoring the response ductilities throughout the system. Evaluation methodologies are provided for the four types of plastic deformation responses which occur in the system: local response in the immediate vicinity of impact, flexural and membrane response of the sidewall out to one or two times the commodity depth beyond the point of impact, global response of the commodity as a beam spanning between supports, and the shear and flexural response of support. The inelastic responses are evaluated against AISC N690 acceptance criteria (ANSI, 2006), supplemented as appropriate by triaxiality considerations for inelastic

  1. A technique for measuring dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y L; Qin, J G; Chen, R; Zhao, P D; Lu, F Y

    2014-09-01

    We develop a novel setup based on the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique to test the dynamic friction coefficient under impact loading. In the setup, the major improvement is that the end of the incident bar near the specimen is wedge-shaped, which results in a combined compressive and shear loading applied to the specimen. In fact, the shear loading is caused by the interfacial friction between specimen and bars. Therefore, when the two loading force histories are measured, the friction coefficient histories can be calculated without any assumptions and theoretical derivations. The geometry of the friction pairs is simple, and can be either cuboid or cylindrical. Regarding the measurements, two quartz transducers are used to directly record the force histories, and an optical apparatus is designed to test the interfacial slip movement. By using the setup, the dynamic friction coefficient of PTFE/aluminum 7075 friction pairs was tested. The time resolved dynamic friction coefficient and slip movement histories were achieved. The results show that the friction coefficient changes during the loading process, the average data of the relatively stable flat plateau section of the friction coefficient curves is 0.137, the maximum normal pressure is 52 MPa, the maximum relative slip velocity is 1.5 m/s, and the acceleration is 8400 m(2)/s. Furthermore, the friction test was simulated using an explicit FEM code LS-DYNA. The simulation results showed that the constant pressure and slip velocity can both be obtained with a wide flat plateau incident pulse. For some special friction pairs, normal pressure up to a few hundred MPa, interfacial slip velocities up to 10 m/s, and slip movement up to centimeter-level can be expected.

  2. Impact of onsite solar generation on system load demand forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Pedro, Hugo T.C.; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We showed the impact onsite solar generation on system demand load forecast. • Forecast performance degrades by 9% and 3% for 1 h and 15 min forecast horizons. • Error distribution for onsite case is best characterized as t-distribution. • Relation between error, solar penetration and solar variability is characterized. - Abstract: Net energy metering tariffs have encouraged the growth of solar PV in the distribution grid. The additional variability associated with weather-dependent renewable energy creates new challenges for power system operators that must maintain and operate ancillary services to balance the grid. To deal with these issues power operators mostly rely on demand load forecasts. Electric load forecast has been used in power industry for a long time and there are several well established load forecasting models. But the performance of these models for future scenario of high renewable energy penetration is unclear. In this work, the impact of onsite solar power generation on the demand load forecast is analyzed for a community that meets between 10% and 15% of its annual power demand and 3–54% of its daily power demand from a solar power plant. Short-Term Load Forecasts (STLF) using persistence, machine learning and regression-based forecasting models are presented for two cases: (1) high solar penetration and (2) no penetration. Results show that for 1-h and 15-min forecasts the accuracy of the models drops by 9% and 3% with high solar penetration. Statistical analysis of the forecast errors demonstrate that the error distribution is best characterized as a t-distribution for the high penetration scenario. Analysis of the error distribution as a function of daily solar penetration for different levels of variability revealed that the solar power variability drives the forecast error magnitude whereas increasing penetration level has a much smaller contribution. This work concludes that the demand forecast error distribution

  3. Analysis of reinforced concrete structures subjected to aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.; Scharpf, F.; Schwarz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Concerning the evaluation of the effects of aircraft impact loading on the reactor building and the contained equipment special interest belongs to both the characteristic of loading conditions and the consideration of the nonlinear behaviour of the local impacted area as well as the overall behaviour of the structure. To cover this extensive scope of problems the fully 3-dimensional code DYSMAS/L was prepared for the analysis of highly dynamic continuum mechanics problems. For this totally Lagrangian description, derived and tested in the field of the simulation of impact phenomena and penetration of armoured structures, an extension was made for the reasonable modelling of the material behaviour of reinforced concrete. Conforming the available experimental data a nonlinear stress-strain curve is given and a continuous triaxial failure-surface is composed which allows cracking of concrete in the tensile region and its crushing in the compressive mode. For the separately modeled reinforcement an elastic-plastic stress-strain relationship with kinematic hardening is used. (orig./RW)

  4. Damage in woven CFRP laminates under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, H.; Harland, A. R.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large dynamic bending deformations caused by impact loading. Composite materials subjected to such loads demonstrate various damage modes such as matrix cracking, delamination and, ultimately, fabric fracture. Damage evolution affects both in-service properties and performance of CFRP that can deteriorate with time. These failure modes need adequate means of analysis and investigation, the major approaches being experimental characterisation and numerical simulations. This research deals with a deformation behaviour and damage in composite laminates due to dynamic bending. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of a woven CFRP material under large-deflection dynamic bending in impact tests carried out to obtain the force-time and absorbed energy profiles for CFRP laminates. Damage in the impacted laminates is analysed using optical microscopy. Numerical simulations are performed to study the deformation behaviour and damage in CFRP for cases of large-deflection bending based on three-dimensional finite-element models implemented in the commercial code Abaqus/Explicit. Multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to model the initiation and progression of inter-ply delamination observed in the microscopy studies. The obtained results of simulations show good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations. These double acting telescopic type hydraulic braking systems possess significant drawbacks linked to possibly important hydraulic leaks due to (a) the use of many dynamic seals in such appliances and (b) the effects of the environment of the system on these seals, particularly when employed in nuclear power stations where the seals reach significant temperatures and are subjected to radiation. Under this invention a remedy is suggested to such drawbacks by integrating means to offset automatically the leaks and the accumulation of hydraulic fluid expansions, as well as facilities to show if such leaks have occurred [fr

  6. Grid faults' impact on wind turbine structural loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Cutululis, N.A.; Soerensen, P.; Larsen, T.J. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Iov, F.

    2007-11-15

    The objective of this work is to illustrate the impact of the grid faults on the wind turbine structural loads. Grid faults are typically in detailed power system simulation tools, which by applying simplified mechanical models, are not able to provide a throughout insight on the structural loads caused by sudden disturbances on the grid. On the other hand, structural loads of the wind turbine are typically assessed in advanced aeroelastic computer codes, which by applying simplified electrical models do not provide detailed electrical insight. This paper presents a simulation strategy, where the focus is on how to access a proper combination of two complementary simulation tools, such as the advanced aeroelastic computer code HAWC2 and the detailed power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, in order to provide a whole overview of both the structural and the electrical behaviour of the wind turbine during grid faults. The effect of a grid fault on the wind turbine flexible structure is assessed for a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator. (au)

  7. Refractive indices of CaF2 single crystals under elastic shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Refractive indices and Hugoniots of CaF2 single crystals are investigated by laser displacement interferometry under shock loading below 5 GPa. Birefringence is observed for the [110] loading. We obtain the Hugoniot equation of states for [100], [110] and [111], and refractive indices for these orientations with consideration of their polarization. The measured refractive indices are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the piezo-optic theory, and are used to refine the elasto-optic coefficients.

  8. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Limit load solution for electron beam welded joints with single edge weld center crack in tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Shi, Yaowu; Li, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yongping

    2012-05-01

    Limit loads are widely studied and several limit load solutions are proposed to some typical geometry of weldments. However, there are no limit load solutions exist for the single edge crack weldments in tension (SEC(T)), which is also a typical geometry in fracture analysis. The mis-matching limit load for thick plate with SEC(T) are investigated and the special limit load solutions are proposed based on the available mis-matching limit load solutions and systematic finite element analyses. The real weld configurations are simplified as a strip, and different weld strength mis-matching ratio M, crack depth/width ratio a/ W and weld width 2H are in consideration. As a result, it is found that there exists excellent agreement between the limit load solutions and the FE results for almost all the mis-matching ration M, a/ W and ligament-to-weld width ratio ( W-a)/ H. Moreover, useful recommendations are given for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structure with SEC(T). For the EBW joints with SEC(T), the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal, when M changing from 1.6 to 0.6. When M decreasing to 0.4, the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal only for large value of ( W-a)/ H. The recommendations may be useful for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structures with SEC(T). The engineering simplifications are given for assessing the limit loads of electron beam welded structure with SEC(T).

  10. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an inbalance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are diff...

  11. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse arewidely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of suchstructures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealingan in balance between the strength (structural integrity) of the units and thehydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakageis caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficu...

  12. Single and double ionization of gallium by electron impact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron impact single and double ionization cross sections of gallium have been calcu- ... The experimental data on single ionization have been compared with the empirical and ..... and multiplication sign curve (¢¢¢) represent present.

  13. Deterministic fabrication of dielectric loaded waveguides coupled to single nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    We report on the fabrication of dielectric-loaded-waveguides which are excited by single-nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds. The waveguides are deterministically written onto the pre-characterized nanodiamonds by using electron beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist...... on silver-coated silicon substrate. Change in lifetime for NV-centers is observed after fabrication of waveguides and an antibunching in correlation measurement confirms that nanodiamonds contain single NV-centers....

  14. Buckling behavior analysis of spacer grid by lateral impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    2000-05-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, Which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. Therefore, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, free fall type shock tests on the several kinds of the specimens of the spacer grids were also carried out in order to compare the results among the candidate grids. A free fall carriage on the specimen accomplishes the test. In addition to this, a finite element method for predicting the critical impact strength of the spacer grids is described. FE method on the buckling behavior of the spacer grids are performed for a various array of sizes of the grids considering that the spacer grid is an assembled structure with thin-walled plates and imposing proper boundary conditions by nonlinear dynamic impact analysis using ABAQUS/explicit code. The simulated results results also similarly predicted the local buckling phenomena and were found to give good correspondence with the shock test results

  15. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1993-04-01

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  16. Fracture behavior of nuclear graphites under tensile impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni

    1994-01-01

    Impact tensile strength test was performed with two kinds of HTTR graphites, fine grained isotropic graphite, IG-11 and coarse grained near isotropic graphite, PGX and deformation and fracture behavior under the strain rate of over 100s -1 was measured and the following results were derived: (1) Tensile strength for IG-11 graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but over 1 s -1 , tensile strength for IG-11 graphite increase larger than that measured under 1 s -1 . At the strain rate more than 100 s -1 , remarkable decrease of tensile strength for IG-11 graphite was found. Tensile strength of PGX graphite does not depend on the strain rate less than 1 s -1 , but beyond this value, the sharp tensile strength decrease occurs. (2) Under 100 s -1 , fracture strain for both graphites increase with increase of strain rate and over 100 s -1 , drastic increase of fracture strain for IG-11 graphite was found. (3) At the part of gage length, volume of specimen increase with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (4) Poisson's ratio for both graphites decrease with increase of tensile loading level and strain rate. (5) Remarkable change of stress-strain curve for both graphites under 100 s -1 was not found, but over 100 s -1 , the slope of these curve for IG-11 graphite decrease drastically. (author)

  17. Impact loading of a BWR control rod during braking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeschen, U.

    1977-01-01

    In an emergency case the control rods of a boiling water reactor are shot into the RPV from below against the weight of the rods with drive motors. According to the position of the control rods between the fuel elements the rods can reach in that case velocities up to 4 m/s. The moved masses of the control rods and of the pistons (both of them are connected by a coupling) are braked through a cup spring which transfers its forces to the RPV-bottom sphere. The spring has to be designed that in this case tthe complete kinetic energy of he control rods of about 1000Nm can be taken up. The spring power and the inertia of the moved masses cause extremely high loadings during and shortly after the impact onto the spring. The shock-like loading propagates along the whole rod at the speed of sound, and this is also the reason why the weaker cross-sections have to endure considerable short-term stress peaks. (Auth.)

  18. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanan, Jay C. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: jay.hanan@okstate.edu; Mahesh, Sivasambu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: ersan@caltech.edu; Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Swift, Geoffrey A. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture.

  19. Strain evolution after fiber failure in a single-fiber metal matrix composite under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Mahesh, Sivasambu; Uestuendag, Ersan; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Swift, Geoffrey A.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald W.; Bourke, Mark A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of in situ elastic strain with cyclic tensile loading in each phase of a single Al 2 O 3 -fiber/aluminum-matrix composite was studied using neutron diffraction (ND). An analytical model appropriate for metal matrix composites (MMCs) was developed to connect the measured axial strain evolution in each phase with the possible micromechanical events that could occur during loading at room temperature: fiber fracture, interfacial slipping, and matrix plastic deformation. Model interpretation showed that the elastic strain evolution in the fiber and matrix was governed by fiber fracture and interface slipping and not by plastic deformation of the matrix, whereas the macroscopic stress-strain response of the composite was influenced by all three. The combined single-fiber composite model and ND experiment introduces a new and quick engineering approach for qualifying the micromechanical response in MMCs due to cyclic loading and fiber fracture

  20. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses 2. Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate strength of a dental prosthesis is defined as the strongest loading force applied to the prosthesis until afracture failure occurs. Important key terms are strength, hardness, toughness and fatigue. Relatively prevalent complications of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are

  1. Allostatic Load: Single Parents, Stress-Related Health Issues, and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Randy L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible relationships between allostatic load (AL) and stress-related health issues in the low-income single-parent population, using both a population health perspective (PHP) and a biological framework. A PHP identifies associations among such factors as gender, income, employment, and social support and their…

  2. [Loading and strength of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses. 1. Retention and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Meijers, C.C.A.J.; Vergoossen, E.L.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses are able to withstand loading forces is dependent, among other things, on the quality of their retention and resistance. The quality of the retention and resistance of the configuration of an abutment tooth prepared for a metal and

  3. Behaviour of cellular structures with fluid fillers under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Vesenjak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the behaviour of closed- and open-cell cellular structures under uniaxial impact loading by means of computational simulations using the explicit nonlinear finite element code LS-DYNA. Simulations also consider the influence of pore fillers and the base material strain rate sensitivity. The behaviour of closed-cell cellular structure has been evaluated with use of the representative volume element, where the influence of residual gas inside the closed pores has been studied. Open- cell cellular structure was modelled as a whole to properly account for considered fluid flow through the cells, which significantly influences macroscopic behaviour of the cellular structure. The fluid has been modelled by applying a meshless Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH method. Parametric computational simulations provide grounds for optimization of cellular structures to satisfy different requirements, which makes them very attractive for use in general engineering applications.

  4. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...... is applied in this analysis. A typical Danish primary power distribution system is used as a test case for the studies. From the simulation results, not more than 10% of electric vehicles could be integrated in the test system for the dump charging mode. About 40% of electric vehicle loads could...

  5. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  6. Controlled nanostructure and high loading of single-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced polycarbonate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiren; Liang Zhiyong; Pham, Giang; Park, Young-Bin; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Kramer, Leslie; Funchess, Percy

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an effective technique to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with high loading of well-dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNT membranes were made from a multi-step dispersion and filtration method, and then impregnated with polycarbonate solution to make thermoplastic nanocomposites. High loading of nanotubes was achieved by controlling the viscosity of polycarbonate solution. SEM and AFM characterization results revealed the controlled nanostructure in the resultant nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical property tests indicated that the storage modulus of the resulting nanocomposites at 20 wt% nanotubes loading was improved by a factor of 3.4 compared with neat polycarbonate material. These results suggest the developed approach is an effective way to fabricate thermoplastic nanocomposites with good dispersion and high SWNT loading

  7. Properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels as a function of nanotube loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Hamza, Alex V.; Satcher, Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of low-density single-walled carbon nanotube-based aerogels (SWNT-CA). Aerogels with varying nanotube loading (0-55 wt.%) and density (20-350 mg cm -3 ) were fabricated and characterized by four-probe method, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen porosimetry. Several properties of the SWNT-CAs were highly dependent upon nanotube loading. At nanotube loadings of 55 wt.%, shrinkage of the aerogel monoliths during carbonization and drying was almost completely eliminated. Electrical conductivities are improved by an order of magnitude for the SWNT-CA (55 wt.% nanotubes) compared to those of foams without nanotubes. Surface areas as high as 184 m 2 g -1 were achieved for SWNT-CAs with greater than 20 wt.% nanotube loading.

  8. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of carbon steel piping material subjected to single overload/under-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Tripathi, R.; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) behaviour after single over-load/ under-load event on carbon steel piping material. The tests have been carried out on standard Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The effect of different crack length to width ratio (a/W) of specimen and overload/under-load ratios on FCGR have been studied. The studies have shown significant reduction in FCG rate after overload event. The strain field has been measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique ahead of the crack tip to quantify the plastic zone size due to overload and constant amplitude load. In addition, plastic zone calculations have also been carried out using 3D finite element analyses for the prediction of post overload FCGR/ life. The predicted FCGR are in agreement with experimentally determined FCGR. (author)

  9. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on....... slender armour units can be studied. by load-cell technique. Moreover, the paper presents DoJos design diagrams for the prediction of both breakage and hydraulic stability...

  10. Damage evolution analysis of coal samples under cyclic loading based on single-link cluster method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Nan; Li, Xuelong; Wang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhonghui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) response of coal samples under cyclic loading is measured. The results show that there is good positive relation between AE parameters and stress. The AE signal of coal samples under cyclic loading exhibits an obvious Kaiser Effect. The single-link cluster (SLC) method is applied to analyze the spatial evolution characteristics of AE events and the damage evolution process of coal samples. It is found that a subset scale of the SLC structure becomes smaller and smaller when the number of cyclic loading increases, and there is a negative linear relationship between the subset scale and the degree of damage. The spatial correlation length ξ of an SLC structure is calculated. The results show that ξ fluctuates around a certain value from the second cyclic loading process to the fifth cyclic loading process, but spatial correlation length ξ clearly increases in the sixth loading process. Based on the criterion of microcrack density, the coal sample failure process is the transformation from small-scale damage to large-scale damage, which is the reason for changes in the spatial correlation length. Through a systematic analysis, the SLC method is an effective method to research the damage evolution process of coal samples under cyclic loading, and will provide important reference values for studying coal bursts.

  11. Prediction method for cavitation erosion based on measurement of bubble collapse impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, S; Hirose, T; Sugiyama, K

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of cavitation erosion rates is important in order to evaluate the exact life of components. The measurement of impact loads in bubble collapses helps to predict the life under cavitation erosion. In this study, we carried out erosion tests and the measurements of impact loads in bubble collapses with a vibratory apparatus. We evaluated the incubation period based on a cumulative damage rule by measuring the impact loads of cavitation acting on the specimen surface and by using the 'constant impact load - number of impact loads curve' similar to the modified Miner's rule which is employed for fatigue life prediction. We found that the parameter Σ(F i α xn i ) (F i : impact load, n i : number of impacts and α: constant) is suitable for the evaluation of the erosion life. Moreover, we propose a new method that can predict the incubation period under various cavitation conditions.

  12. Impact of overweight vehicles (with heavy axle loads) on bridge deck deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bridge deck slabs develop compressive stresses from global flexural deformation and locally from high-level : wheel loads when it is subjected to overweight trucks. This study quantified the impact of overweight vehicles : with heavy axle loads on br...

  13. Concrete road barriers subjected to impact loads: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fauzi Bin Mohd. Zain

    Full Text Available Abstract Concrete barriers prevent vehicles from entering the opposite lane and going off the road. An important factor in the design of concrete barriers is impact load, which a vehicle exerts upon collision with a concrete barrier. This study suggests that a height of 813 mm, a base width of 600 mm, and a top width of 240 mm are optimum dimensions for a concrete barrier. These dimensions ensure the stability of concrete barriers during vehicle collisions. An analytical and experimental model is used to analyze the concrete barrier design. The LS-DYNA software is utilized to create the analytical models because it can effectively simulate vehicle impact on concrete barriers. Field tests are conducted with a vehicle, whereas laboratory tests are conducted with machines that simulate collisions. Full-scale tests allow the actual simulation of vehicle collisions with concrete barriers. In the vehicle tests, a collision angle of 25°, collision speeds of 100 km per hour, and a vehicle weighing more than 2 t are considered in the reviewed studies. Laboratory tests are performed to test bridge concrete barriers in static condition.

  14. Biomechanical loading on the upper extremity increases from single key tapping to directional tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Trudeau, Matthieu; Katz, Jeffrey N; Buchholz, Bryan; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders associated with computer use span the joints of the upper extremity. Computing typically involves tapping in multiple directions. Thus, we sought to describe the loading on the finger, wrist, elbow and shoulder joints in terms of kinematic and kinetic difference across single key switch tapping to directional tapping on multiple keys. An experiment with repeated measures design was conducted. Six subjects tapped with their right index finger on a stand-alone number keypad placed horizontally in three conditions: (1) on single key switch (the number key 5); (2) left and right on number key 4 and 6; (3) top and bottom on number key 8 and 2. A force-torque transducer underneath the keypad measured the fingertip force. An active-marker infrared motion analysis system measured the kinematics of the fingertip, hand, forearm, upper arm and torso. Joint moments for the metacarpophalangeal, wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints were estimated using inverse dynamics. Tapping in the top-bottom orientation introduced the largest biomechanical loading on the upper extremity especially for the proximal joint, followed by tapping in the left-right orientation, and the lowest loading was observed during single key switch tapping. Directional tapping on average increased the fingertip force, joint excursion, and peak-to-peak joint torque by 45%, 190% and 55%, respectively. Identifying the biomechanical loading patterns associated with these fundamental movements of keying improves the understanding of the risks of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for computer keyboard users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of tibia element on the tibia response due to impact loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pandelani, T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , specifically for anti-vehicular mine blast scenarios. The aim of this study was to assess under impact loading to ensure that it represents the natural lower leg response. Axial impact loads were applied to the MIL-Lx at impact velocities of 2.7 to 10.2 m...

  16. Twinning behavior in the Ti-5at.% Al single crystals during cyclic loading along [0001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin

    2005-01-01

    Cyclic deformation behavior of Ti-5at.% Al single crystals subjected to pull-push cyclic load along [0001] crystallographic orientation was studied. A higher cyclic stress response was displayed in the Ti-5Al single crystal oriented for [0001] than that oriented for single prism slip. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examinations show that twinning is a dominant plastic deformation mode in the single crystals during cycling. Trace analysis of prepolished surfaces was used to identify the twin systems primarily responsible for deformation. The major twin type observed was {101-bar 2}, {112-bar 2}, {101-bar 1} and {112-bar 1}. slip was observed in the neighboring region of twins in the fatigued specimens. The activation of multiple twinning systems contributed to the higher cyclic saturation stress in Ti-5Al single crystals oriented for [0001

  17. Behavior of single lap composite bolted joint under traction loading: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadhani, L. V.; Bewoor, Anand

    2018-04-01

    Composite bolted joints are preferred connection in the composite structures to facilitate the dismantling for the replacements/ maintenance work. The joint behavior under tractive forces has been studied in order to understand the safety of the structure designed. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the behavior of single-lap joints in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites under traction loading conditions. The experiments were designed to identify the effect of bolt diameter, stacking sequence and loading rate on the properties of the joint. The experimental results show that the parameters influence the joint performance significantly.

  18. Loading direction-dependent shear behavior at different temperatures of single-layer chiral graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Dong, Shuhong; Yu, Peishi; Zhao, Junhua

    2018-06-01

    The loading direction-dependent shear behavior of single-layer chiral graphene sheets at different temperatures is studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results show that the shear properties (such as shear stress-strain curves, buckling strains, and failure strains) of chiral graphene sheets strongly depend on the loading direction due to the structural asymmetry. The maximum values of both the critical buckling shear strain and the failure strain under positive shear deformation can be around 1.4 times higher than those under negative shear deformation. For a given chiral graphene sheet, both its failure strain and failure stress decrease with increasing temperature. In particular, the amplitude to wavelength ratio of wrinkles for different chiral graphene sheets under shear deformation using present MD simulations agrees well with that from the existing theory. These findings provide physical insights into the origins of the loading direction-dependent shear behavior of chiral graphene sheets and their potential applications in nanodevices.

  19. Online short-term heat load forecasting for single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    . Every hour the hourly heat load for each house the following two days is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models and the climate inputs used are: ambient temperature, global radiation, and wind speed. A computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme is used......This paper presents a method for forecasting the load for heating in a single-family house. Both space and hot tap water heating are forecasted. The forecasting model is built using data from sixteen houses in Sønderborg, Denmark, combined with local climate measurements and weather forecasts...... variations in the heat load signal (predominant only for some houses), peaks presumably from showers, shifts in resident behavior, and uncertainty of the weather forecasts for longer horizons, especially for the solar radiation....

  20. The design and analysis of single flank transmission error testor for loaded gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, D. R.; Bassett, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Due to geometrical imperfections in gears and finite tooth stiffnesses, the motion transmitted from an input gear shaft to an output gear shaft will not have conjugate action. In order to strengthen the understanding of transmission error and to verify mathematical models of gear transmission error, a test stand that will measure the transmission error of a gear pair at operating loads, but at reduced speeds would be desirable. This document describes the design and development of a loaded transmission error tester. For a gear box with a gear ratio of one, few tooth meshing combinations will occur during a single test. In order to observe the effects of different tooth mesh combinations and to increase the ability to load test gear pairs with higher gear ratios, the system was designed around a gear box with a gear ratio of two.

  1. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  3. Modelling of Vortex-Induced Loading on a Single-Blade Installation Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian

    2016-01-01

    the same procedure. The reference time series were significantly different, depending on the inflow angle. This made the modelling of all the time series with a single and relatively simple engineering model challenging. In order to find model parameters, optimizations were carried out, based on the root-mean-square......Vortex-induced integral loading fluctuations on a single suspended blade at various inflow angles were modeled in the presents work by means of stochastic modelling methods. The reference time series were obtained by 3D DES CFD computations carried out on the DTU 10MW reference wind turbine blade...... varied depending on the inflow angle. None the less, the modelled and reference time series showed a satisfactory general agreement in terms of their visual and frequency characteristics. This indicated that the proposed method is suitable to model loading fluctuations on suspended blades....

  4. An Analytical Method for Determining the Load Distribution of Single-Column Multibolt Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirut Konkong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of geometric variables on the bolt load distributions of a cold-formed steel bolt connection. The study was conducted using an experimental test, finite element analysis, and an analytical method. The experimental study was performed using single-lap shear testing of a concentrically loaded bolt connection fabricated from G550 cold-formed steel. Finite element analysis with shell elements was used to model the cold-formed steel plate while solid elements were used to model the bolt fastener for the purpose of studying the structural behavior of the bolt connections. Material nonlinearities, contact problems, and a geometric nonlinearity procedure were used to predict the failure behavior of the bolt connections. The analytical method was generated using the spring model. The bolt-plate interaction stiffness was newly proposed which was verified by the experiment and finite element model. It was applied to examine the effect of geometric variables on the single-column multibolt connection. The effects were studied of varying bolt diameter, plate thickness, and the plate thickness ratio (t2/t1 on the bolt load distribution. The results of the parametric study showed that the t2/t1 ratio controlled the efficiency of the bolt load distribution more than the other parameters studied.

  5. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0–8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa −1 ) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading. (paper)

  6. Study on Impact Loading and Humerus Injury for Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Oda, Juhachi; Yonemura, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Jiro

    In the United States and Japan, baseball is a very popular sport played by many people. However, the ball used is hard and moves fast. A professional baseball pitcher in good form can throw a ball at speeds upwards of 41.7m/s (150km/hr). If a ball at this speed hits the batter, serious injury can occur. In this paper we will describe our investigations on the impact of a baseball with living tissues by finite element analysis. Baseballs were projected at a load cell plate using a specialized pitching machine. The dynamic properties of the baseball were determined by comparing the wall-ball collision experimentally measuring the time history of the force and the displacement using dynamic finite element analysis software (ANSYS/ LS-DYNA). The finite element model representing a human humerus and its surrounding tissue was simulated for balls pitched at variable speeds and pitch types (knuckle and fastball). In so doing, the stress distribution and stress wave in the bone and soft tissue were obtained. From the results, the peak stress of the bone nearly yielded to the stress caused by a high fast ball. If the collision position or direction is moved from the center of the upper arm, it is assumed that the stress exuded on the humerus will be reduced. Some methods to reduce the severity of the injury which can be applied in actual baseball games are also discussed.

  7. EXCAVATION OF PITS (CHANNELS BY IMPACT OF PULSE POWER LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anakhaev Koshkinbai Nazirovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an innovative hydromechanical solution of the problem of profiles development of pits and channels by impact of pulse (blasting power load on a surface of homogeneous soil mass, for example, when excavating solid rocks, frozen soil, etc. Thus, soil would be considered as an ideal heavy liquid (disregarding its mechanical strength and plastic properties. The solution of this problem is achieved by the method of consecutive conformal mappings of physical flow region (in the form of Kirchhoff complex on the region of complex potential (in the form of a rectangle. Thus, the new technique of geometrical image generation of the latter in the presence in the flow region of a fixed point with discontinuous variations of pressure head-flow function and the direction of speed of flow and representation of an elliptic sine of Jacobi by means of elementary functions are used. The received analytical functional dependencies allow to determine an outline of a funnel of the soil ejection and all the required hydromechanical characteristics of flow (head-flow function, function of flow, speed of flow, etc.. Thus, the soil ejection funnel outline (for a benchmark problem completely coincides with subproduct of the known rigorous solution of Lavrentyev-Kuznetsov.

  8. Partial Shading Detection in Solar System Using Single Short Pulse of Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Mateusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

  9. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single Enteral Loading Dose of Phenobarbital for Achieving Its Therapeutic Serum Levels in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Ali H.; Atici, Aytug; Okuyaz, Cetin; Uysal, Sercan

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether therapeutic serum drug levels may be achieved with a single enteral loading dose of phenobarbital. Methods The study was performed at the Mersin University Hospital in Turkey between April 2004 and August 2006, and included 29 newborn babies with seizure. After the acute treatment of the seizure with midazolam at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, phenobarbital was administered by orogastric route at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg. Serum phenobarbital concentrations were measured at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after the loading. Serum phenobarbital levels between 10-30 μg/mL were considered as the therapeutic range. Results The serum phenobarbital levels reached therapeutic values in 9 (31%), 19 (66%), 21 (72%), and 23 (79%) patients at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after loading, respectively, while they did not reach therapeutic values in 6 patients (21%) after 12 hours. Four of the patients in whom there was no increase in serum phenobarbital levels had hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion Enteral loading of phenobarbital can achieve therapeutic serum levels in the large majority of newborn babies with seizure and may be safely used in babies with the intact gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20564764

  11. The Impact of Distributed Generation Systems in the Load Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Benedicto Llorens, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb l'Instituto Superior Tecnico. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Load forecasting is vitally important for the electric industry in the deregulated economy. It has many applications including energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract evaluation and infrastructure development. Because of this, a large variety of mathematical methods have been developed for load forecasting. In addition, the large-scale integration of wind power, now...

  12. Single quantum dot tracking reveals the impact of nanoparticle surface on intracellular state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Mohammad U; Ma, Liang; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M

    2018-05-08

    Inefficient delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to intracellular targets is a major bottleneck in drug delivery, genetic engineering, and molecular imaging. Here we apply live-cell single-quantum-dot imaging and tracking to analyze and classify nanoparticle states after intracellular delivery. By merging trajectory diffusion parameters with brightness measurements, multidimensional analysis reveals distinct and heterogeneous populations that are indistinguishable using single parameters alone. We derive new quantitative metrics of particle loading, cluster distribution, and vesicular release in single cells, and evaluate intracellular nanoparticles with diverse surfaces following osmotic delivery. Surface properties have a major impact on cell uptake, but little impact on the absolute cytoplasmic numbers. A key outcome is that stable zwitterionic surfaces yield uniform cytosolic behavior, ideal for imaging agents. We anticipate that this combination of quantum dots and single-particle tracking can be widely applied to design and optimize next-generation imaging probes, nanoparticle therapeutics, and biologics.

  13. Impact damage response of natural stitched single lap-joint in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemnejad, H.; Argentiero, Y.; Tez, T.A.; Barrington, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • To study the impact resistance of single lap-joints in composite structures. • To improve the impact resistance of stitched single lap joints using natural Flax yarn. • To investigate the effect of stitching on the damage process of composite materials. • To develop FE techniques to model the impact process of composite structures using LSDYNA. - Abstract: In this paper the damage behaviour of natural stitched composite single lap-joints are investigated under low velocity impact loading conditions. For this study, the laminated hybrid composite beams were pinned using Flax yarns before curing process. The Charpy impact test was chosen to study the energy absorbing capability of single lap composite joints. Composite beams were fabricated from combination of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy composites. It was shown that composite beams which are stitched through the thickness are able to absorb more energy in comparison with adhesive bonded composite joints in the hybrid composite beams. The Charpy impact test of stitched composite single lap joint was also simulated by finite element analysis using software LS-DYNA and the results verified with relevant experimental data

  14. Impact Study on Power Factor of Electrical Load in Power Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Ahmad Asraf, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Low Power Factor of electrical loads cause high current is drawn from power supply. The impact of this circumstance is influenced by impedance of electrical load. Therefore, the key consideration of this study is how impedance of electrical loads influence power factor of electrical loads, and then power distribution as the whole. This study is important to evaluate the right action to mitigate low power factor effectively for electrical energy efficiency purpose. (author)

  15. Influence of pain and gender on impact loading during walking: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M.; Christensen, R.; Alkjaer, T.

    2008-01-01

    measured using force platforms and accelerometers attached to the tibia and sacrum. Impact ground reaction force peaks and loading rates, and peak accelerations were used to quantify impact loadings. Attenuation was quantified by means of a transfer function between the tibial and sacral accelerometer...

  16. A pulsed load model and its impact on a synchronous-rectifier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pengfei; Xu, Ye; Li, Jianke; Wang, Jinquan; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Jun; Wang, Chunming; Chen, Jingjing

    2017-02-01

    The pulsed load has become a developing trend of power loading. Unlike traditional loads, pulsed loads with current abrupt and repeated charges will result in unstable Microgrid operations because of their small capacity and inertia. In this paper, an Average Magnitude Sum Function (AMSF) is proposed to calculate the frequency of the grid, and based on AMSF, the Relative Deviation Rate (RDR) that characterises the impact of pulsed load on the AC side of the grid is defined and its calculation process is described in detail. In addition, the system dynamic characteristics under a pulsed load are analysed using an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) to control the on/off state of the resistive load for simulating a pulsed load. Finally, the transient characteristics of a synchronous-rectifier system with a pulsed load are studied and validated experimentally.

  17. Impact of habitual cranial loading on the vertebral column of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to completing the questionnaire subjects underwent a postural analysis in an unloaded and loaded state. During the unloaded and loaded phases EMG measures were recorded of the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The unloaded phase was when subjects stood without the 20 kg pot placed onto ...

  18. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  19. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  20. Removal torque evaluation of three different abutment screws for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepoemsin, T; Reichart, P A; Chaijareenont, P; Strietzel, F P; Khongkhunthian, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque of three different abutment screws and pull out strength of implant-abutment connection for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading. The study was performed in accordance with ISO 14801:2007. Three implant groups (n=15) were used: group A, PW Plus® with flat head screw; group B, PW Plus® with tapered screw; and group C, Conelog® with flat head screw. All groups had the same implant-abutment connection feature: cone with mandatory index. All screws were tightened with manufacturer's recommended torque. Ten specimens in each group underwent cyclic loading (1×106 cycles, 10 Hz, and 250 N). Then, all specimens were un-tightened, measured for the removal torque, and underwent a tensile test. The force that dislodged abutment from implant fixture was recorded. The data were analysed using independent sample t-test, ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Before cyclic loading, removal torque in groups A, B and C were significantly different (B> A> C, Pabutment from implant fixture increased immensely after cyclic loading.

  1. Analysis of the Lifecycle Impacts and Potential for Avoided Impacts Associated with Single Family Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how recovering construction and demolition materials from single-family homes and reusing them in building and road construction and other applications helps offset the environmental impacts associated with single-family homes.

  2. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  3. Research of thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load single screw refrigeration compressor with different capacity control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zengli; Wang, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wenchun; Feng, Quanke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical models of SSRC under part-load condition have been established. • The experiment of SSRC performance under part-load condition was conducted. • Thermal dynamic characteristic of SSRC under part-load condition was gained. • Economy and reliability of SSRC under part-load condition was analyzed. - Abstract: In the single screw refrigeration compressor (SSRC), the capacity control mechanism is normally employed to meet the actual required cooling capacity under different load conditions. In this paper, theoretical calculation models describing the working process of the SSRC with the single slide valve capacity control mechanism (SVCCM) and SSRC with the frequency conversion regulating mechanism (FCRM) are established to research the thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load SSRC under part-load conditions. Experimental investigation on a SSRC under part-load conditions is also carried out to verify the theoretical calculation models. By using these validated models, the thermodynamic performances and dynamic characteristics of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism under part-load conditions have been analyzed and compared. Through the comparison, the economical efficiency and reliability of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism were obtained. All of these works can provide the basis for the later optimization design for the variable load single screw refrigeration compressor.

  4. Impact of Load Behavior on Transient Stability and Power Transfer Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents utility based load modeling practices and explores the interaction between loads and the power system and the effect of the interaction on transient stability and power transfer limitations. The effect of load composition is investigated at major load centers together with the......This paper presents utility based load modeling practices and explores the interaction between loads and the power system and the effect of the interaction on transient stability and power transfer limitations. The effect of load composition is investigated at major load centers together...... with the impact on rotor angle excursions of large scale generators during the transient and post-transient period. Responses of multi-induction motor stalling are also considered for different fault clearances in the system. Findings of the investigations carried out on the Eastern Australian interconnected...

  5. Single and multiple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the cross sections for single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of sulfur atoms by electron impact are presented for collision energies from threshold to 500 eV. The cross sections for single ionization of sulfur are measured relative to those of several elements whose absolute cross sections for single ionization are known. Cross sections for each multiple ionization process are then measured relative to those for single ionization. The configuration and operation of the apparatus for these measurements are described. The possible effects of excited sulfur reactants are examined, and the reported cross sections are felt to be characteristic of ground state sulfur atoms

  6. The impact of cognitive load on delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Portrat, Sophie

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that long-term retention of items studied in a working memory span task depends on the refreshing of memory items-more specifically, on the number of refreshing opportunities. However, it was previously shown that refreshing depends on the cognitive load of the concurrent task introduced in the working memory span task. Thus, cognitive load should determine the long-term retention of items assessed in a delayed-recall test if such retention relies on refreshing. In two experiments, while the amount of refreshing opportunities remained constant, we varied the cognitive load of the concurrent task by either introducing tasks differing in their attentional demands or varying the pace of the concurrent task. To verify that this effect was related to refreshing and not to any maintenance mechanism, we also manipulated the availability of subvocal rehearsal. Replicating previous results, increasing cognitive load reduced immediate recall. This increase also had a detrimental effect on delayed recall. Conversely, the addition of concurrent articulation reduced immediate but not delayed recall. This study shows that both working and episodic memory traces depend on the cognitive load of the concurrent task, whereas the use of rehearsal affects only working memory performance. These findings add further evidence of the dissociation between subvocal rehearsal and attentional refreshing.

  7. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Saini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  8. Probing the impact of loading rate on the mechanical properties of viral nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Ivanovska, I.L.; Baclayon, M.; Roos, W.H.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of changes in the loading rate during the forced dissociation of single bonds have been studied for a wide variety of interactions. Less is known on the loading rate dependent behaviour of more complex systems that consist of multiple bonds. Here we focus on viral nanoparticles, in

  9. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip...... that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities...... shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities...

  10. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant

  11. Cdc45-induced loading of human RPA onto single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szambowska, Anna; Tessmer, Ingrid; Prus, Piotr; Schlott, Bernhard; Pospiech, Helmut; Grosse, Frank

    2017-04-07

    Cell division cycle protein 45 (Cdc45) is an essential component of the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase. We found that human Cdc45 forms a complex with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein RPA. Moreover, it actively loads RPA onto nascent ssDNA. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that Cdc45-bound RPA complexed with ssDNA in the 8-10 nucleotide binding mode, but dissociated when RPA covered a 30-mer. Real-time analysis of RPA-ssDNA binding demonstrated that Cdc45 catalytically loaded RPA onto ssDNA. This placement reaction required physical contacts of Cdc45 with the RPA70A subdomain. Our results imply that Cdc45 controlled stabilization of the 8-nt RPA binding mode, the subsequent RPA transition into 30-mer mode and facilitated an ordered binding to ssDNA. We propose that a Cdc45-mediated loading guarantees a seamless deposition of RPA on newly emerging ssDNA at the nascent replication fork. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Analysis of Mesh Distribution Systems Considering Load Models and Load Growth Impact with Loops on System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, A.; Murty, V. V. S. N.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution system is the final link between bulk power system and consumer end. A distinctive load flow solution method is used for analysis of the load flow of radial and weakly meshed network based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) and KVL. This method has excellent convergence characteristics for both radial as well as weakly meshed structure and is based on bus injection to branch current and branch-current to bus-voltage matrix. The main contribution of the paper is: (i) an analysis has been carried out for a weekly mesh network considering number of loops addition and its impact on the losses, kW and kVAr requirements from a system, and voltage profile, (ii) different load models, realistic ZIP load model and load growth impact on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements, (iii) impact of addition of loops on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements from substation, and (iv) comparison of system performance with radial distribution system. Voltage stability is a major concern in planning and operation of power systems. This paper also includes identifying the closeness critical bus which is the most sensitive to the voltage collapse in radial distribution networks. Node having minimum value of voltage stability index is the most sensitive node. Voltage stability index values are computed for meshed network with number of loops added in the system. The results have been obtained for IEEE 33 and 69 bus test system. The results have also been obtained for radial distribution system for comparison.

  13. Smoking Impact on the Microbial Load of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different smoking methods on microbial load on freshly collected freshwater mud fish, Clarias gariepinus samples from Oyo State Fisheries Department, Ibadan in South-Western Nigeria was carried out. Seventy-two C. gariepinus (505 ± 0.45g and 25.5 ± 1.30cm) were collected and sorted into 4 groups. 10 fish ...

  14. The Impact of Cognitive Load Theory on Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Every student is different, which is the challenge of astronomy education research (AER) and teaching astronomy. This difference also provides the greatest goal for education researchers - our GUT - we need to be able to quantify these differences and provide explanatory and predictive theories to curriculum developers and teachers. One educational theory that holds promise is Cognitive Load Theory. Cognitive Load Theory begins with the well-established fact that everyone's working memory can hold 7 ± 2 unique items. This quirk of the human brain is why phone numbers are 7 digits long. This quirk is also why we forget peoples’ names after just meeting them, leave the iron on when we leave the house, and become overwhelmed as students of new material. Once the intricacies of Cognitive Load are understood, it becomes possible to design learning environments to marshal the resources students have and guide them to success. Lessons learned from Cognitive Load Theory can and should be applied to learning astronomy. Classroom-ready ideas will be presented.

  15. Industrial applications of exoskeletons and their impact on physical loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.P.; Bosch, T.; Krause, F.; Stadler, K.; O'Sullivan, L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an overview of assistive exoskeletons that have specifically been developed for industrial purposes and to assess the potential effect of these exoskeletons on reduction of physical loading on the body. The search resulted in 40 papers describing 26 different

  16. Cylindrical shell under impact load including transverse shear and normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, M.; Eslami, M.R.; Ghassaa, M.; Ohadi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general governing equations of shell of revolution under shock loads are reduced to equations describing the elastic behavior of cylindrical shell under axisymmetric impact load. The effect of lateral normal stress, transverse shear, and rotary inertia are included, and the equations are solved by Galerkin finite element method. The results are compared with the previous works of authors. (author)

  17. Reinforced concrete structures under impact and impulsive loading: recent development, problems and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauk, G.; Herter, J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear plant facilities and other reinforced concrete structures have to be regarded as to their safety in design and construction with respect to impact and impulsive loading in order to avoid serious damage to mankind and environment. The paper gives a survey on theoretical and experimental developments currently in progress, in particular regarding airplane crash. Some new results arising out of several research programs relevant to particular problems of impact loading have been reviewed and are presented. Experimental investigation for determination of material properties of plain concrete, reinforcing steel as well as steel-concrete bond under high strain-rates are treated in this paper including theoretical approaches for the respective material laws. An outline of soft missile impact tests performed on structural members, e.g. beams and plates, to determine the load deformation or fracture behaviour is given. Furthermore, numerical models and calculations to analyse structural components and structures under impact loading were discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argento, G.; de Jonge, N.; Söntjens, S.H.M.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and

  19. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  20. Effect of loading orientations on the microstructure and property of Al−Cu single crystal during stress aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiqiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: zgchen@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hunan University of Humanities, Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Deng, Yunlai [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance and Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo, Xiaobin; Ren, Jieke [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The precipitation behavior and property of Al−Cu alloy during stress aging under various loading orientations were investigated using single crystals. The resulting microstructures and the strength property were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and compression test, respectively, and the effect of the distribution of θ′-plates on strength property were discussed. The results show that the precipitation distribution of θ′ was significantly affected by the loading orientation during stress aging of Al−Cu single crystals. Loading along close to 〈011〉{sub Al} directions provided more uniform precipitation distribution of θ′ as compared to loading along close to 〈001〉{sub Al} directions, and therefore provided higher strengthening stress of the θ′-plates for the stress aging sample. The results suggested that regulating the distribution of θ′ and therefore improving strength property are possible via controlling the loading orientation during stress aging. - Highlights: • We studied the effect of loading directions on stress aging of Al−Cu single crystal. • Precipitation distribution of θ′ was noticeably affected by the loading direction. • Loading along close to 〈011〉{sub Al} directions reduced the stress-orienting effect. • The strength property is closely related to the precipitation distribution of θ′. • It is possible to regulate the distribution of θ′ and improve strength property.

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    M. (1995). Bearing Strength of Autoclave and oven cured kevlar / epoxy laminates under static and dynamic loading. Compostes, 451-456. Kretsis, G...Joints in Glass Fibre/ Epoxy Laminates. Composites, Volume 16. No 2. Kolsky, H. (1949). An Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of Materials at...elongating the pulse width. The responses are read by the strain gages bonded on the incident and transmission bar with Vishay AE-10 epoxy . The gages

  2. Calculations of concrete plates and shells under impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappler, H.; Krings, W.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of concrete slabs and shells is determined for a given load time function using axisymmetric computational models with an exact formulation for the midpoint. On the basis of a finite difference method, rotational inertia, shear deformation, elasticity and cracking are taken into account. For shells the coupling of bending moment and normal force is considered. Comparisons with two-dimensional models show good agreement connected with a considerable reduction of computational time. (orig.) [de

  3. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhl, Jakob C., E-mail: jbruhl@purdue.edu; Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu; Kim, Joo Min, E-mail: kim1493@purdue.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  4. Static resistance function for steel-plate composite (SC) walls subject to impactive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhl, Jakob C.; Varma, Amit H.; Kim, Joo Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An idealized static resistance function for SC walls is proposed. • The influence of design parameters on static resistance is explained. • SDOF models can accurately estimate global response of SC walls to missile impact. - Abstract: Steel-plate composite (SC) walls consist of a plain concrete core reinforced with two steel faceplates on the surfaces. Modules (consisting of steel faceplates, shear connectors and tie-bars) can be shop-fabricated and shipped to the site for erection and concrete casting, which expedites construction schedule and thus economy. SC structures have recently been used in nuclear power plant designs and are being considered for the next generation of small modular reactors. Design for impactive and impulsive loading is an important consideration for SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities. The authors have previously developed design methods to prevent local failure (perforation) of SC walls due to missile impact. This paper presents the development of static resistance functions for use in single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses to predict the maximum displacement response of SC walls subjected to missile impact and designed to resist local failure (perforation). The static resistance function for SC walls is developed using results of numerical analyses and parametric studies conducted using benchmarked 3D finite element (FE) models. The influence of various design parameters are discussed and used to develop idealized bilinear resistance functions for SC walls with fixed edges and simply supported edges. Results from dynamic non-linear FE analysis of SC panels subjected to rigid missile impact are compared with the maximum displacements predicted by SDOF analyses using the bilinear resistance function.

  5. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  6. Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

    2013-07-16

    The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation.

  7. Control of impact loading during distracted running before and after gait retraining in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; An, Winko W; Au, Ivan P H; Zhang, Janet H; Chan, Zoe Y S; MacPhail, Aislinn J

    2018-07-01

    Gait retraining using visual biofeedback has been reported to reduce impact loading in runners. However, most of the previous studies did not adequately examine the level of motor learning after training, as the modified gait pattern was not tested in a dual-task condition. Hence, this study sought to compare the landing peak positive acceleration (PPA) and vertical loading rates during distracted running before and after gait retraining. Sixteen recreational runners underwent a two-week visual biofeedback gait retraining program for impact loading reduction, with feedback on the PPA measured at heel. In the evaluation of PPA and vertical loading rates before and after the retraining, the participants performed a cognitive and verbal counting task while running. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between feedback and training on PPA (F = 4.642; P = 0.048) but not vertical loading rates (F > 1.953; P > 0.067). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significantly lower PPA and vertical loading rates after gait retraining (P  0.68). Visual feedback after gait retraining reduced PPA and vertical loading rates during distracted running (P  0.36). Gait retraining is effective in lowering impact loading even when the runners are distracted. In dual-task situation, visual biofeedback provided beneficial influence on kinetics control after gait retraining.

  8. Plastic flow produced by single ion impacts on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Single ion impacts have been observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy and video recording with a time resolution of 33 milliseconds. Gold was irradiated at 50 K and room temperature. Single ion impacts produce holes, modify existing holes, and extrude material into the initial specimen hole and holes formed by other ion impacts. The same behavior is observed at both temperatures. At both temperatures, ion impacts result in craters and ejected material. Ion impacts produce more small craters than large ones for all ion masses, while heavier mass ions produce more and larger craters than lighter mass ions. This comparison is affected by the ion energy. As the energy of an ion is increased, the probability for deposition near the surface decreases and fewer craters are formed. For a given ion mass, crater production depends on the probability for displacement cascade production in the near surface region. Crater and holes are stable at room temperature, however, ion impacts near an existing crater may cause flow of material into the crater either reshaping or annihilating it. Holes and craters result from the explosive outflow of material from the molten zone of near-surface cascades. The outflow may take the form of molten material, a solid lid or an ejected particle. The surface is a major perturbation on displacement cascades resulting from ion impacts

  9. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol response to single oral cholecalciferol loading in the normal weight, overweight, and obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, V; Frigo, A C; Zaninotto, M; Sanguin, F; Plebani, M; Boscaro, M; Schiavon, L; Luisetto, G

    2016-08-01

    After a single cholecalciferol load, peak serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) is lower in individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI), probably due to it being distributed in a greater volume. Its subsequent disappearance from the serum is slower the higher the individual's BMI, probably due to the combination of a larger body volume and a slower release into the circulation of vitamin D stored in adipose tissue. The aim of the study is to examine 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD) response to a single oral load of cholecalciferol in the normal weight, overweight, and obese. We considered 55 healthy women aged from 25 to 67 years (mean ± SD, 50.8 ± 9.5) with a BMI ranging from 18.7 to 42 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD, 27.1 ± 6.0). The sample was divided into three groups by BMI: 20 were normal weight (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2)), 21 overweight (25.1 ≤ BMI ≤ 29.9 kg/ m(2)), and 14 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Each subject was given 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol orally during lunch. A fasting blood test was obtained before cholecalciferol loading and then 7, 30, and 90 days afterwards to measure serum 25OHD, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25 (OH)2D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P). Participants' absolute fat mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The fat mass of the normal weight subjects was significantly lower than that of the overweight, which in turn was lower than that of the obese participants. Serum 25OHD levels increased significantly in all groups, peaking 1 week after the cholecalciferol load. Peak serum 25OHD levels were lower the higher the individuals' BMI. After peaking, the 25OHD levels gradually decreased, following a significantly different trend in the three groups. The slope was similar for the overweight and obese, declining significantly more slowly than in the normal weight group. In the sample as a whole, there was a weakly significant negative correlation

  10. Si-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes under axial loads: An atomistic simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), the imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT and several perfect armchair SWCNTs under axial loads were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The interactions between atoms were modeled using the empirical Tersoff potential and the Tersoff-Brenner potential coupled with the Lennard-Jones potential. We get Young's modulus of the defective (5, 5) nanotube with and without the Si coating under axial tension 1107.92 and 1076.02 GPa, respectively. The results also show that the structure failure of the Si-coated imperfect (5, 5) SWCNT under axial compression occurs at a slightly higher strain than for the perfect (5, 5) SWCNT. Therefore, we can confirm the protective effect of Si as a coating material for defective SWCNTs. We also obtain the critical buckling strains of perfect SWCNTs

  11. Single Additive Enables 3D Printing of Highly Loaded Iron Oxide Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodaei, Amin; Akhlaghi, Omid; Khani, Navid; Aytas, Tunahan; Sezer, Dilek; Tatli, Buse; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z; Koc, Bahattin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-21

    A single additive, a grafted copolymer, is designed to ensure the stability of suspensions of highly loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (IOPs) and to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) printing of these suspensions in the filament form. This poly (ethylene glycol)-grafted copolymer of N-[3(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide and acrylic acid harnesses both electrostatic and steric repulsion to realize an optimum formulation for 3D printing. When used at 1.15 wt % (by the weight of IOPs), the suspension attains ∼81 wt % solid loading-96% of the theoretical limit as calculated by the Krieger-Dougherty equation. Rectangular, thick-walled toroidal, and thin-walled toroidal magnetic cores and a porous lattice structure are fabricated to demonstrate the utilization of this suspension as an ink for 3D printing. The electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic cores are characterized through impedance spectroscopy (IS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), respectively. The IS indicates the possibility of utilizing wire-wound 3D printed cores as the inductive coils. The VSM verifies that the magnetic properties of IOPs before and after the ink formulation are kept almost unchanged because of the low dosage of the additive. This particle-targeted approach for the formulation of 3D printing inks allows embodiment of a fully aqueous system with utmost target material content.

  12. New topology of multiple-input single-output PV system for DC load applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. ELhagry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving PV system structure and maximizing the output power of a PV system has drawn many researchers attention nowadays. A proposed multi-input single-output PV system is proposed in this paper. The system consists of multiple PV modules; each module feeds a DC–DC converter. The outputs of the converters are tied together to form a DC voltage source. In order to minimize the output ripples of the converters, the control signal of each converter is time shifted from each other by a certain time interval depending on the number of converters used in the topology. In this study a battery is used as the main load, the load current used as the control variable. A fuzzy logic controller designed to modulate the operating point of the system to get the maximum power. The results show that the proposed system has very good response for various operating conditions of the PV system. In addition the output filter is minimized with excellent quality of the DC output voltage.

  13. Impact Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Columns with Side Openings Subjected to Eccentric Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Kamil Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research the behavior of reinforced concrete columns with large side openings under impact loads was studied. The overall cross sectional dimensions of the column specimens used in this research were (500*1400 mm with total height of (14000 mm. The dimensions of side openings were (600*2000 mm. The column was reinforced with (20 mm diameter in longitudinal direction, while (12 mm ties were used in the transverse direction. The effect of eccentric impact loads on the horizontal and vertical displacement for this column was studied. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out using ready computer finite element package (ANSYS to simulate the behavior of the reinforced concrete column with large side openings. Two load cases were considered in this investigation (C1, C2 with three different load values for each case. In the first case (C1 the loads was applied to one side of the column and in the second case (C2 the loads was applied to both sides. An Equilateral triangular load-time function was used for simulation the impact load results from gantry cranes supported by the column with total time duration (0.1 sec. In order to verify the analysis method, as no experimental data exist for comparing the obtained results, another analysis is made for tested conventional column under impact load at mid-height and good agreement has been obtained. For the above mentioned column, the maximum displacements were (33.3, 22.2 mm in the horizontal and longitudinal direction respectively, location of the maximum horizontal displacement was at the crown of the column. By comparing the results of the first loading case with the second one it is shown that in the horizontal direction, maximum displacement increases by (139%, (208%, and (147% respectively, also the maximum vertical displacement increases by (150%, (172%, and (172% respectively.

  14. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. High rate loading tests and impact tests of concrete and reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of reinforced concrete structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are affected by the behavior of constituent concrete and reinforcement which are the synthesis of the rate effects and the contribution of propagating stress waves of them. The rate effects and the contribution of stress waves do not have the same tendency in the variation of magnitude of them with speed of impact or impulsive loadings. Therefore the rate effects, mentioned above, should be obtained by the tests minimized the effect of stress waves (high rate loading test). This paper deals with the testing techniques with high rate loadings and impact, and also reports the main results of these tests. (orig.) [de

  16. Assessment of the impact of frequency support on DFIG wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; You, Rui; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This study presents models and tools for the assessment of the impact that providing frequency support has on doubly-fed generator (DFIG) wind turbine structural loads and drive train. The focus is on primary frequency support, aiming at quantifying the impact on wind turbines acting as frequency...... code and electrical models. In this simulation framework, the impact that power system conditions can have on wind turbines, and vice versa the support that wind turbines can offer to the power system can be investigated....... containment reserve and providing inertial response. The sensitivity of wind turbine load indicators—load duration- distribution and maximum load values—to inertial response control actions and different torsional models of drive train is investigated. The analysis is done by co-simulations of an aeroelastic...

  17. The Impact of Cognitive Load on Operatic Singers’ Timing Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer eCorlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we report the results of an empirical study on the effects of cognitive load on operatic singing. The main aim of the study was to investigate to what extent a working memory task affected the timing of operatic singers’ performance. Thereby, we focused on singers’ tendency to speed up, or slow down their performance of musical phrases and pauses. Twelve professional operatic singers were asked to perform an operatic aria three times; once without an additional working memory task, once with a concurrent working memory task (counting shapes on a computer screen, and once with a relatively more difficult working memory task (more shapes to be counted appearing one after another. The results show that, in general, singers speeded up their performance under heightened cognitive load. Interestingly, this effect was more pronounced in pauses – more in particular longer pauses – compared to musical phrases. We discuss the role of sensorimotor control and feedback processes in musical timing to explain these findings.

  18. Building America Case Study: The Impact of Thermostat Placement in Low-Load Homes in Sunny Climates, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Modern, energy-efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  19. Neck injury tolerance under inertial loads in side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Kallieris, Dimitrios; Frechede, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    Neck injury remains a major issue in road safety. Current side impact dummies and side impact crashworthiness assessments do not assess the risk of neck injury. These assessments are limited by biofidelity and knowledge regarding neck injury criteria and tolerance levels in side impacts. Side impact tests with PMHS were performed at the Heidelberg University in the 1980s and 1990s to improve primarily the understanding of trunk dynamics, injury mechanisms and criteria. In order to contribute to the definition of human tolerances at neck level, this study presents an analysis of the head/neck biomechanical parameters that were measured in these tests and their relationship to neck injury severity. Data from 15 impact tests were analysed. Head accelerations, and neck forces and moments were calculated from 9-accelerometer array head data, X-rays and anthropometric data. Statistically significant relationships were observed between resultant head acceleration and neck force and neck injury severity. The average resultant head acceleration for AIS 2 neck injuries was 112 g, while resultant neck force was 4925 N and moment 241 Nm. The data compared well to other test data on cadavers and volunteers. It is hoped that the paper will assist in the understanding of neck injuries and the development of tolerance criteria.

  20. New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G.

    2007-01-01

    During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ∼100 μm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact

  1. Dynamic response of single crystalline copper subjected to quasi-isentropic, gas-gun driven loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarmakani, H.; McNaney, J.M.; Kad, B.; Orlikowski, D.; Nguyen, J.H.; Meyers, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy study of quasi-isentropic gas-gun loading (peak pressures between 18 and 52 GPa) of [0 0 1] monocrystalline copper was carried out. The defect substructures at these different pressures were analyzed. Current experimental evidence suggests a deformation substructure that transitions from slip to twinning, where twinning occurs at the higher pressures (∼52 GPa), and heavily dislocated laths and dislocation cells take place at the intermediate and lower pressures. Evidence of stacking faults at the intermediate pressures was also found. Dislocation cell sizes decreased with increasing pressure and increased with distance away from the surface of impact. The results from the quasi-isentropic experiments are compared with those for flyer-plate and laser shock experiments reported in the literature. The Preston-Tonks-Wallace constitutive description is used to model both quasi-isentropic and shock compression experiments and predict the pressure at which the slip-twinning transition occurs in both cases. The model predicts a higher twinning transition pressure for isentropic than for shock experiments, and that twinning should not take place in the quasi-isentropic compression experiments given the loading paths investigated

  2. A novel biological hydrogen production system. Impact of organic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, Hesham [Western Ontario Univ. (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. Two biohydrogenators were operated for 220 days at 37 C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranged from 1.4 to 2 days under four different glucose concentrations of 2, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 64 g/L, corresponding to organic loading rates of 6.5-206 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, and started up using anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Marys wastewater treatment plant (St.Mary, Ontario, Canada) as the seed. The system steadily produced hydrogen with no methane. A maximum hydrogen yield of 3.1 mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose was achieved in the system for all the organic loading rates with an average of 2.8mol H{sub 2} /mol glucose. Acetate and butyrate were the main effluent liquid products at concentrations ranging from 640-7400 mg/L and 400-4600 mg/l, respectively, with no lactate detection. Microbial community analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) confirmed the absence of lactate producing bacteria Lactobacillus fermentum and other non-hydrogen producing species, and the predominance of various Clostridium species. Biomass concentrations in the biohydrogenators were steady, during the runs, varying form 1500 mg/L at the OLR of 6.5 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d to 14000 mg/L at the 104 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, thus emphasizing the potential of this novel system for sustained stable hydrogen production and prevention of biomass washout. (orig.)

  3. Impact of ballistic body armour and load carriage on walking patterns and perceived comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Jacobson, Bert; Warren, Aric; Goad, Carla; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight magnitude and distribution of body armour and carrying loads on military personnel's walking patterns and comfort perceptions. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking, plantar pressure and contact area were measured while seven healthy male right-handed military students wore seven different garments of varying weight (0.06, 9, 18 and 27 kg) and load distribution (balanced and unbalanced, on the front and back torso). Higher weight increased the foot contact time with the floor. In particular, weight placement on the non-dominant side of the front torso resulted in the greatest stance phase and double support. Increased plantar pressure and contact area observed during heavier loads entail increased impact forces, which can cause overuse injuries and foot blisters. Participants reported increasingly disagreeable pressure and strain in the shoulder, neck and lower back during heavier weight conditions and unnatural walking while wearing unbalanced weight distributed loads. This study shows the potentially synergistic impact of wearing body armour vest with differential loads on body movement and comfort perception. This study found that soldiers should balance loads, avoiding load placement on the non-dominant side front torso, thus minimising mobility restriction and potential injury risk. Implications for armour vest design modifications can also be found in the results.

  4. Impact evaluation of conducted UWB transients on loads in power-line networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Månsson, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, faced with the ever-increasing dependence on diverse electronic devices and systems, the proliferation of potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) becomes a critical threat for reliable operation. A typical issue is the electronics working reliably in power-line networks when exposed to electromagnetic environment. In this paper, we consider a conducted ultra-wideband (UWB) disturbance, as an example of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) source, and perform the impact evaluation at the loads in a network. With the aid of fast Fourier transform (FFT), the UWB transient is characterized in the frequency domain. Based on a modified Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT) method, the EMI received at the loads, with complex impedance, is computed. Through inverse FFT (IFFT), we obtain time-domain responses of the loads. To evaluate the impact on loads, we employ five common, but important quantifiers, i.e., time-domain peak, total signal energy, peak signal power, peak time rate of change and peak time integral of the pulse. Moreover, to perform a comprehensive analysis, we also investigate the effects of the attributes (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) of other loads connected to the network, the rise time and pulse width of the UWB transient, and the lengths of power lines. It is seen that, for the loads distributed in a network, the impact evaluation of IEMI should be based on the characteristics of the IEMI source, and the network features, such as load impedances, layout, and characteristics of cables.

  5. Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.

    1977-03-01

    Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements were made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented, and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  6. Single bunch beam loading on the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Wilson, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Since the report on single bunch beam loading experiments at SLAC at the 1975 Particle Accelerator Conference, it has been possible to obtain a much better understanding and agreement of theoretical and experimental results related to this problem. These improvements have been made possible by two developments: the generation of a ''wake-field'' function for the SLAC 3-km slow-wave structure and the use of this function to calculate single bunch energy spectra. The wake-field function which gives the time decay of the fields generated by the passage of a delta-function beam was derived by summing all the TM cylindrically symmetrical modes of an equivalent accelerator cavity. By multiplying this wake-field function by a measured bunch density function and integrating along the bunch, it is possible to calculate the energy of each electron in the bunch. This in turn enables one to predict the energy spectrum for any given phase angle of the bunch with respect to the crest of the rf accelerating wave. Agreement between these calculations and experimental measurements is very good. These results are presented and the possible sources of some of the remaining discrepancies are discussed

  7. Modeling of concrete exposed to severe loading conditions - impact and fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbolt, J.; Periskic, G.; Bosnjak, J.; Reinhardt, H.W.; Sharma, A.; Travas, V.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the behavior of concrete structures is strongly influenced by loading rate. Compared to quasi-static loading, concrete loaded by impact loading acts in different ways. First, there is a strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, and ductility, and second, there are inertia forces activated. Both influences are clearly demonstrated in experiments. Moreover, for concrete structures, which exhibit damage and fracture phenomena, the failure mode and cracking pattern depend on loading rate. In general, there is a tendency that with the increase of loading rate the failure mode changes from mode-I to mixed mode. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental investigations indicate that after the crack reaches critical speed of propagation there is crack branching. First part of the present paper focuses on 3D finite-element studies of concrete structures of different kind exposed to impact loading. In the numerical studies the rate sensitive microplane model is used as a constitutive law. The strain-rate influence is captured by the activation energy theory. Inertia forces are implicitly accounted for through dynamic finite element analysis. The results of the study show that the failure mode and structural resistance strongly depend on the loading rate

  8. Analytical research on impacting load of aircraft crashing upon moveable concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Ou, Zhuocheng; Duan, Zhuoping; Huang, Fenglei

    2018-03-01

    The impact load of an aircraft impact upon moveable concrete target was analyzed in this paper by both theoretical and numerical methods. The aircraft was simplified as a one dimensional pole and stress-wave theory was used to deduce the new formula. Furthermore, aiming to compare with previous experimental data, a numerical calculation based on the new formula had been carried out which showed good agreement with the experimental data. The approach, a new formula with particular numerical method, can predict not only the impact load but also the deviation between moveable and static concrete target.

  9. Parameter studies to determine sensitivity of slug impact loads to properties of core surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvildys, J.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity study of the HCDA slug impact response of fast reactor primary containment to properties of core surrounding structures was performed. Parameters such as the strength of the radial shield material, mass, void, and compressibility properties of the gas plenum material, mass of core material, and mass and compressibility properties of the coolant were used as variables to determine the magnitude of the slug impact loads. The response of the reactor primary containment and the partition of energy were also given. A study was also performed using water as coolant to study the difference in slug impact loads

  10. A probabilistic approach for evaluation of load time history of an aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, N.F.; Schueller, G.I.; Riera, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    In the context of an overall structural realiability study for a containment located in the F.R. Germany the external load case aircraft impact is investigated. Previous investigations have been based on deterministic evaluations of the load time history. However, a close analysis of the input parameters, such as the mass distribution, the stiffness of the aircraft, the impact velocity and the impact angle reveal their random properties. This in turn leads to a stochastic load time history the parameters of which have been determined in this study. In other words, the randomness of the input parameters are introduced in the calculation of the load time history and their influence with regard to the load magnitude and frequency content is determined. The statistical parameters such as the mean values and the standard deviation of the mechanical properties are evaluated directly from the design plans of the manufacturer for the aircraft Phantom F4-F. This includes rupture loads, mass distributions etc.. The probability distributions of the crash velocity and impact angle are based on a thorough statistical evaluation of the crash histories of the airplane under consideration. Reference was made only to crashes which occurred in the F.R. Germany. (orig.)

  11. Validation of an "Intelligent Mouthguard" Single Event Head Impact Dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Brett, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Dating to Colonel John Paul Stapp MD in 1975, scientists have desired to measure live human head impacts with accuracy and precision. But no instrument exists to accurately and precisely quantify single head impact events. Our goal is to develop a practical single event head impact dosimeter known as "Intelligent Mouthguard" and quantify its performance on the benchtop, in vitro and in vivo. In the Intelligent Mouthguard hardware, limited gyroscope bandwidth requires an algorithm-based correction as a function of impact duration. After we apply gyroscope correction algorithm, Intelligent Mouthguard results at time of CG linear acceleration peak correlate to the Reference Hybrid III within our tested range of pulse durations and impact acceleration profiles in American football and Boxing in vitro tests: American football, IMG=1.00REF-1.1g, R2=0.99; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.6g and 370 rad/s2; maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 4.8° and 2.9°; maximum average XYZ component temporal imprecision 3.3g and 390 rad/s2. Boxing, IMG=1.00REF-0.9 g, R2=0.99, R2=0.98; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.9 g and 390 rad/s2, maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 2.9° and 2.1°; average XYZ component temporal imprecision 4.0 g and 440 rad/s2. In vivo Intelligent Mouthguard true positive head impacts from American football players and amateur boxers have temporal characteristics (first harmonic frequency from 35 Hz to 79 Hz) within our tested benchtop (first harmonic frequencyIntelligent Mouthguard qualifies as a single event dosimeter in American football and Boxing.

  12. Investigation on reinforced concrete slabs subjeted to impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiman, M.; Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.; Zorn, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of experimental and computational results for tests of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to soft missile impact is presented. Numerical simulation techniques were employed to predict the target response. The objective of the calculations was to validate the material model for reinforced concrete implemented in a finite difference code. The computational results regarding displacements or strains in the reinforcement conform satisfactorily with the experimental values. (Author) [pt

  13. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  14. Early Loading of Single-Piece Implant for Partially Edentulous Posterior Arch: A Prospective One-Year Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Beldar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant therapy is now well established, and there is an increasing need for shorter rehabilitation time. Original prerequisites of osseointegration have been reassessed to satisfy continuously increasing patient's expectation of reduced treatment time, improved esthetics, and increased comfort. Shorter healing time may be appropriate in some circumstances, and examples of early loading have been reported in animal and human studies. However, to date there are insufficient data to determine a universally acceptable opinion on early loading of implants for single-tooth replacement. This case report involves early loading, combined with construction of a restoration, inserted directly after 6 weeks of implant surgery and followup of one year.

  15. Thermal loading of bentonite. Impact on hydromechanics and permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zihms, Stephanie G.; Harrington, Jon [British Geological Survey, Nickerhill Keyworth (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Due to its favorable properties, in particular, low permeability and swelling capacity, bentonite has been favored as an engineered barrier and backfill material for the geological storage of radioactive waste. To ensure safe long-term performance it is important to understand any changes in these properties when the material is subject to heat emitting waste. As such, this study will investigate the hydro-mechanical response of bentonite under multi-step thermal loading subject to a constant volume boundary condition. The experimental set up allows continuous measurements of hydraulic and mechanical response during each phase of the thermal cycle. The constant volume cell was placed inside an oven and connected to a hydraulic system with the water reservoir located externally. A pressure gradient of 4 MPa was placed across the sample for the duration of the test in order to map the evolution of permeability. After initial hydration of the bentonite, in this case signified by reaching the asymptote in total stress, the temperature was raised in 20 C increments from 20 to 80 C followed by a final 10 C step to reach 90 C. Each temperature was held constant for at least 7-10 days to allow the stresses and hydraulic transients to equilibrate. This data set will provide an insight into the hydromechanical behavior of the bentonite and the evolution of its permeability when exposed to elevated temperatures.

  16. Caregiving: The impact on emotional support for single women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, C S

    1987-01-01

    Even though filial caregivers are typically daughters rather than sons, examinations of caregiving have not adequately considered the impact of gender and marital status differences on the support systems that mediate the strain of caring. Because of competing demands on time and energy, caregivers make many changes in their personal activities while maintaining work and immediate family responsibilities. The friendships that provide emotional support for singles are perceived as less important than familial relationships. Therefore, the assumption is made that the single adult daughter has less to give up as compared to her married siblings. The parallel emotional support systems of the married and single caregivers go unrecognized. This study of never-married women over age 30 reveals that these caregivers essentially foreclosed social relationships in order to provide care. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Electron-impact single and double ionization of W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, M S; Loch, S D; Foster, A R

    2017-01-01

    Electron-impact single and double ionization cross sections for the W atom are calculated using a semi-relativistic distorted-wave method. The cross sections include contributions from single direct ionization, double direct ionization and excitation-autoionization. Branching ratio calculations are made to determine whether an excitation may contribute to single or double ionization. We check the accuracy of the semi-relativistic distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of various subshells by comparison with fully-relativistic distorted-wave calculations. We also check the accuracy of the perturbative distorted-wave calculations for direct ionization of the outer most subshells by comparison with non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations. (paper)

  18. Dynamic response of beams on elastic foundations to impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.B.; Sinha, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The beam considered is a Timoshenko beam in which the effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformations are included and the foundation model consists of Winkler-Zimmermann type having Hookean linear elastic springs. The analysis is very useful for predicting the dynamic response of structural components of aircraft or nuclear reactors or even runways if that component may be mathematically idealized as a beam on elastic foundation. The effect of rotatory inertia and shear deformation is very much pronounced and hence should not be neglected in solving such impact problems. In general the effect of foundation modulus is to further increase the values of frequencies of vibrations. (orig./HP)

  19. Unbalanced voltage faults: the impact on structural loads of doubly fed asynchronous generator wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact that unbalanced voltage faults have on wind turbine structural loads. In such cases, electromagnetic torque oscillations occur at two times the supply voltage frequency. The objectives of this work are to quantify wind turbine structural loads induced...... by unbalanced voltage faults relative to those during normal operation; and to evaluate the potential for reducing structural loads with the control of the generator. The method applied is integrated dynamic analysis. Namely, dynamic analysis with models that consider the most important aeroelastic, electrical...

  20. Impacts of Ripple Current to the Loading and Lifetime of Power Semiconductor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The thermal loading of power electronics devices is determined by many factors and has being a crucial design consideration because it is closely related to the reliability and cost of the converter system. In this paper the impacts of the ripple current to the loss and thermal loading, as well...... as reliability performances of power devices are comprehensively investigated and tested. It is concluded that the amplitude of ripple current may modify the loss and thermal loading of the power devices, especially under the conditions of converter with low power output, and thus the lifetime of devices could...

  1. The impact of luminance on tonic and phasic pupillary responses to sustained cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load. Fourteen participants performed a novel working memory task combining mathematical computations with a classic n-back task. We studied both tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response under low (1-back) and high (2-back) working memory load and two luminance levels (gray and white). We found that the impact of working memory load on the tonic pupil diameter was modulated by the level of luminance, the increase in tonic pupil diameter with the load being larger under lower luminance. In contrast, the smaller phasic pupil response found under high load remained unaffected by luminance. These results showed that luminance impacts the cognitive pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter (phasic pupil response) being modulated under sustained (respectively, transient) cognitive load. These findings also support the relationship between the locus-coeruleus system, presumably functioning in two firing modes - tonic and phasic - and the pupil diameter. We suggest that the tonic pupil diameter tracks the tonic activity of the locus-coeruleus while phasic pupil response reflects its phasic activity. Besides, the designed novel cognitive paradigm allows the simultaneous manipulation of sustained and transient components of the cognitive load and is useful for dissociating the effects on the tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plastic Flow Induced by Single Ion Impacts on Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of holes in thin gold foils as a result of single ion impacts by 200keV Xe ions has been followed using transmission electron microscopy. Video recording provided details of microstructure evolution with a time resolution of 1/30th sec. Hole formation involves the movement by plastic flow of massive amounts of material, on the order of tens of thousands of Au atoms per ion impact. Plastic flow, as a consequence of individual ion impacts, results in a continual filling of both holes and craters as well as a thickening of the gold foil. Changes in morphology during irradiation is attributed to a localized, thermal-spike induced melting, coupled with plastic flow of effected material under the influence of surface forces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Synchronization of impacting mechanical systems with a single constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Biemond, J. J. Benjamin; Leine, Remco I.; van de Wouw, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of mechanical systems subjected to a single geometric unilateral constraint. The impacts of the individual systems, induced by the unilateral constraint, generally do not coincide even if the solutions are arbitrarily 'close' to each other. The mismatch in the impact time instants demands a careful choice of the distance function to allow for an intuitively correct comparison of the discontinuous solutions resulting from the impacts. We propose a distance function induced by the quotient metric, which is based on an equivalence relation using the impact map. The distance function obtained in this way is continuous in time when evaluated along jumping solutions. The property of maximal monotonicity, which is fulfilled by most commonly used impact laws, is used to significantly reduce the complexity of the distance function. Based on the simplified distance function, a Lyapunov function is constructed to investigate the synchronization problem for two identical one-dimensional mechanical systems. Sufficient conditions for the uncoupled individual systems are provided under which local synchronization is guaranteed. Furthermore, we present an interaction law which ensures global synchronization, also in the presence of grazing trajectories and accumulation points (Zeno behavior). The results are illustrated using numerical examples of a 1-DOF mechanical impact oscillator which serves as stepping stone in the direction of more general systems.

  4. Basic concept on the responses of structural members and structures under impact or impulsive loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are generated by the interaction between acting bodies and structures, and the interaction is affected by many factors, e.g. the relations of masses, sizes, rigidities, etc. between acting bodies and structures and especially by relative velocity. The development of the responses of structural members and structures are controlled by the constitutive equations and failure criteria of constituent materials, the relationships of cowork system between the constituent materials and existing stress waves. Furthermore, the first two are influenced by rate effects and they all widely change by the speeds of impact and impulsive loadings. This paper deals with the physical meaning of the responses of structures under impact and impulsive loadings. (orig.) [de

  5. High-Velocity Impact Behaviour of Prestressed Composite Plates under Bird Strike Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental and numerical analysis of the response of laminated composite plates under high-velocity impact loads of soft body gelatine projectiles (artificial birds is presented. The plates are exposed to tensile and compressive preloads before impact in order to cover realistic loading conditions of representative aeronautic structures under foreign object impact. The modelling methodology for the composite material, delamination interfaces, impact projectile, and preload using the commercial finite element code Abaqus are presented in detail. Finally, the influence of prestress and of different delamination modelling approaches on the impact response is discussed and a comparison to experimental test data is given. Tensile and compressive preloading was found to have an influence on the damage pattern. Although this general behaviour could be predicted well by the simulations, further numerical challenges for improved bird strike simulation accuracy are highlighted.

  6. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Winston, Jenna; Mock, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1), or a minimal (Experiment 2) influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  7. Impact of Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Load on Auditory Spatial Attention Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Golob

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term memory load can impair attentional control, but prior work shows that the extent of the effect ranges from being very general to very specific. One factor for the mixed results may be reliance on point estimates of memory load effects on attention. Here we used auditory attention gradients as an analog measure to map-out the impact of short-term memory load over space. Verbal or spatial information was maintained during an auditory spatial attention task and compared to no-load. Stimuli were presented from five virtual locations in the frontal azimuth plane, and subjects focused on the midline. Reaction times progressively increased for lateral stimuli, indicating an attention gradient. Spatial load further slowed responses at lateral locations, particularly in the left hemispace, but had little effect at midline. Verbal memory load had no (Experiment 1, or a minimal (Experiment 2 influence on reaction times. Spatial and verbal load increased switch costs between memory encoding and attention tasks relative to the no load condition. The findings show that short-term memory influences the distribution of auditory attention over space; and that the specific pattern depends on the type of information in short-term memory.

  8. Study on Dynamic Response of Downhole Tools under Perforation Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of a multibody system is established to investigate the dynamic response of an oil tube-shock absorber-perforating gun system in downhole perforation-test joint operation. In the model, the oil tube and perforating gun are modeled as elastic rods and the shock absorber is modeled as single particle system with damping and a spring. Two force continuity conditions are used to simulate the interactions among the three components. The perforation impact load is determined by an experiment of underwater explosion of perforating bullets. Using the model, the effects of charge quantity of perforating bullet, the number of shock absorbers, and the length of oil tube on the dynamic response of oil tube and packer are investigated. On this basis, a basic principle of the combination design of shock absorber and oil tube is proposed to improve the mechanical state of downhole tools. The study results can provide theoretical support for the design of downhole perforation-test joint operation.

  9. Immediate Loading of Single Implants in the Anterior Maxilla: A 1-Year Prospective Clinical Study on 34 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the outcomes of immediately loaded single implants placed in the anterior maxilla. Methods. Over a 2-year period, all patients referred to a private clinic were considered for enrolment in this study. Inclusion criteria were single-tooth placement in postextraction sockets or healed sites of the anterior maxilla. All implants were immediately loaded and followed for a period of 1 year after the placement of definitive crowns. The outcome measures were implant stability, survival, and success. Results. 34 patients were selected and 43 tapered implants with a knife-edge thread design and a nanostructured, calcium-incorporated surface (Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongsang, Korea were installed. Two implants were not sufficiently stable at placement (ISQ < 60 and were considered failed for immediate loading; 41 implants had an ISQ ≥ 60 at placement and were immediately loaded. One year after the placement of definitive crowns, no implant failures were reported, for a survival rate of 100%. No biological complications were found, but 2 implants had their prosthetic abutments loosened: the implant success rate was 95.2%. Conclusions. In the present study on the immediate loading of single implants in the anterior maxilla, positive outcomes were reported, with high survival (100% and success (95.2% rates (the present study has been registered in the ISRCTN registry, a publicly available trial register recognized by WHO and ICMJE, with number ISRCTN12935478.

  10. Impact of load-related neural processes on feature binding in visuospatial working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Kochan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The capacity of visual working memory (WM is substantially limited and only a fraction of what we see is maintained as a temporary trace. The process of binding visual features has been proposed as an adaptive means of minimising information demands on WM. However the neural mechanisms underlying this process, and its modulation by task and load effects, are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural correlates of feature binding and its modulation by WM load during the sequential phases of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 18 young healthy participants performed a visuospatial WM task with independent factors of load and feature conjunction (object identity and position in an event-related functional MRI study. During stimulus encoding, load-invariant conjunction-related activity was observed in left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus. During maintenance, greater activity for task demands of feature conjunction versus single features, and for increased load was observed in left-sided regions of the superior occipital cortex, precuneus and superior frontal cortex. Where these effects were expressed in overlapping cortical regions, their combined effect was additive. During retrieval, however, an interaction of load and feature conjunction was observed. This modulation of feature conjunction activity under increased load was expressed through greater deactivation in medial structures identified as part of the default mode network. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The relationship between memory load and feature binding qualitatively differed through each phase of the WM task. Of particular interest was the interaction of these factors observed within regions of the default mode network during retrieval which we interpret as suggesting that at low loads, binding processes may be 'automatic' but at higher loads it becomes a resource-intensive process leading to disengagement of activity in this

  11. Short-term residential load forecasting: Impact of calendar effects and forecast granularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusis, Peter; Khalilpour, Kaveh Rajab; Andrew, Lachlan

    2017-01-01

    forecasting for a single-customer or even down at an appliance level. Access to high resolution data from smart meters has enabled the research community to assess conventional load forecasting techniques and develop new forecasting strategies suitable for demand-side disaggregated loads. This paper studies...... how calendar effects, forecasting granularity and the length of the training set affect the accuracy of a day-ahead load forecast for residential customers. Root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized RMSE were used as forecast error metrics. Regression trees, neural networks, and support vector...... regression yielded similar average RMSE results, but statistical analysis showed that regression trees technique is significantly better. The use of historical load profiles with daily and weekly seasonality, combined with weather data, leaves the explicit calendar effects a very low predictive power...

  12. Buoyancy effects in vertical rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field and single sided heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostichev, P. I.; Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    In some DEMO blanket designs liquid metal flows in vertical ducts of rectangular cross-section between ceramic breeder units providing their cooling. Heat exchange in these conditions is governed by the influence of magnetic field (coplanar) and by buoyancy effects that depend on the flow orientation to the gravity vector (downward and upward flow). Magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer of liquid metal in vertical rectangular ducts is not well researched. Experimental study of buoyancy effects in rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field for one-sided heat load and downward and upward flowsis presented in this paper. The detail research with has been done on mercury MHD close loop with using of the probe technique allow to discover several advantageous and disadvantageous effects. The intensive impact of buoyancy force has been observed in a few regime of downward flow which has been laminarized by magnetic field. Due to the development in the flow of the secondary large-scale vortices heat transfer improved and the temperature fluctuations of the abnormally high intensity have been fixed. On the contrary, in the upward flow the buoyancy force stabilized the flow which lead to decreasing of the turbulence heat transfer ratio and, consequently, deterioration of heat transfer.

  13. Triple-Loaded Suture Anchors Versus a Knotless Rip Stop Construct in a Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Matthew P; Lederman, Evan; Adams, Christopher R; Denard, Patrick J

    2018-05-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of single-row repair with triple-loaded (TL) anchor repair versus a knotless rip stop (KRS) repair in a rotator cuff repair model. Rotator cuff tears were created in 8 cadaveric matched-pair specimens and repaired with a TL anchor or KRS construct. In the TL construct, anchors were placed in the greater tuberosity and then all suture limbs were passed through the rotator cuff as simple sutures and tied. In the KRS construct, a 2-mm suture tape was passed through the tendon in an inverted mattress fashion, and a free suture was passed medial to the suture tape to create a rip-stop. Then, the suture tape and free suture were secured with knotless anchors. Displacement was observed with video tracking after cyclic loading, and specimens were loaded to failure. The mean load to failure was 438 ± 59 N in TL anchor repairs compared with 457 ± 110 N in KRS repairs (P = .582). The mean displacement with cyclic loading was 3.8 ± 1.6 mm in TL anchor repairs versus 4.3 ± 1.8 mm in the KRS group (P = .297). Mode of failure was consistent in both groups, with 6 of 8 failures in the TL anchor group and 7 of 8 failures in KRS group occurring from anchor pullout. There is no statistical difference in load to failure and cyclic loading between TL anchor and KRS single-row repair techniques. KRS repair technique may be an alternative method of repairing full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears with a single-row construct. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Damage Tolerance of Pre-Stressed Composite Panels Under Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Schueler, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    An experimental test campaign studied the structural integrity of carbon fibre/epoxy panels preloaded in tension or compression then subjected to gas gun impact tests causing significant damage. The test programme used representative composite aircraft fuselage panels composed of aerospace carbon fibre toughened epoxy prepreg laminates. Preload levels in tension were representative of design limit loads for fuselage panels of this size, and maximum compression preloads were in the post-buckle region. Two main impact scenarios were considered: notch damage from a 12 mm steel cube projectile, at velocities in the range 93-136 m/s; blunt impact damage from 25 mm diameter glass balls, at velocities 64-86 m/s. The combined influence of preload and impact damage on panel residual strengths was measured and results analysed in the context of damage tolerance requirements for composite aircraft panels. The tests showed structural integrity well above design limit loads for composite panels preloaded in tension and compression with visible notch impact damage from hard body impact tests. However, blunt impact tests on buckled compression loaded panels caused large delamination damage regions which lowered plate bending stiffness and reduced significantly compression strengths in buckling.

  15. Impact of enzyme loading on the efficacy and recovery of cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on enzymogel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Ashani; Kudina, Olena; Nahar, Nurun; Zakharchenko, Andrey; Minko, Sergiy; Voronov, Andriy; Pryor, Scott W

    2015-03-01

    Cellulase and β-glucosidase were adsorbed on a polyacrylic acid polymer brush grafted on silica nanoparticles to produce enzymogels as a form of enzyme immobilization. Enzyme loading on the enzymogels was increased to a saturation level of approximately 110 μg (protein) mg(-1) (particle) for each enzyme. Enzymogels with varied enzyme loadings were then used to determine the impact on hydrolysis rate and enzyme recovery. Soluble sugar concentrations during the hydrolysis of filter paper and Solka-Floc with the enzymogels were 45 and 53%, respectively, of concentrations when using free cellulase. β-Glucosidase enzymogels showed lower performance; hydrolyzate glucose concentrations were just 38% of those using free enzymes. Increasing enzyme loading on the enzymogels did not reduce net efficacy for cellulase and improved efficacy for β-glucosidase. The use of free cellulases and cellulase enzymogels resulted in hydrolyzates with different proportions of cellobiose and glucose, suggesting differential attachment or efficacy of endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases present in cellulase mixtures. When loading β-glucosidase individually, higher enzyme loadings on the enzymogels produced higher hydrolyzate glucose concentrations. Approximately 96% of cellulase and 66 % of β-glucosidase were recovered on the enzymogels, while enzyme loading level did not impact recovery for either enzyme.

  16. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numpilai, Thanapha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Muenmee, Suthaporn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Witoon, Thongthai, E-mail: fengttwi@ku.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); NANOTEC-KU-Center of Excellence on Nanoscale Materials Design for Green Nanotechnology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-02-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N{sub 2}-sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5 nm to 10 nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85 mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8–20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92 wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. - Highlights: • Impacts of pore characteristics of supports on adsorption and release of ibuprofen • Increasing mesopore size increased the ibuprofen loading and dissolution rate. • Macropores reduced the diffusion pathway of ibuprofen and dissolution medium.

  17. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numpilai, Thanapha; Muenmee, Suthaporn; Witoon, Thongthai

    2016-01-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N 2 -sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5 nm to 10 nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85 mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8–20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92 wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. - Highlights: • Impacts of pore characteristics of supports on adsorption and release of ibuprofen • Increasing mesopore size increased the ibuprofen loading and dissolution rate. • Macropores reduced the diffusion pathway of ibuprofen and dissolution medium.

  18. Water depth effects on impact loading, kinematic and physiological variables during water treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul W; Wharton, Josh; Schill, Carina; Fink, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impact loading, kinematic and physiological responses to three different immersion depths (mid-shin, mid-thigh, and xiphoid process) while running at the same speed on a water based treadmill. Participants (N=8) ran on a water treadmill at three depths for 3min. Tri-axial accelerometers were used to identify running dynamics plus measures associated with impact loading rates, while heart rate data were logged to indicate physiological demand. Participants had greater peak impact accelerations (prunning immersed to the xiphoid process. Physiological effort determined by heart rate was also significantly less (prunning immersed to the xiphoid process. Water immersed treadmill running above the waistline alters kinematics of gait, reduces variables associated with impact, while decreasing physiological demand compared to depths below the waistline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of occupational load carriage on carrier mobility: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Simon D; Orr, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    Military personnel and firefighters are required to carry occupational loads and complete tasks in hostile and unpredictable environments where a lack of mobility may risk lives. This review critically examines the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on the mobility of these specialist personnel. Several literature databases, reference lists, and subject matter experts were employed to identify relevant studies. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were critiqued using the Downs and Black protocol. Inter-rater agreement was determined by Cohen's κ. Twelve original research studies, which included male and female participants from military and firefighting occupations, were critiqued (κ = .81). A review of these papers found that as the carried load weight increased, carrier mobility during aerobic tasks (like road marching) and anaerobic tasks (like obstacle course negotiation) decreased. As such, it can be concluded that the load carried by some specialist personnel may increase their occupational risk by reducing their mobility.

  20. The impact of ergonomics intervention on trunk posture and cumulative compression load among carpet weavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Alir Raze

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of back among weavers are prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between poor working postures and back disorders among carpet weavers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the traditional (A) and ergonomically designed (B) workstations on trunk posture and cumulative compression load in carpet weavers. In this study, subtasks were identified in terms of stressful postures and carpet weaving process. Postural data were collected during knotting and compacting subtasks using inclinometer during four hours for each workstation. Postural data, weight and height of the weavers were entered into the University of Michigan three-dimensional static biomechanical model for estimation of the compression load and cumulative load were estimated from the resultant load and exposure time. Thirteen healthy carpet weavers (four males and nine females) participated in the study. Median trunk flexion angle was reduced with workstation B during knotting subtask (18° versus 8.5°, pergonomically designed workstation.

  1. Impacts of groundwater metal loads from bedrock fractures on water quality of a mountain stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S; Dawson, Helen E

    2009-06-01

    Acid mine drainage and metal loads from hardrock mines to surface waters is a significant problem in the western USA and many parts of the world. Mines often occur in mountain environments with fractured bedrock aquifers that serve as pathways for metals transport to streams. This study evaluates impacts from current and potential future groundwater metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) loads from fractures underlying the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, on concentrations in Strawberry Creek using existing flow and water quality data and simple mixing/dilution mass balance models. Results showed that metal loads from bedrock fractures to the creek currently contribute water quality is achieved upstream in Strawberry Creek, fracture metal loads would be water quality standards exceedances once groundwater with elevated metals concentrations in the aquifer matrix migrates to the fractures and discharges to the stream. Potential future metal loads from an upstream fracture would contribute a small proportion of the total load relative to current loads in the stream. Cd has the highest stream concentrations relative to standards. Even if all stream water was treated to remove 90% of the Cd, the standard would still not be achieved. At a fracture farther downstream, the Cd standard can only be met if the upstream water is treated achieving a 90% reduction in Cd concentrations and the median stream flow is maintained.

  2. Effects of Carbon Nanomaterial Reinforcement on Composite Joints Under Cyclic and Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    prepreg . 2 Figure 1. Composite decks on DDG1000. (From [3]) Figure 2. USV built from nanotube-reinforced carbon fiber composites. (From [2...been proven that the infusion of CNTs enhances the strength and fracture toughness of CFRP laminates under static loading (mode I and mode II...Kostopoulos et al. [5] investigated the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the impact and after-impact behavior of CFRP laminates

  3. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...properties and of the attendant ballistic-impact failure mechanisms in prototypical friction stir welding (FSW) joints found in armor structures made of high...mechanisms, friction stir welding M. Grujicic, B. Pandurangan, A. Arakere, C-F. Yen, B. A. Cheeseman Clemson University Office of Sponsored Programs 300

  4. Impact evaluation of conducted UWB transients on loads in power-line networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, faced with the ever-increasing dependence on diverse electronic devices and systems, the proliferation of potential electromagnetic interference (EMI becomes a critical threat for reliable operation. A typical issue is the electronics working reliably in power-line networks when exposed to electromagnetic environment. In this paper, we consider a conducted ultra-wideband (UWB disturbance, as an example of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI source, and perform the impact evaluation at the loads in a network. With the aid of fast Fourier transform (FFT, the UWB transient is characterized in the frequency domain. Based on a modified Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT method, the EMI received at the loads, with complex impedance, is computed. Through inverse FFT (IFFT, we obtain time-domain responses of the loads. To evaluate the impact on loads, we employ five common, but important quantifiers, i.e., time-domain peak, total signal energy, peak signal power, peak time rate of change and peak time integral of the pulse. Moreover, to perform a comprehensive analysis, we also investigate the effects of the attributes (capacitive, resistive, or inductive of other loads connected to the network, the rise time and pulse width of the UWB transient, and the lengths of power lines. It is seen that, for the loads distributed in a network, the impact evaluation of IEMI should be based on the characteristics of the IEMI source, and the network features, such as load impedances, layout, and characteristics of cables.

  5. Sound-Intensity Feedback During Running Reduces Loading Rates and Impact Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jeremiah J; Milner, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, within-session design. Background Gait retraining has been proposed as an effective intervention to reduce impact loading in runners at risk of stress fractures. Interventions that can be easily implemented in the clinic are needed. Objective To assess the immediate effects of sound-intensity feedback related to impact during running on vertical impact peak, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical average loading rate. Methods Fourteen healthy, college-aged runners who ran at least 9.7 km/wk participated (4 male, 10 female; mean ± SD age, 23.7 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.67 ± 0.08 m; mass, 60.9 ± 8.7 kg). A decibel meter provided real-time sound-intensity feedback of treadmill running via an iPad application. Participants were asked to reduce the sound intensity of running while receiving continuous feedback for 15 minutes, while running at their self-selected preferred speed. Baseline and follow-up ground reaction force data were collected during overground running at participants' self-selected preferred running speed. Results Dependent t tests indicated a statistically significant reduction in vertical impact peak (1.56 BW to 1.13 BW, P≤.001), vertical instantaneous loading rate (95.48 BW/s to 62.79 BW/s, P = .001), and vertical average loading rate (69.09 BW/s to 43.91 BW/s, P≤.001) after gait retraining, compared to baseline. Conclusion The results of the current study support the use of sound-intensity feedback during treadmill running to immediately reduce loading rate and impact force. The transfer of within-session reductions in impact peak and loading rates to overground running was demonstrated. Decreases in loading were of comparable magnitude to those observed in other gait retraining methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):565-569. Epub 6 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7275.

  6. Attrition of limestones by impact loading in fluidized beds: The influence of reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of attrition associated with impact loading was studied for five different limestones pre-processed in fluidized bed under different reaction conditions. The experimental procedure was based on the measurement of the amount and the particle size distribution of the debris generated upon impact of sorbent samples against a target at velocities between 10 and 45 m/s. The effect of calcination, sulfation and calcination/re-carbonation on impact damage was assessed. Fragmentation by impact loading of the limestones was significant and increased with the impact velocity. Lime samples displayed the largest propensity to undergo impact damage, followed by sulfated, re-carbonated and raw limestones. Fragmentation of the sulfated samples followed a pattern typical of the failure of brittle materials. On the other hand, the behaviour of lime samples better conformed to a disintegration failure mode, with extensive generation of very fine fragments. Raw limestone and re-carbonated lime samples followed either of the two patterns depending on the sorbent nature. The extent of particle fragmentation increased after multiple impacts, but the incremental amount of fragments generated upon one impact decreased with the number of successive impacts. (author)

  7. Evaluation of sealing performance of metal cask subjected to vertical impact load due to aircraft engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2010-01-01

    To confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, a vertical impact test was carried out. In this test, a simplified deformable missile was used by considering the rigidity of the actual aircraft engine and accelerated to the specified impact velocity (60 m/s) to hit the full-scale lid structure with the primary and secondary lids. Then, the leak rate, the inner pressure between the lids, and the displacement of the lids were measured. The leak rate of the secondary lid exceeded 1.0x10 -3 Pa·m 3 /s upon impact. However, because no residual lid opening displacement occurred after loading, the leak rate recovered to less than 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /s after 3 h from the impact test. In addition, to clarify the impact behaviour of the lid structure, the impact analysis using the LS-DYNA code was executed. It was found that the lid bolts maintained the good tightening force after impact loading, and the sealing performance of the full-scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the vertical impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 60 m/s. (author)

  8. IMPACT OF POLY-LINGUISTIC LOAD ON AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND MONITORING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  We have defined the structure and basic characteristics of the poly-linguistic audio-acoustic channel within the framework of controller – pilot communication, and set limits of poly-linguistic load impact on air traffic control.

  9. Impact of increasing freight loads on rail substructure from fracking sand transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this report the effect of surface infiltration of frac sand and heavy axle loads (HALs) were studied for their impact on the ballast layer. : Different combinations of ballast and fracking sand were constructed to observe long term trends of defor...

  10. ABOUT INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SCHEMES IMPACT RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS AND LOADS ON REINFORCED LAMELLAR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail B. Garibov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the model of deformation of fiber-reinforced concrete rectangular plate under the influence of radiation environments. In the calculation of the plate was considered different schemes impact of the applied external loads and radiation environments.

  11. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the major issues confronting aerosol climate simulations of the Arctic and Antarctic cryospheres is the lack of detailed data on the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols with which to test these models. This is due, in part, to the inherent difficulty of conducting such measurements in extreme environments. However given the pronounced sensitivity of the polar regions to radiative balance perturbations, it is incumbent upon our community to better understand and quantify these perturbations, and their unique feedbacks, so that robust model predictions of this region can be realized. One class of under-measured radiative forcing agents in the polar region is the absorbing aerosol—black carbon and brown carbon. Black carbon (BC; also referred to as light-absorbing carbon [LAC], refractory black carbon [rBC], and soot) is second only to CO2 as a positive forcing agent. Roughly 60% of BC emissions can be attributed to anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel combustion and open-pit cooking), with the remaining fraction being due to biomass burning. Brown carbon (BrC), a major component of biomass burning, collectively refers to non-BC carbonaceous aerosols that typically possess minimal light absorption at visible wavelengths but exhibit pronounced light absorption in the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Both species can be sourced locally or be remotely transported to the Arctic region and are expected to perturb the radiative balance. The work conducted in this field campaign addresses one of the more glaring deficiencies currently limiting improved quantification of the impact of BC radiative forcing in the cryosphere: the paucity of data on the vertical and spatial distributions of BC. By expanding the Gulfstream aircraft (G-1) payload for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility-sponsored ACME-V campaign to include the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)) and leveraging the ACME-V campaign

  12. Stability of an anaerobic single reactor filled with dolomitic limestone with increased organic load of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic single-stage reactor was evaluated to treat vinasse and to evaluate its stability. This bench reactor was filled with dolomitic limestone with a horizontal plug flow to simulate a drainage channel. The experiment lasted 129 days while the reactor was submitted to different applied organic concentrations (chronologically applied: 3.0; 5.0; 12.0; 9.0 and 7.5 g L-1 as COD, chemical oxygen demand. COD removals were 50% and 9% with 3.0 and 7.5 g L-1, respectively. With 12.0 g L-1, reactor efficiency increased to 33%, with an abrupt drop to 3% on the 84th day. Therefore, in order to avoid reactor collapse, a remedial measure was necessary. The system remained in batch without feeding for 19 days (from the 85th to the 104th day with 9.0 g L-1. Afterwards, it was observed that the performance of the system tended to stabilize, reaching 47% with 7.5 g L-1 in the 118th day. At the end of the experiment, the potassium content of the wastewater decreased from 800 mg L-1 to 594 mg L-1 (on an average 25% and calcium and magnesium increased within the reactor liquor. The dissolution of the limestone inside the liquor reactor probably caused this result. After the treatment with limestone, the average pH value of the effluent increased from 4.9 to over 6.0 in all organic concentrations. It could be concluded that the reactor filled with dolomitic limestone in these operational conditions assured a low efficiency in COD removal, potassium reduction, increasing values of pH, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium. The instability was observed when there was increase in organic load to 12 g L-1 with subsequent recovery.

  13. Effect of single-limb inertial loading on bilateral reaching: interlimb interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzitaki, V; McKinley, P

    2001-09-01

    This study employed the paradigm of asymmetric limb loading during bilateral arm reaching to examine the motor system's ability to independently organize the discrete movement of both upper limbs to equidistant targets when one of the limbs is loaded under specific timing constraints. The loading procedure involved attaching two different Velcro strapped weights to the right wrist, thus increasing the right arm's mass by 25% (1 kg) and 50% (2 kg). Movements were captured by a high-speed digital camera (240 Hz), while electromyographic (EMG) activity of selected elbow and shoulder muscles of both limbs was recorded (1,000 Hz) simultaneously. The results revealed that the mechanisms used by the system to compensate for unilateral limb loading were as follows: First, addition of an inertial load resulted in an increased movement time and concomitant decrease in peak velocity of both the upper arm and forearm of only the loaded limb and was scaled to the added weight. Second, for the EMG parameters, adjustments to the inertial load were primarily characterized by an increase in burst duration of all muscles, with load-specific changes in activity and onset time: the elbow antagonist (biceps) demonstrated a decrease in activity with the 50% load, and the elbow agonist (triceps) had an earlier onset with the 25% load. Concomitant adjustments on the unloaded limb consisted primarily of an increase in burst duration of the shoulder and elbow agonists (pectoralis and triceps), an earlier triceps onset solely with the 25% load, and a decrease in activity of the biceps solely with the 50% load. Third, with the exception of biceps activity, the amplitude of EMG activity was invariant across changes in load for both the loaded and unloaded limb. This lack of modulation in activity may have been related to the inability of performers to meet the time constraint of simultaneous bilateral limb arrival to the end targets. This inability can be the result of an active strategy

  14. Dynamic response of a clamped/free hollow circular cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Impact-induced vibrations in the casing of a gas centriguge due to a sudden failure of the spinning rotor (crash) can cause structural disintegrity of the casing. In order to study the influence of the rotor failure bahaviour and the impact load histories on the dynamic response of the casing, a simple crash model is proposed in this paper to analyse the transient torsional response due to tangential components of the impact loads. The casing is modeled as a linear-elastic hollow circular cylinder, clamped at the lower end and free at the upper end. The rotor is thought to breakup in identical sections in a sequence determined by its fracture behaviour. Each section is assumed to cause an axi-symmetric load distribution at the inner surface of the casing. Therefore the problem is essentially reduced to the analysis of a clamped/free cylinder under travelling torsional impact loads. The problem is solved by representing the impact loads as local pulses acting over the length of the sections. A perturbation method is used to show that the general two-dimensional theory of axi-symmetric torsional wave propagation in circular cylinders, for the problem under consideration, may be approximated by the elementary one-dimensional theory. Solutions are obtained according to the usual modal expansion approach. Measurements of transient torsional responses are shown to be in good agreement with the calculated responses by choosing a suitable shape of the pulses. The effects of travelling velocity and pulse shape are investigated. Finally the transfer of kinetic energy in the rotor to vibrational energy of torsion in the casing is studied. (orig.)

  15. The Impact of Roof Pitch and Ceiling Insulation on Cooling Load of Naturally-Ventilated Attics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxia Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is employed to simulate buoyancy-driven turbulent ventilation in attics with different pitch values and ceiling insulation levels under summer conditions. The impacts of roof pitch and ceiling insulation on the cooling load of gable-roof residential buildings are investigated based on the simulation of turbulent air flow and natural convection heat transfer in attic spaces with roof pitches from 3/12 to 18/12 combined with ceiling insulation levels from R-1.2 to R-40. The modeling results show that the air flows in the attics are steady and exhibit a general streamline pattern that is qualitatively insensitive to the investigated variations of roof pitch and ceiling insulation. Furthermore, it is predicted that the ceiling insulation plays a control role on the attic cooling load and that an increase of roof pitch from 3/12 to 8/12 results in a decrease in the cooling load by around 9% in the investigated cases. The results suggest that the increase of roof pitch alone, without changing other design parameters, has limited impact on attics cooling load and airflow pattern. The research results also suggest both the predicted ventilating mass flow rate and attic cooling load can be satisfactorily correlated by simple relationships in terms of appropriately defined Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers.

  16. Fatigue Durability Analysis of Collecting Rapping System in Electrostatic Precipitators under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Lotfi Neyestanak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of collecting rapping system in electrostatic precipitators (ESP and controlling the relevant damage under impact loading, fatigue durability of this system is analyzed in the present study based on the numerical and experimental results considering fatigue damage growth and vibration acceleration in the collecting system because of the successive impact of rapping hammers. By microscopic examination of the fracture surface of rapping hammer, beach marks obviously show typical fatigue failure in the rapping hammer arm. In addition, the microscopic examination of the cross section of the collecting plates indicates the corrosion voids which cause crack and eventually fatigue failure. The finite element method is applied to determine both the stress and concentration positions of dynamic stress on the rapping system under impact loading. The paper results can be utilized in system optimization and new material selection for the system by evaluating rapping system durability.

  17. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (Macintosh version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  18. Design procedure for pollutant loadings and impacts for highway stormwater runoff (IBM version) (for microcomputers). Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The interactive computer program was developed to make a user friendly procedure for the personal computer for calculations and guidance to make estimations of pollutant loadings and impacts from highway stormwater runoff which are presented in the Publication FHWA-RD-88-006, Pollutant Loadings and Impacts from Highway Stormwater Runoff, Volume I: Design Procedure. The computer program is for the evaluation of the water quality impact from highway stormwater runoff to a lake or a stream from a specific highway site considering the necessary rainfall data and geographic site situation. The evaluation considers whether or not the resulting water quality conditions can cause a problem as indicated by the violations of water quality criteria or objectives

  19. Stresses and displacements in vessels due to loads imposed by single and multiple piping attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Craft, W.J.; East, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Fourier solution for thin shell equations models pressure vessels as continuous simply connected surfaces with local loads. The technique allows placement of tractions with combinations of radial, shear, and axial components. Unlike Bijlaard, the solution in this paper includes loads placed at any position along the cylinder. Stiffness and the enhanced load-carrying capacity that internal pressure gives to thin vessels can be simulated. Numerical convergence problems are reduced by an improved displacement-load algorithm, and by use of load sites that allow the circular functions to be compactly grouped. A variety of loading distributions may be analyzed including large and small nozzles near and away from centerlines. Both rectangular and circular attachments are simulated. Through superposition, multiple attachments with their own loads may be examined. The attachments to the vessel may be either rigid or soft. A comparison to analytical results from Bijlaard shows excellent agreement. Comparisons with experimental tests on an API-650 nozzle on a storage tank are in good agreement. Variations between experimental and calculated results are primarily caused by assuming a simply supported base in the calculation, whereas in the experimental test, the base is more nearly fixed

  20. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  1. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    Emphasis in this paper is on the fault ride-through operation impact on the wind turbines structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in power system simulation tools using simplified drive train mechanical model, approach which doesn't allow a thorough investigation of structural loads...... as the electrical design of the wind turbine response during grid faults. The two-step simulation procedure is assessed by means of a simulation example. The effect of a grid fault on the structural part of a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator, is assessed....

  2. An Analytic Equation Partitioning Climate Variation and Human Impacts on River Sediment Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gao, G.; Fu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial or temporal patterns and process-based equations could co-exist in hydrologic model. Yet, existing approaches quantifying the impacts of those variables on river sediment load (RSL) changes are found to be severely limited, and new ways to evaluate the contribution of these variables are thus needed. Actually, the Newtonian modeling is hardly achievable for this process due to the limitation of both observations and knowledge of mechanisms, whereas laws based on the Darwinian approach could provide one component of a developed hydrologic model. Since that streamflow is the carrier of suspended sediment, sediment load changes are documented in changes of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) - water discharge relationships. Consequently, an analytic equation for river sediment load changes are proposed to explicitly quantify the relative contributions of climate variation and direct human impacts on river sediment load changes. Initially, the sediment rating curve, which is of great significance in RSL changes analysis, was decomposed as probability distribution of streamflow and the corresponding SSC - water discharge relationships at equally spaced discharge classes. Furthermore, a proposed segmentation algorithm based on the fractal theory was used to decompose RSL changes attributed to these two portions. Additionally, the water balance framework was utilized and the corresponding elastic parameters were calculated. Finally, changes in climate variables (i.e. precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) and direct human impacts on river sediment load could be figured out. By data simulation, the efficiency of the segmentation algorithm was verified. The analytic equation provides a superior Darwinian approach partitioning climate and human impacts on RSL changes, as only data series of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and SSC - water discharge are demanded.

  3. The impact of water loading on postglacial decay times in Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Holly Kyeore; Gomez, Natalya

    2018-05-01

    Ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) due to surface loading (ice and water) variations during the last glacial cycle has been contributing to sea-level changes globally throughout the Holocene, especially in regions like Canada that were heavily glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The spatial and temporal distribution of GIA, as manifested in relative sea-level (RSL) change, are sensitive to the ice history and the rheological structure of the solid Earth, both of which are uncertain. It has been shown that RSL curves near the center of previously glaciated regions with no ongoing surface loading follow an exponential-like form, with the postglacial decay times associated with that form having a weak sensitivity to the details of the ice loading history. Postglacial decay time estimates thus provide a powerful datum for constraining the Earth's viscous structure and improving GIA predictions. We explore spatial patterns of postglacial decay time predictions in Hudson Bay by decomposing numerically modeled RSL changes into contributions from water and ice loading effects, and computing their relative impact on the decay times. We demonstrate that ice loading can contribute a strong geographic trend on the decay time estimates if the time window used to compute decay times includes periods that are temporally close to (i.e. contemporaneous with, or soon after) periods of active loading. This variability can be avoided by choosing a suitable starting point for the decay time window. However, more surprisingly, we show that across any adopted time window, water loading effects associated with inundation into, and postglacial flux out of, Hudson Bay and James Bay will impart significant geographic variability onto decay time estimates. We emphasize this issue by considering both maps of predicted decay times across the region and site-specific estimates, and we conclude that variability in observed decay times (whether based on existing or future data

  4. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  5. Single and multi degree of freedom analysis of steel beams under blast loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassr, Amr A., E-mail: nassraa@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Razaqpur, A. Ghani, E-mail: razaqpu@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Tait, Michael J., E-mail: taitm@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Campidelli, Manuel, E-mail: campide@mcmaster.ca [Dept. of Civil Engineering, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Foo, Simon, E-mail: simon.foo@pwgsc.gc.ca [Public Works and Government Services, Gatineau, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimentally tested beams under blast are analyzed using SDOF and MDOF models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDOF model adequately captures the time dependant deformations and internal forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constant DIF based on a low strain rate leads to conservative estimate of the DIF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The responses of the test beams are governed by the first mode of vibration. - Abstract: This paper presents detailed analysis of the results of field tests on 13 full scale wide flange steel beams subjected to blast loads generated by the detonation of up to 250 kg of ANFO explosive. The experimental results are analyzed using an equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) model of a beam, which includes material nonlinearity and strain rate effects. To account for strain rate effect on beam stiffness and strength, its full moment-curvature response is determined by dividing its cross-section into a number of layers and a strain rate-dependent stress-strain relationship, based on the Cowper-Symonds strain rate model, is used to capture the nonlinear stress distribution over the section. To determine the effects of higher modes of vibration and the variation of beam mechanical properties along its length on its dynamic response, the test beams are also analyzed using a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) model involving beam finite elements. Each element has two nodes and three degrees of freedom and is again divided into a number of layers to capture the strain rate effect and nonlinear stress distribution over its depth. The predicted displacements and strains by the two models are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the results show that for the given beams, the time-dependant deformations, internal forces, and moments can be adequately predicted by either model because the first mode of vibration is found to dominate their response; however, the use of a constant strain rate

  6. Single and multi degree of freedom analysis of steel beams under blast loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A.; Razaqpur, A. Ghani; Tait, Michael J.; Campidelli, Manuel; Foo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimentally tested beams under blast are analyzed using SDOF and MDOF models. ► SDOF model adequately captures the time dependant deformations and internal forces. ► Constant DIF based on a low strain rate leads to conservative estimate of the DIF. ► The responses of the test beams are governed by the first mode of vibration. - Abstract: This paper presents detailed analysis of the results of field tests on 13 full scale wide flange steel beams subjected to blast loads generated by the detonation of up to 250 kg of ANFO explosive. The experimental results are analyzed using an equivalent Single-Degree-of-Freedom (SDOF) model of a beam, which includes material nonlinearity and strain rate effects. To account for strain rate effect on beam stiffness and strength, its full moment-curvature response is determined by dividing its cross-section into a number of layers and a strain rate-dependent stress-strain relationship, based on the Cowper–Symonds strain rate model, is used to capture the nonlinear stress distribution over the section. To determine the effects of higher modes of vibration and the variation of beam mechanical properties along its length on its dynamic response, the test beams are also analyzed using a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) model involving beam finite elements. Each element has two nodes and three degrees of freedom and is again divided into a number of layers to capture the strain rate effect and nonlinear stress distribution over its depth. The predicted displacements and strains by the two models are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the results show that for the given beams, the time-dependant deformations, internal forces, and moments can be adequately predicted by either model because the first mode of vibration is found to dominate their response; however, the use of a constant strain rate through the so-called Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF) can lead to highly conservative estimate of the

  7. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of passage through the restriction point and MCM loading in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, T. W.; Boye, E.; Stokke, T.; Grallert, B.; Syljuåsen, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Passage through the Retinoblastoma protein (RB1)-dependent restriction point and the loading of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) are two crucial events in G1-phase that help maintain genome integrity. Deregulation of these processes can cause uncontrolled proliferation and cancer development. Both events have been extensively characterized individually, but their relative timing and inter-dependence remain less clear. Here, we describe a novel method to simultaneously measure MCM loading and passage through the restriction point. We exploit that the RB1 protein is anchored in G1-phase but is released when hyper-phosphorylated at the restriction point. After extracting cells with salt and detergent before fixation we can simultaneously measure, by flow cytometry, the loading of MCMs onto chromatin and RB1 binding to determine the order of the two events in individual cells. We have used this method to examine the relative timing of the two events in human cells. Whereas in BJ fibroblasts released from G0-phase MCM loading started mainly after the restriction point, in a significant fraction of exponentially growing BJ and U2OS osteosarcoma cells MCMs were loaded in G1-phase with RB1 anchored, demonstrating that MCM loading can also start before the restriction point. These results were supported by measurements in synchronized U2OS cells. PMID:26250117

  9. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  10. Influence of combined impact and cyclic loading on the overall fatigue life of forged steel, EA4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Hadidi-Moud, S.; Farhangdoost, Kh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The performance of forged steel, EA4T, used in rail industry, under simulated in service conditions, i.e. combined impact - cyclic loading, was investigated through a comprehensive experimental programme. The standard Paris-Erdogan fatigue design curve parameters, m and C, were calibrated to account for the effect of the impact component of loading. A minimum threshold for impact load component, identified in the experiments, was also incorporated in the proposed empirical model. Comparison with experimental findings indicated that this “modified” Fatigue design curve could predict the fatigue life of pre impact loaded specimens with sufficient accuracy. It was therefore suggested that the modified model may be used as a novel design tool for predicting the overall fatigue life of components made of this material under the specified combined impact and fatigue loading conditions.

  11. Sputtering of Au induced by single Xe ion impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of Au thin films has been determined for Xe ions with energies between 50 and 600 keV. In-situ transmission electron microscopy was used to observe sputtered Au during deposition on a carbon foil near the specimen. Total reflection and transmission sputtering yields for a 62 nm thick Au thin film were determined by ex-situ measurement of the total amount of Au on the carbon foils. In situ observations show that individual Xe ions eject Au nanoparticles as large as 7 nm in diameter with an average diameter of approximately 3 nm. Particle emission correlates with crater formation due to single ion impacts. Nanoparticle emission contributes significantly to the total sputtering yield for Xe ions in this energy range in either reflection or transmission geometry

  12. Limitations of power conversion systems under transient loads and impact on the pulsed tokamak power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, G.T.; Wong, C.P.C.; Kapich, D.D.; McDonald, C.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The impact of cyclic loading of the power conversion system of a helium-cooled, pulsed tokamak power plant is assessed. Design limits of key components of heat transport systems employing Rankie and Brayton thermodynamic cycles are quantified based on experience in gas-cooled fission reactor design and operation. Cyclic loads due to pulsed tokamak operation are estimated. Expected performance of the steam generator is shown to be incompatible with pulsed tokamak operation without load leveling thermal energy storage. The close cycle gas turbine is evaluated qualitatively based on performance of existing industrial and aeroderivative gas turbines. Advances in key technologies which significantly improve prospects for operation with tokamak fusion plants are reviewed

  13. Use of a 33 MJ high-energy rotary impact testing machine for investigations into material behaviour under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, W.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate material behaviour under impact loads, previously very different testing machines have been developed. One of these concepts is the rotary impact testing machine which stores rotational energy and on which a tension impact test can be performed with almost unchanged trigger speed. With this device maximum trigger speeds can be achieved by using mechanical, elastically stored or hydraulic energy. Usable sample geometries include in particular smooth or notched round or flat tensile specimen up to 30 mm in diameter and CT10 or CT15 mechanical strength test specimen, permitting a direct comparison with results from quasi-static tests. For present speeds of load application the elastic modulus of steel can be considered as being constant. For Poisson's ratio, measurements indicated changes by approximately -8% to +20%. Early tests to investigate the strain rate showed that the strain rate under purely elastic loads applied to smooth round tensile specimen is approximately 3-10 times slower than the strain rate under plastic deformation, while this ratio may have an order of magnitude of 1:100 for notched tensile specimen. Therefore it is unreasonable to indicate only one value for the strain rate as a test characterising parameter. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Impacting effects of seismic loading in feeder pipes of PHWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.

    1996-01-01

    The core of a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) consists of a large number of fuel channels. These fuel channels are connected to the feeder pipes through which the heavy water flows and transports heat from the reactor core to the steam generators. The feeder pipes are several hundreds in number. They run close to each other with small gaps and have several bends. Thus they represent a complex piping system. Under seismic loading, the adjacent feeder pipes may impact each other. In this paper a simplified procedure has been established to assess such impacting effects. The results of the proposed analysis include bending moment and impact force, which provide the stresses due to impacting effects. These results are plotted in nondimensional form so that they could be utilized for any set of feeder pipes. The procedure used for studying the impacting effects includes seismic analysis of individual feeder pipes without impacting effects, selection of pipes for impact analysis, and estimating their maximum impact velocity. Based on the static and dynamic characteristics of the selected feeder pipes, the maximum bending moment, impact force, and stresses are obtained. The results of this study are useful for quick evaluation of the impacting effects in feeder pipes

  15. Numerical Simulation of Shock Response and Dynamic Fracture of a Concrete Dam Subjected to Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shock response and dynamic fracture of concrete gravity dams under impact load are the key problems to evaluate the antiknock safety of the dam. This study aims at understanding the effects of impact shock on the elastic response and dynamic fracture of concrete gravity dams. Firstly, this paper uses acceleration records of a concrete gravity dam under impact to establish the correct way to determine the concrete gravity dam of the fundamental frequency and present cut sheets multi-degree-of-freedom dynamic modeling. Under strong impact loading, the constitutive relation of concrete gravity dam and the highest frequency of the impact are uncertain. So, the main advantage of this method is avoiding the use of elastic modulus in the calculation. The result indicates that the calculation method is a reliable computational method for concrete gravity dams subjected to impact. Subsequently, the failure process of dam models was numerically simulated based on ABAQUS commercial codes. Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions for future research based on the results of the analysis.

  16. A Prospective Study of Early Loaded Single Implant-Retained Mandibular Overdentures: Preliminary One-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. El-Sheikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the predictability of simplifying mandibular overdenture treatment using one-stage surgery and early prosthetic loading of a single implant. Materials and Methods. Twenty edentulous patients with problematic existing mandibular dentures were treated. A single implant with a chemically modified surface (SLActive, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland was placed into the mandibular midline. The patients were recalled at 3, 6 and 12 months. Clinical assessments and marginal bone loss using standardized radiographs were recorded. All complications, failures and maintenance were noted. Visual analog-scale questionnaires were used to record patient satisfaction in five categories. ANOVA was used to determine differences between means of marginal bone loss and different categories of patient staisfaction (=0.05. Results. The 20 early loaded implants were all surviving at the 12-month recall. All implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone loss by the end of the 1-year with a significant increase during the follow-up period. Few prosthetic problems were reported. Patient satisfaction was high with a significant increase in all comfort and functional parameters. Conclusions. These preliminary 1-year results indicate that early loading of a single chemically modified surface implant used to retain a mucosa-borne mandibular overdenture is a safe, reliable, and cost-effective treatment.

  17. Modeling of Combined Impact and Blast Loading on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Del Linz

    Full Text Available Abstract Explosive devices represent a significant threat to military and civilian structures. Specific design procedures have to be followed to account for this and ensure buildings will have the capacity to resist the imposed pressures. Shrapnel can also be produced during explosions and the resulting impacts can weaken the structure, reducing its capacity to resist the blast pressure wave and potentially causing failures to occur. Experiments were performed by the Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA of Singapore to study this combined loading phenomenon. Slabs were placed on the ground and loaded with approximately 9 kg TNT charges at a standoff distance of 2.1 m. Spherical steel ball bearings were used to reproduce the shrapnel loading. Loading and damage characteristics were recorded from the experiments. A finite element analysis (FEA model was then created which could simulate the effect of combined shrapnel impacts and blast pressure waves in reinforced concrete slabs, so that its results could be compared to experimental data from the blast tests. Quarter models of the experimental concrete slabs were built using LS-Dyna. Material models available in the software were employed to represent all the main components, taking into account projectile deformations. The penetration depth and damage areas measured were then compared to the experimental data and an analytical solution to validate the models.

  18. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load.Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples.The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  19. Impact of extreme load requirements and quality assurance on nuclear power plant costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Definitive costs, applicable to nuclear power plant concrete structures, as a function of National Regulatory Requirements, standardization, the effect of extreme load design associated with both design basis accidents and extreme external events and quality assurance are difficult to develop since such effects are interrelated and not only differ widely from country to country, project to project but also vary in time. Table 1 shows an estimate of the of the overall plant cost effects of external event extreme load design on nuclear power plant design for the U.S -and selected foreign countries for which experience with LWRs exist- Germany is the most expensive primarily due to a military aircraft crash resistance. However, the German requirement for 4 safeguards trains rather than 2 and the containment design requirement to consider one Steam Generator blowdown concurrent with a RCS blowdown. This presentation will concentrate on the direct current impact extreme load design and quality assurance have on concrete structures, systems and components for nuclear plants. This presentation is considered timely due to the increased interest in the c potential backfit of Eastern European nuclear power stations of the WWER 440 and WWER 1000 types which typically did not consider the extreme loads identified in Table 1 and accident loads in Table 3 and quality assurance in Table 5 in their original design. Concrete structures in particular are highlighted because they typically form the last barrier to radioactive release from the containment and other Safety Related Structures

  20. Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, G; de Jonge, N; Söntjens, S H M; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Baaijens, F P T

    2015-06-01

    The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen synthesis and degradation. Using input from experimental studies, we hypothesize that both the microstructure of the scaffold and the loading conditions influence collagen turnover. The evaluation of the mechanical and topological properties of in vitro engineered constructs reveals that the formation of extracellular matrix layers on top of the scaffold surface influences the mechanical anisotropy on the construct. Results show that the microscale model can successfully capture the collagen arrangement between the fibers of an electrospun scaffold under static and cyclic loading conditions. Contact guidance by the scaffold, and not applied load, dominates the collagen architecture. Therefore, when the collagen grows inside the pores of the scaffold, pronounced scaffold anisotropy guarantees the development of a construct that mimics the mechanical anisotropy of the native cardiovascular tissue.

  1. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpilai, Thanapha; Muenmee, Suthaporn; Witoon, Thongthai

    2016-02-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N2-sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5nm to 10nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8-20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial

  3. Mechanical and fracture properties at impact loading of selected steels for nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchar, J.; Bilek, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly characterized of experimental research of mechanical and fracture properties of steels used in nuclear power engineering. Attention is paid to plastic deformation and the assessment of fracture formation during impact loading. The results are reported for steels 15Kh2MFA and 10GN2MFA. For steel 15Kh2MFA the effect was also studied of neutron radiation at different temperatures. From the theory developed for non-irradiated material 10GN2MFA, a prediction is made within the original model of the fracture stress value for steel 15Kh2MFA in both non-irradiated and irradiated states. The conclusion is arrived at that the existing methods of assessing steel properties at impact load allow obtaining knowledge of all significant effects during actual stress, this using only small specimens of the materials. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 8 refs

  4. A new method for testing pile by single-impact energy and P-S curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Yong; Duan, Yong-Kang; Wang, Bin; Hu, Yi-Li; Yang, Run-Hai; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Jin-Ming

    2004-11-01

    By studying the pile-formula and stress-wave methods ( e.g., CASE method), the authors propose a new method for testing piles using the single-impact energy and P-S curves. The vibration and wave figures are recorded, and the dynamic and static displacements are measured by different transducers near the top of piles when the pile is impacted by a heavy hammer or micro-rocket. By observing the transformation coefficient of driving energy (total energy), the consumed energy of wave motion and vibration and so on, the vertical bearing capacity for single pile is measured and calculated. Then, using the vibration wave diagram, the dynamic relation curves between the force ( P) and the displacement ( S) is calculated and the yield points are determined. Using the static-loading test, the dynamic results are checked and the relative constants of dynamic-static P-S curves are determined. Then the subsidence quantity corresponding to the bearing capacity is determined. Moreover, the shaped quality of the pile body can be judged from the formation of P-S curves.

  5. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  6. Do running speed and shoe cushioning influence impact loading and tibial shock in basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.

  7. The Response of Clamped Shallow Sandwich Arches with Metallic Foam Cores to Projectile Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    Full Text Available Abstract The dynamic response and energy absorption capabilities of clamped shallow sandwich arches with aluminum foam core were numerically investigated by impacting the arches at mid-span with metallic foam projectiles. The typical deformation modes, deflection response, and core compression of sandwich arches obtained from the tests were used to validate the computation model. The resistance to impact loading was quantified by the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the arches as a function of projectile momentum. The sandwich arches have a higher shock resistance than the monolithic arches of equal mass, and shock resistance could be significantly enhanced by optimizing geometrical configurations. Meanwhile, decreasing the face-sheet thickness and curvature radius could enhance the energy absorption capability of the sandwich arches. Finite element calculations indicated that the ratio of loading time to structural response time ranged from 0.1 to 0.4. The projectile momentum, which was solely used to quantify the structural response of sandwich arches, was insufficient. These findings could provide guidance in conducting further theoretical studies and producing the optimal design of metallic sandwich structures subjected to impact loading.

  8. Assessing the financial impacts of distributed energy on load serving entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zeyu; Negash, Ahlmahz; Kirschen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the financial impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) owned and operated by commercial customers on the load serving entities (LSEs). DERs reduce the customers' electricity bills and hence the revenues collected by their LSE. However, changes in customer demand profiles can potentially reduce the aggregated system demand profile, and therefore, reduce the LSE's costs in wholesale markets. Analysis of these financial impacts indicates that the LSE's lost revenue ultimately outweighs its reduced expenses. This is largely due to a significant reduction in revenue from demand charges. Dispatchable DERs, including energy storages and demand response, result in more financial losses for LSEs than photovoltaics. The financial losses LSEs face indicate that redesigning commercial customer tariffs is necessary in order for LSEs to accommodate customer owned DERs properly. Several suggestions on modifying commercial tariffs are presented. - Highlights: • We analyze the financial impacts on load serving entities of DERs owned by commercial customers. • Under the selected commercial tariff, load serving entities suffer economic losses. • Energy storages and demand response results in more financial losses for LSE than photovoltaics. • We provide some suggestions for tariff modifications.

  9. Development of methodology for component testing under impact loading for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Phillip; Taylor, Nicholas; Perkinson, Marie-Claire; Wishart, Alex; Vijendran, Sanjay; Braithwaite, Chris

    2017-06-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the scientific benefits of penetrator technology in conducting exploration on other planetary bodies and moons within the solar system. Such a ``hard landing'' approach is cheaper and easier than the traditional ``soft landing'' method. However it is necessary for the science package of such a mission to withstand the rapid decelerations that will occur upon impact. This paper outlines an approach that has been developed to simulate the loading appropriate to Europa and also to monitor component performance before, during and after the impact.

  10. A study for structural safety of ISER reactor building under impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yoichiro; Hasegawa, Toshiyasu; Mutoh, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki.

    1991-01-01

    ISER (Inherently Safe and Economical Reactor) proposed in Japan by an academic circle and industries is expected to be used world-wide particularly in developing countries where an energy crunch is feared in the 21-st century. A certain level of hardened structures for plant safety seems to be effective and may be required by the regulatory body, since the ISER is claimed to be inherently safe even against a kind of external load. This paper concerns impact resistant design of ISER. A brief state-of-the-art review on related works, impact resistant design flow and results of some preliminary analysis of a proposed ISER model is also presented. (author)

  11. Global and local emission impact assessment of distributed cogeneration systems with partial-load models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancarella, Pierluigi; Chicco, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale distributed cogeneration technologies represent a key resource to increase generation efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional separate production means. However, the diffusion of distributed cogeneration within urban areas, where air quality standards are quite stringent, brings about environmental concerns on a local level. In addition, partial-load emission worsening is often overlooked, which could lead to biased evaluations of the energy system environmental performance. In this paper, a comprehensive emission assessment framework suitable for addressing distributed cogeneration systems is formulated. Local and global emission impact models are presented to identify upper and lower boundary values of the environmental pressure from pollutants that would be emitted from reference technologies, to be compared to the actual emissions from distributed cogeneration. This provides synthetic information on the relative environmental impact from small-scale CHP sources, useful for general indicative and non-site-specific studies. The emission models are formulated according to an electrical output-based emission factor approach, through which off-design operation and relevant performance are easily accounted for. In particular, in order to address the issues that could arise under off-design operation, an equivalent load model is incorporated within the proposed framework, by exploiting the duration curve of the cogenerator loading and the emissions associated to each loading level. In this way, it is possible to quantify the contribution to the emissions from cogeneration systems that might operate at partial loads for a significant portion of their operation time, as for instance in load-tracking applications. Suitability of the proposed methodology is discussed with respect to hazardous air pollutants such as NO x and CO, as well as to greenhouse gases such as CO 2 . Two case study applications based on the emission

  12. On the Behavior of Fiberglass Epoxy Composites under Low Velocity Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam S. Chandekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of fiberglass epoxy composite laminates under low velocity impact loading is investigated using LS-DYNA®, and the results are compared with experimental analysis performed using an instrumented impact test setup (Instron dynatup 8250. The composite laminates are manufactured using H-VARTM© process with basket weave E-Glass fabrics. Epon 862 is used as a resin system and Epicure-W as a hardening agent. Composite laminates, with 10 layers of fiberglass fabrics, are modeled using 3D solid elements in a mosaic fashion to represent basket weave pattern. Mechanical properties are calculated by using classical micromechanical theory and assigned to the elements using ORTHOTROPIC ELASTIC material model. The damage occurred since increasing impact energy is incorporated using ADVANCED COMPOSITE DAMAGE material model in LS-DYNA®. Good agreements are obtained with the failure damage results in LS-DYNA® and experimental results. Main considerations for comparison are given to the impact load carrying capacity and the amount of impact energy absorbed by the laminates.

  13. Measurement of deforming mode of lattice truss structures under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lattice truss structures, which are used as a core material in sandwich panels, were widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. However, explanation of the deforming mechanism using reliable experimental results is almost rarely reported, particularly for the dynamic deforming mechanism. The present work aimed at the measurement of the deforming mode of lattice truss structures. Indeed, quasi-static and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB tests have been performed on the tetrahedral truss cores structures made of Aluminum 3003-O. Global values such as crushing forces and displacements between the loading platens are obtained. However, in order to understand the deforming mechanism and to explain the observed impact strength enhancement observed in the experiments, images of the truss core element during the tests are recorded. A method based on the edge detection algorithm is developed and applied to these images. The deforming profiles of one beam are extracted and it allows for calculating the length of beam. It is found that these lengths diminish to a critical value (due to compression and remain constant afterwards (because of significant bending. The comparison between quasi-static and impact tests shows that the beam were much more compressed under impact loading, which could be understood as the lateral inertia effect in dynamic bucking. Therefore, the impact strength enhancement of tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel can be explained by the delayed buckling of beam under impact (more compression reached, together with the strain hardening of base material.

  14. Further study on the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat: the coupling effect of strain rate and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Han, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive dynamic finite-element simulation method was proposed to study the wheel-rail impact response induced by a single wheel flat based on a 3-D rolling contact model, where the influences of the structural inertia, strain rate effect of wheel-rail materials and thermal stress due to the wheel-rail sliding friction were considered. Four different initial conditions (i.e. pure mechanical loading plus rate-independent, pure mechanical loading plus rate-dependent, thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-independent, and thermo-mechanical loading plus rate-dependent) were involved into explore the corresponding impact responses in term of the vertical impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain and shear stress. Influences of train speed, flat length and axle load on the flat-induced wheel-rail impact response were discussed, respectively. The results indicate that the maximum thermal stresses are occurred on the tread of the wheel and on the top surface of the middle rail; the strain rate hardening effect contributes to elevate the von-Mises equivalent stress and restrain the plastic deformation; and the initial thermal stress due to the sliding friction will aggravate the plastic deformation of wheel and rail. Besides, the wheel-rail impact responses (i.e. impact force, von-Mises equivalent stress, equivalent plastic strain, and XY shear stress) induced by a flat are sensitive to the train speed, flat length and axle load.

  15. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  16. Vulnerability Assessment for a Complex Structure Using Vibration Response Induced by Impact Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongwon; Park, Junhong; Koo, Man Hoi

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a vulnerability assessment procedure for a complex structure using vibration characteristics. The structural behavior of a three-dimensional framed structure subjected to impact forces was predicted using the spectral element method. The Timoshenko beam function was applied to simulate the impact wave propagations induced by a high-velocity projectile at relatively high frequencies. The interactions at the joints were analyzed for both flexural and longitudinal wave propagations. Simulations of the impact energy transfer through the entire structure were performed using the transient displacement and acceleration responses obtained from the frequency analysis. The kill probabilities of the crucial components for an operating system were calculated as a function of the predicted acceleration amplitudes according to the acceptable vibration levels. Following the proposed vulnerability assessment procedure, the vulnerable positions of a three-dimensional combat vehicle with high possibilities of damage generation of components by impact loading were identified from the estimated vibration responses

  17. 3D finite element analysis of immediate loading of single wide versus double implants for replacing mandibular molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikar R Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this finite element study was to compare the stresses, strains, and displacements of double versus single implant in immediate loading for replacing mandibular molar. Materials and Methods: Two 3D FEM (finite element method models were made to simulate implant designs. The first model used 5-mm-wide diameter implant to support a single molar crown. The second model used 3.75-3.75 double implant design. Anisotropic properties were assigned to bone model. Each model was analyzed with single force magnitude (100 N in vertical axis. Results: This FEM study suggested that micromotion can be controlled better for double implants compared to single wide-diameter implants. The Von Mises stress for double implant showed 74.44% stress reduction compared to that of 5-mm implant. The Von Mises elastic strain was reduced by 61% for double implant compared to 5-mm implant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, when the mesiodistal space for artificial tooth is more than 12.5 mm, under immediate loading, the double implant support should be considered.

  18. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,; MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux

  19. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10 of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricated abutment; Group 4, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; and Group 5, external hexagon implant and Ceraone abutment. For groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, the crowns were cemented on the abutments and in group 4 crowns were screwed directly on the implant. The specimens were subjected to 500,000 cycles at 19.1 Hz of frequency and non-axial load of 133 N in a MTS 810 machine. The vertical misfit (μm at the implant/abutment interface was evaluated before (B and after (A application of the cyclic loading. Data were analyzed statistically by using two-away ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Before loading values showed no difference among groups 2 (4.33±3.13, 3 (4.79±3.43 and 5 (3.86±4.60; between groups 1 (12.88±6.43 and 4 (9.67±3.08, and among groups 2, 3 and 4. However, groups 1 and 4 were significantly different from groups 2, 3 and 5. After loading values of groups 1 (17.28±8.77 and 4 (17.78±10.99 were significantly different from those of groups 2 (4.83±4.50, 3 (8.07±4.31 and 5 (3.81±4.84. There was a significant increase in misfit values of groups 1, 3 and 4 after cyclic loading, but not for groups 2 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: The cyclic loading and type of implant/abutment connection may develop a role on the vertical misfit at the implant/abutment interface.

  20. Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip complex for knee-impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Jonathan D; Flannagan, Carol A C; Kuppa, Shashi M

    2010-01-01

    Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip (KTH) relate peak force applied to the anterior aspect of the flexed knee, the primary source of KTH injury in frontal motor-vehicle crashes, to the probability of skeletal KTH injury. Previous KTH injury risk curves have been developed from analyses of peak knee-impact force data from studies where knees of whole cadavers were impacted. However, these risk curves either neglect the effects of occupant gender, stature, and mass on KTH fracture force, or account for them using scaling factors derived from dimensional analysis without empirical support. A large amount of experimental data on the knee-impact forces associated with KTH fracture are now available, making it possible to estimate the effects of subject characteristics on skeletal KTH injury risk by statistically analyzing empirical data. Eleven studies were identified in the biomechanical literature in which the flexed knees of whole cadavers were impacted. From these, peak knee-impact force data and the associated subject characteristics were reanalyzed using survival analysis with a lognormal distribution. Results of this analysis indicate that the relationship between peak knee-impact force and the probability of KTH fracture is a function of age, total body mass, and whether the surface that loads the knee is rigid. Comparisons between injury risk curves for the midsize adult male and small adult female crash test dummies defined in previous studies and new risk curves for these sizes of occupants developed in this study suggest that previous injury risk curves generally overestimate the likelihood of KTH fracture at a given peak knee-impact force. Future work should focus on defining the relationships between impact force at the human knee and peak axial compressive forces measured by load cells in the crash test dummy KTH complex so that these new risk curves can be used with ATDs.

  1. Relationships Between Results Of An Internal And External Match Load Determining Method In Male, Singles Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Yahaya; Coetzee, Ben; Van den Berg, Linda

    2017-07-03

    The study purpose was to determine relationships between results of internal and external match load determining methods. Twenty-one players, who participated in selected badminton championships during the 2014/2015 season served as subjects. The heart rate (HR) values and GPS data of each player were obtained via a fix Polar HR Transmitter Belt and MinimaxX GPS device. Moderate significant Spearman's rank correlations were found between HR and absolute duration (r = 0.43 at a low intensity (LI) and 0.44 at a high intensity (HI)), distance covered (r = 0.42 at a HI) and player load (PL) (r = 0.44 at a HI). Results also revealed an opposite trend for external and internal measures of load as the average relative HR value was found to be the highest for the HI zone (54.1%) compared to the relative measures of external load where average values (1.29-9.89%) were the lowest for the HI zone. In conclusion, our findings show that results of an internal and external badminton match load determining method are more related to each other in the HI zone than other zones and that the strength of relationships depend on the duration of activities that are performed in especially LI and HI zones. Overall, trivial to moderate relationships between results of an internal and external match load determining method in male, singles badminton players reaffirm the conclusions of others that these constructs measure distinctly different demands and should therefore be measured concurrently to fully understand the true requirements of badminton match play.

  2. Cross-modal perceptual load: the impact of modality and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-05-01

    Visual distractor processing tends to be more pronounced when the perceptual load (PL) of a task is low compared to when it is high [perpetual load theory (PLT); Lavie in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 21(3):451-468, 1995]. While PLT is well established in the visual domain, application to cross-modal processing has produced mixed results, and the current study was designed in an attempt to improve previous methodologies. First, we assessed PLT using response competition, a typical metric from the uni-modal domain. Second, we looked at the impact of auditory load on visual distractors, and of visual load on auditory distractors, within the same individual. Third, we compared individual uni- and cross-modal selective attention abilities, by correlating performance with the visual Attentional Network Test (ANT). Fourth, we obtained a measure of the relative processing efficiency between vision and audition, to investigate whether processing ease influences the extent of distractor processing. Although distractor processing was evident during both attend auditory and attend visual conditions, we found that PL did not modulate processing of either visual or auditory distractors. We also found support for a correlation between the uni-modal (visual) ANT and our cross-modal task but only when the distractors were visual. Finally, although auditory processing was more impacted by visual distractors, our measure of processing efficiency only accounted for this asymmetry in the auditory high-load condition. The results are discussed with respect to the continued debate regarding the shared or separate nature of processing resources across modalities.

  3. Impacts of Using Distributed Energy Resources to Reduce Peak Loads in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Birk [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-28

    To help the United States develop a modern electricity grid that provides reliable power from multiple resources as well as resiliency under extreme conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading the Grid Modernization Initiative (GMI) to help shape the future of the nation's grid. Under the GMI, DOE funded the Vermont Regional Initiative project to provide the technical support and analysis to utilities that need to mitigate possible impacts of increasing renewable generation required by statewide goals. Advanced control of distributed energy resources (DER) can both support higher penetrations of renewable energy by balancing controllable loads to wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar generation and reduce peak demand by shedding noncritical loads. This work focuses on the latter. This document reports on an experiment that evaluated and quantified the potential benefits and impacts of reducing the peak load through demand response (DR) using centrally controllable electric water heaters (EWHs) and batteries on two Green Mountain Power (GMP) feeders. The experiment simulated various hypothetical scenarios that varied the number of controllable EWHs, the amount of distributed PV systems, and the number of distributed residential batteries. The control schemes were designed with several objectives. For the first objective, the primary simulations focused on reducing the load during the independent system operator (ISO) peak when capacity charges were the primary concern. The second objective was to mitigate DR rebound to avoid new peak loads and high ramp rates. The final objective was to minimize customers' discomfort, which is defined by the lack of hot water when it is needed. We performed the simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) because it can simulate both electric power distribution feeder and appliance end use performance and it includes the ability to simulate

  4. Laterally Loaded Single Pile Response Considering the Influence of Suction and Non-Linear Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stacul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid BEM-p-y curves approach was developed for the single pile analysis with free/fixed head restraint conditions. The method considers the soil non-linear behaviour by means of p-y curves in series to a multi-layered elastic half-space. The non-linearity of reinforced concrete pile sections, also considering the influence of tension-stiffening, has been considered. The model reproduces the influence of suction by increasing the stress state and hence the stiffness of shallow soil-layers. Suction is modeled using the Modified-Kovacs model. The hybrid BEM-py curves method was validated by comparing results from data of 22 load tests on single piles. In addition, a detailed comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a large-diameter reinforced concrete bored single pile.

  5. Preparation and functional studies of hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Yang,1,3,* Xiaoping Huang,1,3,* Fanghong Luo,1 Xiaofeng Cheng,3 Lianna Cheng,3 Bin Liu,4 Lihong Chen,2 Ruyi Hu,1,3 Chunyan Shi,1,3 Guohong Zhuang,1,3 Ping Yin2 1Anti-Cancer Research Center, Medical College, Xiamen University, Fujian, People's Republic of China, 2The Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 3Organ transplantation institution, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 4Jilin Vocational College of Industry and Technology, Jilin, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To prepare hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody, and study their characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of action. Materials and methods: The anti-human death receptor 5 single-chain antibody was constructed and expressed. Protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared, and their size, morphology, particle-size distribution and surface zeta potential were measured by scanning electron microscopy and laser particle-size analysis. Mouse H22 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were cultured, and growth inhibition was examined using the CellTiter-Blue cell-viability assay. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 were employed to measure cell apoptosis. Kunming mice with H22 tumor models were treated with protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles, and their body weight and tumor size were measured, while hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to detect antitumor effects in vivo and side effects from tumors. Results: The protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles had good stability; the zeta potential was -24.2±0.205, and the dispersion index was 0.203. The inhibition of the protein-loaded hydroxyethyl chitosan nanoparticles on H22 growth was both time- and dose-dependent. Increased expressions of active caspase 8, active caspase 3, and BAX were detected

  6. Global seasonal strain and stress models derived from GRACE loading, and their impact on seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanard, K.; Fleitout, L.; Calais, E.; Craig, T. J.; Rebischung, P.; Avouac, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Loading by continental water, atmosphere and oceans deforms the Earth at various spatio-temporal scales, inducing crustal and mantelic stress perturbations that may play a role in earthquake triggering.Deformation of the Earth by this surface loading is observed in GNSS position time series. While various models predict well vertical observations, explaining horizontal displacements remains challenging. We model the elastic deformation induced by loading derived from GRACE for coefficients 2 and higher. We estimate the degree-1 deformation field by comparison between predictions of our model and IGS-repro2 solutions at a globally distributed network of 700 GNSS sites, separating the horizontal and vertical components to avoid biases between components. The misfit between model and data is reduced compared to previous studies, particularly on the horizontal component. The associated geocenter motion time series are consistent with results derived from other datasets. We also discuss the impact on our results of systematic errors in GNSS geodetic products, in particular of the draconitic error.We then compute stress tensors time series induced by GRACE loads and discuss the potential link between large scale seasonal mass redistributions and seismicity. Within the crust, we estimate hydrologically induced stresses in the intraplate New Madrid Seismic Zone, where secular stressing rates are unmeasurably low. We show that a significant variation in the rate of micro-earthquakes at annual and multi-annual timescales coincides with stresses induced by hydrological loading in the upper Mississippi embayment, with no significant phase-lag, directly modulating regional seismicity. We also investigate pressure variations in the mantle transition zone and discuss potential correlations between the statistically significant observed seasonality of deep-focus earthquakes, most likely due to mineralogical transformations, and surface hydrological loading.

  7. The impact of loading approach and biological activity on NOM removal by ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Wray, Heather E; Schulz, Martin; Vortisch, Roman; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the impact of different loading approaches and microbial activity on the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal efficiency and capacity of ion exchange resins. Gaining further knowledge on the impact of loading approaches is of relevance because laboratory-scale multiple loading tests (MLTs) have been introduced as a simpler and faster alternative to column tests for predicting the performance of IEX, but only anecdotal evidence exists to support their ability to forecast contaminant removal and runtime until breakthrough of IEX systems. The overall trends observed for the removal and the time to breakthrough of organic material estimated using MLTs differed from those estimated using column tests. The results nonetheless suggest that MLTs could best be used as an effective tool to screen different ion exchange resins in terms of their ability to remove various contaminants of interest from different raw waters. The microbial activity was also observed to impact the removal and time to breakthrough. In the absence of regeneration, a microbial community rapidly established itself in ion exchange columns and contributed to the removal of organic material. Biological ion exchange (BIEX) removed more organic material and enabled operation beyond the point when the resin capacity would have otherwise been exhausted using conventional (i.e. in the absence of a microbial community) ion exchange. Furthermore, significantly greater removal of organic matter could be achieved with BIEX than biological activated carbon (BAC) (i.e. 56 ± 7% vs. 15 ± 5%, respectively) when operated at similar loading rates. The results suggest that for some raw waters, BIEX could replace BAC as the technology of choice for the removal of organic material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical impact and value of workstation single sign-on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellert, George A; Crouch, John F; Gibson, Lynn A; Conklin, George S; Webster, S Luke; Gillean, John A

    2017-05-01

    CHRISTUS Health began implementation of computer workstation single sign-on (SSO) in 2015. SSO technology utilizes a badge reader placed at each workstation where clinicians swipe or "tap" their identification badges. To assess the impact of SSO implementation in reducing clinician time logging in to various clinical software programs, and in financial savings from migrating to a thin client that enabled replacement of traditional hard drive computer workstations. Following implementation of SSO, a total of 65,202 logins were sampled systematically during a 7day period among 2256 active clinical end users for time saved in 6 facilities when compared to pre-implementation. Dollar values were assigned to the time saved by 3 groups of clinical end users: physicians, nurses and ancillary service providers. The reduction of total clinician login time over the 7day period showed a net gain of 168.3h per week of clinician time - 28.1h (2.3 shifts) per facility per week. Annualized, 1461.2h of mixed physician and nursing time is liberated per facility per annum (121.8 shifts of 12h per year). The annual dollar cost savings of this reduction of time expended logging in is $92,146 per hospital per annum and $1,658,745 per annum in the first phase implementation of 18 hospitals. Computer hardware equipment savings due to desktop virtualization increases annual savings to $2,333,745. Qualitative value contributions to clinician satisfaction, reduction in staff turnover, facilitation of adoption of EHR applications, and other benefits of SSO are discussed. SSO had a positive impact on clinician efficiency and productivity in the 6 hospitals evaluated, and is an effective and cost-effective method to liberate clinician time from repetitive and time consuming logins to clinical software applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Baran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM, are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN, support vector machines (SVM and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some

  10. Short-term forecasting of individual household electricity loads with investigating impact of data resolution and forecast horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Baran; Bilbao, Jose I.; Dore, Jonathon; Sproul, Alistair B.

    2018-05-01

    Smart grid components such as smart home and battery energy management systems, high penetration of renewable energy systems, and demand response activities, require accurate electricity demand forecasts for the successful operation of the electricity distribution networks. For example, in order to optimize residential PV generation and electricity consumption and plan battery charge-discharge regimes by scheduling household appliances, forecasts need to target and be tailored to individual household electricity loads. The recent uptake of smart meters allows easier access to electricity readings at very fine resolutions; hence, it is possible to utilize this source of available data to create forecast models. In this paper, models which predominantly use smart meter data alongside with weather variables, or smart meter based models (SMBM), are implemented to forecast individual household loads. Well-known machine learning models such as artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM) and Least-Square SVM are implemented within the SMBM framework and their performance is compared. The analysed household stock consists of 14 households from the state of New South Wales, Australia, with at least a year worth of 5 min. resolution data. In order for the results to be comparable between different households, our study first investigates household load profiles according to their volatility and reveals the relationship between load standard deviation and forecast performance. The analysis extends previous research by evaluating forecasts over four different data resolution; 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, each resolution analysed for four different horizons; 1, 6, 12 and 24 h ahead. Both, data resolution and forecast horizon, proved to have significant impact on the forecast performance and the obtained results provide important insights for the operation of various smart grid applications. Finally, it is shown that the load profile of some households vary

  11. Surface acoustic load sensing using a face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2012-11-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) resonators for surface acoustic load sensing are presented in this paper. Different acoustic loads are applied to thickness mode, thickness-shear mode, and face-shear mode resonators, and the electrical impedances at resonance and anti-resonance frequencies are recorded. More than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity (ratio of electrical impedance change to surface acoustic impedance change) at the resonance is achieved for the face-shear-mode resonator compared with other resonators with the same dimensions. The Krimholtz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model is used to verify the surface acoustic loading effect on the electrical impedance spectrum of face-shear PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal resonators. The demonstrated high sensitivity of face-shear mode resonators to surface loads is promising for a broad range of applications, including artificial skin, biological and chemical sensors, touch screens, and other touch-based sensors.

  12. Clinical characteristics in patients showing ischemic electrocardiographic changes during adenosine triphosphate loading single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Yuka; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Igarashi, Yuko; Hatano, Tsuguhisa; Usui, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Manabu; Yamashina, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Although ischemic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes during dipyridamole or adenosine infusion have been reported as a marker for severe coronary artery disease (CAD), few studies have focused on ST-segment changes with adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-loading myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Between January 2003 and August 2008, 4650 consecutive patients underwent ATP-loading SPECT. After 1412 patients with left bundle branch block, pacemaker rhythm, or previous coronary revascularization were excluded, 16 out of 3238 patients (0.5%) showed ischemic ST-segment depression during ATP-loading myocardial SPECT. They were aged 67±11 years; 10 were men and 6 women. Of these patients, 8 demonstrated perfusion abnormalities, whereas the remaining 8 showed normal myocardial perfusion imaging. In 6 of the 8 patients with abnormal SPECT, coronary angiography was performed, revealing left main trunk disease in 1 patient, 3-vessel disease in 4, 1-vessel disease with proximal left ascending artery occlusion in 1, and an insignificant lesion in 1. By contrast, no major cardiac event was observed in the 8 patients with normal SPECT during follow-up for an average of 2 years. The prevalence of ischemic ST-segment changes during ATP loading is very rare. However, this finding should be taken into account since almost half of the patients, particularly those with perfusion abnormalities, may have severe CAD which requires coronary revascularization. (author)

  13. A comparison of plastic collapse and limit loads for single mitred pipe bends under in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.; Wood, J.; Hamilton, R.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the plastic collapse loads from experimental in-plane bending tests on three 90 o single un-reinforced mitred pipe bends, with the results from various 3D solid finite element models. The bending load applied reduced the bend angle and in turn, the resulting cross-sectional ovalisation led to a recognised weakening mechanism. In addition, at maximum load there was a reversal in stiffness, characteristic of buckling. This reversal in stiffness was accompanied by significant ovalisation and plasticity at the mitre intersection. Both the weakening mechanism and the post-buckling behaviour are only observable by testing or by including large displacement effects in the plastic finite element solution. A small displacement limit solution with an elastic-perfectly plastic material model overestimated the collapse load by more than 40% and could not reproduce the buckling behaviour. The plastic collapse finite element solution, with large displacements, produced excellent agreement with the experiment. Sufficient experimental detail is presented for these results to be used as a benchmark for analysts in this area. Given the robustness of non-linear solutions in commercial finite element codes and the ready availability of computing resources, it is argued that pressure vessel code developers should now be recommending large displacement analysis as the default position for limit and plastic collapse analyses, rather than expecting engineers to anticipate weakening mechanisms and related non-linear phenomena.

  14. Estimating the Impacts of Direct Load Control Programs Using GridPIQ, a Web-Based Screening Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Seemita; Thayer, Brandon L.; Barrett, Emily L.; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-13

    In direct load control (DLC) programs, utilities can curtail the demand of participating loads to contractually agreed-upon levels during periods of critical peak load, thereby reducing stress on the system, generation cost, and required transmission and generation capacity. Participating customers receive financial incentives. The impacts of implementing DLC programs extend well beyond peak shaving. There may be a shift of load proportional to the interrupted load to the times before or after a DLC event, and different load shifts have different consequences. Tools that can quantify the impacts of such programs on load curves, peak demand, emissions, and fossil fuel costs are currently lacking. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) screening tool includes a Direct Load Control module, which takes into account project-specific inputs as well as the larger system context in order to quantify the impacts of a given DLC program. This allows users (utilities, researchers, etc.) to test and compare different program specifications and their impacts.

  15. Experiment evaluation of impact attenuator for a racing car under static load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanullah, Fahmi; Ubaidillah, Prasojo, Arfi Singgih; Wirawan, Adhe Aji

    2018-02-01

    The automotive world is a world where one of the factors that must be considered carefully is the safety aspect. In the formula student car one of the safety factor in the form of impact attenuator. Impact attenuator is used as anchoring when a collision occurs in front of the vehicle. In the rule of formula society of automotive engineer (FSAE) student, impact attenuator is required to absorb the energy must meet or exceed 7350 Joules with a slowdown in speed not exceeding 20 g average and peak of 40 g. The student formula participants are challenged to pass the boundaries so that in designing and making the impact attenuator must pay attention to the strength and use of the minimum material so that it can minimize the expenditure. In this work, an impact attenuator was fabricated and tested using static compression. The primary goal was evaluating the actual capability of the impact attenuator for impact energy absorption. The prototype was made of aluminum alloy in a prismatic shape, and the inside wall was filled with rooftop plastic slices and polyurethane hard foam. The compression test has successfully carried out, and the load versus displacement data could be used in calculating energy absorption capability. The result of the absorbent energy of the selected impact attenuator material. Impact attenuator full polyurethane absorbed energy reach 6380 Joule. For impact attenuator with aluminum polyurethane with a slashed rooftop material as section absorbed energy reach 6600 Joule. Impact attenuator with Aluminum Polyurethane with aluminum orange peel partitions absorbed energy reach 8800 Joule. From standard student formula, energy absorbed in this event must meet or exceed 7350 Joules that meet aluminum polyurethane with aluminum orange peel partitions with the ability to absorb 8800 Joule.

  16. Coupled fluid/structure response of a reactor cover to slug impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.; Saurer, G.; Wanner, R.; Palsson, H.

    1983-05-01

    The response of an LMFBR roof structure to slug impact loads is investigated using a combined 2D and 3D approach based on the containment code SEURBNUK and the finite element structure code ADINA. A specimen roof design of box-type construction with concrete infill is adopted for the study, with dimensions appropriate to a commercial-sized fast reactor of the 'pool' type. Provision is made in the model for the location of the major roof penetrations, and the roof annulus is closed in the central section by a rigid, but movable plug concentric with the axis of symmetry. An interface between the codes SEURBNUK and ADINA is made possible by defining a 2D substitute roof model with material properties chosen to match the principal response characteristics of the detailed model. The SEURBNUK code, recently extended to account for coupling of roof loading and roof response, uses the 2D model, incorporated in an appropriate reactor geometry, to examine the fluid-structure interactions and to supply roof pressure loadings for the ADINA runs. A strategy for cross-checking the structural equivalence of the 2D and 3D roof models is developed, and this operates in parallel with the loading and response computations. The first exploratory SEURBNUK calculations are described in which the roof is represented by a simple homogeneous plate. (Auth.)

  17. About vortex-like atomic motion in a loaded single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. I.; Nikonov, A. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a molecular dynamics study of internal stress and atomic displacement redistributions in a preliminary loaded solid. The study demonstrates the possibility of self-organized vortices as dynamic defects of typical size 1-5 nm due to atomic motion in the elastic region at the stage of relaxation. The simulation results agree well with experimental data on strain localization in elastic distortion regions which gives rise to nanodipoles of partial disclinations.

  18. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    OpenAIRE

    de Jesus Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso; Xible, Anuar Antônio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10) of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricate...

  19. Create positive contraceptive images for strongest impact in single lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Health educators attempting to deliver contraceptive information to adolescents in the classroom must seek ways to make a major impact in a very short period of time. A Planned Parenthood professional from New Jersey has developed a single-shot birth control lesson that, rather than presenting the pros and cons of various contraceptive methods, has teenagers identify themselves as at high, low, or no risk of pregnancy. Students estimate the number of classmates who are in each category and then assess whether they personally are at risk of an unintended pregnancy. In general, teens overestimate the number of classmates who are sexually active. This approach seems to make the ensuing discussion of contraceptive methods more meaningful. This discussion presents the condom and foam, the sponge, and visiting a family planning clinic. After this 40 minute presentation, fewer adolescents report being afraid of contraceptive side effects; they also have more knowledge about the efficacy and availability of different methods. A lesson in preparation is centered around a videotape entitled "Swept Away is Not Okay." It shows a teen couple going to a family planning clinic before they ever have intercourse. This strategy of encouraging adolescents to seek contraception before sexual involvement begins is considered more realistic than pressuring teens to abstain from sex. School officials and teachers have been receptive to this educational approach, viewing it as presenting important public health information.

  20. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE JESUS TAVAREZ, Rudys Rodolfo; BONACHELA, Wellington Cardoso; XIBLE, Anuar Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. Material and Methods Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10) of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricated abutment; Group 4, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; and Group 5, external hexagon implant and Ceraone abutment. For groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, the crowns were cemented on the abutments and in group 4 crowns were screwed directly on the implant. The specimens were subjected to 500,000 cycles at 19.1 Hz of frequency and non-axial load of 133 N in a MTS 810 machine. The vertical misfit (μm) at the implant/abutment interface was evaluated before (B) and after (A) application of the cyclic loading. Data were analyzed statistically by using two-away ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pabutment connection may develop a role on the vertical misfit at the implant/abutment interface. PMID:21437464

  1. The Impact of Climatological Conditions on Low Enriched Uranium Loading Station Operations for the HEU Blend Down Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    A computer model was developed using COREsim to perform a time motion study for the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Loading Station operations. The project is to blend Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) with Natural Uranium (NU) to produce LEU to be shipped to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for further processing. To cope with a project cost reduction, the LEU Loading Station concept has changed from an enclosed building with air-conditioning to a partially enclosed building without air conditioning. The LEU Loading Station is within a radiological contaminated area; two pairs of coveralls and negative pressure respirator are required. As a result, inclement weather conditions, especially heat stress, will affect and impact the LEU loading operations. The purposes of the study are to determine the climatological impacts on LEU Loading operations, resources required for committed throughputs, and to find out the optimum process pathways for multi crews working simultaneously in the space-lim ited LEU Loading Station

  2. Impact of Thresholds and Load Patterns when Executing HPC Applications with Cloud Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Facco Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is one of the most known capabilities related to cloud computing, being largely deployed reactively using thresholds. In this way, maximum and minimum limits are used to drive resource allocation and deallocation actions, leading to the following problem statements: How can cloud users set the threshold values to enable elasticity in their cloud applications? And what is the impact of the application’s load pattern in the elasticity? This article tries to answer these questions for iterative high performance computing applications, showing the impact of both thresholds and load patterns on application performance and resource consumption. To accomplish this, we developed a reactive and PaaS-based elasticity model called AutoElastic and employed it over a private cloud to execute a numerical integration application. Here, we are presenting an analysis of best practices and possible optimizations regarding the elasticity and HPC pair. Considering the results, we observed that the maximum threshold influences the application time more than the minimum one. We concluded that threshold values close to 100% of CPU load are directly related to a weaker reactivity, postponing resource reconfiguration when its activation in advance could be pertinent for reducing the application runtime.

  3. Finite element modelling of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under transverse impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Sufian; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Yamin, A. F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fiber metal laminate named GLARE is a new aerospace material which has great potential to be widely used in future lightweight aircraft. It consists of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and glass-fiber reinforced laminate. In order to produce reliable finite element model of impact response or crashworthiness of structure made of GLARE, one can initially model and validate the finite element model of the impact response of its constituents separately. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable finite element model of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 under low velocity transverse impact loading using commercial software ABAQUS. Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage models were used to predict the alloy's material properties and impact behavior. The results of the finite element analysis were compared to the experiment that has similar material and impact conditions. Results showed good correlations in terms of impact forces, deformation and failure progressions which concluded that the finite element model of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under low velocity transverse impact condition using Johnson-Cook plastic and damage models was reliable.

  4. Reactive bonding mediated high mass loading of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes in an elastomeric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Li, Yongjin; Qiu, Jishan; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance.A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Conductivity test of the SEBS-SWCNTs film, transmission spectra and sheet resistance for the spin-coated SEBS-SWCNTs thin films on PET slides. See DOI: 10

  5. Cortical activities of single-trial P300 amplitudes modulated by memory load using simultaneous EEG-fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiushi; Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhu, Chaozhe; Yang, Xueqian; Yao, Li

    2015-03-01

    The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches on working memory have found that activation of cortical areas appeared dependent on memory load, and event-related potentials (ERP) studies have demonstrated that amplitudes of P300 decreased significantly when working memory load increased. However, the cortical activities related with P300 amplitudes under different memory loads remains unclear. Joint fMRI and EEG analysis which fusions the time and spatial information in simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording can reveal the regional activation at each ERP time point. In this paper, we first used wavelet transform to obtain the single-trial amplitudes of P300 caused by a digital N-back task in the simultaneous EEG-fMRI recording as the ERP feature sequences. Then the feature sequences in 1-back condition and 3-back condition were introduced into general linear model (GLM) separately as parametric modulations to compare the cortical activation under different memory loads. The results showed that the average amplitudes of P300 in 3-back significantly decreased than that in 1-back, and the activities induced by ERP feature sequences in 3-back also significantly decreased than that in the 1-back, including the insular, anterior cingulate cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus, which were relevant to the storage, monitoring, and manipulation of information in working memory task. Moreover, the difference in the activation caused by ERP feature showed a positive correlation with the difference in behavioral performance. These findings demonstrated the locations of P300 amplitudes differences modulated by the memory load and its relationship with the behavioral performance.

  6. A radiographic evaluation of progressive loading on crestal and bone density changes around single osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommati Shabestari Gh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive loading procedures on preserving crestal bone height and improving peri-implant bone density around maxillary implants restored with single crowns by an accurate longitudinal radiographic assessment technique. "n "n "nMaterials and Methods: Eleven Micro-Thread Osseo Speed dental implants were placed in 11 subjects and permitted to heal for 6 weeks before surgical uncovering. Following an 8-week healing period, implants underwent a progressive loading protocol by increasing the height of the occlusal table in increments from adding acrylic resin to an acrylic crown. The progressively loaded crowns were placed in 2 mm infraocclusion for the first 2 months, light occlusion for the second 2 months, and full occlusion for the third 2 months. At forth 2 months, a metal ceramic crown replaced the acrylic crown. Digital radiographs of each implant were made at the time of restoration, then after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months of function. Digital image analysis was done to measure changes in crestal bone height and peri-implant bone density. "n "n "nResults: The mean values of crestal bone loss at 12 months were 0.11 ± 0.19 mm, and when tested with Friedman across the time periods, the differences were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. The mean values of bone density in the crestal, middle, and apical area were tested with Repeated Measure ANOVA across the time periods, the differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. "n "n "nConclusion: Progressive loading doesn’t cause crestal bone loss. The peri-implant density measurements of the progressively loaded implants show continuous increase in crestal, middle and apical peri-implant bone density by time. "n 

  7. The impact of phosphate loading activities on near marine environment: The Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of loading cargoes of phosphate ore into ships on the near marine environment at the Syrian coast has been evaluated. Results have shown a significant enhancement of 210 Po, 210 Pb and other natural radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq kg -1 respectively, while 210 Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 mBql -1 . In addition, comparable values of 210 Po and 210 Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) suggest that their use as indicators for phosphate pollution is not recommended. However, the effect of loading cargoes on Tartous port marine environment of Tartous was found to be mainly related to wind direction where radioactive air particulate are either being dispersed to land or sea. (author)

  8. Damage of plates due to impact, dynamic pressure and explosive loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Jones

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this article to present design equations which can be used to predict the damage of ductile plating when subjected to mass impact, dynamic pressure or impulsive loadings. The external loadings are sufficiently severe to produce inelastic material behaviour and produce finite transverse displacement, or geometry change, effects. The damage is characterised as the final or permanent transverse displacement of a plate. The theoretical method predicts values for the maximum permanent transverse displacements which agree reasonably well with the corresponding experimental results generated on aluminium alloy circular, square and rectangular plates. Thus, the equations presented in this article are valuable for preliminary design purposes and for forensic studies, while the experimental data can be used for validating numerical schemes.

  9. Strain rate dependency of bovine trabecular bone under impact loading at sideways fall velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns-Bray, William S; Ferguson, Stephen J; Helgason, Benedikt

    2018-05-03

    There is currently a knowledge gap in scientific literature concerning the strain rate dependent properties of trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (ε̇) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σ u ), failure energy (U f ), and minimum stress (σ m ) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, L gauge  = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρ app ) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and ρ app with ultimate stress (R 2  = 0.76), elastic modulus (R 2  = 0.63), failure energy (R 2  = 0.38), and minimum stress (R 2  = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σ u could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Single-Sided Deafness upon Music Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sarah; Hough, Elizabeth A; Crundwell, Gemma; Knappett, Rachel; Smith, Mark; Baguley, David M

    2017-05-01

    Many of the world's population have hearing loss in one ear; current statistics indicate that up to 10% of the population may be affected. Although the detrimental impact of bilateral hearing loss, hearing aids, and cochlear implants upon music appreciation is well recognized, studies on the influence of single-sided deafness (SSD) are sparse. We sought to investigate whether a single-sided hearing loss can cause problems with music appreciation, despite normal hearing in the other ear. A tailored questionnaire was used to investigate music appreciation for those with SSD. We performed a retrospective survey of a population of 51 adults from a University Hospital Audiology Department SSD clinic. SSD was predominantly adult-onset sensorineural hearing loss, caused by a variety of etiologies. Analyses were performed to assess for statistical differences between groups, for example, comparing music appreciation before and after the onset of SSD, or before and after receiving hearing aid(s). Results demonstrated that a proportion of the population experienced significant changes to the way music sounded; music was found to sound more unnatural (75%), unpleasant (71%), and indistinct (81%) than before hearing loss. Music was reported to lack the perceptual qualities of stereo sound, and to be confounded by distortion effects and tinnitus. Such changes manifested in an altered music appreciation, with 44% of participants listening to music less often, 71% of participants enjoying music less, and 46% of participants reporting that music played a lesser role in their lives than pre-SSD. Negative effects surrounding social occasions with music were revealed, along with a strong preference for limiting background music. Hearing aids were not found to significantly ameliorate these effects. Results could be explained in part through considerations of psychoacoustic changes intrinsic to an asymmetric hearing loss and impaired auditory scene analysis. Given the prevalence of

  11. Strength of shock-loaded single-crystal tantalum [100] determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; Rudd, R E; Prisbrey, S T; Hawreliak, J A; Orlikowski, D A; Peterson, S C; Satcher, J H; Elsholz, A J; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Bazin, N; Foster, J M; Graham, P; Park, N; Rosen, P A; Rothman, S R; Higginbotham, A; Suggit, M; Wark, J S

    2013-03-15

    The strength of shock-loaded single crystal tantalum [100] has been experimentally determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction to measure the strain state of the compressed crystal, and elastic constants calculated from first principles. The inferred strength reaches 35 GPa at a shock pressure of 181 GPa and is in excellent agreement with a multiscale strength model [N. R. Barton et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073501 (2011)], which employs a hierarchy of simulation methods over a range of length scales to calculate strength from first principles.

  12. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning : Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to

  13. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  14. Simulation, Experimental and Analitical Study of Deflection at End Curved Beam Affected by Single Concentrated Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Ngakan Ketut Putra Negara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deflection has an important role in order to design structure or machine component, beside consideration of stresscalculation. This is due to although stress is still smaller then stress allowed by material strength, but probably happen thatdeflection exceeds limit allowed. That condition affects serious hazard on machine elements or structure due to it can affectof component deviate from its main function. One of element which is often experience of deflection is beam. Beams playsignificant roles in many engineering applications, including buildings, bridges, automobiles, and airplane structures. In thisresearch, material to be used was Steel ASTM 1060, with specimen in the form of curved beam. Physical condition of beamwas modeled use of BEAM3 2D. Variation of loads to be applied were W = 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and550 gr in vertical direction. The result of simulation was verificated by analytical and experimental data. Evaluation wascarried out by statistical test (t-test. The result of simulation is categorized to be good if the result of simulation is samewith analytical and experimental data. The result of research shows that loading has a significant effect on the deflection.The higher load affect the higher of deflection Modeling use of BEAM3 2D gave good result of deflection. This is showedfrom t-test have done, where the result of simulation was same with analytical and experimental data. Other advantage ofsimulation was deflection result obtained was not limited only at the end of beam, but it can predict of deflection at eachnode or point desired

  15. Impact of Intragranular Substructure Parameters on the Forming Limit Diagrams of Single-Phase B.C.C. Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Franz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An advanced elastic-plastic self-consistent polycrystalline model, accounting for intragranular microstructure development and evolution, is coupled with a bifurcation-based localization criterion and applied to the numerical investigation of the impact of microstructural patterns on ductility of single-phase steels. The proposed multiscale model, taking into account essential microstructural aspects, such as initial and induced textures, dislocation densities, and softening mechanisms, allows us to emphasize the relationship between intragranular microstructure of B.C.C. steels and their ductility. A qualitative study in terms of forming limit diagrams for various dislocation networks, during monotonic loading tests, is conducted in order to analyze the impact of intragranular substructure parameters on the formability of single-phase B.C.C. steels.

  16. Fracture mode during cyclic loading of implant-supported single-tooth restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini, Mandana; Kleven, Erik; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    restorations of zirconia abutment-retained crowns with zirconia copings veneered with glass-ceramics (n=8) and feldspathic ceramics (n=8). The control group was composed of 16 metal ceramic restorations of titanium abutment-retained crowns with gold alloy copings veneered with glass (n=8) and feldspathic...... ceramics (n=8). The palatal surfaces of the crowns were exposed to cyclic loading of 800 N with a frequency of 2 Hz, which continued to 4.2 million cycles or until fracture of the copings, abutments, or implants. The number of cycles and the fracture modes were recorded. The fracture modes were analyzed...

  17. The Impact of Phosphate Loading Activities on Environment: The Egyptian Red Sea Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shabasy, A.M.; Diab, H.M.; Ataiw, S.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    The phosphate industry in Egypt includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. The production of fertilizers from natural phosphate ore can lead to the redistribution of uranium and other radionuclides in products, by-products and residues and hence, to severe environmental impacts and increased radiation exposures. In this study, the impact of loading cargoes of phosphate ore into ships at the Red Sea coast has been evaluated. The main objective was to assess the impact of phosphate loading activities near marine environment by determining the activity concentrations of '2 26 Ra ( 238 U) series, 232 Th series and 40 K in soil, sediment and seawater from El- Hamraween and Safaga Port where phosphate mine. The specific activities of 226 Ra ( 238 U) series, 232 Th series and 40 K (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometers based on hyper-pure germanium detectors. The specific activities showed high concentration level of 226 Ra. The concentration and distribution pattern of 226 Ra in sediment can be used to trace the radiological impact of the non-nuclear industries on the Red Sea coast. The absorbed dose (nGy/h) was also evaluated and can be used as a pre-operational baseline to estimate the possible radiological impacts due to mining, processing and future phosphate industrial activities. Because of the limited measures to control radiological hazards to individuals and the environment, normal occupational health and environmental protection measures were designed to protect against radiological hazards.

  18. Single bunch beam loading experiments on the SLAC two-mile accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Several experimental improvements were used in the generation of new data on the dependence of single bunch radiation loss as a function of energy. These results are given, along with an empirical theory to explain these results. The experimental technique used is reviewed. (PMA)

  19. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  20. Research on Mechanical Behaviors of Micro-crystal Muscovite/UHMWPE Composites to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UHMWPE composites were prepared by hot pressing process with micro-crystal muscovite as reinforced particulates. The mechanical behaviors of composites to impact loading was evaluated by split Hopkinson bar. The results demonstrated that dynamic yield stress and failure stress of UHMWPE composites were gradually increased when the filling amount was less than 20%; when the filling content of muscovite was around 15%, the energy absorption efficiency of the composite reaches maximum value. It was also found that when strain rate within 3200/s, the dynamic yield stress, failure stress and energy absorption efficiency of UHMWPE composites increased with the increase of strain rate and display strain rate enhancement effect.

  1. Observation of martensitic structure evolution in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals with shape memory effect under external load using photoacoustic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratikov, K.L.; Glazov, A.L.; Nikolaev, V.I.; Pul'nev, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy is applied to observe the surface structure of Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory single crystals in both the loaded and unloaded states. Visualizing the early stages of the loading-induced martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Ni single crystals is demonstrated to be feasible. The photoacoustic images are distinguished to advantage from the corresponding optical images by a higher contrast between different phases of the Cu-Al-Ni shape-memory alloy [ru

  2. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase-Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  3. Impact Load Behavior between Different Charge and Lifter in a Laboratory-Scale Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zixin; Peng, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhencai; Yu, Zhangfa; Li, Tongqing

    2017-07-31

    The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes. The research results shown as follows: The semi-empirical power draw of Bond model in this paper does not apply very satisfactorily for the ball mills, while the power draw determined by DEM simulation show a good approximation for the measured power draw. Besides, the impact force on the lifter was affected by mill speed, grinding media filling, lifter height and iron ore particle. The maximum percent of the impact force between 600 and 1400 N is at 70-80% of critical speed. The impact force can be only above 1400 N at the grinding media filling of 20%, and the maximum percent of impact force between 200 and 1400 N is obtained at the grinding media filling of 20%. The percent of impact force ranging from 0 to 200 N decreases with the increase of lifter height. However, this perfect will increase above 200 N. The impact force will decrease when the iron ore particles are added. Additionally, for the 80% of critical speed, the measured power draw has a maximum value. Increasing the grinding media filling increases the power draw and increasing the lifter height does not lead to any variation in power draw.

  4. Dislocation density and mechanical threshold stress in OFHC copper subjected to SHPB loading and plate impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiushi [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China); Zhao, Feng, E-mail: ifpzfeng@163.com [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China); Fu, Hua; Li, Kewu [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China); Liu, Fusheng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031 (China)

    2017-05-17

    The dislocation density and mechanical threshold stress (MTS) of oxygen-free high-thermal-conductivity (OFHC) copper loaded at strain rates in the range of 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} s{sup −1} were measured. Moderate-strain-rate (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} s{sup −1}) experiments were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). A steel collar was placed around each specimen to control the maximum loading strain. High-strain-rate (10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} s{sup −1}) experiments were carried out using a 57-mm-bore single-stage gas gun. The radial release effect was eliminated using the momentum trapping technique. The loaded samples were recovered, and the dislocation characteristics and dislocation density were determined by X-ray diffraction profile analysis. The fraction of the screw dislocation was found to decrease with increasing loading strain and strain rate. The dislocation density was found to lie between 1.8×10{sup 14} and 2.2×10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. Quasi-static reload compression tests were performed on the recovered samples at room temperature. The mechanical threshold stress (or the flow stress at 0 K) was obtained by fitting the reload stress–strain data to the MTS model. The results of analysis of the equivalent strain, mechanical threshold stress, and dislocation density measurements suggest that the relation between the mechanical threshold stress and the dislocation density can be described well by the Taylor relationship.

  5. Temperature and Pressure Dependences of the Elastic Properties of Tantalum Single Crystals Under Tensile Loading: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-bing; Li, Kang; Fan, Kan-qi; Zhang, Da-xing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2018-04-01

    Atomistic simulations are capable of providing insights into physical mechanisms responsible for mechanical properties of the transition metal of Tantalum (Ta). By using molecular dynamics (MD) method, temperature and pressure dependences of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals are investigated through tensile loading. First of all, a comparative study between two types of embedded-atom method (EAM) potentials is made in term of the elastic properties of Ta single crystals. The results show that Ravelo-EAM (Physical Review B, 2013, 88: 134101) potential behaves well at different hydrostatic pressures. Then, the MD simulation results based on the Ravelo-EAM potential show that Ta will experience a body-centered-cubic (BCC) to face-centered-cubic (FCC) phase transition before fracture under tensile loading at 1 K temperature, and model size and strain rate have no obvious effects on tensile behaviors of Ta. Next, from the simulation results at the system temperature from 1 to 1500 K, it can be derived that the elastic modulus of E 100 linearly decrease with the increasing temperature, while the yielding stress decrease with conforming a quadratic polynomial formula. Finally, the pressure dependence of the elastic properties is performed from 0 to 140 GPa and the observations show that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing pressure overall.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  7. Understanding negative impacts of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness: a social capital solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort. Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals' mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness. This study surveys participants made up of professionals in Taiwan's information technology industry. It measures the constructs with the use of 5-point Likert-type scale items modified from existing literature. The survey data were analyzed with the use of structural equation modeling. Job learning effectiveness is negatively influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Time pressure has a positive influence on role ambiguity and role conflict Although the relationship between task complexity and role ambiguity is insignificant, task complexity has a positive influence on role conflict. Because the relationship between network ties and role conflict is insignificant, trust has a negative influence on role conflict. Last, shared vision has a negative influence on role ambiguity. This study provides an example of how social capital can be applied as a useful remedy to ease the negative impact of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness. The negative relationship between shared vision and role ambiguity suggests that a shared vision helps in disseminating organizationally common goals and directions among employees to alleviate individuals' mental efforts in dealing with the ambiguity of their job roles. A firm's management team should take actions to decrease role conflict by strengthening trust among employees.

  8. Single-bunch beam loading on the SLAC two-mile accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1976-05-01

    The experiments described were initially prompted by interest in the radiation loss of relativistic electron rings passing through periodic structures. Later the same experiments became relevant to the theory of energy loss of electrons in large storage rings. In both of these cases energy loss to the higher order modes of the respective structures could seriously limit their effective operation. In these experiments, single bunches of electrons with intensities up to 7 x 10 8 electrons per bunch are accelerated through the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator, and their energy spectra are analyzed. Early experiments over a wide energy range (900 MeV to 19 GeV) demonstrated that the energy loss was proportional to the total charge in the bunch but was independent of beam energy. The average energy loss of a single bunch normalized to 10 9 electrons was initially measured to be 38 MeV

  9. The determination of load-time curve for a reactor containment which undergoes the impact of an airplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuangong; Yu Aiping

    1991-01-01

    It is apparent that there exist some differences between the rigid load function of a reactor containment and the verified load function for undisturbed zone of deformative target when they undergo the impact of an airplane. The local non-linear behavior of impact zone is considered in the later situation, and a modified and better load function is obtained, which gives a value of the dynamic response of the structure 30% to 50% lower. In order to make engineering design more convenient and to simplify the calculation of non-linear behavior of the local zone, and based on the verified load function, several polygonal approximate curves are suggested for calculating the load functions of some typical structures

  10. Impact of nuclear library difference on neutronic characteristics of thorium-loaded light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, H.; Isaka, S.; Nakagome, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Impact of nuclear library difference on neutronic characteristics of thorium-loaded light water reactor fuel is investigated through cell burnup calculations using SRAC code system. Comparison of k ∞ and nuclide composition was made between the results obtained by JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEFF3.0 for (U, Th)O 2 fuels as well as UO 2 fuels, with special interest on the burnup dependence of the neutronic characteristics. The impact of nuclear data library difference on k ∞ of (U, Th)O 2 fuels was found to be significantly large compared to that of UO 2 fuels. Notable difference was also found in nuclide concentration of TRU nuclides. (authors)

  11. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters......This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR....... The experiments are conducted with real domestic refrigerators representing TCL. Activating refrigerators for DR with a delay reduces the ISE (integral square error) in power limitation by 28.46%, overshoot by 7.69%. The delay in refrigerator activation causes reduction in power ramp down rate by 39.90%, ramp up...

  12. Clinical evaluation of a novel dental implant system as single implants under immediate loading conditions - 4-month post-loading results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Blasone, Rodolfo; Malaguti, Giuliano; Gaffuri, Cristiano; Caneva, Marco; Minciarelli, Armando; Luongo, Giuseppe

    To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of a novel dental implant system (GENESIS Implant System, Keystone Dental, Massachusetts, USA) using another dental implant system by the same manufacturer as a control (PRIMA Implant System, Keystone Dental). A total of 53 patients requiring at least two single crowns had their sites randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive both implant systems at six centres. If implants could be placed with a torque superior to 40 Ncm they were to be loaded immediately with provisional crowns, otherwise after 3 months of submerged healing. Provisional crowns were replaced by definitive crowns 4 months after initial loading, when the follow-up period for the initial part of this study was completed. Outcome measures were crown/implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes, plaque score, marginal bleeding, patients and preference of the clinician. In total 53 PRIMA and 53 GENESIS implants were placed. Three patients dropped out but all of the remaining patients were followed up to 4-months post-loading. No PRIMA implant failed whereas four GENESIS implants failed. Only two complications were reported for PRIMA implants. There were no statistically significant differences for crown/implant failures (difference in proportions = 0.080; P (McNemar test) = 0.125) and complications (difference in proportions = -0.04; P (McNemar test) = 0.500) between the implant systems. There were no differences at 4-months post-loading for plaque (difference = -0.54, 95% CI: -3.01 to 1.93; P (Paired t-test) = 0.660), marginal bleeding (difference = -3.8, 95% CI: -7.63 to 0.019; P (Paired t-test) = 0.051), PES (difference = 0.47, 95% CI: -0.56 to 1.50; P (Paired t-test) = 0.365) and marginal bone level changes (difference in mm = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.26; P (Paired t-test) = 0.795). The majority of the patients (46) had no

  13. Evaluation of underground pipe-structure interface for surface impact load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shen, E-mail: swang@terrapower.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of underground pipelines for surface impact load considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. • The proposed simple method can be used to evaluate the magnitude of damage within a short period of time after accidental drop occurs. • The proposed method is applied in a practical example and compared by using finite element analysis. - Abstract: Nuclear safety related buried pipelines need to be assessed for the effects of postulated surface impact loads. In published solutions, the buried pipe is often considered within an elastic half space without interference with other underground structures. In the case that a surface impact occurs in short distance from an underground pipe-structure interface, this boundary condition will further complicate the buried pipe evaluation. Neglecting such boundary effect in the assessment may lead to underestimating potential damage of buried pipeline, and jeopardizing safety of the nuclear power plant. Comprehensive analysis of such structure-pipe-soil system is often subjected to availability of state-of-art finite element tools, as well as costly and time consuming. Simple, but practical conservative techniques have not been established. In this study, a mechanics based solution is proposed in order to assess the magnitude of damage to a buried pipeline beneath a heavy surface impact considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. The proposed approach provides an easy to use tool in the early stage of evaluation before the decision of applying more costly technique can be made by owner of the nuclear facility.

  14. Evaluation of underground pipe-structure interface for surface impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is proposed for the evaluation of underground pipelines for surface impact load considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. • The proposed simple method can be used to evaluate the magnitude of damage within a short period of time after accidental drop occurs. • The proposed method is applied in a practical example and compared by using finite element analysis. - Abstract: Nuclear safety related buried pipelines need to be assessed for the effects of postulated surface impact loads. In published solutions, the buried pipe is often considered within an elastic half space without interference with other underground structures. In the case that a surface impact occurs in short distance from an underground pipe-structure interface, this boundary condition will further complicate the buried pipe evaluation. Neglecting such boundary effect in the assessment may lead to underestimating potential damage of buried pipeline, and jeopardizing safety of the nuclear power plant. Comprehensive analysis of such structure-pipe-soil system is often subjected to availability of state-of-art finite element tools, as well as costly and time consuming. Simple, but practical conservative techniques have not been established. In this study, a mechanics based solution is proposed in order to assess the magnitude of damage to a buried pipeline beneath a heavy surface impact considering the effect of a nearby pipe-structure interface. The proposed approach provides an easy to use tool in the early stage of evaluation before the decision of applying more costly technique can be made by owner of the nuclear facility.

  15. Finite element simulation of low velocity impact loading on a sandwich composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structure offer more advantage in bringing flexural stiffness and energy absorption capabilities in the application of automobile and aerospace components. This paper presents comparison study and analysis of two types of composite sandwich structures, one having Jute Epoxy skins with rubber core and the other having Glass Epoxy skins with rubber core subjected to low velocity normal impact loading. The behaviour of sandwich structure with various parameters such as energy absorption, peak load developed, deformation and von Mises stress and strain, are analyzed using commercially available analysis software. The results confirm that sandwich composite with jute epoxy skin absorbs approximately 20% more energy than glass epoxy skin. The contact force developed in jute epoxy skin is approximately 2.3 times less when compared to glass epoxy skin. von Mises stress developed is less in case of jute epoxy. The sandwich with jute epoxy skin deforms approximately 1.6 times more than that of same geometry of sandwich with glass epoxy skin. Thus exhibiting its elastic nature and making it potential candidate for low velocity impact application.

  16. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole

  17. Mechanical properties of pure and doped InP single crystals under concentrated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarskaya, Yu.S.; Grabko, D.Z.; Medinskaya, M.I.; Palistrant, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical properties of pure and doped (Fe, Zn, Sn) InP single crystals were investigated in the temperature interval from 293 to 600 K. It was shown that impurity hardening (the microhardness increase) was more pronounced at elevated temperatures than at 293 K. This is conditioned by braking of the moving dislocations with impurities which is more observed in the the high temperature region. The obvious anisotropy of the scratch hardness was revealed at room temperature for the (001) face of crystals under investigation. This anisotropy decreased sharply in increasing the temperature from 293 to 600 K

  18. Interference fit effect on holed single plates loaded with tension-tension stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Croccolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of interference fit coupling on the fatigue strength of holed plates. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Axial fatigue tests have been carried out on holed specimens made of high performance steel (1075MPa of Ultimate strength and 990MPa of Yield strength with or without a pin, made of the same material, press fitted into their central hole. Three different conditions have been investigated: free hole specimens, specimens with 0.6% of nominal specific interference and specimens with 2% of nominal specific interference. The experimental stress-life (S–N curves pointed out an increased fatigue life of the interference fit specimens compared with the free hole ones. The numerical investigation was performed in order to analyse the stress fields by applying an elastic plastic 2D simulation with a commercial Finite Element software. The stress history and distribution along the contact interference of the fitted samples indicates a significant reduction of the local stress range due to the externally applied loading (remote stress since a residual and compressive stress field is generated by the pin insertion.

  19. Single-bunch beam loading on the SLAC two-mile accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments described were initially prompted by interest in the radiation loss of relativistic electron rings passing through periodic structures. Later, the same experiments became relevant to the theory of energy loss of electrons in large storage rings. In both of these cases, energy loss to the higher order modes of the respective structures could seriously limit their effective operation as acceleration devices. In these experiments, single bunches of electrons with intensities up to 7 x 10 8 electrons per bunch are accelerated through the SLAC three-kilometer accelerator, and their energy spectra are analyzed. Early experiments over a wide energy range (900 MeV to 19 GeV) demonstrated that the energy loss was proportional to the total charge in the bunch but was independent of beam energy. The average energy loss of a single bunch normalized to 10 9 electrons was initially measured to be 38 MeV. The experiments, including much of the equipment development, are described and are compared with theoretical predictions made to date

  20. Single Parents and the Work Setting: The Impact of Multiple Job and Homelife Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Dianne S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the impact of combined work/family responsibilities on single-parent employees. Results indicated that parent employees, but particularly single female parents, were at risk for high job-family role strain and reduced levels of well-being. In spite of increased strain, however, single parents exhibited high levels of job satisfaction and…

  1. Impacts of climate change on TN load and its control in a River Basin with complex pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Warren, Rachel; He, Yi; Ye, Jinyin; Li, Qiaoling; Wang, Guoqing

    2018-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that climate change could affect the quality of water through complex natural and anthropogenic mechanisms. Previous studies on climate change and water quality have mostly focused on assessing its impact on pollutant loads from agricultural runoff. A sub-daily SWAT model was developed to simulate the discharge, transport, and transformation of nitrogen from all known anthropogenic sources including industries, municipal sewage treatment plants, concentrated and scattered feedlot operations, rural households, and crop production in the Upper Huai River Basin. This is a highly polluted basin with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations frequently exceeding Class V of the Chinese Surface Water Quality Standard (GB3838-2002). Climate change projections produced by 16 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios in the mid (2040-2060) and late (2070-2090) century were used to drive the SWAT model to evaluate the impacts of climate change on both the TN loads and the effectiveness of three water pollution control measures (reducing fertilizer use, constructing vegetative filter strips, and improving septic tank performance) in the basin. SWAT simulation results have indicated that climate change is likely to cause an increase in both monthly average and extreme TN loads in February, May, and November. The projected impact of climate change on TN loads in August is more varied between GCMs. In addition, climate change is projected to have a negative impact on the effectiveness of septic tanks in reducing TN loads, while its impacts on the other two measures are more uncertain. Despite the uncertainty, reducing fertilizer use remains the most effective measure for reducing TN loads under different climate change scenarios. Meanwhile, improving septic tank performance is relatively more effective in reducing annual TN loads, while constructing vegetative filter strips is more effective in reducing annual maximum monthly

  2. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  3. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of the single-crystal turbine alloy CMSX-4 during thermomechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F.; Fleury, G.; Steinhaus, T.

    2000-11-01

    Turbine blades in gas turbine engines are subjected during operation to triaxial stress fields. For the description of the deformation behaviour of anisotropic single-crystal blades, constitutive equations are required which take account of modifications to the deformation processes caused by evolution of the γ/γ' microstructure during service (γ' rafting). A microstructure-dependent, orthotropic Hills potential, whose anisotropy coefficients are connected to the edge length of γ' particles, has been applied. The shape of γ' particles remains cubic below exposures at 700 °C. At high temperatures (above 850 °C) the γ' particles coalesce to rafts, and the viscoplastic response of the superalloy is continuously modified. This reduces the creep resistance of orientated specimen. After tensile loading of the -orientated specimens at 1000 °C, the rafting of γ' in the (100) plane was observed as expected, whereas the specimens did not reveal γ' rafting. Torsionally loaded specimens exhibited rafting only in the near -orientated surface regions of the specimen. The deformation in the tensile and torsion specimens occurred by octahedral slip of dislocations and not by cubic slip, as expected from theoretical considerations. Rafting did not occur in the -orientated specimens. This anisotropy change is simulated successfully by the microstructure-dependent model.

  4. Modelling of the mechanical behaviour of the single-crystal turbine alloy CMSX-4 during thermomechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F.; Steinhaus, T. [Research Centre Juelich, Inst. for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems (IWV-2), Juelich (Germany); Fleury, G. [ECIX, Audincourt, 25 (France)

    2000-11-01

    Turbine blades in gas turbine engines are subjected during operation to triaxial stress fields. For the description of the deformation behaviour of anisotropic single-crystal blades, constitutive equations are required which take account of modifications to the deformation processes caused by evolution of the {gamma}/{gamma}' microstructure during service ({gamma}' rafting). A microstructure-dependent, orthotropic Hills potential, whose anisotropy coefficients are connected to the edge length of {gamma}' particles, has been applied. The shape of {gamma}' particles remains cubic below exposures at 700degC. At high temperatures (above 850degC the {gamma}') particles coalesce to rafts, and the viscoplastic response of the superalloy is continuously modified. This reduces the creep resistance of (001) orientated specimen. After tensile loading of the (001) -orientated specimens at 1000degC, the rafting of {gamma}' in the (100) plane was observed as expected, whereas the (111) specimens did not reveal {gamma}' rafting. Torsionally loaded specimens exhibited rafting only in the near (100) - orientated surface regions of the specimen. The deformation in the (111) tensile and (001) torsion specimens occurred by octahedral slip of dislocations and not by cubic slip, as expected from theoretical considerations. Rafting did not occur in the (111) - orientated specimens. This anisotropy change is simulated successfully by the microstructure-dependent model. (Author)

  5. Enhancing load-following and/or spectral shift capability in single-sparger natural circulation boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for obtaining load-following capability in a coiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core disposed within a shroud having a shroud head and which with the RPV defines an annulus region disposed beneath the nuclear core, an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV, a core upper plenum formed within the shroud head and disposed atop the nuclear core, a chimney mounted atop the shroud head and in fluid communication with the core upper plenum and with a steam separator having a skirt which is in fluid communication with the steam dome, the region outside of the chimney defining a downcomer region, there being a water level established therein under normal operation of the BWR, and the RPV containing a feedwater inlet. It comprises: disposing a single sparger connected to the feedwater inlet above the steam separator skirt bottom about the interior circumference of the RPV at an elevation at approximately the water level established during normal operation of the BWR; and adjusting the feedwater flow through the inlet and into the sparger to vary the water level to be above, at or below the elevational location of the sparger in response to load-following need

  6. The effects of pressure dependent constitutive model to simulate concrete structures failure under impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhatar, S. N.; Sonoda, Y.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Noh, M. S. Md; Tokumaru, S.

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to explore the effect of confining pressure in the compression and tension zone by simulating the behaviour of reinforced concrete/mortar structures subjected to the impact load. The analysis comprises the numerical simulation of the influences of high mass low speed impact weight dropping on concrete structures, where the analyses are incorporated with meshless method namely as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The derivation of the plastic stiffness matrix of Drucker-Prager (DP) that extended from Von-Mises (VM) yield criteria to simulate the concrete behaviour were presented in this paper. In which, the displacements for concrete/mortar structures are assumed to be infinitesimal. Furthermore, the influence of the different material model of DP and VM that used numerically for concrete and mortar structures are also discussed. Validation upon existing experimental test results is carried out to investigate the effect of confining pressure, it is found that VM criterion causes unreal impact failure (flexural cracking) of concrete structures.

  7. Application of microtomography and image analysis to the quantification of fragmentation in ceramics after impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Ando, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics are widely used in personal body armour and protective solutions. However, during impact, an intense fragmentation develops in the ceramic tile due to high-strain-rate tensile loadings. In this work, microtomography equipment was used to analyse the fragmentation patterns of two silicon carbide grades subjected to edge-on impact (EOI) tests. The EOI experiments were conducted in two configurations. The so-called open configuration relies on the use of an ultra-high-speed camera to visualize the fragmentation process with an interframe time set to 1 µs. The so-called sarcophagus configuration consists in confining the target in a metallic casing to avoid any dispersion of fragments. The target is infiltrated after impact so the final damage pattern is entirely scanned using X-ray tomography and a microfocus source. Thereafter, a three-dimensional (3D) segmentation algorithm was tested and applied in order to separate fragments in 3D allowing a particle size distribution to be obtained. Significant differences between the two specimens of different SiC grades were noted. To explain such experimental results, numerical simulations were conducted considering the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. According to the calculations, the difference of crack pattern in EOI tests is related to the population of defects within the two ceramics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  8. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of pear under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salarikia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear fruit is susceptible to bruising from mechanical impact during field harvesting operations and at all stages of postharvest handling. The postharvest shelf life of bruised fruits were shorter, and they softened rapidly under cold storage compared with non-bruised samples. Developing strategies for reducing bruising during the supply chain requires an understanding of fruit dynamic behavior to different enforced loadings. Finite Element Method (FEM is among the best techniques, in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency, for studying the factors effective in impact-induced bruising. In this research, the drop test of pear sample was simulated using FEM. The simulation was conducted on a 3D solid model of the pear that was created by using non-contact optical scanning technology. This computer-based study aimed to assess the stress and strain distribution patterns within pear generated by collision of the fruit with a flat surface made of different materials. The contact force between two colliding surfaces is also investigated. The simulations were conducted at two different drop orientations and four different impact surfaces. Results showed that, in both drop orientations, the largest and smallest stresses, strains and contact forces were developed in collision with the steel and rubber surfaces, respectively. In general, these parameters were smaller when fruit collided with the surfaces along its horizontal axis than when collided along its vertical axis. Finally, analyses of stress and strain magnitudes showed that simulation stress and strain values were compatible with experiments data.

  9. Reverse redistribution in dipyridamole-loading thallium-201 images using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kiyoo; Masuda, Masanosuke; Bunko, Hisashi.

    1986-01-01

    Dipyridamole was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.142 mg/kg per min for four min, and a stress image was obtained 10 min after the injection of two mCi 201 Tl. The myocardial image of Tl was analyzed by single photon emission computed tomography and its washout rate was calculated by the segmental ROI method. Myocardial function and the motion of the left ventricular wall were analyzed by 99m Tc-RBC-gated cardiac pool imaging. Reverse redistribution was noted in 27 (21.6 %) of 125 consecutive Tl dipyridamole and redistribution myocardial imaging studies. The stress image demonstrated normal perfusion (group 1) and reduced perfusion (group 2) of Tl. Group 1 consisted of 17 patients with diabetes mellitus, supraventricular arrhythmias, hypertension, and others. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients with subendocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, and others. The percentage prevalence of reverse redistribution among patients with supraventricular arrhythmia was 62.5 % (five of eight patients), with subendocardial infarction 60.0 % (three of five), with hypertension 42.8 % (six of 14), and with diabetes mellitus 40.0 % (eight of 20), while in those with transmyocardial infarction and angina pectoris no reverse redistribution percentage was found. The washout rate of Tl in normal perfusion areas was 44.0 ± 12.8 %, the reverse redistribution of group 1 was 47.4 ± 12.8 %, and of group 2 was 51.2 ± 8.2 %. The washout rate of the reverse redistribution of group 2 was significantly greater than that of the normal areas. In gated cardiac pool imaging, patients in group 2 had significantly larger areas showing abnormal contraction of the left ventricular wall and significantly lower ejection fraction than did group 1. In the electrocardiogram ST segment depression was noted more frequently in group 2 than group 1. No Q wave was present in the corresponding reverse redistribution area. (J.P.N.)

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE REQUIRED COOLING LOAD OF THE HOSPITAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMADZADEHTALATAPEH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the energy performance of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems was studied in this research. The present research employs the Transient System Simulation Software (TRNSYS to study the hour-by-hour influence of the climate change scenario on a HVAC system performance by modeling the system in the TRNSYS software as the base line model. To this end, a HVAC system operating in a hospital as a high energy demanding building was selected for data collection, analysis and simulation. Three sets of predicted Typical Meteorological Year (TMY data for the region are used for simulation in the TRNSYS to analyze the established indoor air conditions and yearly required cooling loads by the building. Based on the predictions and comparison of the findings with the year 2000, it can be estimated that the yearly required cooling load for 2020 and 2050 would be increased by 4.66% and 7.3%, respectively.

  11. An Asymptotic Approach for the Elastodynamic Problem of a Plate under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Michalopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach is presented for analyzing the transient elastodynamic problem of a plate under an impact loading. The plate is considered to be in the form of a long strip under plane strain conditions. The loading is taken as a concentrated line force applied normal to the plate surface. It is assumed that this line force is suddenly applied and maintained thereafter (i.e., it is a Heaviside step function of time. Inertia effects are taken into consideration and the problem is treated exactly within the framework of elastodynamic theory. The approach is based on multiple Laplace transforms and on certain asymptotic arguments. In particular, the one-sided Laplace transform is applied to suppress time dependence and the two-sided Laplace transform to suppress the dependence upon a spatial variable (along the extent of the infinite strip. Exact inversions are then followed by invoking the asymptotic Tauber theorem and the Cagniard-deHoop technique. Various extensions of this basic analysis are also discussed.

  12. Impact of optimal load response to real-time electricity price on power system constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to a real-time electricity price...... and may represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. A distribution system where wind power capacity is 126% of maximum loads is chosen as the study case. This paper presents a nonlinear load optimization method to real-time power price...... for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to a real-time electricity price has some good impacts on power system constraints in a distribution system with high wind power penetrations....

  13. General Impact Of A Single Market - Albania Goes Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikollaq Pano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Brexit did trigger some discussion about the European Single Market future The Commission strategy for an area without internal frontiers in which the free movement of goods persons services and capital is ensured remains the same and increasingly attracts the attention and interest of policy makers and researchers. The digital single market a recent concept developed in the context of the European Union goes beyond the Cloud computing IoT and Big Data that are present-day words frequently mentioned in country strategies. The aim of coming together into a single market is to maximise the benefits of technology while simultaneously preserving values we hold timeless. Expanding this concept and considering the configuration of a digital market in Albania is the underpinning of this paper. Goods and services provided on-line will grant a better access and improved service to the benefit of customers under conditions of fair competition and a high level of consumer and personal data protection. A single platform necessarily digital can incorporate the banking industrial education investment markets and contribute to their unification. This first step of placing the idea should be followed by considering components like digital infrastructure development digitally educated people collaborative economy and others. There is a vision for the country development with no timeline yet above and beyond the brainstorming approach.

  14. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Impacts of Providing Inertial Response on Dynamic Loads of Wind Turbine Drivetrains: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girsang, I. P.; Dhupia, J.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Muljadi, E.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-09-01

    There has been growing demand from the power industry for wind power plants to support power system operations. One such requirement is for wind turbines to provide ancillary services in the form of inertial response. When the grid frequency drops, it is essential for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to inject kinetic energy stored in their inertia into the grid to help arrest the frequency decline. However, the impacts of inertial response on the structural loads of the wind turbine have not been given much attention. To bridge this gap, this paper utilizes a holistic model for both fixed-speed and variable-speed WTGs by integrating the aeroelastic wind turbine model in FAST, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the electromechanical drivetrain model in SimDriveline and SimPowerSystems.

  16. Impact of egg disinfection of hatching eggs on the eggshell microbiome and bacterial load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.

    2017-01-01

    Disinfection of hatching eggs is essential to ensure high quality production of broilers. Different protocols are followed in different hatcheries; however, only limited scientific evidence on how the disinfection procedures impact the microbiome is available. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... to two times fumigation and finally spray disinfection. The eggshell microbiome was characterized by sequencing of the total amount of 16S rRNA extracted from each sample, consisting of shell surface swabs of five eggs from the same group. In addition, the number of colony forming units (cfu) under...

  17. Plasticity Detection and Quantification in Monopile Support Structures Due to Axial Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijers P.C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the construction of offshore wind turbines have created the need for a method to detect whether a monopile foundation is plastically deformed during the installation procedure. Since measurements at the pile head are difficult to perform, a method based on measurements at a certain distance below the pile head is proposed in this work for quantification of the amount of plasticity. By considering a onedimensional rod model with an elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relation, it is shown that the occurrence of plastic deformation caused by an impact load can be detected from these measurements. Furthermore, this plastic deformation can be quantified by the same measurement with the help of an energy balance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via a numerical example.

  18. Identification of exponent from load-deformation relation for soft materials from impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.; Sopon, G.

    2018-01-01

    When two bodies are brought into contact, the magnitude of occurring reaction forces increase together with the amplitude of deformations. The load-deformation dependency of two contacting bodies is described by a function having the form F = Cxα . An accurate illustration of this relationship assumes finding the precise coefficient C and exponent α. This representation proved to be very useful in hardness tests, in dynamic systems modelling or in considerations upon the elastic-plastic ratio concerning a Hertzian contact. The classical method for identification of the exponent consists in finding it from quasi-static tests. The drawback of the method is the fact that the accurate estimation of the exponent supposes precise identification of the instant of contact initiation. To overcome this aspect, the following observation is exploited: during an impact process, the dissipated energy is converted into heat released by internal friction in the materials and energy for plastic deformations. The paper is based on the remark that for soft materials the hysteresis curves obtained for a static case are similar to the ones obtained for medium velocities. Furthermore, utilizing the fact that for the restitution phase the load-deformation dependency is elastic, a method for finding the α exponent for compression phase is proposed. The maximum depth of the plastic deformations obtained for a series of collisions, by launching, from different heights, a steel ball in free falling on an immobile prism made of soft material, is evaluated by laser profilometry method. The condition that the area of the hysteresis loop equals the variation of kinetical energy of the ball is imposed and two tests are required for finding the exponent. Five collisions from different launching heights of the ball were taken into account. For all the possible impact-pair cases, the values of the exponent were found and close values were obtained.

  19. Impacts of Declining Mississippi River Sediment Load on Subaqueous Delta Front Sedimentation and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi River delta system is undergoing unprecedented changes due to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic alterations to the river and its delta. Since the 1950s, the suspended sediment load of the Mississippi River has decreased by approximately 50% due to the construction of >50,000 dams in the Mississippi basin. The impact of this decreased sediment load has been observed in subaerial environments, but the impact on sedimentation and geomorphology of the subaqueous delta front has yet to be examined. To identify historic trends in sedimentation patterns, we compiled bathymetric datasets, including historical charts, industry and academic surveys, and NOAA data, collected between 1764 and 2009. Sedimentation rates are variable across the delta front, but are highest near the mouth of Southwest Pass, which carries the largest percentage of Mississippi River flow and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. The progradation rate of Southwest Pass (measured at the 10 m depth contour) has slowed from 67 m/yr between 1764 and 1940 to 26 m/yr between 1940 and 1979, with evidence of further deceleration from 1979-2009. Decreased rates of progradation are also observed at South Pass and Pass A Loutre, with the 10 m contour retreating at rates >20 m/yr at both passes. Advancement of the delta front also decelerated in deeper water (15-90 m) offshore from Southwest Pass. In this area, from 1940-1979, depth contours advanced seaward 30 m/yr, but rates declined from 1979-2005. Furthermore, over the same area, the sediment accumulation rate decreased by 81% for the same period. The Mississippi River delta front appears to be entering a phase of decline, which will likely be accelerated by future upstream management practices. This decline has implications for offshore ecosystems, biogeochemical cycling, pollutant dispersal, mudflow hazard, and the continued use of the delta as an economic and population center.

  20. A biomechanical comparison of tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading between single-row, triple-loaded cuff repairs and double-row, suture-tape cuff repairs using biocomposite anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Drew, Otis R

    2012-09-01

    To compare tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading in a single-row, triple-loaded anchor repair with a suture-tape, rip-stop, double-row rotator cuff repair. Using 18 human shoulders from 9 matched cadaveric pairs, we created 2 groups of rotator cuff repairs. Group 1 was a double-row, rip-stop, suture-tape construct. Group 2 was a single-row, triple-loaded construct. Before mechanical testing, the supraspinatus footprint was measured with calipers. A superiorly positioned digital camera optically measured the tendon footprint motion during 60° of humeral internal and external rotation. Specimens were secured at a fixed angle not exceeding 45° in reference to the load. After preloading, each sample was cycled between 10 N and 100 N for 200 cycles at 1 Hz, followed by destructive testing at 33 mm/s. A digital camera with tracking software measured the repair displacement at 100 and 200 cycles. Ultimate load and failure mode for each sample were recorded. The exposed anterior footprint border (6.5% ± 6%) and posterior footprint border (0.9% ± 1.7%) in group 1 were statistically less than the exposed anterior footprint border (30.3% ± 17%) and posterior footprint border (29.8% ± 14%) in group 2 (P = .003 and P row rotator cuff repair had greater footprint coverage, less rotational footprint displacement, and a greater mean ultimate failure load than the triple-loaded, single-row repair on mechanical testing. No double-row or single-row constructs showed 5 mm of displacement after the first 100 cycles. The most common failure mode for both constructs was suture tearing through the tendon. Differences in cuff fixation influence rotational tendon movement and may influence postoperative healing. Stronger repair constructs still fail at the suture-tendon interface. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultimate compression after impact load prediction in graphite/epoxy coupons using neural network and multivariate statistical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Alexandre David

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this research was to accurately predict the ultimate compressive load of impact damaged graphite/epoxy coupons using a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and multivariate statistical regression analysis (MSRA). An optimized use of these data treatment tools allowed the generation of a simple, physically understandable equation that predicts the ultimate failure load of an impacted damaged coupon based uniquely on the acoustic emissions it emits at low proof loads. Acoustic emission (AE) data were collected using two 150 kHz resonant transducers which detected and recorded the AE activity given off during compression to failure of thirty-four impacted 24-ply bidirectional woven cloth laminate graphite/epoxy coupons. The AE quantification parameters duration, energy and amplitude for each AE hit were input to the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network to accurately classify the material failure mechanisms present in the low proof load data. The number of failure mechanisms from the first 30% of the loading for twenty-four coupons were used to generate a linear prediction equation which yielded a worst case ultimate load prediction error of 16.17%, just outside of the +/-15% B-basis allowables, which was the goal for this research. Particular emphasis was placed upon the noise removal process which was largely responsible for the accuracy of the results.

  2. Development of a computer model to predict aortic rupture due to impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C S; Yang, K H; Hardy, W; Wang, H K; King, A I

    2001-11-01

    Aortic injuries during blunt thoracic impacts can lead to life threatening hemorrhagic shock and potential exsanguination. Experimental approaches designed to study the mechanism of aortic rupture such as the testing of cadavers is not only expensive and time consuming, but has also been relatively unsuccessful. The objective of this study was to develop a computer model and to use it to predict modes of loading that are most likely to produce aortic ruptures. Previously, a 3D finite element model of the human thorax was developed and validated against data obtained from lateral pendulum tests. The model included a detailed description of the heart, lungs, rib cage, sternum, spine, diaphragm, major blood vessels and intercostal muscles. However, the aorta was modeled as a hollow tube using shell elements with no fluid within, and its material properties were assumed to be linear and isotropic. In this study fluid elements representing blood have been incorporated into the model in order to simulate pressure changes inside the aorta due to impact. The current model was globally validated against experimental data published in the literature for both frontal and lateral pendulum impact tests. Simulations of the validated model for thoracic impacts from a number of directions indicate that the ligamentum arteriosum, subclavian artery, parietal pleura and pressure changes within the aorta are factors that could influence aortic rupture. The model suggests that a right-sided impact to the chest is potentially more hazardous with respect to aortic rupture than any other impact direction simulated in this study. The aortic isthmus was the most likely site of aortic rupture regardless of impact direction. The reader is cautioned that this model could only be validated on a global scale. Validation of the kinematics and dynamics of the aorta at the local level could not be done due to a lack of experimental data. It is hoped that this model will be used to design

  3. Dynamic material behavior determination using single fiber impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heru Utomo, B.D.; Broos, J.P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of fiber materials are used as input data for amongst others impact simulations on fiber based structures to predict their behavior. Accurate predictions for such materials are still not possible, because the mechanical properties are usually determined (quasi-)statically or

  4. Lightweight Potential of Welded High-strength Steel Joints from S700 Under Constant and Variable Amplitude Loading by High-frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Halid Can; Marquis, Gary; Sonsino, Cetin Morris

    2015-01-01

    Investigations with longitudinal stiffeners of the steel grade S700 under fully-reversed, constant amplitude loading and under variable amplitude loading with a straight-line spectrum show impressive fatigue strength improvement by high-frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) treatment. However, the degree of improvement was for variable amplitude loading lower when compared to constant amplitude loading due to local plasticity which occurs during larger load levels and consequently reduces the be...

  5. Single ionization of Ne, Ar and Kr by proton impact: Single differential distributions in energy and angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S [CONICET and Dto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET and Universidad de Buenos Aires C1428EGA (Argentina); Olson, R E, E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.a [Physics Department, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present a theoretical study of singly differential cross sections in energy and angle for the single ionization of neon, argon and krypton by proton impact. Theoretical results obtained by means of the Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model are compared to those provided by the First Born Approximation (FBA) and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method as well as to experimental data from several laboratories. We note in particular for argon, that the CDW-EIS model does not reproduce the experimental data as accurately as expected, while the CTMC instead is in very good agreement.

  6. Single ionization of diatomic molecules by bare ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M; Mandal, C R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular three-Coulomb wave model (M3CW) has been extensively used to study the double-differential ionization cross sections (DDCS) of diatomic molecules by the impact of bare ions at intermediate and high energies. In this model, the distortion of the initial channel by the incoming projectile is also included. The present DDCS results are found to be in good accord both with the experiment of Baran et al 2008 as well as with other theory

  7. Characterization of cyclic deformation behaviour of tempered and quenched 42CrMoS4 at single step and variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelp, M.; Eifler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic single steps tests were performed on tempered and quenched specimens of the steel 42CrMoS4. Strain, temperature and electrical resistance measurements yielded an empirical prediction of fatigue life according to Coffin, Manson and Morrow. All measured values are based on physical processes and therefore show a strong interaction. A new testing procedure was developed permitting hysteresis measurements to be used for the characterization and description of fatigue behaviour under variable amplitude loading. The basic idea is to combine fatigue tests with any kind of load spectrum with single step tests. This offers the possibility to apply lifetime prediction methods normally used for single step tests for those with random or service loading. (orig.)

  8. Shear and foundation effects on crack root rotation and mode-mixity in moment- and force-loaded single cantilever beam sandwich specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Carlsson, Leif A.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Foundation effects play a crucial role in sandwich fracture specimens with a soft core. Accurate estimation of deformationcharacteristics at the crack front is vital in understanding compliance, energy release rate and mode-mixity infracture test specimens. Beam on elastic foundation analysis...... modulus is proposed that closely agrees with the numerical compliance and energy release rate results forall cases considered. An analytical expression for crack root rotation of the loaded upper face sheet provides consistentresults for both loading configurations. For the force-loaded single cantilever...

  9. Impacts of rising air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak electricity load in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew; Chester, Mikhail; Johnson, Nathan; Gorman, Brandon; Eisenberg, Daniel; Linkov, Igor; Bates, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Climate change may constrain future electricity supply adequacy by reducing electric transmission capacity and increasing electricity demand. The carrying capacity of electric power cables decreases as ambient air temperatures rise; similarly, during the summer peak period, electricity loads typically increase with hotter air temperatures due to increased air conditioning usage. As atmospheric carbon concentrations increase, higher ambient air temperatures may strain power infrastructure by simultaneously reducing transmission capacity and increasing peak electricity load. We estimate the impacts of rising ambient air temperatures on electric transmission ampacity and peak per-capita electricity load for 121 planning areas in the United States using downscaled global climate model projections. Together, these planning areas account for roughly 80% of current peak summertime load. We estimate climate-attributable capacity reductions to transmission lines by constructing thermal models of representative conductors, then forcing these models with future temperature projections to determine the percent change in rated ampacity. Next, we assess the impact of climate change on electricity load by using historical relationships between ambient temperature and utility-scale summertime peak load to estimate the extent to which climate change will incur additional peak load increases. We find that by mid-century (2040-2060), increases in ambient air temperature may reduce average summertime transmission capacity by 1.9%-5.8% relative to the 1990-2010 reference period. At the same time, peak per-capita summertime loads may rise by 4.2%-15% on average due to increases in ambient air temperature. In the absence of energy efficiency gains, demand-side management programs and transmission infrastructure upgrades, these load increases have the potential to upset current assumptions about future electricity supply adequacy.

  10. Impact of polymorphisms in the HCP5 and HLA-C, and ZNRD1 genes on HIV viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thørner, Lise Wegner; Erikstrup, Christian; Harritshøj, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex P5 (HCP5), HLA-C, and near the zinc ribbon domain containing 1 (ZNRD1) have been shown to influence viral load (VL) set point in HIV-infected individuals with a known seroconversion onset. We aimed to determ...

  11. An investigation of Crater Diameter on Plain Slab Foamed Concrete Rice Husk Ash (FCRHA Exposed to Low Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadipramana Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable material building and construction, the foamed concrete (FC in this investigation was modified by adding the Rice Husk Ash (RHA as sand replacement to increase its strength. Furthermore, this modification material (is called FCRHA treated on impact loading. This investigation was motivated when the plain slab of FCRHA subjected to small impactor, then the nose impactor over all would penetrate into slab target due to porosity of FCRHA. The experimental produced plain slabs FCRHA and FC (as a control with 1400 kg/m3 and 1600 Kg/m3 of densities. In impact test all plain slabs exposed by 40 mm steel blunt nose impactor with various impact velocities. The result showed the crater which produced by impact loading was not found spalling, scabbing, radial crack and widely cratering. This local damage occurred when porosity of FCRHA took over the impact loading. The nose impactor over all considered have been successful penetrated into slab of FCRHA and FC. Therefore, the diameter of crater equals to diameter of impactor. With this certainty, the prediction penetration depth on plain slab FCRHA (also FC can be determined in future investigation. In addition, the penetration of impactor on FCRHA with low impact velocity give the same impression on penetration impactor with high impact velocity on FC.

  12. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-01-01

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter

  13. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  14. The Immediate Effects of Conventional Physical Therapy on the Knee Joint Load in Subjects with Moderate Knee Osteoarthritis; A Preliminary Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Fattahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subjects with knee osteoarthritis typically have higher knee adduction moment. Current research efforts are mainly focused on therapeutic procedures that potentially may modify disease progression. This preliminary study was designed as a single blind (examiner randomized control trial to investigate the impact of conventional physical therapy on pain, and knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Twelve participants diagnosed with moderate knee OA were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. Three-dimensional knee kinematic and kinetic data were recorded during the gait before and after 10 sessions of conventional physical therapy. In addition, pain intensity was evaluated by visual analog scale and pain subscale of KOOS questionnaire. The control group did not receive any intervention during the same period. Gait parameters were analyzed within and between groups using nonparametric tests. Results: There was a significant difference between groups in baseline KOOS-pain Score and ML knee force (P=0.048 and P=0.01. Immediately after ten sessions of physical therapy the initial (first peak of knee adduction moment was significantly (P=0.03 lower than that of the control group while the first and second peak of knee AP velocity were significantly (P=0.02, P=0.01 respectively higher. In the intervention group, the second peaks of vertical and anteroposterior (AP knee forces were strongly correlated with the pretest KOOS-pain Score (r=0.99 and r=0.98, P<0.001. Therefore a multivariate general linear model was adopted with adjustment to baseline KOOS-pain. By this adjustment, 51% alleviation of VAS pain score and 81% decrement of first peak of knee adduction moment in comparison to control group was statistically significant (P=0.02, P=0.03 respectively. Conclusion: It seems that ten sessions of conventional physical therapy may modify knee joint load in subjects with moderate knee

  15. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.n.belov@mail.ru; Kopanitsa, Dmitry, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Yugov, Alexey, E-mail: yugalex@mail.ru; Kaparulin, Sergey, E-mail: kaparulin@mail.ru; Plyaskin, Andrey, E-mail: plyaskinandrei@mail.ru; Kalichkina, Anna, E-mail: aniotka@mail.ru; Ustinov, Artyom, E-mail: artemustinov@bk.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Yugov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.t.yugov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University for Radio Electronics and Control Systems, 40, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, Georgy, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  16. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2016-01-01

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11

  17. The impact of benthic fauna on fluvial bed load transport: Challenges of upscaling laboratory experiments to river and landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The impact on sediment transport processes and channel morphology of several relatively large, iconic animals including beaver and salmon is increasingly well understood. However, many other aquatic fauna are important zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers. These somewhat overlooked "Cinderella" species include benthic aquatic insect larvae, freshwater crustaceans and many species of fish. Despite relatively modest individual effects, the ubiquity, abundance and cumulative impact of these organisms makes them a potentially significant agency, with as yet undiscovered and unquantified impacts on channel morphology and sediment fluxes. Their actions (digging, foraging, moving, burrowing), constructions and secretions modify bed sediment characteristics (grain size distribution, interlock, imbrication, protrusion), alter bed topography (thence hydraulic roughness) and contribute to biogenic restraints on grain movement. In turn, they can affect the distribution of surface particle entrainment thresholds and bed shear stresses, with implications for bed load transport. Flume experiments have measured some of these impacts and provided direct observations of the mechanisms involved, but many of the most interesting research questions pertain to the impact of these animals at reach, catchment and even landscape scales: Not least, what is the impact of small aquatic animals on bed load flux and yield? This presentation will consider some of the challenges involved in answering this question; that is, of scaling up experimental understanding of how aquatic animals affect bed load transport processes to river scales. Pertinent themes include: (1) the potential impacts of experimental arrangements on the behaviours and activities that affect hydraulic or geomorphological processes; (2) field coincidence of the spatial and temporal distributions of (a) the animals and their behaviours with (b) the physical conditions (substrates, flows) under which those animals are

  18. Simulation Study on the Deflection Response of the 921A Steel thin plate under Explosive Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fang; Han, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The Ship cabin would be subject to high-intensity shock wave load when it is attacked by anti-ship weapons, causing its side board damaged. The time course of the deflection of the thin plate made of 921A steel in different initial conditions under the impact load is researched by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. According to the theory of elastic-plastic deformation of the thin plate, the dynamic response equation of the thin plate under the explosion impact load is established with the method of energy, and the theoretical calculation value is compared with the result from the simulation method. It proved that the theoretical calculation method has better reliability and accuracy in different boundary size.

  19. Influence of Interface Gap on the Stress Behaviour of Smart Single Lap Joints Under Time Harmonic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Jordanka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive joints are frequently used in different composite structures due to their improved mechanical performance and better understanding of the failure mechanics. The application of such structures can be seen in aerospace and high technology components. The authors developed and applied modified shear lag analysis to investigate the hygrothermalpiezoelectric response of a smart single lap joint at environmental conditions (with/without an interface gap along the overlap zone and under dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electric loads. The main key is the study of the appearance of possible delamination along the interface. As illustrative examples, the analytical closed form solution of the structure shear and the axial stresses response, as well as the interface debond length, including influence of mechanical, piezoelectric, thermal characteristics and frequencies is performed and discussed. All results are presented in figures. The comparison of the shear stress and electric fields for both cases of overlap zone (continuous or with a gap is also shown in figures and discussed.

  20. A PVDF-Based Sensor for Internal Stress Monitoring of a Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) Column Subject to Impact Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guofeng; Li, Zhao; Song, Gangbing

    2018-05-23

    Impact loads can have major adverse effects on the safety of civil engineering structures, such as concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns. The study of mechanical behavior and stress analysis of CFST columns under impact loads is very important to ensure their safety against such loads. At present, the internal stress monitoring of the concrete cores CFST columns under impact loads is still a very challenging subject. In this paper, a PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) piezoelectric smart sensor was developed and successfully applied to the monitoring of the internal stress of the concrete core of a CFST column under impact loads. The smart sensor consists of a PVDF piezoelectric film sandwiched between two thin steel plates through epoxy. The protection not only prevents the PVDF film from impact damages but also ensures insulation and waterproofing. The smart sensors were embedded into the circular concrete-filled steel tube specimen during concrete pouring. The specimen was tested against impact loads, and testing data were collected. The time history of the stress obtained from the PVDF smart sensor revealed the evolution of core concrete internal stress under impact loads when compared with the impact force⁻time curve of the hammer. Nonlinear finite element simulations of the impact process were also carried out. The results of FEM simulations had good agreement with the test results. The results showed that the proposed PVDF piezoelectric smart sensors can effectively monitor the internal stress of concrete-filled steel tubular columns under impact loads.

  1. IMPACT OF REDUCING THE 100 C LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE OFFSET ON WASTE LOADING TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-11

    The objective of this report is to assess the potential impact of reducing conservatism in the implementation of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) on the ability to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for future sludge batches. No changes to the TL model or the associated uncertainties (model or measurement) are proposed, rather only changes in the magnitude of the offset used between the nominal melt pool temperature (1150 C) and the Property Acceptance Region (PAR) value (1050 C). This strategy is consistent with that outlined and initially assessed by Brown et al. (2001). In that report, the authors stated even a fairly conservative change in this safety factor could have a significant impact on waste loading. The results of this study clearly indicate that the implementation of an 1100 C TL PAR criterion (which translates into a reduction in the TL offset from 100 C to 50 C) can have significantly positive impacts on the ability to gain access to WLs exceeding 45%. This is especially true for those frit and sludge systems that are TL limited using the current 1050 C TL criterion, and are not limited by a second constraint (such as viscosity, nepheline, or durability) until much higher WLs. Examples of various glass forming systems are provided that are currently limited to maximum WLs in the mid-40s, but could be processed in the lower 50s through implementation of this new strategy. One example is in the Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) system, where for a specific glass forming system the projected operating window of 38-41% WL (using the current constraints) became 38-52% WL with the use of an 1100 C TL PAR value. This change both provided access to significantly higher WLs, and transitioned a once infeasible flowsheet to a system that could potentially be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This potential change in the TL constraint also provides access to frit compositions (or glass

  2. Damage Evaluation of Concrete Column under Impact Load Using a Piezoelectric-Based EMI Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuli; Zhao, Shaoyu; Qi, Baoxin; Kong, Qingzhao

    2018-05-17

    One of the major causes of damage to column-supported concrete structures, such as bridges and highways, are collisions from moving vehicles, such as cars and ships. It is essential to quantify the collision damage of the column so that appropriate actions can be taken to prevent catastrophic events. A widely used method to assess structural damage is through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) damage index established by the collected data; however, the RMSD index does not truly provide quantitative information about the structure. Conversely, the damage volume ratio that can only be obtained via simulation provides better detail about the level of damage in a structure. Furthermore, as simulation can also provide the RMSD index relating to that particular damage volume ratio, the empirically obtained RMSD index can thus be related to the structural damage degree through comparison of the empirically obtained RMSD index to numerically-obtained RMSD. Thus, this paper presents a novel method in which the impact-induced damage to a structure is simulated in order to obtain the relationship between the damage volume ratio to the RMSD index, and the relationship can be used to predict the true damage degree by comparison to the empirical RMSD index. In this paper, the collision damage of a bridge column by moving vehicles was simulated by using a concrete beam model subjected to continuous impact loadings by a freefalling steel ball. The variation in admittance signals measured by the surface attached lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches was used to establish the RMSD index. The results demonstrate that the RMSD index and the damage ratio of concrete have a linear relationship for the particular simulation model.

  3. The Impact of Waste Loading on Viscosity in the Frit 418-SB3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEELER, DAVID

    2004-01-01

    In this report, data are provided to gain insight into the potential impact of a lower viscosity glass on melter stability (i.e., pressure spikes, cold cap behavior) and/or pour stream stability. High temperature viscosity data are generated for the Frit 418-SB3 system as a function of waste loading (from 30 to 45 percent) and compared to similar data from other systems that have been (or are currently being) processed through the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. The data are presented in various formats to potentially align the viscosity data with physical observations at various points in the melter system or critical DWPF processing unit operations. The expectations is that the data will be provided adequate insight into the vitrification parameters which might evolve into working solutions as DWPF strives to maximize waste throughput. This report attempts to provide insight into a physical interpretation of the data from a DWPF perspective. The theories present ed are certainly not an all inclusive list and the order in which they are present does imply a ranking, probability, or likelihood that the proposed theory is even plausible. The intent of this discussion is to provide a forum in which the viscosity data can be discussed in relation to possible mechanisms which could potentially lead to a workable solution as discussed in relation to possible solution as higher overall attainment is striven for during processing of the current or future sludge batches

  4. Anisotropic deformation behavior of as-extruded 6063-T4 alloy under dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tuo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Joint Center for Intelligent New Energy Vehicle, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Guo, Pengcheng; Tang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The deformation behavior of 6063-T4 aluminum alloy bar was investigated by compression tests conducted at a wide strain rate range of 10{sup −4} to 9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} with loading directions at 0°, 45° and 90° to the axis of the extruded bar. It is found that the flow stresses of 0° specimens are always the highest and those of the 45° specimens are the lowest at the same conditions. The flow stress exhibits obvious strain rate sensitivity (SRS), which differs from static to dynamic deformation. The Schmid factors (SFs) for each type of texture components were calculated. For the {112}<111> texture component, the max Schmid factors are 0.27, 0.49 and 0.41 for 0°, 45° and 90° specimens. For the {110}<111> texture component, they are 0.27, 0.43 and 0.41 for the three directions. The initial texture changes significantly with increasing strain, the strain rate has slight influence on the texture evolution. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicate that as the strain rate increases, the density of the dislocation increases and its distribution becomes more homogeneous. It is necessary to consider the anisotropic deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in material selection and structure design for the impact components.

  5. Wound Ballistics Modeling for Blast Loading Blunt Force Impact and Projectile Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cooper, Candice Frances [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Light body armor development for the warfighter is based on trial-and-error testing of prototype designs against ballistic projectiles. Torso armor testing against blast is virtually nonexistent but necessary to ensure adequate protection against injury to the heart and lungs. In this report, we discuss the development of a high-fidelity human torso model, it's merging with the existing Sandia Human Head-Neck Model, and development of the modeling & simulation (M&S) capabilities necessary to simulate wound injury scenarios. Using the new Sandia Human Torso Model, we demonstrate the advantage of virtual simulation in the investigation of wound injury as it relates to the warfighter experience. We present the results of virtual simulations of blast loading and ballistic projectile impact to the tors o with and without notional protective armor. In this manner, we demonstrate the ad vantages of applying a modeling and simulation approach to the investigation of wound injury and relative merit assessments of protective body armor without the need for trial-and-error testing.

  6. Fuel-assembly behavior under dynamic impact loads due to dry-storage cask mishandling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants is contingent on the ability to provide adequate storage of spent fuel. Until recently, utilities have been able to maintain interim in-pool spent fuel storage. However, many facilities have reached their capacity and are now faced with shipping their spent fuel in dry casks to alternate storage facilities. The objective of this report is to provide estimates of the structural integrity of irradiated LWR fuel rods subjected to impact loads resulting from postulated cask handling accidents. This is accomplished in five stages: (1) Material properties for irradiated fuel are compiled for use in the structural analyses. (2) Results from parametric analyses of representative assembly designs are used to determine the most limiting case for end and side drop postulated handling accidents. (3) Detailed structural analysis results are presented for these critical designs. The detailed analyses include the coupling of assembly interaction with the cask and cask internals. (4) Criteria for both ultimate stress and brittle fracture failure modes of fuel rod cladding are established. (5) Safe cask handling drop height limits are computed based on items 2 through 4 above. 44 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Impact of two different commercial DNA extraction methods on BK virus viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bergallo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: BK virus, a member of human polyomavirus family, is a worldwide distributed virus characterized by a seroprevalence rate of 70-90% in adult population. Monitoring of viral replication is made by evaluation of BK DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Many different methods can be applied for extraction of nucleic acid from several specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two different DNA extraction procedure on BK viral load. Materials and methods: DNA extraction procedure including the Nuclisens easyMAG platform (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France and manual QIAGEN extraction (QIAGEN Hilden, Germany. BK DNA quantification was performed by Real Time TaqMan PCR using a commercial kit. Result and discussion: The samples capacity, cost and time spent were compared for both systems. In conclusion our results demonstrate that automated nucleic acid extraction method using Nuclisense easyMAG was superior to manual protocol (QIAGEN Blood Mini kit, for the extraction of BK virus from serum and urine specimens.

  8. Impact Analysis of Customized Feedback Interventions on Residential Electricity Load Consumption Behavior for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limitations of traditional energy-saving policies, a kind of energy conservation method called the Information Feedback to Residential Electricity Load Customers, which could impact the demand response capacity, has increasingly received more attention. However, most of the current feedback programs provide the same feedback information to all customers regardless of their diverse characteristics, which may reduce the energy-saving effects or even backfire. This paper attempts to investigate how different types of customers may change their behaviors under a set of customized feedback. We conducted a field survey study in Qinhuangdao (QHD, China. First, we conducted semi-structured interviews to classify four groups of customers of different energy-saving awareness, energy-saving potential, and behavioral variability. Then, 156 QHD households were surveyed using scenarios to collect feedback of different scenarios. Social science theories were used to guide the discussion on the behavior changes as a result of different feedback strategies and reveal the reasons for customers’ behaviors. Using the Chi-Square test of independence, the variables that have strong correlations with the categories of residents are extracted to provide references for residents’ classification. Finally, the practical implications and needs for future research are discussed.

  9. Reduction of cognitive conflict and learning style impact towards student-teacher's misconception load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'yun, Kurroti; Suyono, Poedjiastoeti, Sri; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar

    2017-08-01

    The most crucial issue in education is a misconception that is caused by the misconception of the students themselves. Therefore, this study provided the solution to improve the quality of teaching chemistry in the schools through the remediation of misconceptions to the chemistry teacher candidates. This study employed a mixed method approach using concurrent embedded designs where it tended more to the qualitative research, but it still relied on the quantitative research in the assessment of the learning impact. The results of this study were the students with higher levels of cognitive conflict still have high loads of misconceptions (MC), it possibly due to the type of students' learning styles that is the sequential-global balanced. To facilitate the cognitive conflict character and the learning style of sequential-global balanced, the researchers created an integrated worksheet conceptual change with peer learning (WCCPL). The peer learning undertaken in the last stages of conceptual change of WCCPL can increase the resistance of students' concept in a category of knowing the concept significantly, but it should be examined in an in-depth study related to the long-term memory.

  10. Decentralized method for load sharing and power management in a hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of hybrid source PV/battery units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Guerrero, Josep M.; Oraee, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power...... and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. Modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states of each unit and the frequency level is used as trigger...... for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  11. A boundary element analysis on the influence of Krc and e/d on the performance of cyclically loaded single pile in clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basack

    Full Text Available The environment prevalent in oceans necessitates the piles supporting offshore structures to be designed against lateral cyclic loading initiated by wave action. Such quasi-static load reversal induces deterioration in the strength and stiffness of the soil-pile system, introducing progressive reduction in the bearing capacity associated with increased settlement of the pile foundation. To understand the effect of lateral cyclic load on axial response of single piles in soft clay, a numerical model was previously developed and validated by the author. Using the methodology, further analysis has been carried out to investigate how the variation in relative pilesoil stiffness and eccentricity effects the degradation of axial pile capacity due to the effect of lateral cyclic load. This paper presents a brief description of the methodology, analysis and interpretations of the theoretical results obtained from the further analysis and the relevant conclusions drawn there from.

  12. Single Intravenous Dose of Novel Flurbiprofen-Loaded Proniosome Formulations Provides Prolonged Systemic Exposure and Anti-inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Preeti; Prajapati, Sunil K; Yadav, Rajbharan; Senyschyn, Danielle; Shea, Peter R; Trevaskis, Natalie L

    2016-11-07

    hydrated proniosomes can prolong systemic drug exposure over 3 days and provide a sustained therapeutic effect. The developed proniosomes represent a novel approach to treat acute pain and inflammation with the potential to be administered as a single intravenous dose by a clinician at the time of injury or surgery that provides adequate relief for several days and reduces fluctuations in therapy. Similar systems loaded with different drugs have potential for broader application in anesthesia, anti-infective, antiemetic, and cancer therapy.

  13. The dynamic response of the containment of the Qinshan nuclear power plant to the aircraft impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jiahong; Han Liangbi; Xia Zufeng

    1991-08-01

    The structural response of the containment of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant under the standard-load-function to aircraft impact has been analyzed by using the ADINA code considering an axisymmetric continuum model, which is assumed a mixed-model for the steel-concrete mixture. It consists of 179 four-node isoparametric concrete elements and 118 steel elements. In order to obtain optimum results, the nonlinear behavior of materials and structures, dynamic modes of failure and damage have been considered in the numerical solution. The coordinate system is based on the total Lagrangian formulation. The F.E. system has been solved using an incremental interactions (BFGS method) with 600 steps totally. A discussion of the overall behavior of the containment for the aircraft impact loading, especially the nonlinear behavior of the local impacted area is presented

  14. Impacts of single and recurrent wildfires on topsoil moisture regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Oscar; Malvar, Maruxa; van den Elsen, Erik; Hosseini, Mohammadreza; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsema, Coen; Bautista, Susana; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    The increasing fire recurrence on forest in the Mediterranean basin is well-established by future climate scenarios due to land use changes and climate predictions. By this, shifts on mature pine woodlands to shrub rangelands are of major importance on forest ecosystems buffer functions, since historical patterns of established vegetation help to recover from fire disturbances. This fact, together with the predicted expansion of the drought periods, will affect feedback processes of vegetation patterns since water availability on these seasons are driven by post-fire local soil properties. Although fire impacts of soil properties and water availability has been widely studied using the fire severity as the main factor, little research is developed on post-fire soil moisture patterns, including the fire recurrence as a key explanatory variable. The following research investigated, in pine woodlands of north central Portugal, the short-term consequences (one year after a fire) of wildfire recurrence on the surface soil moisture content (SMC) and on effective soil water (SWEFF, parameter that includes actual daily soil moisture, soil field capacity-FC and permanent wilting point-PWP). The study set-up includes analyses at two fire recurrence scenarios (1x- and 4x-burnt since 1975), at a patch level (shrub patch/interpatch) and at two soil depths (2.5 and 7.5 cm) in a nested approach. Understanding how fire recurrence affects water in soil over space and time is the main goal of this research. The use of soil moisture sensors in a nested approach, the rainfall features and analyses on basic soil properties as soil organic matter, texture, bulk density, pF curves, soil water repellency and soil surface components will establish which factors has the largest role in controlling soil moisture behavior. Main results displayed, in a seasonal and yearly basis, no differences on SMC as increasing fire recurrence (1x- vs 4x-burnt) neither between patch/interpatch microsites at

  15. Attribution Analyses of Impacts of Environmental Changes on Streamflow and Sediment Load in a Mountainous Basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in the southeastern China and northern Vietnam, the Red River is an important international trans-boundary river that has experienced rapid deforestation and environmental changes over the past decades. We conducted attribution analysis of impacts of various environmental changes on streamflow and sediment load. The contribution of reclassified environmental changes to total change of the streamflow and sediment load was separated. Land cover change based on climate-induced and human-induced indicators were defined. We found that human-induced land cover change was the main factor affecting changes of the streamflow and sediment load. Changes of the land cover were more pronounced in the dry season than in the wet season whereas sediment load changed more in the wet season than in the dry season. In addition, changes in sediment load were mainly caused by human-induced land cover change and the changes of land cover were more influential on sediment load than on streamflow in the Red River basin.

  16. Scenario analysis of the impacts of socioeconomic development on phosphorous export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Chen, Weiping; Liao, Yuehua; Luo, Yueping

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic development in lake watersheds is closely related with lake nutrient pollution. As the second largest freshwater lake in China, the Dongting Lake has been experiencing an increase in nutrient loading and a growing risk of eutrophication. This study aimed to reveal the likely impacts of the socioeconomic development of the Dongting Lake watershed on the phosphorous pollution in the lake. We estimated the contributions from different sources and sub-watersheds to the total phosphorous (TP) export and loading from the Dongting Lake watershed under two most likely socioeconomic development scenarios. Moreover, we predicted the likely permissible and actual TP loadings to the Dongting Lake. Under both two scenarios, three secondary sub-watersheds-the upper and lower reaches of the Xiang River watershed and the Dongting Lake Area-are expected to dominate the contribution to the TP export from the Dongting Lake watershed in 2020. Three primary sub-watersheds-the Dongting Lake Area, the Xiang River, and the Yuan River watersheds-are predicted to be the major contributors to the TP loading from the entire watershed. The two scenarios are expected to have a slight difference in TP export and lake TP loading. Livestock husbandry is expected to be the predominant anthropogenic TP source in each of the sub-watersheds under both scenarios. Compared to 2010, permissible TP loading is not expected to increase but actual TP loading is predicted to grow significantly in 2020. Our study provides methodologies to identify the key sources and regions of lake nutrient loading from watersheds with complex socioeconomic context, and to reveal the potential influences of socioeconomic development on nutrient pollution in lake watersheds.

  17. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Online Reading: A Preliminary Study of the Impact of Integrated and Split-Attention Formats on L2 Students' Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shehri, Saleh; Gitsaki, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive load theory has been utilized by second language acquisition (SLA) researchers to account for differences in learner performance with regards to different learning tasks. Certain instructional designs were shown to have an impact on cognitive load and working memory, and this impact was found to be accentuated in a multimedia environment…

  19. CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship : Validation and impact of geometrical simplifactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.D.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Wijhe, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing windage area of container ships, wind loads are playing a more important role in navigating the ship at open sea and especially through harbor areas. This paper presents 3D steady RANS CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship, validation with wind-tunnel measurements

  20. Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Cementation of all-ceramic restorations with resin-cements has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of fracture in service. The aim was to investigate the influence of loading force and loading duration applied during cementation on the reinforcement conferred by a resin-cement on a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic.

  1. TAX LOADING AND ITS IMPACT ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailya D. Zaripova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the mechanism of calculation of tax loading, its value and influence on activity of the organizations reveals. Differentiation of concepts tax loading, tax burden, weight of the taxation is given. Other indicators characterizing the taxation of the organization are considered.

  2. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    proposed for flat terrain and that can significantly decrease the uncertainty associated with fatigue load predictions for wind turbines with large rotors. An essential contribution is the conditioning of wind shear on the 90% quantile of wind turbulence, such that the appropriate magnitude of the design...... fatigue load is achieved. The proposed wind shear model based on the wind measurements is thereby probabilistic in definition, with shear jointly distributed with wind turbulence. A simplified model for the wind shear exponent is further derived from the full stochastic model. The fatigue loads over...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...

  3. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  4. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Alexander, E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shoshin, Andrey [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ{sub target} = 2.5–4.0 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, ion energy on surface E{sub ion} = 60 eV, T{sub e} ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m{sup 2}, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m{sup 2}. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  5. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alexander; Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel; Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander; Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Shoshin, Andrey; Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ_t_a_r_g_e_t = 2.5–4.0 × 10"2"1 m"−"2 s"−"1, ion energy on surface E_i_o_n = 60 eV, T_e ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m"2, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m"2. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  6. Immediate loading versus immediate provisionalization of maxillary single-tooth replacements: a prospective randomized study with BioComp implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.; Frenken, Joost W.; Dubois, Leander; Frank, Michael; Abbink, Ingmar; Kroon, Frans H.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of immediately loaded solid plasma sprayed (TPS) BioComp (BioComp Industries BV, Vught, The Netherlands) implants versus immediate provisionalized but non-loaded BioComp implants in the anterior and premolar

  7. Damage Behaviors and Compressive Strength of Toughened CFRP Laminates with Thin Plies Subjected to Transverse Impact Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozeki, Tomohiro; Aoki, Yuichiro; Ogasawara, Toshio

    It has been recognized that damage resistance and strength properties of CFRP laminates can be improved by using thin-ply prepregs. This study investigates the damage behaviors and compressive strength of CFRP laminates using thin-ply and standard prepregs subjected to out-of-plane impact loadings. CFRP laminates used for the evaluation are prepared using the standard prepregs, thin-ply prepregs, and combinations of the both. Weight-drop impact test and post-impact compression test of quasi-isotropic laminates are performed. It is shown that the damage behaviors are different between the thin-ply and the standard laminates, and the compression-after-impact strength is improved by using thin-ply prepregs. Effects of the use of thin-ply prepregs and the layout of thin-ply layers on the damage behaviors and compression-after-impact properties are discussed based on the experimental results.

  8. Solar Heating And Cooling Of Buildings (SHACOB): Requirements definition and impact analysis-2. Volume 3: Customer load management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretcher, C. K.; Rountredd, R. C.

    1980-11-01

    Customer Load Management Systems, using off-peak storage and control at the residences, are analyzed to determine their potential for capacity and energy savings by the electric utility. Areas broadly representative of utilities in the regions around Washington, DC and Albuquerque, NM were of interest. Near optimum tank volumes were determined for both service areas, and charging duration/off-time were identified as having the greatest influence on tank performance. The impacts on utility operations and corresponding utility/customer economics were determined in terms of delta demands used to estimate the utilities' generating capacity differences between the conventional load management, (CLM) direct solar with load management (DSLM), and electric resistive systems. Energy differences are also determined. These capacity and energy deltas are translated into changes in utility costs due to penetration of the CLM or DSLM systems into electric resistive markets in the snapshot years of 1990 and 2000.

  9. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook; Lee, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level

  10. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  11. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  12. Importance of a distal proximal contact on load transfer by implant-supported single adjacent crowns in posterior region of the mandible: a photoelastic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Afranio de Aguiar Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the importance of a distal proximal contact on the load transfer to the posterior region of the mandible by non-splinted adjacent implant-supported crowns using photoelastic stress analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rectangular model (68x30x15 mm was made of polymethylmethacrylate resin to simulate half of the mandibular arch. One model was completed with resin replicas representing the first premolar and second molar and with two 3.75 mm dia.x11 mm internal hexagon threaded implants replacing the second premolar and first molar. The other model was manufactured in the same way but without the second molar. Both models were duplicated using photoelastic resin. The roots of the teeth replicas were covered with a layer of polyether impression material to simulate the periodontal ligament. Two different vertical loads were applied to the crowns as follows: 1 - single static point load alternately applied to the crowns replacing the second premolar and first molar (50 N; 2 - simultaneous static point loads applied to both of the crowns replacing the second premolar and first molar (100 N. The resulting isochromatic fringe pattern in the photoelastic model was monitored and photographed. RESULTS: All loading conditions studied showed that the presence of the second molar has changed the load transmission and the pattern of stresses. CONCLUSION: Results showed that the presence of a second molar proximal contact can help minimize the stresses around the implants.

  13. Damage initiation and growth in laminated polymer compsosite plates with fluid-structure interaction under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kwon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage initiation and growth as well as dynamic response of laminated polymer composite plates were investigated with the effect of Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI when they were subjected to impact loading. The E-glass composite plates were clamped along the boundaries and impact loading was applied from a specially designed vertical drop-impact testing machine while the plates were surrounded by either water or air. The damage and transient responses such as force- and strain-time history were measured during the progressive impact tests, and the test data collected from either impact in air or under water were compared to determine the effect of FSI. The study showed that FSI was generally detrimental to composite plates because of the hydrodynamic mass effect so that damage occurred at a lower impact force for the composite plate submerged in water. The strain measure also suggested that the FSI effect varied from location to location of the plate surface. Additionally, the FSI effect yielded a significant change in the strain response in terms of both magnitude and shape in time history for the plate in water along with progressive damage. In summary, it is essential to include the FSI effect for design and analysis of composite structures when they are in contact with water.

  14. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Senqing; Zeng, Qinghong; Luo, Yangmei; Duan, Haijun; Ding, Cody; Hu, Weiping; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM) load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load) or six letters (high WM load) while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA) group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent) on reaction times (RTs) and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence) of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  15. Impact of working memory load on cognitive control in trait anxiety: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senqing Qi

    Full Text Available Whether trait anxiety is associated with a general impairment of cognitive control is a matter of debate. This study investigated whether and how experimentally manipulated working memory (WM load modulates the relation between trait anxiety and cognitive control. This question was investigated using a dual-task design in combination with event-related potentials. Participants were required to remember either one (low WM load or six letters (high WM load while performing a flanker task. Our results showed that a high WM load disrupted participants' ability to overcome distractor interference and this effect was exacerbated for the high trait-anxious (HTA group. This exacerbation was reflected by larger interference effects (i.e., incongruent minus congruent on reaction times (RTs and N2 amplitudes for the HTA group than for the low trait-anxious group under high WM load. The two groups, however, did not differ in their ability to inhibit task-irrelevant distractors under low WM load, as indicated by both RTs and N2 amplitudes. These findings underscore the significance of WM-related cognitive demand in contributing to the presence (or absence of a general cognitive control deficit in trait anxiety. Furthermore, our findings show that when limited WM resources are depleted by high WM load, HTA individuals exhibit less efficient recruitments of cognitive control required for the inhibition of distractors, therefore resulting in a greater degree of response conflict.

  16. The impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households in Mkoba north, Gweru, Zimbabwe: Implications for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuku Mukoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households. 20 couples were selected through judgmental sampling that was followed by network referencing; bringing the sample to 40 participants. Study was descriptive in nature. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Study reveals that load shedding have ripple effects in the social fabric of sustainable development through its impacts on gender relations. Load shedding is proving to be reproducing and maintaining gender relations of inequality, thus holding back sustainable development. Women are deprived control of areas that traditional belongs to them like the decision and control of energy use in the household giving men more power over women. Load shedding is increasing men’s time in the public sphere while women are tied more to the private sphere. For sustainable development to be achieved, household relationships should uphold the principles of sustainable development and gender equality is one of them. Empowerment of women and men in household energy uses will aid in opening up their ‘functioning space’. An understanding and appreciation of gender equality in the household will help men and women to be influential in the larger society leading to sustainable development.

  17. Effects of matrix properties on microscale damage in thermoplastic laminates under quasi-static and impact loading

    KAUST Repository

    Wafai, B. Husam

    2018-03-01

    Thermoplastics reinforced with continuous fibers are very promising building materials for the auto industry and consumer electronics to reduce the weight of vehicles and portable devices, and to deliver a high impact tolerance at the same time. Polypropylene is an abundant thermoplastic, and its glass fibers composites make a valuable solution that is suitable for mass production. But the adoption of such composites requires a deep understanding of their mechanical behavior under the relevant loading conditions. In this Ph.D. work, we aim to understand the damage process in continuous glass fiberreinforced polypropylene in detail. We will focus in particular on developing an approach for microscale observation of damage during the out-of-plane loading process and will use these observations for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the composite. We will apply our approach to two kinds of polypropylene composites, one of them is specially designed to withstand impact. The comparison between the two types of composites at slow and fast loading cases will shed some light on the effect of the polymer properties on the behavior of composites under out-of-plane loading.

  18. Impact of cell load on 5GHz IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Tair, Mamoun; Bhatti, Saleem Noel

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted an empirical study of the latest 5GHz IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN (WLAN) variants of 802.11n (5GHz) and 802.11ac (Wave 1), under different cell load conditions. We have considered typical configurations of both protocols on a Linux testbed. Under light load,there is no clear difference between 802.11n and 802.11ac in terms of performance and energy consumption. However, in some cases of high cell load, we have found that there may be a small advantage with 802.11ac. Overall, we...

  19. Single Whole-Body Cryostimulation Procedure versus Single Dry Sauna Bath: Comparison of Oxidative Impact on Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme heat and cold is one of the environmental factors whose action is precisely based on the mechanisms involving free radicals. Fluctuations in ambient temperature are among the agents that toughen the human organism. The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of extremely high (dry sauna, DS and low (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC environmental temperatures on the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the blood of healthy male subjects. The subjects performed a single DS bath (n=10; 26.2 ± 4.6 years and a single WBC procedure (n=15; 27.5 ± 3.1 years. In the subjects’ blood taken immediately before and 20 min after the interventions, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in erythrocytes (TBARSer and blood plasma (TBARSpl were determined. Single WBC and DS procedures induced an increase in the activity of SOD and GPx, as well as SOD and CAT, respectively. The SOD activity was higher after WBC than after DS. Extremely high and low temperatures probably induce the formation of reactive oxygen species in the organisms of healthy men and, therefore, disturb the oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  20. Study on the fragmentation of granite due to the impact of single particle and double particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Kuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Impact Drilling (PID is a novel method to improve the rate of penetration (ROP. In order to further improve the performance of PID, an investigation into the effect of single and double particles: (1 diameter; (2 initial velocity; (3 distance; and (4 angle of incidence was undertaken to investigate their effects on broken volume and penetration depth into hard brittle rock. For this purpose, the laboratory experiment of single particle impact rock was employed. Meanwhile, based on the LS-DYNA, a new finite element (FE simulation of the PID, including single and double particles impact rock, has been presented. The 3-dimensional (3D, aix-symmetric, dynamic-explicit, Lagrangian model has been considered in this simulation. And the Elastic and Holmquist Johnson Cook (HJC material behaviors have been used for particles and rocks, respectively. The FE simulation results of single particle impacting rock are good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, in this article the optimal impact parameters, including diameter, initial velocity, distance and the angle of incidence, are obtained in PID.

  1. Impact of a single drop on the same liquid: formation, growth and disintegration of jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaglah, G. Gilou; Deegan, Robert

    2015-11-01

    One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on on the same liquid. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates a jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are bifurcations in the multiplicity of jets. First, we study the formation, growth and disintegration of jets following the impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory. We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. We also use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the bifurcation from a single jet into two jets. Using high speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet.

  2. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kecojevic; D. Komljenovic

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consu...

  3. The Impact of Mutual Recognition: Inbuilt Limits and Domestic Responses to the Single Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S.

    2002-01-01

    What have been the consequences of integrating the single market via mutual recognition? Did competitive deregulation result? Or were its implications less significant than expected? In this paper I analyse two previously highly regulated service sectors, insurance and road haulage, and study the impact of European policies in Germany and France. I find that the Council instituted mutual recognition in a restrictive way. This limits its impact on member states, which is moreover mediated by n...

  4. Deterministic and probabilistic analysis of damping device resistance under impact loads from nuclear fuel container drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, J.; Bajer, M.; Barnat, J.; Smutný, J.

    2010-12-01

    Pedestrian-induced vibrations are a criterion for serviceability. This loading is significant for light-weight footbridge structures, but was established as a basic loading for the ceilings of various ordinary buildings. Wide variations of this action exist. To verify the different conclusions of various authors, vertical pressure measurements invoked during walking were performed. In the article the approaches of different design codes are also shown.

  5. Study of Impact Damage in PVA-ECC Beam under Low-Velocity Impact Loading Using Piezoceramic Transducers and PVDF Thin-Film Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baoxin; Kong, Qingzhao; Qian, Hui; Patil, Devendra; Lim, Ing; Li, Mo; Liu, Dong; Song, Gangbing

    2018-02-24

    Compared to conventional concrete, polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced engineering cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) offers high-strength, ductility, formability, and excellent fatigue resistance. However, impact-induced structural damage is a major concern and has not been previously characterized in PVA-ECC structures. We investigate the damage of PVA-ECC beams under low-velocity impact loading. A series of ball-drop impact tests were performed at different drop weights and heights to simulate various impact energies. The impact results of PVA-ECC beams were compared with mortar beams. A combination of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin-film sensors and piezoceramic-based smart aggregate were used for impact monitoring, which included impact initiation and crack evolution. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of the signal received by PVDF thin-film sensors was performed to identify impact events, while active-sensing approach was utilized to detect impact-induced crack evolution by the attenuation of a propagated guided wave. Wavelet packet-based energy analysis was performed to quantify failure development under repeated impact tests.

  6. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Sears, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Historically, carbohydrates have been thought to play only a minor role in promoting weight gain and in predicting the risk of development of chronic disease. Most of the focus had been on reducing total dietary fat. During the last 20 years, fat intake decreased, while the number of individuals who were overweight or developed a chronic conditions have dramatically increased. Simultaneously, the calories coming from carbohydrate have also increased. Carbohydrates can be classified by their post-prandial glycemic effect, called the glycemic index or glycemic load. Carbohydrates with high glycemic indexes and high glycemic loads produce substantial increases in blood glucose and insulin levels after ingestion. Within a few hours after their consumption, blood sugar levels begin to decline rapidly due to an exaggerated increase in insulin secretion. A profound state of hunger is created. The continued intake of high-glycemic load meals is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this review, the terms glycemic index and glycemic load are defined, coupled with an overview of short- and long-term changes that occur from eating diets of different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads. Finally, practical strategies for how to design low-glycemic-load diets consisting primarily of low-glycemic carbohydrates are provided.

  7. Impact of load follow operation on the chemistry of the primary and secondary circuit of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, F.; Riehm, S.; Bolz, M.; Speck, A.

    2012-09-01

    Germany decided to abandon nuclear energy and to switch to renewable energy forms. According the renewable energy act renewable energy forms have priority to be fed to the grid. The support of wind and solar energy demands more and more load follow operation of the remaining nuclear power plants to stabilize the grid. This report summarizes first experience with load follow operation in two pressurized water reactors (Philippsburg KKP2 and Neckarwestheim GKNI) with regard to chemistry and radiology. The most important mechanisms of dose rate built up on the primary side are described with Co-60 and Co-58 being the main contributors to dose rate. Goal of the primary side chemistry is to avoid or at least to delay the dose rate built-up as far as achievable. Both reactors are operated according to the modified coordinated B-Li-Chemistry with a pH300 of 7.4 as target value for optimised dose build up delay. By using B-10-enriched boric acid with a boron-10 abundance of 30 at-% (compared to ca. 19.9 at-% in natural boron) the pH 300 target value can be reached earlier in the cycle due to the lower concentration of boric acid required for neutron balancing. In GKNI Zn-injection was started 2005 as a mean of dose reduction. Since 2007 GKNI was operated with load follow operation. In KKP2 load reductions due to wind energy excess are more and more common since 2008. The results of dose rate measurements on the primary side are correlated to primary coolant chemistry and load follow operation. The use of enriched boric acid had a positive (i.e. reducing dose rate) impact on the activity build-up of Co-60 on the loop lines, thus proving the effectiveness of the VGB specifications. After 5 years (one half life time of Co-60) of Zn-injection a positive effect on surface occupancy with nuclides can be determined. The impact of short term deviations from optimal chemical conditions during load follow operation on the activity build up is assessed on the basis of the corrosion

  8. Information report published in application of the article 145 of the rule by the Commission on economic affairs on stakes and impacts of distributed load shedding. Nr 3690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistel, Marie-Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Distributed load shedding is a complex issue with actual stakes for public policy: a constrained context for public finances, and necessity to use public money in an optimal and efficient way. Even though load shedding has a positive impact on the environment, its business model presents important weaknesses and cannot survive without public subsidy. This report addresses these issues, and first defines load shedding, states the reasons for supporting distributed load shedding, discusses how the French arrangement for the valorisation of load shedding is ambitious and innovative. It also outlines and discusses the present difficulties faced by load shedding, that it could become in the future an actual lever for energy transition. The authors then examine what public authorities could do regarding the payment of load shedding by the operator to the provider, regarding returns on experience and other solutions on the short term, and regarding the promotion of innovative means of distributed load shedding which would be focused on consumers

  9. Evaluation of resistance to horizontal loads and functional failure from impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça, P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the results of the serviciability and use condition tests carried on an innovative solution for partitions, designated AdjustMembrane developed within a research project. The proposed system is a modular non-loadbearing wall, tensioned between the pavements and ceiling slabs, which are used as anchoring elements. It allows several advantages, related with the weight reduction to achieve a good sustainable performance, such as the reduction of construction costs, energy, and materials, and it is easy to recycle and to reuse, allowing self-construction. Apart from a general presentation of the partition technology, this paper presents and discusses the results of experimental tests carried out. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution fulfils the requirements for this typology of wall in terms of resistance to horizontal loads induced by soft and hard body impacts.En este trabajo se presentan y discuten los resultados de ensayos de condiciones de servicio y seguridad de uso de una solución innovadora para particiones interiores, designada por AdjustMembrane y desarrollada en un proyecto de investigación. El sistema propuesto es una solución de partición modular no estructural, tensada entre los forjados de piso y de techo, que se utilizan como elementos de anclaje. Permite varias ventajas, relacionadas con la reducción de peso para lograr buenos indicadores de sostenibilidad, tales como la reducción de los costos de construcción, energía y materiales. Es fácil de reciclar y reutilizar, lo que permite la auto-construcción. Además de una presentación general de la tecnología de pared desarrollada, se presentan y discuten los resultados de algunos ensayos experimentales efectuados. A partir de los resultados obtenidos fue posible concluir que la solución cumple con los requisitos de resistencia a cargas horizontales y daños funcionales por impacto de cuerpo duro y blando

  10. Assessing the long term impact of phosphorus fertilization on phosphorus loadings using AnnAGNPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L; Locke, Martin A; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D

    2011-06-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the AnnAGNPS model was calibrated using USGS monitored data; and then the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus loadings were assessed. It was found that P loadings increase as fertilization rate increases, and long term higher P application would lead to much higher P loadings to the watershed outlet. The P loadings to the watershed outlet have a dramatic change after some time with higher P application rate. This dramatic change of P loading to the watershed outlet indicates that a "critical point" may exist in the soil at which soil P loss to water changes dramatically. Simulations with different initial soil P contents showed that the higher the initial soil P content is, the less time it takes to reach the "critical point" where P loadings to the watershed outlet increases dramatically. More research needs to be done to understand the processes involved in the transfer of P between the various stable, active and labile states in the soil to ensure that the model simulations are accurate. This finding may be useful in setting up future P application and management guidelines.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF RACKET INERTIA TENSOR ON ELBOW LOADINGS AND RACKET BEHAVIOR FOR CENTRAL AND ECCENTRIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the inertia tensors of tennis rackets and their influence on the elbow swing torques in a forehand motion, the loadings transmitted to the elbow from central and eccentric impacts, and the racket acceleration responses from central and eccentric impacts. Inertia tensors of various rackets with similar mass and mass center location were determined by an inertia pendulum and were found to vary considerably in all three orthogonal directions. Tennis swing mechanics and impact analyses were performed using a computer model comprised of a full-body model of a human, a parametric model of the racket, and an impact function. The swing mechanics analysis of a forehand motion determined that inertia values had a moderate linear effect on the pronation-supination elbow torques required to twist the racket, and a minor effect on the flexion-extension and valgus-varus torques. The impact analysis found that mass center inertia values had a considerable effect on the transmitted torques for both longitudinal and latitudinal eccentric impacts and significantly affected all elbow torque components. Racket acceleration responses to central and eccentric impacts were measured experimentally and found to be notably sensitive to impact location and mass center inertia values

  12. The Impact of Psychotherapeutic Reiki on Anxiety and Mindfulness: A Single-Case Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lindsay C.

    2016-01-01

    Reiki healing is one of several complementary and integrative therapies becoming increasingly prevalent in mental health counseling. It has been identified in the medical field for its usefulness in treating anxiety, depression, distress, and pain but has rarely been studied for its counseling impact on client wellness. I conducted single-case…

  13. The Impact of Single-Gender Scheduling on Students in a Title I School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to examine the impact that single-gender scheduling would have on students who attend a struggling Title I middle school. The importance of the middle level cannot be denied. Strong research points to this time in a student's life as the pivotal crux on which success and failure are balanced. Middle level educators…

  14. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  15. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning: Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Guerra Grangeia, Tiago; de Jorge, Bruno; Franci, Daniel; Martins Santos, Thiago; Vellutini Setubal, Maria Silvia; Schweller, Marcelo; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases. Three consecutive classes (2013-2015) of sixth-year medical students (n = 304) participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. "Virtual Rounds" provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation. Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load) to 7 (maximum load), the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(pcognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in learning. It may support them to manage the cognitive challenges involved in clinical care and

  16. Cognitive Load and Self-Determination Theories Applied to E-Learning: Impact on Students' Participation and Academic Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Araujo Guerra Grangeia

    Full Text Available Emergency clerkships expose students to a stressful environment that require multiple tasks, which may have a direct impact on cognitive load and motivation for learning. To address this challenge, Cognitive Load Theory and Self Determination Theory provided the conceptual frameworks to the development of a Moodle-based online Emergency Medicine course, inspired by real clinical cases.Three consecutive classes (2013-2015 of sixth-year medical students (n = 304 participated in the course, during a curricular and essentially practical emergency rotation. "Virtual Rounds" provided weekly virtual patients in narrative format and meaningful schemata to chief complaints, in order to simulate real rounds at Emergency Unit. Additional activities such as Extreme Decisions, Emergency Quiz and Electrocardiographic challenge offered different views of emergency care. Authors assessed student´s participation and its correlation with their academic performance. A survey evaluated students´ opinions. Students graduating in 2015 answered an online questionnaire to investigate cognitive load and motivation.Each student produced 1965 pageviews and spent 72 hours logged on. Although Clinical Emergency rotation has two months long, students accessed the online course during an average of 5.3 months. Virtual Rounds was the most accessed activity, and there was positive correlations between the number of hours logged on the platform and final grades on Emergency Medicine. Over 90% of students felt an improvement in their clinical reasoning and considered themselves better prepared for rendering Emergency care. Considering a Likert scale from 1 (minimum load to 7 (maximum load, the scores for total cognitive load were 4.79±2.2 for Virtual Rounds and 5.56±1.96 for real medical rounds(p<0,01.A real-world inspired online course, based on cognitive and motivational conceptual frameworks, seems to be a strong tool to engage students in learning. It may support them to

  17. Impact of Cognitive Loading on Postural Control in Parkinson’s Disease With Freezing of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipat Buated MSc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess standing balance in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with and without freezing of gait (FOG during cognitive loading. Method: A balance assessment with cognitive loading, reading (RE and counting backward (CB, was performed by the Nintendo Wii Fit in 60 PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3 at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. The participants were grouped into FOG and non-FOG according to the Freezing of Gait–Questionnaire (FOG-Q scores. The center of pressure (CoP in terms of path length (PL, sway area (SA, root mean square (RMS, medio-lateral (ML, and antero-posterior (AP were analyzed. Results: Significant increases of PL were observed in both groups of PD patients during cognitive loading ( p < .001. Meanwhile, the increased differences of PL during cognitive loading in PD-FOG were larger than in PD-non-FOG. The ML displacement during counting backward was significantly increased in PD-FOG ( p = .012. Conclusion: Cognitive loading influenced standing balance and postural sway of PD patients. The effects were more prominent in PD-FOG. These findings represent the interactions between cognitive function, postural control, and FOG in PD.

  18. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The impact of single and shared rooms on family-centred care in children's hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Penny; Northcott, Andy

    2017-06-01

    To explore whether and how spatial aspects of children's hospital wards (single and shared rooms) impact upon family-centred care. Family-centred care has been widely adopted in paediatric hospitals internationally. Recent hospital building programmes in many countries have prioritised the provision of single rooms over shared rooms. Limited attention has, however, been paid to the potential impact of spatial aspects of paediatric wards on family-centred care. Qualitative, ethnographic. Phase 1; observation within four wards of a specialist children's hospital. Phase 2; interviews with 17 children aged 5-16 years and 60 parents/carers. Sixty nursing and support staff also took part in interviews and focus group discussions. All data were subjected to thematic analysis. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: 'role expectations' and 'family-nurse interactions'. The latter theme comprised three subthemes: 'family support needs', 'monitoring children's well-being' and 'survey-assess-interact within spatial contexts'. Spatial configurations within hospital wards significantly impacted upon the relationships and interactions between children, parents and nurses, which played out differently in single and shared rooms. Increasing the provision of single rooms within wards is therefore likely to directly affect how family-centred care manifests in practice. Nurses need to be sensitive to the impact of spatial characteristics, and particularly of single and shared rooms, on families' experiences of children's hospital wards. Nurses' contribution to and experience of family-centred care can be expected to change significantly when spatial characteristics of wards change and, as is currently the vogue, hospitals maximise the provision of single rather than shared rooms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Air pollution and impact on eco-systems. Load concept/critical level and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elichegaray, C.

    1993-01-01

    Critical loads and critical levels respectively can be defined as the deposition value, or the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere, above which adverse effects on receptors such as plants, ecosystems, materials may occur. Important research is currently being developed on critical loads and levels in the framework of the Geneva convention on transboundary air pollution. Several binding protocols have been elaborated between the european countries, the Canada, and the USA, to reduce their emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds. This article describes the critical loads and levels approach, and the way by which this concept is now used for the revision of the sulphur protocol. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Study on Impact of Electric Vehicles Charging Models on Power Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Hui-mei, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, which will lead the power load on grid increased and have an adversely affect. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the following factors, such as scale of the electric cars, charging mode, initial charging time, initial state of charge, charging power and other factors. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to compare the two charging modes, which are conventional charging and fast charging, and MATLAB is used to model and simulate the electric vehicle charging load. The results show that compared with the conventional charging mode, fast charging mode can meet the requirements of fast charging, but also bring great load to the distribution network which will affect the reliability of power grid.

  2. Impact of work boots and load carriage on the gait of oil rig workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miao; Park, Huiju; Koo, Heekwang; Xu, Qinwen; Li, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effects of work boots and load carriage (6.4 kg and 12.8 kg) on gait pattern were investigated. The protective work boots were examined by comparison with running shoes through human performance tests with 15 male participants. The loads were carried symmetrically and asymmetrically on the shoulder and hand. Statistical data analysis showed a prolonged stance phase and decreased double support for work boots. A significantly increased ground reaction force was found in work boot conditions as the weight of loads increases. This study demonstrates that inflexible and heavy work boots restrict foot movement and require greater torque at the ankle to propel the body forward, which may increase physical strain and the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Development of improved fixation methods for work boots, increased use of flexible protective layers and further study of anthropometry of human foot morphology for improved safety and work efficiency of industry workers are suggested.

  3. Effect of hoof angle on joint contact area in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint following simulated impact loading ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, C A; Thomason, J J; Gordon, K; Hurtig, M; Bignell, W

    2015-11-01

    To add to the existing data on impact loading of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint as a precursor to assessing the potential role of impact in joint disease. To examine the effect of impact loading on contact areas of the first phalanx (P1) and proximal sesamoids (PS) with the third metacarpal (McIII) under 3 hoof-strike conditions (toe-first, flat, heel-first). Randomised, repeated controlled experiment using cadaver material. Eight cadaver limbs were subjected to randomised, repeated controlled trials where the hoof was struck by a pendulum impact machine (impact velocity 3.55 m/s) under 3 strike conditions. Data from pressure sensitive film placed over medial and lateral McIII condyles and lateromedially across the dorsal aspect of McIII were quantified: total areas of P1 and PS contact (cm(2) ) at maximum recorded pressure; centroid locations of contact areas relative to the sagittal ridge (cm) and transverse ridge (cm) and dispersion of pixels (cm(4) ) for each McIII condyle (medial/lateral). The effect of the strike conditions on each variable were statistically tested using repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Contact area between P1 and McIII condyles fell in well-defined areas bounded by the sagittal and transverse ridge, contact areas from PS were smaller and widely dispersed across McIII palmar border. Ratio of contact area of P1 to PS was 2.83 (Pcontact area (P>0.54) CONCLUSIONS: Contact at impact (primarily from P1 and distally situated on McIII), contrasts with contact areas at midstance from both P1 and PS, symmetrically placed. Under impact, the greatest contact area was on the dorsal aspect of the medial condyle and coincides with the area subjected to the greatest increase in subchondral bone stiffening in joint disease. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Exceedance of critical loads and of critical limits impacts tree nutrition across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldner, P.; Thimonier, A.; Graf Pannatier, E.

    2015-01-01

    solution tended to be related to less favourable nutritional status. Context Forests have been exposed to elevated atmospheric deposition of acidifying and eutrophying sulphur and nitrogen compounds for decades. Critical loads have been identified, below which damage due to acidification and eutrophication...... are not expected to occur. Aims We explored the relationship between the exceedance of critical loads and inorganic nitrogen concentration, the base cation to aluminium ratio in soil solutions, as well as the nutritional status of trees. Methods We used recent data describing deposition, elemental concentrations....... Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis that elevated nitrogen and sulphur deposition can lead to imbalances in tree nutrition....

  5. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    taking into account the safety factor for extreme moments. Other extreme load moments as well as the fatigue loads are not affected because of the use of non-Gaussian turbulent inflow. It is suggested that the turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter that averages out the non-Gaussian behaviour, which......From large-eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence, a representation of Gaussian turbulence is constructed by randomizing the phases of the individual modes of variability. Time series of Gaussian turbulence are constructed and compared with its non-Gaussian counterpart. Time series from the two...

  6. Alveolar Bone Resorption Evaluation Around Single-piece Designed Bicortical Implants, Using Immediate Loading Protocol, Based on Orthopantomographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Száva Dániel-Tamás

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inserting dental implants in severely atrophied jawbones is a great challenge for the dental practitioner. There are an increasing number of patients who choose dental implantanchored prosthetic restorations despite compromised bone quality and quantity. There have been numerous attempts in adapting implant design for the atrophic crestal bone. One-piece, needle-type basal implant design is a typical design for these cases. These implants are inserted in the remaining compact bone located in the basal aspect of the jawbones. If high primary stability is achieved, these implants are used for immediate loading protocol. From many points of view, this technique is based on contradictory principles compared to classic implant surgery and loading protocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term success of basal one-piece short-diameter dental implants used for immediate loading protocol.

  7. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer’s mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer’s mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  8. The Impact of Load Carriage on Measures of Power and Agility in Tactical Occupations: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aaron; Wiley, Amy; Orr, Robin; Schram, Benjamin; Dawes, J Jay

    2018-01-07

    The current literature suggests that load carriage can impact on a tactical officer's mobility, and that survival in the field may rely on the officer's mobility. The ability for humans to generate power and agility is critical for performance of the high-intensity movements required in the field of duty. The aims of this review were to critically examine the literature investigating the impacts of load carriage on measures of power and agility and to synthesize the findings. The authors completed a search of the literature using key search terms in four databases. After relevant studies were located using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were critically appraised using the Downs and Black Checklist and relevant data were extracted and tabled. Fourteen studies were deemed relevant for this review, ranging in percentage quality scores from 42.85% to 71.43%. Outcome measures used in these studies to indicate levels of power and agility included short-distance sprints, vertical jumps, and agility runs, among others. Performance of both power and agility was shown to decrease when tactical load was added to the participants. This suggests that the increase in weight carried by tactical officers may put this population at risk of injury or fatality in the line of duty.

  9. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  10. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: The impact of varying retrospective-memory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Rendell, P.G.; Henry, J.D.; Zöllig, J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated event-based prospective memory in individuals with schizophrenia (nn=n23) and healthy controls (nn=n23). The retrospective-memory load was varied to disentangle the relative contributions of the retrospective and prospective components on prospective-memory

  11. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  12. Using Perspective to Resolve Reference: The Impact of Cognitive Load and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James E.; Ferguson, Heather J.; Apperly, Ian A.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a link between perspective taking and working memory. Here we used eye tracking to examine the time course with which working memory load (WML) influences perspective-taking ability in a referential communication task and how motivation to take another's perspective modulates these effects. In Experiment 1, where there…

  13. Manipulation of Cognitive Load Variables and Impact on Auscultation Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruth; Grierson, Lawrence; Norman, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Health profession educators have identified auscultation skill as a learning need for health professional students. This article explores the application of cognitive load theory (CLT) to designing cardiac and respiratory auscultation skill instruction for senior-level undergraduate nursing students. Three experiments assessed student auscultation…

  14. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Loading Trucks at an Auto Parts Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    An intervention was introduced for truck loaders that used wireless vehicle mount computers that included auditory, visual feedback, and immediate data delivery. The implementation reliably reduced pallets from being loaded out of sequence for all outbound trucks in multistop routes. The role of the organizational behavior management (OBM)…

  15. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Impact, Packaging and Shipping, Blast and Impulsive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL OF RANDOM VOIRATION TESTS J. D. Tebba and D. 0. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque. New Mexico VIBRATION...for dynamic end quasi-static loading conditions. (14] Norman . Jaons, T. 0. Uran and S. A. Tekin. SM1210=1 "The Dynamic riastic Behavior of Fully

  16. Impact of Higher Fidelity Models on Simulation of Active Aerodynamic Load Control For Fatigue Damage Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resor, B.; Wilson, D.; Berg, D.; Berg, J.; Barlas, T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Active aerodynamic load control of wind turbine blades is being investigated by the wind energy research community and shows great promise, especially for reduction of turbine fatigue damage in blades and nearby components. For much of this work, full system aeroelastic codes have been used to

  17. 2D URANS simulation of aerodynamic loads on a pitching airfoil: Impact of computational parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geng, F.; Kalkman, I.M.; Suiker, A.S.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical study of aerodynamic loads on pitching airfoils using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is challenging due complicated airfoil-vortex interactions and the possible occurrence of dynamic stall. In the latter case the combination of boundary layer transitions and airfoil oscillations

  18. Protection against external impacts and missiles - Load assumption and effects on the plant design of a 1300 MW PWR-Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremm, O.; Orth, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The load assumptions and effects of the external impacts are given. The fundamental properties of the KWU standard design according to these impacts and the consequences for the engineering safeguards are explained. The protection against external impacts includes the protection against all external missiles. The basic measure of protection against internal missiles is the strict separation of redundancies. (author)

  19. Exploring the impact of network tariffs on household electricity expenditures using load profiles and socio-economic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarova, Valeriya; Engel, Dominik; Ferner, Cornelia; Kollmann, Andrea; Reichl, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Growing self-generation and storage are expected to cause significant changes in residential electricity utilization patterns. Commonly applied volumetric network tariffs may induce imbalance between different groups of households and their respective contribution to recovering the operating costs of the grid. Understanding consumer behaviour and appliance usage together with socio-economic factors can help regulatory authorities to adapt network tariffs to new circumstances in a fair way. Here, we assess the effects of 11 network tariff scenarios on household budgets using real load profiles from 765 households. Thus we explore the possibly disruptive impact of applying peak-load-based tariffs on the budgets of households when they have been mainly charged for consumed volumes before. Our analysis estimates the change in household network expenditure for different combinations of energy, peak and fixed charges, and can help to design tariffs that recover the costs needed for the sustainable operation of the grid.

  20. Examination of the gamma equilibrium point hypothesis when applied to single degree of freedom movements performed with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, A; Inbar, G

    1997-01-01

    One of the theories of human motor control is the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. It is an attractive theory since it offers an easy control scheme where the planned trajectory shifts monotionically from an initial to a final equilibrium state. The feasibility of this model was tested by reconstructing the virtual trajectory and the stiffness profiles for movements performed with different inertial loads and examining them. Three types of movements were tested: passive movements, targeted movements, and repetitive movements. Each of the movements was performed with five different inertial loads. Plausible virtual trajectories and stiffness profiles were reconstructed based on the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis for the three different types of movements performed with different inertial loads. However, the simple control strategy supported by the model, where the planned trajectory shifts monotonically from an initial to a final equilibrium state, could not be supported for targeted movements performed with added inertial load. To test the feasibility of the model further we must examine the probability that the human motor control system would choose a trajectory more complicated than the actual trajectory to control.

  1. A comprehensive study and analysis of second order harmonic ripple in DC microgrid feeding single phase PWM inverter loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautam, Aditya R.; Fulwani, Deepak; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed analysis of second order harmonic ripple in a DC microgrid. A boost converter feeding PWM inverter load is considered and equivalent circuit is proposed. The effect of the size of input capacitor, output capacitor and inductor of boost converter, on this ripple has...

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the Dynamic Properties of a 2-2 Cement-Based Piezoelectric Dual-Layer Stacked Sensor under Impact Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based piezoelectric materials are widely used due to the fact that compared with common smart materials, they overcome the defects of structure-incompatibility and frequency inconsistency with a concrete structure. However, the present understanding of the mechanical behavior of cement-based piezoelectric smart materials under impact load is still limited. The dynamic characteristics under impact load are of importance, for example, for studying the anti-collision properties of engineering structures and aircraft takeoff-landing safety. Therefore, in this paper, an analytical model was proposed to investigate the dynamic properties of a 2-2 cement-based piezoelectric dual-layer stacked sensor under impact load based on the piezoelectric effect. Theoretical solutions are obtained by utilizing the variable separation and Duhamel integral method. To simulate the impact load and verify the theory, three types of loads, including atransient step load, isosceles triangle load and haversine wave load, are considered and the comparisons between the theoretical results, Li’s results and numerical results are presented by using the control variate method and good agreement is found. Furthermore, the influences of several parameters were discussed and other conclusions about this sensor are also given. This should prove very helpful for the design and optimization of the 2-2 cement-based piezoelectric dual-layer stacked sensor in engineering.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of the Dynamic Properties of a 2-2 Cement-Based Piezoelectric Dual-Layer Stacked Sensor under Impact Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taotao; Liao, Yangchao; Zhang, Keping; Chen, Jun

    2017-05-04

    Cement-based piezoelectric materials are widely used due to the fact that compared with common smart materials, they overcome the defects of structure-incompatibility and frequency inconsistency with a concrete structure. However, the present understanding of the mechanical behavior of cement-based piezoelectric smart materials under impact load is still limited. The dynamic characteristics under impact load are of importance, for example, for studying the anti-collision properties of engineering structures and aircraft takeoff-landing safety. Therefore, in this paper, an analytical model was proposed to investigate the dynamic properties of a 2-2 cement-based piezoelectric dual-layer stacked sensor under impact load based on the piezoelectric effect. Theoretical solutions are obtained by utilizing the variable separation and Duhamel integral method. To simulate the impact load and verify the theory, three types of loads, including atransient step load, isosceles triangle load and haversine wave load, are considered and the comparisons between the theoretical results, Li's results and numerical results are presented by using the control variate method and good agreement is found. Furthermore, the influences of several parameters were discussed and other conclusions about this sensor are also given. This should prove very helpful for the design and optimization of the 2-2 cement-based piezoelectric dual-layer stacked sensor in engineering.

  4. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-24

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO{sub 2} free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m{sup -2} range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby

  5. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-01

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO_2 free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m"-"2 range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby, the

  6. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  7. Impact of the variation in dynamic vehicle load on flexible pavement responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsanuzzaman, Md

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the dynamic variation in asphalt pavement critical responses due to dynamic tire load variations. An attempt was also made to develop generalized regression equations to predict the dynamic response variation in flexible pavement under various dynamic load conditions. The study used an extensive database of computed pavement response histories for five different types of sites (smooth, rough, medium rough, very rough and severely rough), two different asphalt pavement structures (thin and thick) at two temperatures (70 °F and 104 °F), subjected to a tandem axle dual tire at three speeds 25, 37 and 50 mph (40, 60 and 80 km/h). All pavement responses were determined using the 3D-Move Analysis program (Version 1.2) developed by University of Nevada, Reno. A new term called Dynamic Response Coefficient (DRC) was introduced in this study to address the variation in critical pavement responses due to dynamic loads as traditionally measured by the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC). While DLC represents the additional varying component of the tire load, DRC represents the additional varying component of the response value (standard deviation divided by mean response). In this study, DRC was compared with DLC for five different sites based on the roughness condition of the sites. Previous studies showed that DLC varies with vehicle speed and suspension types, and assumes a constant value for the whole pavement structure (lateral and vertical directions). On the other hand, in this study, DRC was found to be significantly varied with the asphalt pavement and function of pavement structure, road roughness conditions, temperatures, vehicle speeds, suspension types, and locations of the point of interest in the pavement. A major contribution of the study is that the variation of pavement responses due to dynamic load in a flexible pavement system can be predicted with generalized regression equations. Fitting parameters (R2) in the

  8. Working memory load-dependent spatio-temporal activity of single-trial P3 response detected with an adaptive wavelet denoiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiushi; Yang, Xueqian; Yao, Li; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2017-03-27

    Working memory (WM) refers to the holding and manipulation of information during cognitive tasks. Its underlying neural mechanisms have been explored through both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Trial-by-trial coupling of simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI signals has become an important and promising approach to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of such cognitive processes. Previous studies have demonstrated a modulation effect of the WM load on both the BOLD response in certain brain areas and the amplitude of P3. However, much remains to be explored regarding the WM load-dependent relationship between the amplitude of ERP components and cortical activities, and the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the EEG signal still poses a challenge to performing single-trial analyses. In this paper, we investigated the spatio-temporal activities of P3 during an n-back verbal WM task by introducing an adaptive wavelet denoiser into the extraction of single-trial P3 features and using general linear model (GLM) to integrate simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI data. Our results replicated the modulation effect of the WM load on the P3 amplitude. Additionally, the activation of single-trial P3 amplitudes was detected in multiple brain regions, including the insula, the cuneus, the lingual gyrus (LG), and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Moreover, we found significant correlations between P3 features and behavioral performance. These findings suggest that the single-trial integration of simultaneous EEG and fMRI signals may provide new insights into classical cognitive functions. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosives using a mesoscopic reactive model under impact loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XinJie; Wu, YanQing; Huang, FengLei

    2017-01-05

    A mesoscopic framework is developed to quantify the thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) samples under impact loading. A mesoscopic reactive model is developed for the cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) crystal, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity, crystal plasticity, and temperature-dependent chemical reaction. The proposed model was implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS by the user subroutine VUMAT. A series of three-dimensional mesoscale models were constructed and calculated under low-strength impact loading scenarios from 100m/s to 600m/s where only the first wave transit is studied. Crystal anisotropy and microstructural heterogeneity are responsible for the nonuniform stress field and fluctuations of the stress wave front. At a critical impact velocity (≥300m/s), a chemical reaction is triggered because the temperature contributed by the volumetric and plastic works is sufficiently high. Physical quantities, including stress, temperature, and extent of reaction, are homogenized from those across the microstructure at the mesoscale to compare with macroscale measurements, which will advance the continuum-level models. The framework presented in this study has important implications in understanding hot spot ignition processes and improving predictive capabilities in energetic materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changing distribution and geometry of S′ in Al–Cu–Mg single crystals during stress aging by controlling the loading orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiqiang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Yuelu Section, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Chen, Zhiguo [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Yuelu Section, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Hunan University of Humanities, Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Guo, Xiaobin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Yuelu Section, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Deng, Yunlai, E-mail: luckdeng@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Yuelu Section, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance and Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-01-05

    The precipitation behavior of S′ phase in Al–Cu–Mg single crystals during stress-free and stress aging was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Different compressive stress magnitudes and loading orientations were applied to determine their effects on the precipitation of S′ in Al–Cu–Mg alloy during stress aging. The results indicate that a noticeable preferential orientation of S′ is generated in the sample under applied compressive stress of 33 MPa loading along close to [001]{sub Al}, whilst no obviously preferential orientation of S′ can be observed in the sample loaded along close to [101]{sub Al} under the same applied stress or even larger applied stress. The precipitation distribution of S′ phase during stress aging can be changed by the loading orientation of the applied stress. Moreover, compressive stress aging may lead to S′ phase shorter in length, and the length of S′ phase shows a decreasing tendency with increasing applied stress, which are associated with the positive misfit between S′ and Al matrix.

  11. Changing distribution and geometry of S′ in Al–Cu–Mg single crystals during stress aging by controlling the loading orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiqiang; Chen, Zhiguo; Guo, Xiaobin; Deng, Yunlai

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of S′ phase in Al–Cu–Mg single crystals during stress-free and stress aging was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Different compressive stress magnitudes and loading orientations were applied to determine their effects on the precipitation of S′ in Al–Cu–Mg alloy during stress aging. The results indicate that a noticeable preferential orientation of S′ is generated in the sample under applied compressive stress of 33 MPa loading along close to [001] Al , whilst no obviously preferential orientation of S′ can be observed in the sample loaded along close to [101] Al under the same applied stress or even larger applied stress. The precipitation distribution of S′ phase during stress aging can be changed by the loading orientation of the applied stress. Moreover, compressive stress aging may lead to S′ phase shorter in length, and the length of S′ phase shows a decreasing tendency with increasing applied stress, which are associated with the positive misfit between S′ and Al matrix.

  12. An analysis of the static load test on single square pile of 40x40 cm2, using finite element method in Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasid, Harun; Roesyanto; Iskandar, Rudi; Silalahi, Sofyan A.

    2018-03-01

    Piling Foundation is one of the foundations which is used to penetrate its load through soil layer. The power carried by the piling is obtained from the end bearing capacity, that is, the compressive end piling and friction bearing capacity obtained from friction bearing and adhesive capacity between the piling and the soil around it. The investigation on the Standard Penetration Test is aimed to get the description of soil layer, based on the type and color of soil through visual observation, and soil characteristics. SPT data can be used to calculate bearing capacity. Besides investigating the SPT, this study is also been equipped by taking the samples in laboratory and loading test on the piling and Ducth Cone Penetrometer (DCP) data to confirm its bearing capacity. This study analyzed bearing capacity and settlement in the square pile of 40X40 cm in diameter in a single pile or grouped, using an empirical method, AllPile program, Plaxis program, and comparing the result with interpreting its loading test in the foundation of Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta. The analysis was been done by using the data on soil investigation and laboratory by comparing them with Mohr-Coulomb soil model. Ultimate bearing capacity from the SPT data in the piling of 15.4 meters was 189.81 tons and the parameter of soil shear strength was 198.67 tons. The sander point, based on Aoki and De Alencar bearing capacity was 276.241 tons and based on Mayerhoff it was 305.49 tons. Based on the loading test of bearing capacity, unlimited bearing capacity for the three methods was Davisson (260 tons), Mazurkiewich (270 tons), and Chin (250 tons). The efficiency of grouped piles according to Converse-Library Equation method = 0.73, according to Los Angeles Group Action Equation method = 0.59, and according to Sheila-Keeny method = 0.94. Bearing capacity based on piling strength was 221.76 tons, bearing capacity based on calendaring data was 201.71 tons, and lateral bearing capacity of a

  13. Impact of fault ride-through requirements on fixed-speed wind turbine structural loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Markou, Helen

    2011-01-01

    by performing a rainflow and a statistical analysis for fatigue and ultimate structural loads, respectively. Two cases are compared i.e. one where the turbine is immediately disconnected from the grid when a grid fault occurs and one where the turbine is equipped with a fault ride-through controller...... and therefore it is able to remain connected to the grid during the grid fault. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. Numerical simulation of deformation and failure processes of a complex technical object under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. I.; Shabalin, I. I.; Shabalin, T. I.

    2018-04-01

    The main points of development of numerical tools for simulation of deformation and failure of complex technical objects under nonstationary conditions of extreme loading are presented. The possibility of extending the dynamic method for construction of difference grids to the 3D case is shown. A 3D realization of discrete-continuum approach to the deformation and failure of complex technical objects is carried out. The efficiency of the existing software package for 3D modelling is shown.

  15. Two-leaf wall structures under 'soft' impact load - aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.; Block, K.

    1982-01-01

    The article describes a mechanical model with which the load conditions associated with aircraft crash on a two-leaf wall or roof structure can be analysed quite simply. The necessary assumptions for the material behaviour governing the contact of the two slabs and, in general, the maximum limit deformations of reinforced concrete slabs are more particularly dealt with. Treating the problem the authors make use, inter alia, of some of their own experimental results. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the Long Term Impact of Phosphorus Fertilization on Phosphorus Loadings Using AnnAGNPS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yongping; Bingner, Ronald L.; Locke, Martin A.; Stafford, Jim; Theurer, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    High phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields has been an environmental concern because of potential water quality problems in streams and lakes. To better understand the process of P loss and evaluate the effects of different phosphorus fertilization rates on phosphorus losses, the USDA Annualized AGricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading model was applied to the Ohio Upper Auglaize watershed, located in the southern portion of the Maumee River Basin. In this study, the ...

  17. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  18. Assessment of the response of reinforced concrete structural members to aircraft crash impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, K.

    1988-01-01

    For the containments of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany, the loading caused by a striking military aircraft decisively influences their design. The low probability of occurrence of this loading can be associated with an increase of consequences and reduced safety margins used in the design of structures. This requires that the actual response of structures to extreme loads has to be predicted with a higher degree of confidence than is typically the case with conventional structures. The adequacy of the computer-oriented mechanical-mathematical methods and the associated computer-codes used in the design of nuclear power plants can only be verified by comparing results from both, analytical and experimental studies. After having confirmed the adequacy of the analytical tools, a probabilistic risk analysis can be sufficiently performed. A series of tests is described which have been performed with the aim to improve the mechanical and physical modelling of RC-structures. Furthermore, a case study is presented to evolve a feeling for the safety margins which are implicitely included in the deterministic design calculation. (orig.)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Output Response of PVDF Sensor Attached on a Cantilever Beam Subjected to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Vu Dung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF is a film-type polymer that has been used as sensors and actuators in various applications due to its mechanical toughness, flexibility, and low density. A PVDF sensor typically covers an area of the host structure over which mechanical stress/strain is averaged and converted to electrical energy. This study investigates the fundamental “stress-averaging” mechanism for dynamic strain sensing in the in-plane mode. A numerical simulation was conducted to simulate the “stress-averaging” mechanism of a PVDF sensor attached on a cantilever beam subjected to an impact loading, taking into account the contribution of piezoelectricity, the cantilever beam’s modal properties, and electronic signal conditioning. Impact tests and FEM analysis were also carried out to verify the numerical simulation results. The results of impact tests indicate the excellent capability of the attached PVDF sensor in capturing the fundamental natural frequencies of the cantilever beam. There is a good agreement between the PVDF sensor’s output voltage predicted by the numerical simulation and that obtained in the impact tests. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of sensor size and sensor position and it is shown that a larger sensor tends to generate higher output voltage than a smaller one at the same location. However, the effect of sensor location seems to be more significant for larger sensors due to the cancelling problem. Overall, PVDF sensors exhibit excellent sensing capability for in-plane dynamic strain induced by impact loading.

  20. Errorless learning and working memory: the impact of errors, distractors, and memory span load on immediate recall in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvik, Jan E; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Landro, Nils I

    2011-06-01

    Errorless learning represents an important contribution to current neuropsychological rehabilitation. Previous research has mainly explained the benefits of errorless learning through properties of long-term memory. This study aims to explore how errors affect immediate recall performance. A new, supplementary perspective focusing on the role of working memory in errorless learning is introduced. Sixty university students participated in a within-subject design experiment measuring the effect of errors, memory span load, and attentional distractors on a digit recall task. Errors were found to have significant negative impact on immediate recall, while distractors had an effect only in interaction with errors.

  1. Testing of the Impact Load and Tribological Behaviour of W-C:H Hard Composite Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fořt, Tomáš; Vítů, T.; Novák, R.; Grossman, Jan; Sobota, Jaroslav; Vyskočil, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 14 (2011), s102-s104 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : PVD * DLC * impact test * pin-on-disc * friction coefficient Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2011

  2. Survival rates and bone loss after immediate loading of implants in fresh extraction sockets (single gaps). A clinical prospective study with 4 year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtovicz, Eduardo; España-Lopez, Antonio; Jimenez-Guerra, Alvaro; Monsalve-Guil, Loreto; Ortiz-Garcia, Ivan; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective study was to report the outcome of treatment with implants inserted after tooth extraction and immediately loaded. Material and Methods Fifty-six patients with single tooth loss were treated with 116 IPX Galimplant® implants with internal connections and a sandblasted, acid-etched surface. All implants were placed after tooth extraction using a flapless approach without bone regeneration, and they were then immediately loaded with cemented acrylic prostheses. After a period of three months, definitive cemented ceramic prostheses were placed. Patients were examined throughout a total of 4 years of follow-up. Marginal bone loss and survival rates were evaluated using digital periapical radiographs, taking into account clinical variables such as age, gender, smoking, history of periodontitis, etiology of extraction, placement site, diameter, and implant length. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests were used to compare differences between subgroups created based on the different clinical variables identified. Results Clinical results indicate an implant survival and success rate of 97.4%. Three implants were lost. Of the 116 immediate acrylic single crowns initially placed, 113 were replaced with definitive ceramic crowns after 3 months. A total of 77.8% of implants were inserted in the maxilla, while 22.2% were inserted in the mandible. No further complications were reported after the follow-up period (4 years). The mean marginal bone loss was 0.67 mm ± 0.40 mm. No differences were found among the subgroups of study patients. Conclusions This study indicates that dental implants that are inserted after tooth extraction and immediately loaded may constitute a successful and predictable alternative implant treatment. Key words:Dental implants, post-extraction implants, fresh sockets, immediate loading, immediate prostheses, implant dentistry. PMID:29476669

  3. Behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel due to repeated impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Akira; Miyagawa, Hideaki

    1985-01-01

    Explosion hardened high manganese austenitic cast steel is being tried for rail crossing recently. From the previous studies, it became clear that high tensile residual stress was generated in the hardened surface layer by explosion and microcracks were observed. In this study, therefore, the behavior of surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel due to repeated impact loads was examined and compared with those of the original and shot peened steels. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the initial stage of the repetition of impact, high tensile surface residual stress in explosion hardened steel decreased rapidly with the repetition of impact, while those of the original and shot peened steels increased rapidly. This difference was attributed to the difference in depth of the work hardened layer in three testing materials. (2) Beyond 20 impacts the residual stress of three test specimens decreased gradually, and at more than 2000 impacts the compressive stress of about 500 MPa was produced regardless of the histories of working of testing materials. (3) The linear law in the second stage of residual stress fading was applicable to this case, and the range of the linear relationship was related to the depth of the work hardened layer of testing material. (4) From the changes in half-value breadth and peak intensity of diffraction X-ray, it was supposed that a peculiar microscopic strain exists in explosion hardened steel. (author)

  4. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3......) and Category B thermal environment in the meeting room at high heat load of 94 W∙m−2. The air distribution pattern was influenced by the convective flows from the heat sources. The maximum local velocity in the occupied zone was 0.23–0.26 m∙s−1. The diffuse ceiling supply did not ensure complete mixing...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  5. Curaua fiber reinforced high-density polyethylene composites: effect of impact modifier and fiber loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Albano de Morais

    Full Text Available Abstract Short fibers are used in thermoplastic composites to increase their tensile and flexural resistance; however, it often decreases impact resistance. Composites with short vegetal fibers are not an exception to this behavior. The purpose of this work is to produce a vegetal fiber reinforced composite with improved tensile and impact resistance in relation to the polymer matrix. We used poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, to recover the impact resistance of high density polyethylene, HDPE, reinforced with Curauá fibers, CF. Blends and composites were processed in a corotating twin screw extruder. The pure polymers, blends and composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile mechanical properties and Izod impact resistance. EVA used as impact modifier in the HDPE matrix exhibited a co-continuous phase and in the composites the fibers were homogeneously dispersed. The best combination of mechanical properties, tensile, flexural and impact, were obtained for the formulations of composites with 20 wt. % of CF and 20 to 40 wt. % of EVA. The composite prepared with 20 wt. % EVA and containing 30 wt. % of CF showed impact resistance comparable to pure HDPE and improved tensile and flexural mechanical properties.

  6. Floor Response Evaluation for Auxiliary Building Subjected to Aircraft Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Shup; Hahm, Daegi; Choi, Inkil

    2014-01-01

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, a probabilistic safety assessment as well as deterministic approach for the damage of the internal component in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) subjected to aircraft crash is also needed. A probabilistic safety assessment for aircraft crash includes many uncertainties such as impact velocity, mass, impact location, shape, size, material etc. of aircraft. In this paper, an impact location was selected among the various parameters. This paper found the acceleration floor response spectra at specified locations (safety related components) on the target structure that assumed to be impact velocity 150m/s and maximum fuel for the specified aircraft model. In order to obtain the floor response in case of the crash with a various locations, the analyses for the auxiliary building subjected to aircraft impact were performed using Riera force history method and missile-target interaction method. The difference between responses in case of the building floor subjected to impact was occurred. Thus, in order to obtain the more accurate results, missile-target interaction method was used. This paper found the response at the selected point (node point No. 51). In order to probabilistic assessment for the safety related components, the assessment for a various parameters (velocity, mass, materials etc.) as well as impact locations should be needed

  7. Structural Analysis of Shipping Casks, Vol. 9. Energy Absorption Capabilities of Plastically Deformed Struts Under Specified Impact Loading Conditions (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of

  8. Head impact exposure measured in a single youth football team during practice drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Mireille E; Kane, Joeline M; Espeland, Mark A; Miller, Logan E; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Urban, Jillian E

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts in practice drills within a youth football team to determine how head impact exposure varies among different types of drills. METHODS On-field head impact data were collected from athletes participating in a youth football team for a single season. Each athlete wore a helmet instrumented with a Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System head acceleration measurement device during all preseason, regular season, and playoff practices. Video was recorded for all practices, and video analysis was performed to verify head impacts and assign each head impact to a specific drill. Eleven drills were identified: dummy/sled tackling, install, special teams, Oklahoma, one-on-one, open-field tackling, passing, position skill work, multiplayer tackle, scrimmage, and tackling drill stations. Generalized linear models were fitted to log-transformed data, and Wald tests were used to assess differences in head accelerations and impact rates. RESULTS A total of 2125 impacts were measured during 30 contact practices in 9 athletes (mean age 11.1 ± 0.6 years, mean mass 44.9 ± 4.1 kg). Open-field tackling had the highest median and 95th percentile linear accelerations (24.7 g and 97.8 g, respectively) and resulted in significantly higher mean head accelerations than several other drills. The multiplayer tackle drill resulted in the highest head impact frequency, with an average of 0.59 impacts per minute per athlete, but the lowest 95th percentile linear accelerations of all drills. The front of the head was the most common impact location for all drills except dummy/sled tackling. CONCLUSIONS Head impact exposure varies significantly in youth football practice drills, with several drills exposing athletes to high-magnitude and/or high-frequency head impacts. These data suggest that further study of practice drills is an important step in developing evidence-based recommendations for modifying or eliminating

  9. Impact of alprazolam in allostatic load and neurocognition of patients with anxiety disorders and chronic stress (GEMA): observational study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Carlos A; Remedi, Carolina; Núñez, Daniel A; D'Alessio, Luciana; Roldán, Emilio J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The allostatic load model explains the additive effects of multiple biological processes that accelerate pathophysiology related to stress, particularly in the central nervous system. Stress-related mental conditions such as anxiety disorders and neuroticism (a well-known stress vulnerability factor), have been linked to disturbances of hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal with cognitive implications. Nevertheless, there are controversial results in the literature and there is a need to determine the impact of the psychopharmacological treatment on allostatic load parameters and in cognitive functions. Gador study of Estres Modulation by Alprazolam, aims to determine the impact of medication on neurobiochemical variables related to chronic stress, metabolic syndrome, neurocognition and quality of life in patients with anxiety, allostatic load and neuroticism. Methods/analysis In this observational prospective phase IV study, highly sympthomatic patients with anxiety disorders (six or more points in the Hamilton-A scale), neuroticism (more than 18 points in the Neo five personality factor inventory (NEO-FFI) scale), an allostatic load (three positive clinical or biochemical items at Crimmins and Seeman criteria) will be included. Clinical variables of anxiety, neuroticism, allostatic load, neurobiochemical studies, neurocognition and quality of life will be determined prior and periodically (1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) after treatment (on demand of alprazolam from 0.75 mg/day to 3.0 mg/day). A sample of n=55/182 patients will be considered enough to detect variables higher than 25% (pretreatment vs post-treatment or significant correlations) with a 1-ß power of 0–80. t Test and/or non-parametric test, and Pearson's test for correlation analysis will be determined. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol was approved by an Independent Ethics Committee of FEFyM (Foundation for Pharmacological Studies and Drugs, Buenos Aires) and by regulatory

  10. The prediction of the impact of climatic factors on short-term electric power load based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yunfei; Li, Xizhong; Zheng, Wei; Hu, Qinghe; Wei, Zhanmeng; Yue, Yaqin

    2017-08-01

    The climate changes have great impact on the residents’ electricity consumption, so the study on the impact of climatic factors on electric power load is of significance. In this paper, the effects of the data of temperature, rainfall and wind of smart city on short-term power load is studied to predict power load. The authors studied the relation between power load and daily temperature, rainfall and wind in the 31 days of January of one year. In the research, the authors used the Matlab neural network toolbox to establish the combinational forecasting model. The authors trained the original input data continuously to get the internal rules inside the data and used the rules to predict the daily power load in the next January. The prediction method relies on the accuracy of weather forecasting. If the weather forecasting is different from the actual weather, we need to correct the climatic factors to ensure accurate prediction.

  11. The Impact of the First Birth: Married and Single Women Preferring Childlessness, One Child, or Two Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor J.

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of an examination of the impact of a first child on three groups of women: voluntarily childless wives and single women wanting to remain childless; mothers of one child by choice and single women who want an only child; and two-child mothers and single women who want to have two children. (Author/BL)

  12. The impact of memory load and perceptual cues on puzzle learning by 24-month olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rachel; Moser, Alecia; Rusnak, Sylvia; Zimmermann, Laura; Dickerson, Kelly; Lee, Herietta; Gerhardstein, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments. Memory load was manipulated in Exp. 1 by adding pieces to the puzzle, increasing sequence length from 2 to 3 items, and to 3 items plus a distractor. Although memory load did not influence how toddlers learned to manipulate the puzzle pieces, it did influence toddlers' achievement of the goal-constructing the fish. Overall, girls were better at constructing the puzzle than boys. In Exp. 2, the perceptual features of the puzzle were altered by changing shape boundaries to create a two-piece horizontally cut puzzle (displaying bilateral symmetry), and by adding a semantically supportive context to the vertically cut puzzle (iconic). Toddlers were able to achieve the goal of building the fish equally well across the 2-item puzzle types (bilateral symmetry, vertical, iconic), but how they learned to manipulate the puzzle pieces varied as a function of the perceptual features. Here, as in Exp. 1, girls showed a different pattern of performance from the boys. This study demonstrates that changes in memory capacity and perceptual processing influence both goal-directed imitation learning and motoric performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Retrospective analysis of 56 edentulous dental arches restored with 344 single-stage implants using an immediate loading fixed provisional protocol: statistical predictors of implant failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsel, Richard P; Liss, Mindy

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of implant dimensions, surface treatment, location in the dental arch, numbers of supporting implant abutments, surgical technique, and generally recognized risk factors on the survival of a series of single-stage Straumann dental implants placed into edentulous arches using an immediate loading protocol. Each patient received between 4 and 18 implants in one or both dental arches. Periapical radiographs were obtained over a 2- to 10-year follow-up period to evaluate crestal bone loss following insertion of the definitive metal-ceramic fixed prostheses. Univariate tests for failure rates as a function of age ( or = 60 years), gender, smoking, bone grafting, dental arch, surface type, anterior versus posterior, number of implants per arch, and surgical technique were made using Fisher exact tests. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate the presence of a linear trend in failure rates regarding implant length and implant diameter. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine which, if any, of the aforementioned factors would predict patient and implant failure. A significance criterion of P = .05 was utilized. Data were collected for 344 single-stage implants placed into 56 edentulous arches (39 maxillae and 17 mandibles) of 43 patients and immediately loaded with a 1-piece provisional fixed prosthesis. A total of 16 implants failed to successfully integrate, for a survival rate of 95.3%. Increased rates of failure were associated with reduced implant length, placement in the posterior region of the jaw, increased implant diameter, and surface treatment. Implant length emerged as the sole significant predictor of implant failure. In this retrospective analysis of 56 consecutively treated edentulous arches with multiple single-stage dental implants loaded immediately, reduced implant length was the sole significant predictor of failure.

  14. Self-castellation of tungsten monoblock under high heat flux loading and impact of material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis, S.; Hirai, T.; Wirtz, Marius; Barabash, V.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th.; Merola, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Uytdenhouwen, I.

    2017-01-01

    In the full-tungsten divertor qualification program at ITER Organization, macro-cracks, so called self-castellation were found in a fraction of tungsten monoblocks during cyclic high heat flux loading at 20MW/m2. The number of monoblocks with macro-cracks varied with the tungsten products used as armour material. In order to understand correlation between the macro-crack appearance and W properties, an activity to characterize W monoblock materials was launched at the IO. The outcome highligh...

  15. Influence of the structural flexibility in the evaluation of loads due to soft projectile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.R.; Alvarez, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    It's presented a study to evaluate the influence of the structural stiffness (of flexibility) in the reaction time functions for tornado-generated projectiles, usually considered in the verification of Nuclear Power Plant Facilities. It is analyzed the evaluation of the load acting on a typical structure of the Reactor Building of a NPP and the global behaviour of the targets. The structural deformations are taken into consideration through different assumptions, such as linear or nonlinear material behaviour, rotational inertia, shear and flexural deformations and small geometric non linearities. (Author) [pt

  16. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  17. Impact response of RC rock-shed girder with sand cushion under falling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Kishi, Norimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → An applicability of FE model of RC girders with sand cushion has been investigated. → Experimental and numerical results of Impact force, reaction force and displacement have been performed. → Cracks obtained from numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental ones. → Reaction force-displacement loops agree well between numerical and experimental results. → The configuration of the hysteretic loop at failure of RC girders can be approximated by a parallelogram. - Abstract: In order to establish a proper finite element model of prototype RC girder with sand element for impact response analysis, dynamic response analysis of RC girders with sand cushion subjected to impact force due to weight falling from the height of H = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 m was performed to improve the state of the art of protective design for real scale rock-sheds by using LS-DYNA code. An applicability of proposed model was discussed comparing with experimental results (e.g. impact force, reaction force and displacement waves). From this study, dynamic characteristics of impact response can be better simulated by using the proposed model. As a result, when the sand cushion was set up, the impact force, reaction force, mid-span displacement waves, distribution of reaction force-displacement loops, and crack patterns obtained from the numerical analysis are in good agreement with those from the experimental results.

  18. Environmental Impacts from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Made with Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ilke; Mason, Brooke E; Phillips, Adam B; Heben, Michael J; Apul, Defne

    2017-04-18

    An ex-ante life cycle inventory was developed for single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) PV cells, including a laboratory-made 1% efficient device and an aspirational 28% efficient four-cell tandem device. The environmental impact of unit energy generation from the mono-Si PV technology was used as a reference point. Compared to monocrystalline Si (mono-Si), the environmental impacts from 1% SWCNT was ∼18 times higher due mainly to the short lifetime of three years. However, even with the same short lifetime, the 28% cell had lower environmental impacts than mono-Si. The effects of lifetime and efficiency on the environmental impacts were further examined. This analysis showed that if the SWCNT device efficiency had the same value as the best efficiency of the material under comparison, to match the total normalized impacts of the mono- and poly-Si, CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si devices, the SWCNT devices would need a lifetime of 2.8, 3.5, 5.3, 5.1, and 10.8 years, respectively. It was also found that if the SWCNT PV has an efficiency of 4.5% or higher, its energy payback time would be lower than other existing and emerging PV technologies. The major impacts of SWCNT PV came from the cell's materials synthesis.

  19. Interface effects on the micromechanical response of a transversely loaded single fiber SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.G.; Majumdar, B.S.; Gundel, D.B.; Miracle, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of a fiber-matrix interface to support a transverse load is typically evaluated in straight-sided composite specimens where a stress singularity exists at the free surface of the interface. This stress singularity is often the cause of crack initiation and debonding during transverse loading. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of the transverse behavior of the fiber-matrix interface, it is necessary to alter the crack initiation site from the free surface to an internal location. To achieve this objective, a cross-shaped specimen has been recently developed. In this study, based on the experimentally observed onset of nonlinearity in the stress-strain curve of these specimens and finite element analysis, the bond strength of the SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V interface was determined to be 115 MPa. The micromechanical behavior of these specimens under transverse loading was examined by finite element analysis using this interface bond strength value and compared with experimental observations. Results demonstrate that the proposed geometry was successful in suppressing debonding at the surface and altering it to an internal event. The results from numerical analysis correlated well with the experimental stress-strain curve and several simple analytical models. In an attempt to identify the true bond strength and the interface failure criterion, the present study suggests that if failure initiates under tensile radial stresses, then the normal bond strength of the SCS-6/Ti-6Al-4V composites is about 115 MPa; under shear failure, the tangential shear strength of the interface is about 180 MPa

  20. The impact of shoulder abduction loading on EMG-based intention detection of hand opening and closing after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yiyun; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Julius P A

    2011-01-01

    Many stroke patients are subject to limited hand functions in the paretic arm due to a significant loss of Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibers. A possible solution for this problem is to classify surface Electromyography (EMG) signals generated by hand movements and uses that to implement Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). However, EMG usually presents an abnormal muscle coactivation pattern shown as increased coupling between muscles within and/or across joints after stroke. The resulting Abnormal Muscle Synergies (AMS) could make the classification more difficult in individuals with stroke, especially when attempting to use the hand together with other joints in the paretic arm. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the impact of AMS following stroke on EMG pattern recognition between two hand movements. In an effort to achieve this goal, 7 chronic hemiparetic chronic stroke subjects were recruited and asked to perform hand opening and closing movements at their paretic arm while being either fully supported by a virtual table or loaded with 25% of subject's maximum shoulder abduction force. During the execution of motor tasks EMG signals from the wrist flexors and extensors were simultaneously acquired. Our results showed that increased synergy-induced activity at elbow flexors, induced by increasing shoulder abduction loading, deteriorated the performance of EMG pattern recognition for hand opening for those with a weak grasp strength and EMG activity. However, no such impact on hand closing has yet been observed possibly because finger/wrist flexion is facilitated by the shoulder abduction-induced flexion synergy.