WorldWideScience

Sample records for single hegemonic language

  1. Reading between the lines: Hegemonic favouring within language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the assumption that a struggle to protect the interests of dominant groups exists in all communities, this qualitative study investigates hegemonic favouring in two languagerelated speech communities. Through the perspectives of focus group participants, the article reports on the discourses in Flemish and ...

  2. Inclusive Classrooms for LGBTQ Students: Using Linked Text Sets to Challenge the Hegemonic "Single Story"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Autumn M.; Crutcher, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    As teachers, it is important that we grapple with the reality that schools, teachers, and the larger social institutions that impact us are never neutral. Scholars explain that the starting place for teachers who want to enact practices for social justice and to disrupt harmful "single stories" is to read LGBTQ titles and consider how…

  3. Laughing at Mistakes: Language Politics, Counter-Hegemonic Actions, and Bilingual Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes how minority-language students responded to what they felt to be disrespectful behavior of a mainstream teacher towards their language from a case at an Aotearoa/New Zealand school in 1997-1998. Even when minority language is recognized officially and institutionally, as in Aotearoa/New Zealand, some minority-language…

  4. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  5. Heritage Language Education without Inheriting Hegemonic Ideologies: Shifting Perspectives on "Korea" in a Weekend Japanese-Language School in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2016-01-01

    Learning a heritage language can be celebrated to enhance marginalized groups' self-esteem, but a heritage can also encompass ideologies prevalent in the groups' original homeland. Based on ethnographic fieldwork (2007-2011) at a weekend Japanese-language school in the United States, this article investigates how ideologies on race politics…

  6. Complicity: Reconstructing the Hegemonic Dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Mark Lawrence

    The questioning of hegemonic discourses has become an essential element in many feminist, afro-centric, and literary theories of discourse. Scholars in these areas have explicated various indictments of the phallocentric, eurocentric, and essentialist linguistic strategies defined and perpetuated by dominant population groups, and some have begun…

  7. Hegemonic Sovereignty: Carl Schmitt, Antonio Gramsci and the Constituent Prince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kalyvas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Schmitt’s concept of sovereignty and Gramsci’s notion of hegemony represent two distinct variations on a single theme, namely the idea of the political as the original instituting moment of society. Both Schmitt and Gramsci focused on the sources, conditions, content, and scope of the originating power of a collective will. While the former located it in the constituent power of the sovereign people, the latter placed it in the popular-national will of the modern hegemon. Both thinkers explored the complex and perplexing relationship between radical founding acts and modern democratic politics in a secular age, that is of democratic legitimacy, where with the entrance of the masses into the political sphere, the references to ultimate foundation s of authority and to an extra-social source of political power had begun to appear more dubious than ever. The last section of the article develops a notion of hegemonic sovereignty defined as an expansive and positing democratic constituent prince, aiming, through founding, total decisions, at the overall, radical, explicit, and lucid institution of society. The article briefly shows how the concept of hegemonic sovereignty can solve some problems pertaining to Schmitt’s notion of sovereignty and to Gramsci’s theory of hegemony. In so doing, the article seeks to establish the mutually reinforcing qualities of the two concepts.

  8. Hybridity and Hegemonic Relations: Yvonne Vera's Postcolonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It begins by explicating, though briefly, the salient features of the post colonial literary theory. It goes on to highlight and interpret Vera's varied exemplifications of the multiple problems that have emanated from the issues of hybridity and the hegemonic relationships that exist between the colonizer and the colonized.

  9. Modelling Hegemonic Power Transition in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Brizhinev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyberspace is the newest domain of conflict and cooperation between states. In cyberspace, as in all other domains, land, sea, air, and space, these interactions often lead to the emergence of hegemons which are characterised by their predominant influence over global world order and all other states. We examined the emergence and collapse of hegemons in a modelled cyberspace world through the notions of power transition and power diffusion. We used Repast Simphony to construct a simple agent-based model (ABM of a system of states interacting both competitively and cooperatively in this world. Our simple model parsimoniously captures the character of the real international system of states through simple parameters of wealth and power determining the outcome of attack or cooperation amongst pairwise interacting states. We found hegemons of global world order emerged in cyberspace as they do in the other traditional domains from models with these few parameters. And we found that hegemons, contrary to traditional understanding, are not exceptional states but merely occupy the tail of a continuous distribution of power and lifetimes. We also found that hegemony in the system depends on two perhaps unexpected parameters: the difficulty of acquiring power as wealth increases and the amount of cooperation between states. And as a consequence, we argue that cyberspace, as a power-diffuse domain where cooperation is easier than elsewhere, is less suited to the kind of hegemony we see in the traditional domains of state interaction.

  10. Hegemonic Decline, West European Unification, and the Future Structure of the Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Bornschier

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper queries the applicability of hegemonic cycle theories to the emerging structure in the core of the world political economy and argues that we are likely, following this period of relative decline in American hegemony, to witness the emergence of hegemonic social practices in the absence, however, of a hegemonic state. Contrasting new beginnings with past patterns, we will suggest arguments why history will not be repeated. Drawing on our research on the Single European Act (SEA, we argue that the bargain struck between the Commission of the European Union and West European transnational corporations, which culminated in the SEA, represents more than a decisive step towards economic and political union. We see it, more significantly, as embodying Europe's response to its declining position through an attempt to articulate a new societal model capable of successfully replacing the disarticulated post-WWII Keynesian social-welfare model, and of competing with the Japanese and American societal models. In the future, it is very unlikely that power among the actors in the Triad will be so unevenly distributed as to permit the rise of a new hegemonic state. While it would seem, judging from historical experience, that the presence of a hegemonic state was functionally necessary for the establishment of hegemonic social practices in the core, we argue that another mechanism has now moved to the forefront. Due to pressures generated through increasing economic globalization, linked to demands associated with the quest for legitimacy on the part of democratic governments, we foresee, following a period of increased economic competition, the convergence of social practices around a single societal model.

  11. Globalization, Distance Education and Hegemonic Futures

    OpenAIRE

    RUSSELL, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts inc...

  12. Hegemonic Power Process in Team-based Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Brouns, B.B.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to portray how implicit “hegemonic power processes” channel the way in which self-managing teams deal with organisational dilemmas. Hegemonic power processes in team-based work are, to a great extent concealed, processes of meaning and identity formation. These processes

  13. Competing Hegemonic Projects within China's Variegated Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller

    2014-01-01

    's administrators reinforced China's state-led development path. Finally, it is highlighted how this difference between state projects is reflected in two antagonistic hegemonic visions for China's national development, illustrated by the populism of former Chongqing Party Chief Bo Xilai vs. the pro-business stance......This article investigates the variegated model of capitalism emerging in China through a comparative analysis of two contrasting local government approaches developed in Chongqing and Guangdong. From 2007 to 2012, elite politicians and intellectuals articulated the Chongqing and Guangdong models...... as contradictory visions for China. Drawing on a three-pronged conceptual framework developed by Bob Jessop, the article de- and reconstructs this dichotomy which has been embraced by some Western scholars. It is argued, first, that the two models involve complimentary accumulation strategies: as Guangdong moves...

  14. GLOBALIZATION, DISTANCE EDUCATION AND HEGEMONIC FUTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn RUSSELL

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Consideration of the place of theory in distance education suggests that existing definitions do not adequately account for economic, cultural and historical factors. The application of the notion of hegemonic valency to distance education highlights the ways in which tools, technological systems and online environments operate in predictable ways. Historically, the imperatives of market forces and social justice have displayed a tension that is continued in contemporary contexts including virtual learning environments. A characteristic of this tension can be seen in the forces and interactions associated with globalisation and technology. These forces, in association with others, have contributed to a null curriculum in which some alternatives open to distance education practitioners remain invisible. It is likely that this situation is further compounded by the difficulty of ascertaining what distance education practices are actually operating world-wide at any identifiable time. Available options for distance educators can be understood in terms of instrumental and interpersonal axes that can potentially indicate the relative consideration that can be given to these factors. This approach is suggested as one way to understand available options at a time when there has been an apparent increase in instrumental approaches to distance education at the expense of interpersonal approaches and issues of social justice. While this problem is of concern, it is more appropriate to reflect on the unintended consequences of distance education for society and identify them than it is to uncritically oppose globalisation and its adherents.

  15. What Would Jesus Do? Negotiating Hegemonic Masculinity in Religious Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how men’s only church programs rearticulate notions of hegemonic masculinity. Specifically, this study examines two male-only programs, one English-speaking and one Spanish-speaking, within a non-denominational Christian organization in California’s Central Valley. Using qualitative methods, including semi-structured interviews and participant observation, this study shows that masculinities are constructed by aligning notions of hegemonic masculinity with religious be...

  16. A Single-Display Groupware Collaborative Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan Felipe; Nussbaum, Miguel; Carmach, Ignacio; Díaz, Juan Jaime; Villalta, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Language learning tools have evolved to take into consideration new teaching models of collaboration and communication. While second language acquisition tasks have been taken online, the traditional language laboratory has remained unchanged. By continuing to follow its original configuration based on individual work, the language laboratory…

  17. Europe's Babylon: Towards a Single European Language? Esperanto Documents 41A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Mark

    Discussion of the establishment of a single language for Europe's many countries and cultures focuses on the debate over English versus Esperanto as the language of choice. It is argued that the notion that language has not been a major barrier to intellectual exchange is a myth. In addition, while the main European political institutions support…

  18. Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Hearn, Jeff; Lundqvist, Emma; Blackbeard, David; Lindegger, Graham; Quayle, Michael; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Gottzén, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hegemonic masculinity has been used in gender studies since the early-1980s to explain men's power over women. Stressing the legitimating power of consent (rather than crude physical or political power to ensure submission), it has been used to explain men's health behaviours and the use of violence. Gender activists and others seeking to change men's relations with women have mobilised the concept of hegemonic masculinity in interventions, but the links between gender theory and activism have often not been explored. The translation of 'hegemonic masculinity' into interventions is little examined. We show how, in South Africa and Sweden, the concept has been used to inform theoretically-based gender interventions and to ensure that men are brought into broader social efforts to build gender equity. We discuss the practical translational challenges of using gender theory broadly, and hegemonic masculinity in particular, in a Swedish case study, of the intervention Machofabriken [The Macho Factory], and illustrate how the concept is brought to life in this activist work with men. The concept has considerable practical application in developing a sustainable praxis of theoretically grounded interventions that are more likely to have enduring effect, but evaluating broader societal change in hegemonic masculinity remains an enduring challenge.

  19. Deaf persons from Brazil and from Canada: different languages, one single people

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Mariângela Estelita

    2013-01-01

    The article entitled “Deaf persons from Brazil and from Canada: different languages, one single people” is a comparative study between the deaf community from Québec, precisely from Montréal, and from Brazil, including their social organizations and languages. The demonstration that these two  deaf communities use different languages was made by the transcription of  data in both sign languages, using the sign language writing system called  ELiS. In spite of all diversity, deaf persons from ...

  20. The Importance of Challenging Hegemonic Masculinity in Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharrón-del Río, María R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that efforts to eradicate school violence should include an understanding of the complex social, cultural, and historical contexts in which violence is perpetrated. Specifically, we assert that the production and perpetuation of hegemonic/dominant masculinity plays a pivotal role in various forms of aggression and violence…

  1. The Hegemonic Curriculum and School Dropout: The Newfoundland Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedge, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by a disturbing dropout rate and low student achievement, the Newfoundland (Canada) government is attempting to rationalize organizational restructuring and curriculum reform based on a centralized core academic curriculum aimed at college entrance. This article argues for an expanded, hegemonic curriculum that is organic to the…

  2. Environmental Communication difficulties in the hegemonic development context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Del Vecchio de Lima

    2014-12-01

    hegemonic development system. The reflexion favors the construction of a critical thought on this communication in the scope of developing countries, from the standpoint of consumption. For in such a way, a interdisciplinary bibliographical revision was done, supported on some examples that tell about actions of Environmental Communication.

  3. South African women's conceptualisations of and responses to sexual coercion in relation to hegemonic masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Erin; Buikema, Rosemarie; Cooper, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented relationship between hegemonic norms of masculinities and South African men's use of sexual violence, less is known about how women's engagement with norms of masculinity influences their agency in sexually coercive experiences. This study applied a narrative approach to assess how women's understandings of hegemonic male norms affected their perceptions of and responses to sexually coercive experiences. Twenty-five sexual history narrative interviews were conducted with women across five South African provinces representing a range of ages, language and sociocultural backgrounds. Interviews elicited stories of first experiences of sex and the range of sexual relationships through adulthood. Data were analysed using principles of thematic and narrative analysis. Coercive sexual experiences informed many women's normative ideas about men's sexuality including being impulsive, controlling and aggressive. This could underpin women's limited ability to exercise agency and their increased vulnerability to sexual abuse. Some women reported levels of trust and respect in subsequent relationships, which typically involved deconstructing norms of men's use of coercion and moving beyond self-blame and guilt. The findings highlight the need to appreciate the fluid and situated nature of women's agency from a relational perspective in terms of how women condone and challenge gender norms that support men's use of sexual violence in their relationships.

  4. Creating a single South African keyboard layout to promote language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ...

  5. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne Bailey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.

    Keywords: KEYBOARD, MULTILINGUALISM, VENDA, AFRIKAANS, TSWANA, NORTH-ERN SOTHO, ZULU, SOURCE, FREE SOFTWARE, LAYOUT

    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper, Translate.org.za, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  6. Interpreting hegemonic themes in the electronic forró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Henrique Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current investigation analyzes hegemonic themes in the music of electronic forró (Brazilian dance. The critical theory of Theodor W. Adorno and Cultural Studies revealed: a the main thematic patterns and clichés of the genre; b the meanings of these thematic patterns; c and some hypothetical implications for the consumer. The above implies certain relations of domination reinforced in and by the consumption of the electronic forró.

  7. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of…

  8. Deficient language acquisition in children with single suture craniosynostosis and deformational posterior plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpilahti, Pirjo; Saarinen, Pia; Hukki, Jyri

    2012-03-01

    This study examined early language acquisition in children with single suture craniosynostosis (SSC) and in children with deformational posterior plagiocephaly. Our purpose was to determine whether infants with SSC have normal language acquisition at the age of 3 years, and whether infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly demonstrate parallel development when compared with children with SSC. The study population includes 61 infants. Twenty of them had synostosis of the sagittal suture, 12 synostosis of other suture and 29 deformational posterior plagiocephaly. Forty-nine of them were operated on a mean age of 10.6 months, and 12 were non-operated children with deformational posterior plagiocephaly. Language skills of participants were prospectively evaluated at the mean age of 3 years 4 months. About one half of the subjects (49%) had normal linguistic development, 30% had slight developmental problems and 21% had severe disorders in speech-language-related skills. These figures showed the prevalence of severe language disorders to be three times higher in our study population when compared with the general population. Children with sagittal synostosis managed better in all language skills compared with other types of SSC. Defective language development was found in deformational posterior plagiocephaly, both operated and non-operated. We found a noticeable developmental risk for specific language impairment in children with nonsyndromic SSC, and that the deviant language development is observable already in early infancy. Contrary to previous beliefs, the developmental risk for defective language development in deformational posterior plagiocephaly was found in both operated and non-operated subjects.

  9. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A

    2017-04-20

    This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this commentary, I consider how comprehension has been taught and the directions in which it is moving. I consider how speech-language pathologists (SLPs), with their distinctive expertise and resources, can contribute to effective reading comprehension instruction. I build from Catts and Kamhi's emphasis on the importance of context and knowledge, using the approaches of staying on topic, close reading, and incorporating quality features of intervention. I consider whether and how SLPs should treat language skills and comprehension strategies to achieve noticeable changes in their students' reading comprehension. Within this multidimensional view of reading comprehension, SLPs can make strategic, meaningful contributions to improving the reading comprehension of students with language impairments.

  10. Commentary on "Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability": Implications for Child Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This commentary responds to the implications for child language intervention of Catts and Kamhi's (2017) call to move from viewing reading comprehension as a single ability to recognizing it as a complex constellation of reader, text, and activity. Method: Reading comprehension, as Catts and Kamhi explain, is very complicated. In this…

  11. A Behavioral Analysis of Figurative Language in Psychotherapy: One Session in a Single Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollio, Howard R.; Barlow, Jack M.

    Assuming that all problem solving has both its rational and poetic aspects and that the solution to a problem is often found in the poetic well before it surfaces in the rational, this study examined in detail the ebb and flow of figurative language as it occurred in the course of a single, highly successful hour of gestalt therapy involving both…

  12. Future Hegemonic Rivalry Between China and the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Weede

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a unipolar distribution of power. The United States reigns supreme. Russia's economic power will remain insufficient to underwrite a renewed attempt to establish global leadership. While the European Community still commands sufficient resources for exercising global leadership, it lacks the political foundation for unitary action. Moreover, the European addiction to the welfare state undermines European competitiveness. Japan is too much of a "trading state" and unlikely to become a first-rate military power, before she is overtaken by China in economic size. So, count Russia, Europe and Japan out as conceivable challengers to United States hegemony. China is the only plausible candidate. Its economic growth rate is nothing less than spectacular. Moreover, the Chinese government seems capable of extracting the necessary resources for waging a hegemonic rivalry from a society that is likely to remain quite poor for at least another generation. There are a number of conceivable scenarios for the emerging American-Chinese relationship. The future will depend on the relative speed of the American decline and the rise of China as well as on the openness of the global economy. The more open the global economy, the better the prospects for rising per capita incomes in China become, the better the prospects for some mellowing or even democratization of the Chinese regime. Only if the West sticks together under American leadership and if creeping capitalism in China leads to creeping democratization later, is hegemonic rivalry likely to remain benign and peaceful.

  13. Language, learning, and memory in children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp-Simon, Kathleen A; Wallace, Erin; Collett, Brent R; Cradock, Mary Michaeleen; Crerand, Canice E; Speltz, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The language and memory functions of children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC) were compared at school age (mean 7.45 years, standard deviation [SD] 0.54 years). The children in this cohort were originally recruited in infancy and prior to cranial surgery for those with SSC. METHODS Individual evaluations of 179 school-aged children with SSC and 183 controls were conducted (70% of the original cohort) using standardized measures of language, learning, and memory. Parents participated in an interview about specialized education interventions and school progress. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires about language development. RESULTS Children with SSC (cases) obtained lower scores than controls on all measures. The adjusted differences in language, learning, and memory scores were modest, with SD ranging from 0.0 to -0.4 (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.99). Censored normal regression was used to account for intervention services received prior to the school-age evaluation; this increased case-control differences (SD range 0.1 to -0.5, p value range 0.001 to 0.50). Mean scores for cases in each SSC diagnostic group were lower than those for controls, with the greatest differences observed among children with unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. CONCLUSIONS Children with SSC continue to show poorer performance than controls on language, learning, and memory tasks at early elementary school age, even when controlling for known confounders, although mean differences are small. Multidisciplinary care, including direct psychological assessment, for children with SSC should extend through school age with a specific focus on language and conceptual learning, as these are areas of potential risk. Future research is needed to investigate language, memory, and learning for this population during the middle to high school years.

  14. Development of first- and second-language vocabulary knowledge among language-minority children: evidence from single language and conceptual scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2018-03-12

    This study evaluated the development of vocabulary knowledge over the course of two academic years, beginning in preschool, in a large sample (N = 944) of language-minority children using scores from single-language vocabulary assessments and conceptual scores. Results indicated that although children began the study with higher raw scores for Spanish vocabulary knowledge than for English vocabulary knowledge, this was reversed by the end of the first year of the study. Similarly, at the beginning of the study unique Spanish vocabulary scores were larger than unique English or shared Spanish-English vocabulary scores; however, by the end of the first year of the study children's shared Spanish-English vocabulary scores were larger than unique English vocabulary scores, which were larger than unique Spanish vocabulary scores. These trends continued through the second year of the study. These results suggest that conceptual scoring is a useful assessment technique for children with limited exposure to their second language. Implications for assessment and instruction are discussed.

  15. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...

  16. Ownership of Language in Yucatec Maya Revitalization Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrettaz, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    This classroom-based study examined a Yucatec Maya language course for teachers and the pedagogical implementation of national language policy in Mexico. Analysis of this teacher education program focused on various dimensions of teachers' Maya-language expertise, the teaching of the emergent standard Maya, and hegemonic constructions of…

  17. Predicting the language proficiency of Chinese student pilots within American airspace: Single-task versus dual-task English-language assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Clifford Elliott, II

    2002-09-01

    The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of three single-task instruments---(a) the Test of English as a Foreign Language, (b) the Aviation Test of Spoken English, and (c) the Single Manual-Tracking Test---and three dual-task instruments---(a) the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, (b) the Certified Flight Instructor's Test, and (c) the Simulation-Based English Test---to predict the language performance of 10 Chinese student pilots speaking English as a second language when operating single-engine and multiengine aircraft within American airspace. Method. This research implemented a correlational design to investigate the ability of the six described instruments to predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation, which was the Examiner's Test. This test assessed the oral communication skill of student pilots on the flight portion of the terminal checkride in the Piper Cadet, Piper Seminole, and Beechcraft King Air airplanes. Results. Data from the Single Manual-Tracking Test, as well as the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, were discarded due to performance ceiling effects. Hypothesis 1, which stated that the average correlation between the mean scores of the dual-task evaluations and that of the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of single-task evaluations, was not supported. Hypothesis 2, which stated that the correlation between the mean scores of the participants on the Simulation-Based English Test and the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of all single- and dual-task evaluations, was also not supported. The findings suggest that single- and dual-task assessments administered after initial flight training are equivalent predictors of language performance when piloting single-engine and multiengine aircraft.

  18. Space as resistance: Theatre venues as counter - hegemonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marang: Journal of Language and Literature. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. DEMONIC programming: a computational language for single-particle equilibrium thermodynamics, and its formal semantics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Abramsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's Demon, 'a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course', has been the centre of much debate about its abilities to violate the second law of thermodynamics. Landauer's hypothesis, that the Demon must erase its memory and incur a thermodynamic cost, has become the standard response to Maxwell's dilemma, and its implications for the thermodynamics of computation reach into many areas of quantum and classical computing. It remains, however, still a hypothesis. Debate has often centred around simple toy models of a single particle in a box. Despite their simplicity, the ability of these systems to accurately represent thermodynamics (specifically to satisfy the second law and whether or not they display Landauer Erasure, has been a matter of ongoing argument. The recent Norton-Ladyman controversy is one such example. In this paper we introduce a programming language to describe these simple thermodynamic processes, and give a formal operational semantics and program logic as a basis for formal reasoning about thermodynamic systems. We formalise the basic single-particle operations as statements in the language, and then show that the second law must be satisfied by any composition of these basic operations. This is done by finding a computational invariant of the system. We show, furthermore, that this invariant requires an erasure cost to exist within the system, equal to kTln2 for a bit of information: Landauer Erasure becomes a theorem of the formal system. The Norton-Ladyman controversy can therefore be resolved in a rigorous fashion, and moreover the formalism we introduce gives a set of reasoning tools for further analysis of Landauer erasure, which are provably consistent with the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Practices (not hegemonic in health: an analysis from the Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Luzia Mallmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have theme biomedical practices (hegemonic and Integrative and Complementary Practices in Health (non-hegemonic, which are present in the context of the Unified Brazilian Health. The aim is to reflect on tensions between biomedical practices and this set of non-hegemonic practices that emerge culturally and in health, from the analytical lens of cultural studies. As a methodological course, a brief presentation of the subject was carried out and, later, a theoretical conversation with poststructuralist authors that approach the themes in question from aspects of culture, with the use of qualitative exploratory research. This study reinforced the importance of thinking about the health of production as something created, built in each time/place/context and the importance of thinking that even if theoretical models seek delimitations, what we find as health care are practices blurred, or cultural consumption health is amorphous and their meanings are built by those who consume.

  1. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  2. A Tale of Two Visions: Hegemonic Whiteness and Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine two visions of bilingual education that emerged during the Civil Rights Movement: race radicalism and liberal multiculturalism. I argue that although proponents of both visions believed that bilingual education was necessary for empowering language-minoritized populations, race radicalism conceptualized this empowerment…

  3. Masculinities and Sport: The Emphasis on Hegemonic Masculinity in Portuguese Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paula; Botelho-Gomes, Paula; Goellner, Silvana Vilodre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse representations of hegemonic masculinity in physical education (PE) mixed classes, the only curricular discipline having sport as its contents in the Portuguese educational system. The analysed data come from semi-structured interviews with Portuguese secondary school teachers and students and from class…

  4. Counter-Hegemonic Regionalism and Higher Education for All: Venezuela and the ALBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) regionalism. As (initially) the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian Revolution, ALBA is centred around the idea…

  5. Do Hegemons Distribute Private Goods?: A Test of Power-Transition Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Margit; Oneal, John R.

    2007-01-01

    According to power-transition theory, war is most likely when the leading state is challenged by a rapidly growing, dissatisfied rival. Challengers are said to be dissatisfied because the hegemon manages the status quo for its own benefit, rewarding its allies and penalizing rivals. We assess the leading state's ability to distribute the private…

  6. Complicity to Hegemonic Masculinity in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Subrayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Men have long been associated with dominance, strength and confidence and the issue regarding being compliant to the acceptable masculine ideal has always been part of a culture’s social identity. This study focuses on the critical discussion on masculinity studies in the classic fiction of D.H Lawrence.  Drawing on narrative data from his novel Sons and Lovers (1913, the study examines how hegemonic masculinity is conformed by the male protagonist, Walter Morel, in his gendered relationship. More specifically, the analysis focuses on how the male character aligns himself with the hegemonically authoritarian philosophy of ‘tough’ masculinity. The effects of social practices and socio-historical context in which Lawrence wrote these novels are also examined. The study utilises Connell’s theory of hegemonic masculinity to explicate Lawrence’s depiction of dominant masculinity through his character. The findings reveal that Lawrence aligns his male protagonist to the dominant role by sanctioning aggressiveness, autonomy and violence. Keywords: Hegemonic Masculinity, Dominant Masculinity, Patriarchy, Gender, Power

  7. Mapping Monolingualism within a Language/Race Cartography: Reflections and Lessons Learned from "World Languages and Cultures Day"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Adam; Boovy, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    An interactive exhibit at a university's "World Language Day" challenges systems of privilege that organize the study of "foreign" and "world" languages. Through discursive framing, participants' written responses reveal an alignment with hegemonic ideologies of race and nation that elevate English monolingualism as a…

  8. Language policy myths and realities at M L Sultan Technikon | Kajee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... language debates in the country, then discusses the implementation of the Technikon's language policy. The conclusion is that despite the hegemonic role played by English, attempts must be made to encourage multilingualism or regional bilingualism, or else pay the price of further marginalising the African languages.

  9. Natural Language Search Interfaces: Health Data Needs Single-Field Variable Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain

    2016-01-01

    search interface for learnability (P=.002, 95% CI [0.6-2.4]), ease of use (Psearch, which is consistent with its general familiarity and with enabling queries to be refined as the search proceeds, which treats serendipity as part of the refinement. Conclusions The results provide clear evidence that data science should adopt single-field natural language search interfaces for variable search supporting in particular: query reformulation; data browsing; faceted search; surrogates; relevance feedback; summarization, analytics, and visual presentation. PMID:26769334

  10. MUC (Memory, Unification, Control): A model on the neurobiology of language beyond single word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagoort, P.; Hickok, G.; Small, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    A neurobiological model of language is discussed that overcomes the shortcomings of the classical Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model. It is based on a subdivision of language processing into three components: Memory, Unification, and Control. The functional components as well as the neurobiological

  11. Assessing motor, visual and language function using a single 5-minute fMRI paradigm: three birds with one stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Zendler, Carolin; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Lidzba, Karen; Wilke, Marko

    2018-02-26

    Clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) requires inferences on localization of major brain functions at the individual subject level. We hypothesized that a single "triple use" task would satisfy sensitivity and reliability requirements for successfully assessing the motor, visual and language domain in this context. This was tested here by the application in a group of healthy adults, assessing sensitivity and reliability at the individual subject level, separately for each domain.Our "triple use" task consisted of 2 conditions (condition 1, assessing motor and visual domain, and condition 2, assessing the language domain), serving mutually as active/control. We included 20 healthy adult subjects. Random effect analyses showed activation in primary motor, visual and language regions, as expected. Less expected regions were activated both for the motor and visual domains. Further, reliability of primary activation patterns was very high across individual subjects, with activation seen in 70-100% of subjects in primary motor, visual, and left-lateralized language regions.These findings suggest the "triple use" task to be reliable at the individual subject's level to assess motor, visual and language domains in the clinical fMRI context. Benefits of such an approach include shortening of acquisition time, simplicity of the task for each domain, and using a visual stimulus. Following establishment of reliability in adults, the task may also be a valuable addition in the pediatric clinical fMRI context, where each of these factors is of high relevance.

  12. Modeling of DNA single stage splicing language via Yusof-Goode approach: One string with two rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wen Li; Yusof, Yuhani; Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-02-01

    Splicing system plays a pivotal role in attempts to recombine sets of double-stranded DNA molecules when acted by restriction enzymes and ligase. Traditional method of finding the result of DNA recombination through experiment is both time and money consuming. Hence, finding the number of patterns of DNA single stage splicing language through formalism of splicing system is a way to optimize the searching process. From the biological perspective, it predicts the number of types of molecules that will exist in the system under existence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some theorems, corollaries and examples that lead to the predictions of single stage splicing languages involving one pattern string and two rules are presented via Yusof-Goode approach.

  13. Expanding hegemonic masculinity: the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobov, Neill

    2009-12-01

    This study examines the use of irony in young men's stories about romantic and sexual experiences. Because romantic experiences are central in the constitution of a heterosexual self, and because they are increasingly formulated in relation to traditional masculine norms and the simultaneous avowal and disavowal of effeminacy, they reveal an oscillation between complicity and resistance to hegemonic masculine norms. This oscillation is explored in stories about promiscuity, seduction, and vulnerability. Critical discursive analyses reveal how young men discursively pivot between complicity and resistance to traditional masculine norms, how this oscillation functions in the accomplishment of their romantic identities, how a sense of conventional masculinity is reclaimed, and what these processes reveal about the shifting nature of hegemonic masculinity in contemporary culture.

  14. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  15. Reversed Synchronicity: American and Chinese Democracy in the Context of Hegemonic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Petre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature on China’s rising to proeminence has almost become a field in itsself, rather few studies dwell upon the bilateral relations between world’s still hegemon and its challenger. The present study reflects on the domestic consequences stemming from US-China economic ties. Having as a theoretical background Robert Gilpin’s hegemonic stability theory along with democratic peace theory, the claims made here are that a prolonged US-China interdependence may have as result America’s eroding republican institutions and China’s liberalisation. A less democratic America and a slightly more liberal (but still authoritarian China will probably be more aggressive one to each other and destabilize the international system.

  16. Natural Language Search Interfaces: Health Data Needs Single-Field Variable Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Caroline; Harper, Simon; Dunlop, Ian; Smith, Sam; Sufi, Shoaib; Goble, Carole; Buchan, Iain

    2016-01-14

    ,19=18.0, P<.001). There was also a main effect of task (F2,38=4.1, P=.025, Greenhouse-Geisser correction applied). Overall, participants were asked to rate learnability, ease of use, and satisfaction. Paired mean comparisons showed that the Web search interface received significantly higher ratings than the traditional search interface for learnability (P=.002, 95% CI [0.6-2.4]), ease of use (P<.001, 95% CI [1.2-3.2]), and satisfaction (P<.001, 95% CI [1.8-3.5]). The results show superior cross-domain usability of Web search, which is consistent with its general familiarity and with enabling queries to be refined as the search proceeds, which treats serendipity as part of the refinement. The results provide clear evidence that data science should adopt single-field natural language search interfaces for variable search supporting in particular: query reformulation; data browsing; faceted search; surrogates; relevance feedback; summarization, analytics, and visual presentation.

  17. The mobility of students in Central America: in search of hegemonic knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edorta CAMINO ESTURO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Central American students’ mobility is characterized by one-way mobility to the Western countries, as centers of hegemonic knowledge, especially the United States. However, there has been an increase in academic mobility to Cuba, which suggests the emergence of an alternative space and a counterbalance to this trend. Instead, mobility towards the Central American region is domestic and peripheral, with more intraregional than foreign contributions, standing on the sidelines of university centers of scientific production.

  18. Aspectos discursivos de la construcción de la hegemonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Balsa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gramsci realizó importantes aportes para vincular algunas cuestiones del lenguaje y la hegemonía. Sin embargo, no llegó a construir una teoría que sistemáticamente analizase el modo en el cuál los procesos discursivos participan en la construcción de la hegemonía. Recientemente, una reformulación de la teoría la hegemonía realizada por Laclau conceptualizó el problema en términos de cadenas de significantes que alcanzan grados parciales de fijación en torno a ciertos significantes vacíos. Además Laclau ha revalorizado el papel de las figuras retóricas en la construcción de la hegemonía. Sin embargo, sus formulaciones teóricas se han mantenido a un nivel abstracto. Y la tradición laclausiana no se ha articulado con el Análisis Crítico del Discurso. En este artículo se conectan estas contribuciones junto con las formulaciones de Voloshinov y Bajtín sobre el lenguaje, pensando la dominación hegemónica como un proceso esencialmente dialógico. Finalmente, las figuras retóricas son integradas en un esquema más general acerca de la construcción de las cadenas equivalenciales en la lucha por las significaciones.

  19. HEGEMONIC AND DISSENTS MASCULINITIES: CURRICULUM’S TENSIONS IN PERIPHERY AT THE OUTSKIRTS’ SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rodrigo Vale Caetano; Paulo Melgaço da Silva Junior; Treyce Ellen Silva Goulart

    2016-01-01

    (Sexual) identities, in relation to their place within schools, are constantly producing tension and suffering from interpellation of curricula. Considering this scenario, from the contributions of the theories of gender and sexuality and participant observation methodology, this article aimed to question the ways in which hegemonic masculinities are performatized and interact with sexual dissidents identities such as gay and transgender (GT) in two public schools in the Baixada Fluminense, r...

  20. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena eKrefta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such ‘bilingual’ mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct – single or dual – language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1 – English (L2 childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading, and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants’ performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language

  1. How Do Different Versions of a Test Instrument Function in a Single Language? A DIF Analysis of the PIRLS 2006 German Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Tobias C.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge inherent in cross-national research of providing instruments in different languages measuring the same construct is well known. But even instruments in a single language may be biased towards certain countries or regions due to local linguistic specificities. Consequently, it may be appropriate to use different versions of an…

  2. Resituating indigenous languages and identities as outlined in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawton.hikwa

    hegemonic. Based on the recently enacted. Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) Act 2013, this article makes an historical analysis of and resituates .... indigenous languages in the founding provisions of the Constitution of. Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20). 2013;. - the recognition and inclusion of culture; and,.

  3. What Makes a Man? : Hegemonic Masculinity in Arms and the Man by G.B. Shaw

    OpenAIRE

    Månevik, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this essay is the interaction between the male characters in the play Arms and the Man by George Bernard Shaw and how those characters position themselves according to R.W. Connell’s theories on hegemonic masculinity. Connell’s theories can be productively applied to Shaw’s play, highlighting many similarities and exposing interesting patterns. The most striking example of this is the fact that Captain Bluntschli, the character that finally reaches the top of the hierarchical lad...

  4. A Cultural Communities Approach to Understanding Head Start Teachers' Beliefs about Language Use with Dual Language Learners: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Sarah; Guerra, Alison Wishard

    2015-01-01

    The school-readiness gap for Latino dual language learners in the United States has been well documented, despite a strong research base highlighting effective strategies and practices for supporting their academic success. However, current educational practices reflect the hegemonic discourse that, because the United States is an English-speaking…

  5. Engaging with the ‘global’-‘local’ debate in English language teaching: professional identity and teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Thu Huyen

    2017-01-01

    The continuing expansion of English as a means of international communication has led to negative effects on other languages and cultures. Among the concerns is the critique of the English language teaching industry regarding its hegemonic relationship with local languages especially in English language teaching and learning contexts and practices. As a consequence, a move from previous paradigms of English language teaching to creatively devise new practices that would address locally emergi...

  6. Disturbing Hegemonic Discourse: Nonbinary Gender and Sexual Orientation Labeling on Tumblr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Oakley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA Tumblr bloggers’ bio boxes and “About Me” pages to show the ways gender and sexual orientation identities are constructed through community-regulated and community-generated labeling practices. Tumblr encourages counter-cultures (and labeling practices to not only form but also to thrive due to its distinctive affordances including tagging and blog formatting. This article examines not only how these affordances shape usage and, subsequently, identity construction on Tumblr but also the ways in which Tumblr bloggers have embraced affordances to create community-accepted conventions of identity construction. Additionally, building upon online identity scholarship by Bargh, McKenna, and Fitzsimons and Tiidenberg, this article discusses true self and nonbinary gender and sexual orientation labeling as forms of identity construction that allows LGBTQIA identifying individuals a method for nuanced descriptions of feelings and desires. However, far from perfect, these labeling practices are also grounded in hegemonic female/male, feminine/masculine binary discourse. In a Foucauldian sense, bloggers construct discourse within existing power structures that ignore or erase LGBTQIA as sexual “abnormalities.” Although it is nearly impossible to fully break away from the dominant discourse, these labeling practices can be a useful starting point for conversations about genders and sexualities that lie outside of the hegemonic binary.

  7. Estado, sociedad civil y hegemonía en el pensamiento político de Gramsci

    OpenAIRE

    César Ruiz Sanjuán

    2016-01-01

    En el presente artículo analizamos el concepto de hegemonía de Gramsci y su relación con los conceptos políticos fundamentales de su pensamiento. Nos confrontamos con las interpretaciones que sitúan la hegemonía exclusivamente en el ámbito de la sociedad civil y mostramos la complejidad teórica de concepto gramsciano de Estado, que integra dialécticamente la sociedad civil con la sociedad política. Con ello se pone de manifiesto el modo en que se articulan coerción y consenso en el pensamient...

  8. La Argentina del kirchnerismo: notas sobre hegemonía, acumulación e integración regional

    OpenAIRE

    Varesi, Gastón Ángel

    2014-01-01

    La ponencia propone analizar los ejes de hegemonía, acumulación e integración regional en la Argentina de los gobiernos kirchneristas. Los ejes de hegemonía y acumulación son indagados en la escala nacional, analizando la alteración de las distintas dimensiones de las relaciones de fuerzas, preguntándonos por la constitución de sujetos colectivos, dando lugar a una periodización del escenario nacional, y articulando dicha escala con la internacional, para ver cómo las especificidades locales ...

  9. Being a gay man in Turkey: internalised sexual prejudice as a function of prevalent hegemonic masculinity perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslen-Ziya, Hande; Koc, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines expressions and experiences of internalised sexual stigma with respect to definitions of masculinity and identity conflicts through a thematic analysis of life-history narratives of 14 self-identified gay men living in Turkey. The analysis reveals that internalised sexual prejudice emerges when widely accepted hegemonic masculinity ideology is 'violated' by being gay. Participants' narratives indicate that their construction of masculinity is a vigorous process established via encounters with hegemonic masculinity. Findings are discussed in the context of the relevant literature and in relation to Turkish culture's traditional understanding of gender and gender roles.

  10. Advertising Phuket's nightlife on the Internet: a case study of double binds and hegemonic masculinity in sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jeffrey Dale; Pattalung, Piengpen Na; Chandler, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    One significant human rights violation in Southeast Asia is the exploitation of women through sex tourism. Such sexual exploitation occurs in Thailand because institutions are complacent and society accepts the practice. This case study, guided by the concepts of double binds and hegemonic masculinity, sought to understand if Thai culture is symbolically constructed in ways to portray Thailand as a desirable "sex tourist" destination. Websites portray Phuket as a patriarchal world where men can live their fantasies of being perfect hegemonic males because Thai bar girls are young nymphomaniacs that have no need to be talked to or understood.

  11. Learning Effectiveness and Cognitive Loads in Instructional Materials of Programming Language on Single and Dual Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jenq-Muh; Chang, Ting-Wen; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    The teaching and learning environment in a traditional classroom typically includes a projection screen, a projector, and a computer within a digital interactive table. Instructors may apply multimedia learning materials using various information communication technologies to increase interaction effects. However, a single screen only displays a…

  12. Language, copyright and geographic segmentation in the EU Digital Single Market for music and film

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Gomez Herrera; Bertin Martens

    2015-01-01

    The EU seeks to create a seamless online Digital Single Market for media products such as digital music and film. The territoriality of the copyright regime is often perceived as an obstacle that induces geographical segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence on the extent of market segmentation in the EU on the supply and demand side and measures the contribution of several drivers of this market segmentation. We use data from the Apple iTunes country stores in 27 EU Member States ...

  13. The Unintended Hegemonic Effects of a Limited Concession: Institutional Incorporation of Chinese Schools in Post-War Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Using the case of Chinese schools in post-Second World War Hong Kong, this paper explores the unintended consequences of an incomplete hegemonic project. After World War II, anti-imperialist pressures and rising educational demands in the local setting propelled the colonial authorities to be more active in providing and funding Chinese schools.…

  14. Imagining Another Europe: Building a Pan-European Counter-Hegemonic Bloc Around an Anti-Austerity Master Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, C.; Freyberg-Inan, A.

    Going beyond the local and national scopes of anti-austerity mobilizations, we contribute to this special issue by focusing on counter-hegemonic protest at the pan-European level. In the context of the current austerity regimes, this emerging and precarious social formation enacts resistance against

  15. We Can Be Athletic and Feminine, but Do We Want To? Challenging Hegemonic Femininity in Women's Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Vikki

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of nonconformity to hegemonic femininity in sport often include sexist and heterosexist discrimination. This leads many sportswomen to emphasize feminine characteristics to avoid prejudice and discrimination. Females perceived as too feminine are sexualized and trivialized, leaving women to carefully balance athleticism with hegemonic…

  16. Porto Alegre as a Counter-Hegemonic "Global City": Building Globalization from below in Governance and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the case of Porto Alegre, Brazil as a counter-hegemonic global city. Porto Alegre is a city with no particular relevance to neoliberal globalization that, nevertheless, was launched to a global scale by transformations in local governance. New mechanisms of deliberative democracy captured the attention of social actors…

  17. Corresponding Values and Colonising Discourses: Situating "Hindu Children" and Their Values in Relation to Hegemonic Norwegian Discourses about Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between values expressed by "Hindu children" in Norway and hegemonic "Norwegian values". The discussion is based on interviews with children from the Indian Punjabi and the Sri Lankan Tamil traditions and on observations in religious education (RE) lessons. The children emphasise the…

  18. The Dialectics of African Education and Western Discourses: Counter-Hegemonic Perspectives. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Handel Kashope, Ed.; Abdi, Ali A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "The Dialectics of African Education and Western Discourses" addresses how continental Africans who have worked or are currently working in the Canadian academy address their dual legacy of African and Euro-American knowledge paradigms. Reflecting a range of approaches to hegemonic Euro-American paradigms that can be summarized as…

  19. Diferencia, hegemonía y disciplinación en antropología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Restrepo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute una serie de conceptualizaciones sugeridas por varios autores para comprender el diferente y desigual posicionamiento de las antropologías del mundo. Algunos planteamientos fundados en la distinción de centro/periferia son críticamente examinados así como la noción de sistema mundo de la antropología. En el artículo se argumenta la relevancia de un enfoque sistémico que dé cuenta de las contradictorias implicaciones de las desigualdades estructurales en el campo antropológico mundial. Finalmente, se examinan cómo se instauran y reproducen estas desigualdades estructurales desde el análisis de la hegemonía y la disciplinación.

  20. HEGEMONIC AND DISSENTS MASCULINITIES: CURRICULUM’S TENSIONS IN PERIPHERY AT THE OUTSKIRTS’ SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigo Vale Caetano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (Sexual identities, in relation to their place within schools, are constantly producing tension and suffering from interpellation of curricula. Considering this scenario, from the contributions of the theories of gender and sexuality and participant observation methodology, this article aimed to question the ways in which hegemonic masculinities are performatized and interact with sexual dissidents identities such as gay and transgender (GT in two public schools in the Baixada Fluminense, region of Rio de Janeiro. With the data that supported the analysis, produced from author`s teaching practices, we sought to question the curriculum with a view to interrogate them about the talks that produced modes of subjectivity and taught heteronormative, complementary and asymmetrical ways of projection of sexual identities heavily traversed by the expectations surrounding the black masculinity.

  1. Hegemonic and polemical beliefs: culture and consumption in the social representation of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, Grégory; Guimelli, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Wine, in France, is a cultural product. However, the issue of wine consumption has been at the centre of a recurring social debate. We decided to focus our study on the effect of consumption practices on this social representation as well as the variations in position-taking in very different normative contexts. Results revealed two distinct social representations according to consumption practice. Moreover, Guttman effect in principal component analysis uncovered a unique phenomenon which showed that participants (consumer vs. non consumer) were inclined to act differently only in the case of polemical issues when they perceived the investigator as a consumer vs. non consumer. Indeed, in the case of hegemonic beliefs they were inclined to act in the same way and their answers were not influenced by the status of the investigator. Results are discussed around the question of the links between social representations and social identity.

  2. Energetic cooperation Sino-russian on oil and gas subject. Strategic alliance or hegemonic domain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia María Ramírez Meda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify the points of divergence that may truncate the successful bilateral energy cooperation between China and Russia established in the last two decades, and if this relationship can be framed in the strategic alliance instituted by both countries. First section starts with a brief historical account of the evolution of the strategic alliance between China and Russia, as well as its main results. Second section, evaluates the progress in bilateral energy cooperation, particularly around two resources; gas and oil. Third, the points of divergence around such cooperation are analyzed, and its evaluated how these, can diminish the success of energy relations around the two remedies mentioned. By way of conclusion arises if such differences can trigger a competition by the hegemonic domination in Asia between the two States in the short and medium term.

  3. La construcción social de la masculinidad: poder, hegemonía y violencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schongut Grollmus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión teórica del concepto de masculinidad hegemónica, a partir de las propuestas de Bourdieu, Connell y Demetriou respecto a la inequidad de género y la dominación masculina. Estos autores se centran en los mecanismos sociales implícitos que hacen de la masculinidad una forma específica de hegemonía, la cual se instala como una dinámica social dominante, no a través de la imposición, sino desde el consentimiento. En este sentido, la noción de masculinidad hegemónica permite articular las diferentes maneras en que la inequidad de género se instala como una práctica social cotidiana e indetectable.

  4. La hegemonía creativa de la industria de la televisión

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    Mario García de Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Después del blanco y negro al color, del fin del modelo del monopolio, de la expansión de la oferta, la televisión deviene en instrumento privilegiado de entretenimiento social, en medio de información en tiempo real, y ahora, cincuenta años después, afronta su pérdida de hegemonía. La pantalla del televisor empieza a compartir mercado con nuevas pantallas. Otro medio de comunicación, acogido por las generaciones más jóvenes, empieza a superar a esta televisión en capacidades y dimensiones. La red global de información, en palabras, imágenes y audio a la vez: Internet audiovisual, la televisión IP.

  5. Ethnic Conflict in the Modern World-System: The Dialectics of Counter-Hegemonic Resistance in an Age of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma A. Dunaway

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article recasts debates about the extent and causes of ethnic con?ict within the world-system framework. Ethni?cation and indigenism are inherent structural contradictions of the modern world-system, and there is the highest incidence of ethnic resistance at the peak of a hegemon’s ascendancy. Consequently, there has not been a dramatic increase in ethnic con?ict since the end of the Cold War. However, ethnic mobilizations pose an increased challenge to the continued functioning of the world-system during the current age of transition. Ethnic mobilizations erode the capitalist civilizational project and increase costs to the system in ways that exacerbate the growing pro?t squeeze. I identify ?ve ways in which the counter-hegemonic mobilizations of ethnic minorities are costly to the world-system and can push it toward bifurcation and transformation.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IN THE POST-COLD WAR WORLD: A GLOBAL LEADER OR HEGEMON?

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    Katarina Jonev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper deal with the role of the USA in the post-Cold War world and their position from the standpoint of relevant indicators and theoretical considerations. This work also refers to path that the United States took from isolationism to the world domination and considers justification of the position of the USA in the period after the Cold War from the point of hegemonic stability theories, while at the end indicates the diversity of understanding of contemporary thinkers regarding the position of the United States as the hegemon or rather “just” a global leader. This paper does not prejudge the final definition of the position of the USA in international relations, but aims to launch discussions on the necessity and justification of the existence of such vision on a global scale.

  7. Hegemonic Masculinity, HIV/AIDS Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior Change Among Young People in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganle, John Kuumuori

    2016-05-01

    Among the youth in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, a paradoxical mix of adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and high-risk behavior characterizes their daily lives. Based on original qualitative research in Ghana, I explore in this article the ways in which the social construction of masculinity influences youth's responses to behavior change HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Findings show that although awareness of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the risks of infection is very high among the youth, a combination of hegemonic masculinity and perceptions of personal invulnerability acts to undermine the processes of young people's HIV/AIDS risk construction and appropriate behavioral change. I argue that if HIV/AIDS prevention is to be effective and sustained, school- and community-based initiatives should be developed to provide supportive social spaces in which the construction of masculinity, the identity of young men and women as gendered persons, and perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS infection are challenged. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. MILITARY COMPETITION BETWEEN FRIENDS? HEGEMONIC DEVELOPMENT AND MILITARY SPENDING AMONG EIGHT WESTERN DEMOCRACIES, 1920-1938

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    Jari Eloranta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the complicated phenomenon of military spending among a sample of eight Western democracies in the interwar period by analyzing especially the possibility of economic and/or military competition between the Western Great Powers and the ensuing impacts on the smaller states included here. The hegemonic paradigm suggested by e.g. Paul Kennedy predicts that the economic leader in a system will increasingly invest on maintaining security; thus eventually bringing economic growth to a halt. The military spending patterns respective of economic growth at first seem to suggest that not only the totalitarian states, as is the traditional view, but also the UK and France stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of American leadership. However, the military expenditures of these nations were too low to warrant the conclusion that they had any impact on their respective economic performance. This result is also verified here by employing Granger non-causality tests between the military spending and economic growth variables. Moreover, regression analysis on the military spending variables for the UK and France points towards competition on the level. The smaller states, respectively, seemed to follow the UK and France fairly closely in their military spending decisions.

  9. Repensando la relación entre decolonialidad Y hegemonía

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    Carlos Rafael Rea Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se sostiene que para que la descolonización se convierta en una práctica social históricamente emancipadora, debe articularse con la cons - trucción de una contrahegemonía que parta del reconocimiento de la inex - tinguible pluralidad sociocultural y de la ineluctabilidad de la diferencia y el conflicto políticos y que, por tanto, reconozca la imposibilidad de construir ór - denes universales plenos y abstractos. La construcción de una contrahegemo - nía es posible a través de la operación de traducción propuesta por Santos, que supone la detección y acrecentamiento de lo que este autor denomina las zonas de contacto. Propongo además que la noción de contrahegemonía propuesta por Santos puede ser potenciada empleando la teoría de Laclau, para pensar de una forma más consistente el trabajo epistémico-político de articulación, que no es sólo de traducción, sino de construcción de una hegemonía demo - crática y radical, siguiendo a Chantal Mouffe, que entraña ineludiblemente la producción de universales histórico-concretos.

  10. Masculinidade hegemônica: repensando o conceito Hegemonic masculinity: rethinking the concept

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    Robert W. Connell

    2013-04-01

    hegemonic masculinity has influenced gender studies across many academic fields but has also attracted serious criticism. The authors trace the origin of the concept in a convergence of ideas in the early 1980s and map the ways it was applied when research on men and masculinities expanded. Evaluating the principal criticisms, the authors defend the underlying concept of masculinity, which in most research use is neither reified nor essentialist. However, the criticism of trait models of gender and rigid typologies is sound. The treatment of the subject in research on hegemonic masculinity can be improved with the aid of recent psychological models, although limits to discursive flexibility must be recognized. The concept of hegemonic masculinity does not equate to a model of social reproduction; we need to recognize social struggles in which subordinated masculinities influence dominant forms. Finally, the authors review what has been confirmed from early formulations (the idea of multiple masculinities, the concept of hegemony, and the emphasis on change and what needs to be discarded (onedimensional treatment of hierarchy and trait conceptions of gender. The authors suggest reformulation of the concept in four areas: a more complex model of gender hierarchy, emphasizing the agency of women; explicit recognition of the geography of masculinities, emphasizing the interplay among local, regional, and global levels; a more specific treatment of embodiment in contexts of privilege and power; and a stronger emphasis on the dynamics of hegemonic masculinity, recognizing internal contradictions and the possibilities of movement toward gender democracy.

  11. MASCULINITY AND SPORT REVISTED: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON HEGEMONIC MASCULINITY AND MEN'S ICE HOCKEY IN CANADA

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    Cheryl A. MacDonald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ice hockey is particularly significant in Canada as it acts as a primary site of socialization for boys and men. This form of socialization raises questions about masculinity on the public agenda in terms of the problematic nature of hypermasculinity in sport, stereotypical images of athletes, and questions of social responsibility as both men and athletes. These issues are presently relevant as Canada (and perhaps all of North America finds itself in an era characterized by accounts in mainstream media of competitive athletes’ cavalier lifestyles, hazing, violence, homophobia, drug addictions, and suicides. This review of literature uses secondary research to problematize masculinity in the ice hockey context by presenting the overarching claim that male hockey players are hegemonically masculine individuals. The piece begins by defining Australian sociologist R.W. Connell’s (1987 concept of hegemonic masculinity and situating it in the contemporary academic context. Next, it offers an overview of relevant literature on masculinity and sport along with a concise examination of scholarly work on the relationship between hegemonic masculinity and ice hockey in Canada. It concludes by summarising calls for further research in the literature and by suggesting approaches to future studies in the field.

  12. Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy

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    Kjell Hausken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the concept of hegemony to leadership theory, which has developed mainly as a critique of hegemonic stability theory. We argue that it makes sense to combine the two theories by introducing the concept of 'size' into neoliberal thinking about International Political Economy. We accept the neo-institutional hypothesis that a hegemon is not needed to provide public goods, and demonstrate with non-cooperative games how multiple leaders may jointly provide public goods. A game-theoretic model is developed illustrating with Nash equilibria the conditions under which a hegemon rationally switches from hegemony to leadership. It also shows why followers rationally switch from free-riding in their consumption of the public goods to taking part in leading, in the sense of contributing to covering the cost of the production of the public goods. The emergence of joint leadership leads to multiple equilibria in the sense of allowing for multiple stable leadership constellations. The actors are in a mixed-motive or coordination game where they have different preferences for the equilibria, and thus different preferences for which strategies to choose, and for who is to take part in covering the cost of the production of the public goods. Two aspects of joint leadership 'after hegemony' are treated, namely coercive and benevolent leadership on the one hand, and collective action in the sense of joint leadership on the other hand. Finally, future leadership constellations and the quest for international order are discussed.

  13. Case against Diagnosing Developmental Language Disorder by Default: A Single Case Study of Acquired Aphasia Associated with Convulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinac, Julie V.; Harper, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform the diagnostic knowledge base for professionals working in the field of language disorders when classic symptoms, characteristics and sequences are not found. The information reveals the risk of diagnosis with a developmental language disorder (DLD) by default when no underlying cause can be readily identified.…

  14. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child With a Developmental Social Communication Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of individualized therapy activities and in close liaison with families. The study used an enhanced AB single-subject design in which an 8-year-old child with an SCD participated in 20 therapy sessions with a specialist speech-language pathologist. A procedure of matching assessment findings to intervention choices was followed to construct an individualized treatment program. Examples of intervention content and the embedded structure of SCIP are illustrated. Observational and formal measurements of receptive and expressive language, conversation, and parent-teacher ratings of social communication were completed before therapy, after therapy, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Outcomes revealed change in total and receptive language scores but not in expressive language. Conversation showed marked improvement in responsiveness, appreciation of listener knowledge, turn taking, and adaptation of discourse style. Teacher-reported outcomes included improved classroom behavior and enhanced literacy skills. Parent-reported outcomes included improved verbal interactions with family members and personal narratives. This clinical focus article demonstrates the complexity of needs in a child with an SCD and how these can be addressed in individualized intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to the essential nature of language support including pragmatic therapy for children with SCDs. Discussion of the role of formal and functional outcome measurement as well as the proximity of chosen outcomes to the intervention is included.

  15. Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio R.

    2009-01-01

    This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

  16. Aspects of the insertion of Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus into televised media: technologies of discourse serving hegemonic practice

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    Cláudio Márcio do Carmo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses some aspects of the insertion of Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus (The Universal Church of the Kingdom of God into the media. It started with the television program Pare de Sofrer, broadcast daily by Rede Record.My presupposition is that this new preaching space helps to marketize the discourse due to its intersemiotic aspect. The interface between some conceptions of critical discourse analysis and marketing theories may explain some aspects of discourse technologies used to intensify institutional ideologies and guarantee a consistent argumentation capable of helping unleash a persuasive and hegemonic process for the religious institution.

  17. UTOPISTIC JOURNEY OF POETRY AGAINST HEGEMONIC CORRUPTION A study on the cultural movement of Indonesian poets 434 resisting against corruption through poetry

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    RB. Edi Pramono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Indonesian poets have declared a cultural movement to resist against hegemonic corruption through poetry. Poetry is believed to be powerful and thus must have didactic, moral, and utilitarian functions to change society. As Horace said ―dulce and utile‖, literature is supposed to enlighten people and persuade society for a better life. This paper is intended to present the struggle of Puisi Menolak Korupsi (PMK cultural movement during this 4-year journey and what it has gained. 6 anthologies have been published. 47 road shows have run in the entire country to both disseminate the idea and persuade more people to rebuff corruption, and it is still counting. Gauri Viswanathan explained hegemonic control by showing how the humanistic functions traditionally associated with the study of literature can be vital in the process of sociopolitical control. Indonesia was ranked 90 in corruption index 2016 among 176 surveyed countries in the world. Corruption seems to be a hegemonic control to this country, from the top until the bottom level. Corruption becomes hegemonic since it has power and is powerful. The massiveness of hegemonic corruption tends to make this cultural movement of resistance autopistic journey. Faith and spirit are the keys to keep persisting the movement.

  18. Semantic Richness and Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss Who Are Developing Spoken Language: A Single Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Douglas, W. Michael; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who are developing spoken language tend to lag behind children with normal hearing in vocabulary knowledge. Thus, researchers must validate instructional practices that lead to improved vocabulary outcomes for children with hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to investigate how semantic richness of instruction…

  19. Reformismo social y disputa de hegemonía. Posneoliberalismo y escenarios políticos en Ecuador

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    Francisco Hidalgo Flor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso político y social que se instala en el Ecuador a fines de 2006 constituye una encrucijada para todos los movimientos populares clásicos, porque les plantea varios retos políticos y teóricos, a la vez que también está presente un signo de esperanza en el sentido democrático profundo que lo anima. Los viejos caminos recorridos, que permitieron arribar a este punto de quiebre, ya no son suficientemente válidos para los nuevos escenarios que demandan replanteamientos estratégicos en la disputa por la hegemonía en el Ecuador, y un quehacer específico en la coyuntura que se desenvuelve. Los movimientos obrero, indígena, campesino y estudiantil, en gran medida ligados a partidos con tradición de izquierda, fueron decisivos para generar las condiciones de una crisis de hegemonía para el modelo neoliberal, pero no son los que conducen el actual proceso de reformas. La coyuntura que se abre en 2006 toma como lemas: “dejar atrás la larga noche neoliberal”, “acabar con la partidocracia”; y avanzar la “revolución ciudadana”. No es más, ni es menos que eso; es un dato a tener en cuenta para la interpretación política.

  20. The relation between executive functioning, reaction time, naming speed, and single word reading in children with typical development and language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, David; Henry, Lucy A; Nash, Gilly

    2016-09-01

    Few investigations have examined the relationship between a comprehensive range of executive functioning (EF) abilities and reading. Our investigation identified components of EF that independently predicted single word reading, and determined whether their predictive role remained when additional variables were included in the regression analyses. This provided information about the EF processes that are related to reading, and the unity and diversity of EF. This study consisted of 160 children: 88 were typically developing with no language difficulties; 72 had language impairments. The assessments involved decoding, 10 measures of EF, reaction time, naming speed, non-verbal and verbal age-equivalent scores. In the first regression analysis, which only concerned the EF variables, the following verbal forms of EF had significant relationships with decoding: working memory, fluency, planning, and inhibition. Further regression analyses included additional predictor variables: reaction time, naming speed, and age-equivalent scores. These analyses indicated that most of the EF variables continued to predict decoding even when entered with competitor variables. Furthermore, after the entry of EF variables, there were no group differences in decoding (typical vs. language difficulties). We discuss the contribution of EF and other variables to reading abilities. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Lucha por la hegemonía y procesos instituyentes en la Argentina del 2001 : Claves para entender el pos-neoliberalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Los acontecimientos de diciembre de 2001 constituyen un momento instituyente, una apertura de las luchas por la hegemonía, un momento de emergencia de lo político en tanto crisis del orden social existente y construcción de un nuevo orden social. Si bien hay un permanente juego entre lo instituyente y lo instituido, en diciembre de 2001 se condensa una crisis de hegemonía general, por lo tanto crisis general de lo instituido y puja instituyente para la configuración de un ?nuevo? orden social...

  2. Conflicts in Curriculum Theory: Challenging Hegemonic Epistemologies. Education, Politics and Public Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, Joao M.

    2011-01-01

    This book challenges educators to be agents of change, to take history into their own hands, and to make social justice central to the educational endeavor. As a scholar immersed in a language of possibility, Paraskeva unabashedly embraces a pedagogy of hope championed by Paulo Freire where men and women of the world become conscious of their…

  3. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  4. Is the Hegemonic Position of American Culture Able to Subjugate Local Cultures of Importing Countries? A Constructive Analysis on the Phenomenon of Cultural Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tien-Hui

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that globalization assists the USA to gain a hegemonic position, allowing it to export its culture. Because this exportation leads to the domination by American culture of the local cultures of importing countries, which are the key element in sustaining their citizens' national identity, citizens of these countries are…

  5. Demystifying the indigenous language ‘inadequacies’ towards capacity building in science and technology in Zimbabwe

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    Gilbert Tarugarira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa seems to be underplaying, underestimating and despising the role of indigenous languages as an emancipatory tool from the socio-economic and political bondage born of colonialism. Language, this paper argues, is the means of identifying entities, categorising objects and concepts, perceiving ideas and things, grasping the abstract, the concrete as well as the supernatural, and thinking about anything in whatever form. This paper demystifies and challenges the hegemonic position accorded to the colonial master’s language as the only viable instrument for mediating the exploitation of science and technology.

  6. Encuentros esteticos deweyanos con la cultura popular anglofona en la ensenanza de ingles como lengua extranjera (EILE). Working Paper (Deweyan Aesthetic Encounters with Anglophone Popular Culture in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. Working Paper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    This paper discusses how the introduction of Anglophone popular culture in the English-as-a-foreign-language class can serve to foster critical aesthetic experiences. It is argued that the popular culture of the hegemonic Anglophone countries is already part of students' lives and for that reason should be included in any critical Anglophone…

  7. La declinación de la hegemonía del PRI en los gobiernos estatales de México, 1989-2014

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    Luis Carlos Rodríguez Montaño

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se indagó sobre la transición política mexicana en los gobiernos estatales, para lo que se planteó la pregunta: ¿qué tanto ha declinado la hegemonía del Partido Revolucionario Institucional en ellos? Para contestarla se revisaron tres indicadores: el partido de los gobernadores, el tamaño de la fracción del Partido Revolucionario Institucional en los congresos locales y la incidencia de los gobiernos hegemónicos priistas en los estados, de 1989 a 2014. El pluralismo político ha tenido avances sustantivos, y los regímenes de hegemonía priista se han reducido significativamente. Pero, mientras que en la mayoría de los estados hay gobiernos divididos, cinco mantienen la hegemonía priista sin alternancia, y hay 17 con dominio de otros partidos. A pesar de las limitaciones propias en los análisis sobre la evolución de la democracia, aquí se pretendió tener un punto de referencia sobre la pérdida del poder político de un partido que dominó la mayoría de los congresos locales durante gran parte del siglo XX. ______ This paper inquiries about Mexican political transition among state governments and it asks the question: how much the hegemony of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI has declined among state governments? To answer this question, three indicators are revised: the party of governors, the size of PRI fraction within local congresses, and the count of hegemonic state governments during the approximate 1989-2014 period. The study finds out that political pluralism has made substantive progress and that hegemonic PRI state governments have significantly declined. There is however a broad variability; while the majority of states are divided governments, five maintain hegemonic PRI governments with no alternation, and also 17 states have governments where other party is dominant. Despite of limitations in the analysis of the evolution of democracy, it was intended here to have a reference point on the

  8. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van; Royen, E.A. van; Verbeeten, B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer's disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer's disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.)

  9. Un acercamiento a Gramsci: la hegemonía y la reproducción de una visión del mundo

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    Mauricio Puentes Cala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este breve ensayo pretende abordar el concepto de hegemonía en Antonio Gramsci, mediante el estudio de un fragmento de su amorfa y extensa obra discursiva, en aras de identificar el sentido de las intenciones articuladoras concurrentes en los procesos de transmisión ideológica-cultural y direccionamiento intelectual y moral, dimensiones pedagógicas que coadyuvan a la consecución de una “unidad histórica”.

  10. The White Habitus and Hegemonic Masculinity at the Elite Southern University: Asian Americans and the Need for Intersectional Analysis

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    Rosalind S. Chou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our article demonstrates the power of white habitus, prevalence of colorblind racism, and effect of hegemonic masculine ideology on Asian American students at an elite Southern university. This study takes an intersectional approach towards white habitus, acknowledging the gendered sexualized nature of colorblind racial ideology. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 Asian American undergraduates, we emphasize that Asian Americans are not immune to the racist and racialized experiences of even the most elite American universities and its social spaces. Findings suggest that white habitus and exclusionary white university Greek spaces support a racialized, sexualized, and gendered socialization that intimatley affects our respondents. Our Asian American undergraduates describe instances of sexualized racism and racialized romantic experiences that are particular by gender. We also discuss how our participants have adopted and internalized ideology produced from white habitus and colorblind racism at the university. White habitus socializes and shapes Asian American students at an elite Southern university through intersecting domains of power and through exclusion in largely white spaces.

  11. Intrastate Dynamics in the Context of Hegemonic Decline: A Case Study of China’s Arms Transfer Regime

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    Zhifan Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of a hegemon can create openings for lesser powers to expand their influence in the world-system. Is this what China is currently attempting to do? This paper contributes to this on-going debate by examining China’s arms transfer activities from a historical perspective. Using data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute arms transfer database and the World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers database, I argue that the Chinese arms transfer regime has evolved through three phases. In Phase One, China used gifts of arms to compete with the Soviet Union and to expand influence among Third World countries. In Phase Two, China used arms exports mainly to assist national developmental projects. Only evidence in Phase Three supports the emergence of a global strategy that attempts to extend China’s economic, political, and possibly military outreach. This paper suggests that though China has not yet become a contender for world hegemony as Arrighi argues (2007, China has formulated a globally-focused agenda which, in the medium-term, could extend its influence in regions where U.S. domination is relatively weak.

  12. Crisis de las hegemonías en América latina: los casos de Bolivia y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Albero Vivero Arriagada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es comprender y distinguir cómo se manifiesta, la ruptura o crisis de la hegemonía de las clases dominantes, cómo se presentan los procesos y posibilidades de reconfiguración de las clases sociales y las correlaciones de las fuerzas políticas entre las élites dominantes y los sectores excluidos. Se toma como referencia los casos de Bolivia y Chile en el período comprendido entre los años 2006 y 2012 ya que permite tener como referencia los triunfos electorales de Evo Morales en Bolivia y en el caso de Chile el primer gobierno de Michelle Bachelet y el triunfo de Sebastián Piñera. Desde una perspectiva hermenéutica crítica se realiza una revisión y análisis interpretativo de las obras de Antonio Gramsci y de otros referentes del pensamiento crítico latinoamericano que nos aporta un marco teórico que ilumina el análisis interpretativo. Se concluye que los conflictos y las contradicciones presentes en estos países dan cuenta de la posibilidad de construcción de nuevas relaciones sociales y políticas a partir de las luchas contra hegemónicas que han venido protagonizando las clases excluidas.

  13. The influence of social constructs of hegemonic masculinity and sexual behaviour on acceptability of vaginal microbicides in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweemba, Oliver; Dixey, Rachael; Bond, Virginia; White, Alan

    2017-06-12

    Vaginal microbicides are heralded as a woman's HIV prevention method. This study, conducted in a microbicide clinical trial setting in Zambia, explored how the social construction of masculinity and sexual behaviour influenced the acceptability of vaginal microbicides. The data were generated from 18 In-depth Interviews and 8 Focus Group Discussions. The data were analysed thematically. The study found that hegemonic masculinity influenced the use of vaginal microbicides positively and negatively, in multiple ways including: decision to initiate gel use, autonomous use of the gel, and consistent use of the gel. Men were seen as heads of households and decision-makers who approved their partners' intentions to initiate gel use. Autonomous gel use by women was not supported because it challenged men's dominant position in sexual matters and at a family level. The socially accepted notion that men engaged in multiple sexual relationships also influenced women's decision to use the gel. Sustained gel use depended on the perceived effect of the gel on men's sexual desires, sexual performance, fertility, and sexual behaviour. This study suggests that acceptability of microbicides partially lies within the realm of men, with use constrained and dictated by cultural constructs and practice of masculinity and gender.

  14. Introducción a la praxis política gramsciana: hegemonías y contrahegemonías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Herrera Zgaib

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo encara el devenir de la obra principal de Antonio Gramsci en Occidente, Los cuadernos de la cárcel, en el tiempo de la guerra de posiciones y la crisis orgánica del capitalismo mundial. Hay un énfasis especial en la experiencia de los grupos y clases subalternas en América Latina, y Colombia en particular, antes y después de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. La reflexión en lo teórico está basada en la categoría de hegemonía y su opuesta la contra-hegemonía, en una dialéctica conceptual central para el entendimiento de la filosofía de la praxis. Este análisis refiere el discurso a la experiencia política misma en Gramsci y sus herederos para subrayar el papel de los intelectuales orgánicos y la construcción del nuevo príncipe, como para enfrentar el bloque histórico reaccionario. También está presente la crítica de la hegemonía, cuando se derrumban las grandes narrativas y aparecen los nuevos movimientos sociales en los que el proletariado tradicional ocupa un papel secundario en la lucha. Todo lo cual afecta la estrategia socialista y comunista de modo definitivo.

  15. Corporate Language and Implications for Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores empirically implications of language use for MNCs’ learning from subsidiaries. Drawing on sociolinguistic literature, the article argues that while employing a single corporate language facilitates quick and direct communication of explicit knowledge, such a language design...

  16. Discurso y uso de tecnologías de información: herramienta para la hegemonía del poder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Alberto Andrade Castro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza el discurso como herramienta para desarrollar la hegemonía del poder. Este trabajo recurre a la Teoría de la Estructuración de Giddens para desarrollar una concepción del discurso organizacional como una dualidad que exhibe propiedades estructurales y que se origina de los esquemas interpretativos que se le otorga a las tecnologías y sistemas de información -TSI-. El principal objetivo del trabajo es demostrar cómo el elemento discursivo ayuda a legitimar el uso de TSI. Examinamos cómo el discurso moldea los procesos de cambios organizacionales ocasionados por la incorporación de TSI en la sociedad. Comenzamos por identificar tres tipos de discursos (determinismo tecnológico, democracia tecnológica y nacionalismo tecnológico y analizamos, para cada uno, cómo las tecnologías y sistemas que se utilizan se hacen en base a uno de esos discursos que sirve para legitimar su uso y para fortalecer la hegemonía del poder desarrollada en la sociedad de la información. La hegemonía tiene aspectos ideológicos, políticos y económicos que la consolidan; por ello, nuestra investigación está orientada a analizar el rol del discurso en el desarrollo y uso de las TSI, en relación con la hegemonía que ejercen los agentes dominantes. Partimos del supuesto de que la hegemonía nunca es completamente alcanzada, sino que está constantemente en el proceso de obtener el poder a través de la utilización de un discurso que legitima las estructuras con el consentimiento de los agentes subordinados. El trabajo demuestra que junto a los proyectos oficiales, regionales y globales, que buscan la construcción de una infraestructura para la “sociedad de la información”, el discurso técnico es permeado en todos los ambientes donde las TSI puedan legitimar su existencia.

  17. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  18. Interethnic relations and language variation: language use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interethnic relations and language variation: language use and identity negotiation among Namibian Coloureds and Whites in interactional settings. ... of interethnic relations through language variation involving two population groups supposedly belonging to one single speech community, namely the White and Coloured ...

  19. Hegemoniale Männlichkeit auf dem historischen Prüfstand Hegemonic Masculinity on the Historical Test Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Berlis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Konzept der „hegemonialen Männlichkeit“ des australischen Soziologen Robert William Connell hat seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre zunächst im englischsprachigen Raum und – mit Erscheinen seines Hauptwerkes Der gemachte Mann. Konstruktion und Krise von Männlichkeiten (1999 in deutscher Übersetzung – ab Ende der neunziger Jahre auch im deutschen Sprachraum erheblichen Einfluss auf die entstehende Männerforschung ausgeübt. Im vorliegenden Buch wird die „konkrete heuristische Verwertbarkeit“ (S. 22 von Connells Konzept für die historische Forschung und die historisch unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen von Männlichkeit untersucht. Der Sammelband ist als interdisziplinärer Beitrag zur Männlichkeitsforschung konzipiert und enthält insgesamt zwölf geschichts-, literatur- und kulturwissenschaftliche Beiträge sowie einen soziologischen Beitrag. Das Ziel, zur begrifflichen Präzisierung innerhalb der Männer- und Geschlechterforschung beizutragen und das Connellsche Konzept auf seine Brauchbarkeit für die historische Forschung auszuloten, wird in vielen Beiträgen des lesenswerten Sammelbandes verwirklicht.Australian sociologist Robert William Connell’s concept of “hegemonic masculinity” has had considerable influence since the mid-eighties on the emerging body of men’s research, first in English-speaking world and then, following the publication of his central text Masculinities in German translation in 1999, also in the German speaking world. The volume at hand probes the “concrete heuristic utility” of Connell’s concept for historical research and examines the historically different developments of masculinities (22. The collected volume is conceived as an interdisciplinary contribution to masculinity research and contains twelve articles combining perspectives from history, literature, and cultural studies as well as one sociological contribution. The goal of this interesting collected volume is to help make the

  20. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  1. The Hegemonic Behaviorist Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakers, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Values relating to technology and technology education, I will argue, can either be co-constructed or imposed. A teacher employing behaviourist methodologies in the classroom, for example, will inculcate within students, a prescribed set of values relating to technology. They can do this in many ways. In an industrial arts model of technology…

  2. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    .... Given China's domination of Tibet, incursions into the Spratly Islands, run-ins with the US and Japan, and a host of other seemingly assertive behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate...

  3. Single-Center Study Investigating Foreign Language Acquisition at School in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Uni- or Bilateral Cochlear Implants in the Swiss German Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeres-Scheenstra, Renske; Ohnsorg, Claudia; Candreia, Claudia; Heinzmann, Sybille; Castellanos, Susana; De Min, Nicola; Linder, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate foreign language acquisition at school in cochlear implant patients. Cohort study. CI center. Forty three cochlear implants (CI) patients (10-18 yr) were evaluated. CI nonusers and patients with CI-explantation, incomplete datasets, mental retardation, or concomitant medical disorders were excluded. Additional data (type of schooling, foreign language learning, and bilingualism) were obtained with questionnaires. German-speaking children with foreign tuition language (English and/or French) at school were enrolled for further testing. General patient data, auditory data, and foreign language data from both questionnaires and tests were collected and analyzed. Thirty seven out of 43 questionnaires (86%) were completed. Sixteen (43%) were in mainstream education. Twenty-seven CI users (73%) have foreign language learning at school. Fifteen of these were in mainstream education (55%), others in special schooling. From 10 CI users without foreign language learning, one CI user was in mainstream education (10%) and nine patients (90%) were in special schooling. Eleven German-speaking CI users were further tested in English and six additionally in French. For reading skills, the school objectives for English were reached in 7 of 11 pupils (64%) and for French in 3 of 6 pupils (50%). For listening skills, 3 of 11 pupils (27%) reached the school norm in English and none in French. Almost 75% of our CI users learn foreign language(s) at school. A small majority of the tested CI users reached the current school norm for in English and French in reading skills, whereas for hearing skills most of them were not able to reach the norm.

  4. Language competence in movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Mogensen, Naja Dahlstrup

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how, in a multilingual perspective, language competence is experienced, talked about and practiced by language users themselves. By viewing children as active co-creators of the spaces in which language is used, this article contributes to a research tradition in which focus...... multilingual children's language and literacy acquisition processes, we direct our focus to a single child's active exploration of what it means to know a language. Through analysis of interviews and researcher generated activities, we see how this child both describes and does language competence...... as a phenomenon that has several meanings, is social, is dependent on location and is unpredictable. Thus, we demonstrate how focus on the child's perspective of what it means to ‘know language’ can lead to insights into the creative, complex and dynamic processes that are part of children's active meaning making...

  5. Language as skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, Nick; McCauley, Stewart M.; Christiansen, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    occurs on-line. These properties are difficult to reconcile with the 'abstract knowledge' viewpoint, and crucially suggest that language comprehension and production are facets of a unitary skill. This viewpoint is exemplified in the Chunk-Based Learner, a computational acquisition model that processes...... incrementally and learns on-line. The model both parses and produces language; and implements the idea that language acquisition is nothing more than learning to process. We suggest that the Now-or-Never bottleneck also provides a strong motivation for unified perception-production models in other domains......Are comprehension and production a single, integrated skill, or are they separate processes drawing on a shared abstract knowledge of language? We argue that a fundamental constraint on memory, the Now-or-Never bottleneck, implies that language processing is incremental and that language learning...

  6. Study of the hegemonic discourse about truth and communication in the media’s self-referential information, based on the analysis of the Spanish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Piñuel, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the content analysis of the Spanish Press, this article analyses the media discourses that make reference to any other discourse that, once made an agenda item, refers to the activity of the media themselves. The study unveils the logical constraints of the canonical discourse of this reference; and then compares the media’s canonical discourse on social communication (extracted from the content analysis with the discourse produced by the press managers of different types of organisations (companies, governmental agencies, political parties, unions, associations, etc. in order to reveal the central principles on which their discourses about “truth” and “communication” become hegemonic in the media. The objectives of the study are establishing what changes are appropriate to undertake in order to improve the education of journalists, and setting the quality standards of the public service of journalism. The data presented by this article are the result of the R&D project The hegemonic disocurse about truth and communication: what themediasays about Social Communication, (Reference number: SEJ2007-62202-SOCI, which was directed by José Luis Piñuel-Raigada, and whose final report is being prepared.

  7. Hegemonik Düzen Tartışmaları ve Eleştirel Görüşler (Debates on Hegemonic Order and Critical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer KARACASULU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to inclusively analyze the debates on hegemonic order, also taking into consideration recent critical thoughts in international political economy (IPE. In the first section, the three conceptions of classical IPE, which are liberalism, Marxism and mercantilism, and their notions of hegemony are explained. Gramscians have developed critical views on hegemony, which contradicts to the classical hegemony approach. In the second section, the meaning of hegemony as developed by Antonio Gramsci, which is different than classical conceptions, as well as the conceptual framework developed by his follower Robert W. Cox are explained. Lastly, as the contemporary priorities and challenges of neo-Gramscian perspectives in IPE studies are given, similarities and differences are indicated. As a conclusion, when the notion of hegemonic order in international realm is considered as a relation between social forces-state structures-world order, which is different than traditional approaches, it brings a new aspect to the contemporary discussions on globalization in IPE.

  8. Repertórios sobre lesbianidade na mídia televisiva: desestabilização de modelos hegemônicos Repertoires on lesbianity in television media: destabilization of hegemonic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Santana Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva apresentar uma análise discursiva da telenovela Senhora do Destino (Rede Globo, 2004-2005. A postura construcionista, aliada a uma leitura feminista, permitiu compreender a noção de lesbianidade como uma construção social na qual os discursos e a linguagem empregados variam segundo o contexto social e histórico específico. O foco de análise se deu a partir das práticas discursivas, entendidas como linguagem em ação, sempre múltiplas, situadas e dialógicas. Os resultados desta pesquisa apontam para um duplo efeito na introdução da temática lesbianidade na novela. Se, de um lado, o processo de assimilação da categoria lésbica provoca uma maior "familiarização" na sociedade, bem como a circulação de códigos/modelos propiciam a legitimação de relações afetivo-sexuais entre pessoas do mesmo sexo, de outro, o modo como ocorrem os processos de legitimação/aceitação não propicia uma desestabilização de normas sociais e de modelos hegemônicos.This article aims to present a discursive analysis of the soap opera Senhora do Destino (Rede Globlo, 2004-2005. The constructionist perspective together with a feminist reading allowed to understand the notion of lesbianity as a social construction in which the discourses and the language adopted vary according to the social and historical context. The analysis was centered on discursive practices, understood as language in action, always multiple, situated and dialogical versions of conversation. The results of this research suggest parallel effects of the introduction of the issue of lesbianity in the soap opera. On one hand, the process of assimilation of the lesbian category provokes a broader "familiarity" in society, as well as the presence of codes/models that allow the legitimacy of same sex relations. On the other hand, the legitimizing/acceptance processes occur in ways that do not provoke the destabilization of social norms and hegemonic models.

  9. Language Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt-Rutter, John

    1988-01-01

    Australia has a language paradox: great richness and great poverty of language resources. Despite its many cultures and immigrant groups, Australia emphasizes English-language assimilation and thereby endangers its chances for durable multilingualism. (MSE)

  10. Neuroimaging of language processes: fMRI of silent and overt lexical processing and the promise of multiple process imaging in single brain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowsky, R.; Owen, W.J.; Wile, T.L.; Friesen, C.K.; Martin, J.L.; Sarty, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    To implement and evaluate a multiple-process functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designed to effectively and efficiently activate several language-related regions for use with neurosurgical patients. Both overt and covert response conditions were examined. The fMRI experiments compared the traditional silent word-generation condition versus an overt one as they engage frontal language regions (Experiment 1) and silent versus overt semantic association conditions as they engage multiple language processing regions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 the overt condition yielded greater magnitude of activation, but not volume of activation, in the left inferior frontal and insular cortices than did the silent condition for most, but not all, participants. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the activation of multiple established language processing regions (ie, orthographic, phonological and semantic) can be achieved in a significant number of participants, particularly under overt semantic association conditions and that such activation varies in predictable ways. The traditional silent response condition cannot be considered as equivalent to the overt response condition during word generation or semantic association. The multiple-process imaging method introduced here was sensitive to processing robust orthographic, phonological, and semantic regions, particularly under the overt response condition. (author)

  11. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  12. Neuroimaging of language processes: fMRI of silent and overt lexical processing and the promise of multiple process imaging in single brain studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowsky, R. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Psychology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Owen, W.J. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Dept. of Psychology, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada); Wile, T.L. [Nova Scotia Rehabilitation Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Friesen, C.K. [North Dakota State Univ., Dept. of Psychology, Fargo, North Dakota (United States); Martin, J.L. [Univ. of Alberta, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Sarty, G.E. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Psychology, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: gordon.sarty@usask.ca

    2005-10-15

    To implement and evaluate a multiple-process functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm designed to effectively and efficiently activate several language-related regions for use with neurosurgical patients. Both overt and covert response conditions were examined. The fMRI experiments compared the traditional silent word-generation condition versus an overt one as they engage frontal language regions (Experiment 1) and silent versus overt semantic association conditions as they engage multiple language processing regions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 the overt condition yielded greater magnitude of activation, but not volume of activation, in the left inferior frontal and insular cortices than did the silent condition for most, but not all, participants. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the activation of multiple established language processing regions (ie, orthographic, phonological and semantic) can be achieved in a significant number of participants, particularly under overt semantic association conditions and that such activation varies in predictable ways. The traditional silent response condition cannot be considered as equivalent to the overt response condition during word generation or semantic association. The multiple-process imaging method introduced here was sensitive to processing robust orthographic, phonological, and semantic regions, particularly under the overt response condition. (author)

  13. Principal ideal languages and synchronizing automata

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Vladimir V.; Maslennikova, Marina I.; Pribavkina, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    We study ideal languages generated by a single word. We provide an algorithm to construct a strongly connected synchronizing automaton for which such a language serves as the language of synchronizing words. Also we present a compact formula to calculate the syntactic complexity of this language.

  14. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  15. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  16. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  17. Homosexuality and the Heartbeat of a Locker Room: An Analysis of Quotations in the Context of Hegemonic and Inclusive Masculinity Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Monique L R; Luisi, Tim; Geana, Mugur V

    2016-10-01

    This qualitative textual analysis examines the attitudes and beliefs of the U.S. sports industry reflected in news stories through quotations (n = 405) employed by writers in the media. The researchers analyzed quotations from U.S. national newspapers regarding Jason Collins (National Basketball Association) and Michael Sam (National Football League), the first openly gay athletes in their sports leagues, and their coming-out announcements. The findings from the quotations suggest that the National Basketball Association is more accepting toward the presence of gay male teammates than adhering to a more inclusive definition of masculinity. The National Football League, however, is more resistant to the presences of gay male teammates, with more attitudes aligned with a traditional hegemonic masculinity. Whereas both organizations openly state their support for equality, there are still obstacles to achieving GLBT equality in professional sports leagues.

  18. Community vulnerability and stratified risk: Hegemonic masculinity, socioeconomic status, and HIV/AIDS in a sex work community in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sane, Megan M

    2018-01-29

    This article examines the social patterning of health, economic uncertainty, hegemonic masculinity, and vulnerability among men who live and work in a low-income sex work community in Kampala, Uganda. This problematises the notion that vulnerable communities are homogenous, in demographics, economic status, and risk. This article draws on ethnographic data collected in 2016, including semi-structured interviews and participant observation. This article uses a stratified risk framework to describe the central finding of this study, which is that men's experience in Kataba is characterised by a struggle to fulfil the provider role that constitutes a core aspect of their socially ascribed gender role. In a context of economic scarcity, men's lives are fraught with strain and this intersects with other forms of risk. Finally, by focusing on community vulnerability rather than individual risk, this work contributes to theories of gender and sex work, and informs HIV/AIDS praxis.

  19. Control social y construcción de hegemonía en la ciudad de Concepción (Chile, 1860-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio F., Rojas Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies some cultural transformations of subaltern sectors of the city of Concepcion during XIX century. It is specially centered in aspects concerned with evolution and valoration of work and education ideas. Two central aspects go through this article: the social control dynamic occurred within an economical and political structure of liberal and the state hegemony building.Este trabajo estudia algunas transformaciones culturales de los sectores subalternos de la ciudad de Concepción (Chile durante el siglo XIX. En especial se centra en aspectos relativos a la evolución y valoración de las ideas de trabajo y educación. Los ejes del estudio son: la dinámica del control social, ocurrida dentro de una estructura económica y política de tinte liberal y la construcción de hegemonía estatal.

  20. Alfonso López Pumarejo y la última Corte Suprema de Justicia de la hegemonía conservadora, 1934-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Cajas Sarria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las relaciones entre el Ejecutivo y la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia durante el primer año de gobierno del presidente liberal Alfonso López Pumarejo, entre 1934 y 1935, cuando este lidió con un tribunal integrado por una mayoría de magistrados pertenecientes al Partido Conservador, que era percibido como el último bastión de la hegemonía conservadora. Este trabajo pone en evidencia el comportamiento estratégico de una Corte Suprema dominada por magistrados de origen conservador, que parecía intentar una relación institucional de colaboración con el nuevo gobierno hacia el año 1934. Reconstruye el juicio de constitucionalidad a la reforma tributaria impuesta por decreto de estado de sitio del Ejecutivo liberal que la Corte declaró inexequible en 1935, cuya decisión generó que la corporación fuera percibida como un órgano que actuaba movido por intereses partidistas. Por último, ofrece un análisis en conjunto sobre el rol político del tribunal en esta coyuntura del régimen político colombiano. Este análisis busca contribuir a una mejor comprensión del control constitucional colombiano y del rol que jugó la Corte Suprema de Justicia como juez constitucional –y por tanto, actor del régimen político–, en una perspectiva histórica, en este caso en el contexto de la transición de la hegemonía conservadora a la Segunda República Liberal que se consolidó con el gobierno de la Revolución en Marcha.

  1. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  2. How could language have evolved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J Bolhuis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}.

  3. How could language have evolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C

    2014-08-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language "phenotype." According to the "Strong Minimalist Thesis," the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000-100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}.

  4. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  5. Cross-language psycholinguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Cross-linguistic research can be of valaue to psycholinguistics by allowing tests of hypotheses the testing of which would be severely confounded in a single language, and by providing simple and readily available control conditions. For a long time the resources of this kind of research were

  6. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  7. Masculinidade hegemônica, vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV/AIDS Hegemonic masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Santana Marques Junior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivo analisar as relações entre masculinidade, vulnerabilidade e prevenção do HIV/AIDS, com a ancoragem em narrativas de homens jovens pertencentes às chamadas classes trabalhadoras urbanas, levando em conta não só os sentidos atribuídos à prevenção por parte desses sujeitos, mas também considerando a relação dialética entre individuo e sociedade. O referencial conceitual engloba três eixos masculinidade hegemônica, prevenção e vulnerabilidade. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa baseada na perspectiva da hermenêutica dialética que utiliza o método de interpretação de sentidos. A análise produziu dois eixos como resultados: A masculinidade hegemônica como fator de vulnerabilidade; Mitos e preconceitos como fatores de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/AIDS; Em termos de conclusão, reforça-se a necessidade da discussão acerca da prevenção encampar a necessidade de colocar na ordem do dia a construção do sistema sexo/gênero em volta do qual se articulam os significados sociais da masculinidade e da feminilidade que influenciam estruturalmente o plano das relações afetivo sexuais, em geral, e a prevenção do HIV/AIDS, em específico.The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of

  8. Desafiando la hegemonía neoliberal: Ideologías de cambio radical en la Centroamérica de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza cómo el neoliberalismo alcanzó una hegemonía discursiva y se convirtió en el ideario orientador de las principales políticas económicas implementadas en el período de postguerra en América Central. Se muestra asimismo como en paralelo a este proceso, la izquierda revolucionaria centroamericana surgida en las décadas de los sesenta y setenta como una propuesta anti – sistémica, aceptó el marco de las democracias representativas y se  insertó en los sistemas políticos. A través de esta vía dicha izquierda quedó sometida a la hegemonía ideológica del liberalismo renunciando a sus proyectos de transformación social. Se expone también cómo la implementación de políticas económicas neoliberales a lo largo de la década de los noventa, y la decepción experimentada por los magros resultados de las democracias de la región desencadenaron una serie de campañas y movimientos de resistencia en cuyo seno se gestaron nuevas prácticas, organizaciones y creencias políticas de izquierda en la región.Palabras clave: América Central, postguerra, neoliberalismo, izquierda revolucionaria, ideología.___________________________Abstract:This paper analyzes how neoliberalism reached a discursive hegemony, and became the guiding ideology of the main economic policies implemented in postwar Central America. The work also shows how in parallel to this process, the Central American revolutionary Left which emerged in the decades of the sixties and seventies as an anti - systemic proposal, accepted the framework of representative democracy and inserted itself on the political systems. This way, this Left was subjected to the ideological hegemony of neoliberalism and abandoned any project of social transformation. The work also analyzes how the implementation of neoliberal economic policies throughout the nineties, and the disappointment experienced by the poor performance of democracies in the region, prompted a series

  9. The best of the best discourse on health: poetic insights on how professional sport socializes a family of men into hegemonic masculinity and physical inactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Leanna; Hopper, Timothy F

    2007-03-01

    This study examines how 4 men from the same family, representing different generations, construct health from their perceptions of professional athletes. Many men are socialized and participate in sport discourses that promote certain truths about being a man that often have detrimental effects to their health. The capacity of research to inform men's construction of health is limited. In an attempt to engage male participants within the research process and cause a form of catalytic validity, transcripts from interviews with the men were analyzed, and thematic findings were represented in a poetic form and shared with the participants for discussion and refinement. The findings revealed how the male participants reiterated messages that the media promotes, such as the importance of physical and mental strength for a man. More significantly, the men became aware that they assumed a narrow definition of health portrayed by professional athletics that perpetuated a hegemonic masculinity. Reflections on changes in the men's lifestyle choices after engaging in the research process are offered in the conclusion.

  10. ¿Necesita São Paulo una política exterior? Hegemonía, diplomacia y paradiplomacia en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo argumenta dos cosas. Por un lado, que la condición hegemónica del estado de São Paulo en el seno de la federación brasileña lo predispone a una acción paradiplomática endógena. Por otra parte, alega que esta acción paradiplomática endógena coincide con un fenómeno de desconcentración (y no de federalización de la diplomacia nacional. La conclusión a la que se llega es que si la desconcentración paulatina de la diplomacia brasileña exige un esfuerzo capitalizado de la paradiplomacia endógena, esto no significa que para maximizar las ganancias la paradiplomacia exógena no deba ser implementada. La hegemonía del estado de São Paulo no justifica un comportamiento poco expresivo respecto a una elaboración coordinada de la estrategia de gestión de sus negocios extranjeros.

  11. Crisis del modelo de Convertibilidad y reformas neoliberales en Argentina. Posicionamientos, discursos y disputas por la hegemonía durante el Megacanje de la Alianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Fair

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante la negociación financiera del Megacanje, en la crisis del modelo de Convertibilidad y reformas neoliberales, junto con una pluralidad de referentes políticos que mencionaban tópicos ajenos, existían dos posiciones enfrentadas sobre la operación. Ambas rechazaban el peligro del default, aunque divergían en los contenidos enunciados y en el grado de asertividad y optimismo en torno al acuerdo y las condiciones para reactivar la economía. Ello permitió identificar niveles diferenciales de refracción interpelativa frente al discurso oficial. Desde el análisis de la construcción de alternativas, las posiciones ortodoxas reclamaban profundizar las políticas neoliberales. Las posiciones heterodoxas, en cambio, criticaban las políticas de ajuste y demandaban un mayor desarrollo de la producción nacional y el consumo interno. Sin embargo, los exponentes clave de esta formación mantenían posiciones dispersas y desarticuladas, que expresaban reclamos particularistas y puntuales y no cuestionaban al núcleo medular de la hegemonía neoliberal. Ello obturaba la posibilidad de reclamar una salida devaluacionista y articular un programa alternativo al modelo de Convertibilidad.

  12. Hegemonía y contrahegemonía en la América Latina de hoy. Apuntes hacia una nueva época

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Campione

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El despliegue sobre el presente latinoamericano de la problemática gramsciana de la hegemonía, exige tanto una elucidación de yerros y simplificaciones en la utilización de la categoría original, como un repaso histórico de la evolución social y cultural del continente. La estructura de clase, los modos de la lucha social y política, la configuración organizacional y la subjetividad de los luchadores, se han modificado profundamente en estos años, enmarcadas por una ofensiva de alcance estratégico del gran capital. Las concepciones gramscianas pueden (deben constituir un auxilio fundamental a la hora de volver a pensar en una perspectiva de transformación social radical, que eluda el doble riesgo de la adaptación al orden existente, en un extremo, y un ®choque frontal¼ contra el mismo que cambie eficacia real por radicalismo programático. Se encontrarán allí herramientas para examinar críticamente el pasado y el presente del pensamiento y las prácticas contestatarias de nuestro continente; y proyectarlas en dirección a su perspectiva futura.

  13. Hegemonía, gubernamentalidad, territorio. Apuntes metodológicos para una historia social de la planificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sevilla Buitrago

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The social history of spatial planning is a key element in the critical reevaluation of urban and territorial policies. In order to engage planning in the recovery of the commons and the formation of more democratic environments we need to understand its role in the historical production of our present sociospatial structures. This historiographical approach provides an alternative account of the sociopolitical genesis of contemporary planning discourses, techniques and practices, describing their effects and impact on the everyday lives of planned populations. This article analyzes several conceptual and methodological moments of this research project. Firstly I suggest that we use Gramsci’s conceptualization of ‘hegemony‘ and Foucault’s ‘governmentality’ in order to understand the articulation between politics and everyday life in the context of a general social history. This theoretical framework is then translated into spatial terms through the concepts of ‘territory’ and ‘territoriality’. Finally, I study how planning has been mobilized throughout history by particular hegemonic/governmental projects in order to spatially regulate the processes of social reproduction, in a context shaped by struggles of territorility.

  14. The age of reinvented empire(s in Africa in the light of Persian hegemonic power: Reading the books of Deuteronomy and Ezra-Nehemiah in the context of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that historically Africa experienced colonialism. Thus, in the neocolonial age articulated by the likes of Sugirtharajah, Segovia and Nkrumah, most African countries are faced with the challenge of power struggle in which imperialism and dictatorship inhibits the development of the Two-Thirds world countries. This challenge, it is argued, reveals an imperialistic tendency of the European Union, China and African government(s to alter democracy and freedom. As such, the Zimbabwe context, amongst others, will be used as a main point of reference. This article examines the elements of imperialism in African states in the light of Persian hegemonic power in the books of Deuteronomy and Ezra-Nehemiah. It investigates whether or not the Jews were free under the Persian hegemonic influence in the post-exilic period. The comparison of the influence of Persian hegemony in the books of Deuteronomy and Ezra-Nehemiah with the evidence of imperialism in African government(s, leads to the argument that certain African states do not appear to be completely democratic and free.Intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications: Based on aspects of Old Testament and political science studies, this article explores traces of imperialism in African governments in the light of Persian hegemonic power in the Hebrew Bible. In the end, the article argues that certain African states, for instance Zimbabwe, should not be considered as completely democratic and free nations.

  15. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  16. Assessments of adolescent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, E H

    1995-02-01

    I have stressed that language and learning disabilities that are exhibited in the preschool or elementary school years often persist into adolescence but that the characteristics and implications of these disabilities change with the preadolescent and adolescent transitions to metalinguistic maturity. As the student with language disabilities matures and as educational demands increase in complexity and in level of abstractness, the interactions between language and cognition become more apparent. Language disabilities of adolescents are often described in relation to observed deficits in the acquisition of content (semantics), form (morphology and syntax), and use (pragmatics). I have broadened this perspective to consider identification of metalinguistic strengths and/or deficits, deficits in the integration and organization of communication, reasoning and problem solving, and in conceptualization and creativity. Several assessment options were discussed, among them, norm-and criterion- referenced testing, language sample analysis, portfolio assessments of integrated communication, observational checklists and interviews, classroom language probes, and self-assessments. The perspectives taken for assessment have been that no single assessment option can satisfy all assessment objectives and/or constraints. I have also stressed that all tests are subject to measurement error and how to account for this error. Last, but not least, I have shared some of the voices of adolescents which express their perspectives and priorities.

  17. Market Language, Moral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Susan Dorr

    2018-01-01

    Those who advocate higher out-of-pocket spending, especially high deductibles, to keep health care costs better controlled without losing quality use market language to talk about how people should think about health care. Consumers-that is, patients-should hunt for bargains. Clip coupons. Shop around. Patients need to have more "skin in the game." Consumer-patients will then choose more carefully and prudently and use less unnecessary health care. Unfailingly, "skin" refers to having money at stake. Usually, those arguing for high deductibles express dismay or frustration that patients do not face the full ("true") cost of the health services they receive. Unfortunately, a lack of price transparency, the need to unbundle bundled groups of services to discover total price, and the challenge of validly and reliably measuring and disclosing quality make shopping for health care a challenge for even the savviest patient. Urgency, fear, and sickness that impairs peak cognitive function and other aspects of emotionally laden decision-making, even when "shared" with a physician, add obstacles to coupon clipping and tire kicking. Who has more at stake in health decisions than patients? Whose flesh is literally, not just figuratively, at risk? © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  18. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  19. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  20. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  1. Revisiting the Need for Critical Research in Undergraduate Colombian English Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Granados-Beltrán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shares a reflection based on the relations found between the partial findings of two on-going projects in a BA program in bilingual education. The first study is named Critical Interculturality in Initial Language Teacher Education Programs whose partial data were obtained through interviews with four expert professors of Licensure programs across Colombia. The second project is Estado del Arte de los Trabajos de Grado 2009 - 2016, which involved an inventory of the theses done by students as graduation requirements for the BA program. Based on these data, the article urges a re-assessment of criticality in research at the undergraduate level by problematizing the hegemonization of action research, the instrumentalization of language and research, and the subalternity for those being researched.

  2. Hegemonía, gubernamentalidad, territorio. Apuntes metodológicos para una historia social de la planificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sevilla Buitrago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia social de la planificación espacial es un elemento clave en el proyecto de replanteamiento crítico de las políticas urbanas y territoriales. Un urbanismo comprometido con la recuperación de lo común bajo coordenadas radicalmente democráticas requiere una lectura del pasado capaz de desvelar cómo llegaron a producirse las estructuras socioespaciales contemporáneas y el papel que la planificación jugó en dicho proceso. La historia social de la plani- ficación permite comprender la génesis sociopolítica de los discursos, técnicas y prácticas urbanísticas que empleamos en la actualidad y cuál ha sido su efecto sobre la vida cotidiana de los planificados. Este artículo analiza varios momentos conceptuales y metodológicos de ese proyecto historiográfico. Se exploran en primer lugar el concepto gramsciano de «hegemonía» y el foucaultiano de «gu- bernamentalidad» como herramientas que permiten comprender la articulación entre política y vida cotidiana en el marco de una historia social general. Esta matriz de trabajo se traslada a la dimensión espacial a través de los conceptos de «territorio» y «territorialidad». Por último se estudia el modo en que la planifica- ción ha sido movilizada históricamente como técnica de regulación espacial de los procesos de reproducción social por determinados proyectos hegemónicos/ gubernamentales en un contexto de lucha de territorialidades.

  3. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  4. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  5. Reafirmar la hegemonía en Asia Central: las políticas rusas en Kirguistán tras 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lewis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aunque ha habido un foco internacional considerable en las enérgicas políticas exteriores rusas en Ucrania y el Cáucaso meridional, la creciente influencia de Moscú en los antiguos estados soviéticos de Asia Central ha recibido mucha menos atención. El cambio en la política tras 2010 ha sido especialmente exitoso en el desarrollo de una relación mucho más profunda de Rusia con Kirguistán, un estado que previamente había desarrollado una política exterior moderadamente pro-occidental y que juega un papel estratégico clave en la región. Kirguistán ha rebajado los lazos políticos y de seguridad con los estados occidentales, se ha unido a la Unión Económica Euroasiática (UEE dirigida por Rusia y ha desarrollado vínculos de seguridad más estrechos en la Organización del Tratado de Seguridad Colectiva (OTSC. Este artículo analiza estos cambios en la política y califica la nueva actitud rusa como «hegemónica», señalando tanto el dominio militar, político y económico ruso en la relación como el considerable apoyo popular en Kirguistán para tener vínculos más estrechos con Moscú. La política rusa ha confiado en un acercamiento integrado a la política exterior que incluye iniciativas en los campos de seguridad, economía y política, así como formas de «soft power» e influencia cultural. El caso de Kirguistán sugiere que estudiar la política rusa dentro del marco de la hegemonía es un modo útil de analizar tanto el potencial de tener una mayor influencia como las considerables restricciones que se encuentran los responsables de las políticas rusos en el área de Eurasia.

  6. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  7. Past Hegemons and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Length: 88 LIST OF REFERENCES Bairoch , P. (1976) "Europe’s Gross National Product: 1800- 1975," Journal of European Economic History (5: 273- 340). -fo_...national attributes or systemic factors that could break past patterns and end the cycle of hegemony. Page Length: 88 LIST OF REFERENCES Bairoch , P...except China, Russia) 2. Paul Bairoch "Europe’s Gross National Product:1800 - 1975," tables 2, 10 (Russia) This data was converted from 1960 U.S

  8. China: An Unlikely Economic Hegemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    blogs.wsj.com /chinarealtime/2012/03/27/ hong - kong -frets-over-low-fertility-rates/ (1.1 fertility rate). 68. Both articles cite a 2.1 replacement rate...expected to become extremely powerful, it may not rise to the level many expect due to three limiting factors: currency , exports, and demographics...if the US dollar and European Union euro are still the leading international currencies and China has only risen to this status by playing outside

  9. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing.

  10. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  11. Generating natural language under pragmatic constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Hovy, Eduard H

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that the generation of natural language is a goal- driven process, where many of the goals are pragmatic (i.e., interpersonal and situational) in nature, this book provides an overview of the role of pragmatics in language generation. Each chapter states a problem that arises in generation, develops a pragmatics-based solution, and then describes how the solution is implemented in PAULINE, a language generator that can produce numerous versions of a single underlying message, depending on its setting.

  12. Immigration, language proficiency, and autobiographical memories: Lifespan distribution and second-language access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2016-08-01

    This investigation examined two controversies in the autobiographical literature: how cross-language immigration affects the distribution of autobiographical memories across the lifespan and under what circumstances language-dependent recall is observed. Both Spanish/English bilingual immigrants and English monolingual non-immigrants participated in a cue word study, with the bilingual sample taking part in a within-subject language manipulation. The expected bump in the number of memories from early life was observed for non-immigrants but not immigrants, who reported more memories for events surrounding immigration. Aspects of the methodology addressed possible reasons for past discrepant findings. Language-dependent recall was influenced by second-language proficiency. Results were interpreted as evidence that bilinguals with high second-language proficiency, in contrast to those with lower second-language proficiency, access a single conceptual store through either language. The final multi-level model predicting language-dependent recall, including second-language proficiency, age of immigration, internal language, and cue word language, explained ¾ of the between-person variance and (1)/5 of the within-person variance. We arrive at two conclusions. First, major life transitions influence the distribution of memories. Second, concept representation across multiple languages follows a developmental model. In addition, the results underscore the importance of considering language experience in research involving memory reports.

  13. La política económica de la República Popular China: un desafío a la hegemonía monetaria de los Estados Unidos en el Sudeste Asiático. Periodo 2003 -2015

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides Niño, David Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación parte del declive de la hegemonía de los Estados Unidos y el paralelo asenso económico de la República Popular China en las últimas décadas. De este modo, se plantea como objetivo principal analizar cómo China mediante su política económica desafía a la hegemonía monetaria de los Estado Unidos en el Sudeste Asiático, durante el periodo de 2003 a 2015. Con el fin de lograr este objetivo, se elabora un estudio de la hegemonía de los Estados Unidos y sus dinámicas en e...

  14. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oral — Natural Gestures, Listening, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech Auditory-Verbal — Listening, Speech Bilingual — American Sign Language, Finger Spelling, Natural Gestures Cued Speech — Cueing, Speech (Lip) Reading Total Communication — Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE), Finger Spelling, Listening, ...

  15. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  16. Programming Languages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 12. Programming Languages - A Brief Review ... IBM Professor of Information Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560012, India; Hon.Professor, Supercomputer Education & Research Centre ...

  17. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  18. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to job@rosey.ch

  19. Verso una globalizzazione antiegemonica. L’America Latina e la teoria critica di Boaventura de Sousa Santos - Toward an anti-hegemonic globalization. Latin America and the critical theory of Boaventura de Sousa Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vignola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the current debates revolves around the question of determining whether there are one or several globalisations. For the great majority of authors there is only one globalisation, neo-liberal capitalist globalisation, and it does not, therefore, make sense to distinguish between hegemonic and antihegemonic globalisation. In the field of transnational social and cultural practices the anti-hegemonic transformation consists, according to Boaventura de Sousa Santos and his critical theory of the epistemology of the South, in the construction of an emancipatory multiculturalism. Multiculturalism overlaps with the democratic definition of reciprocal rules of recognition between distinct identities and cultures. Our hypothesis is that the process of political construction of alternatives is particularly evident in Latin America movements and recent political experiences. These new political practices are analyzed against the theoretical background of Sousa Santos’ approach, therefore not only as practical antagonist experiences, but as emancipation methods which, as they have not been foreseen by the great theoretical tradition of the Eurocentric left, may actually contradict it and put it into a theoretical as well as political crisis.

  20. Language Policy, Language Choice and Language Use in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the pros and cons of the checkered nature of language use in the Tanzanian Parliament. It focuses on language policy, language choice and the practicality of language use in parliamentary discourse. Right from the eve of independence, the medium of communication in the Tanzanian parliament has ...

  1. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Preschool language disorders. www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Preschool-Language-Disorders . Accessed July 8, 2016. Nass R, Trauner DA. Developmental language disorders. ...

  2. A Stroke of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  3. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  4. VAL language: description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    VAL is a high-level, function-based language designed for use on data flow computers. A data flow computer has many small processors organized to cooperate in the executive of a single computation. A computation is represented by its data flow graph; each operator in a graph is scheduled for execution on one of the processors after all of its operands' values are known. VAL promotes the indentification of concurrency in algorithms and simplifies the mapping into data graphs. This paper presents a detailed introduction to VAL and analyzes its usefulness for programming in a highly concurrent environment. VAL provides implicit concurrency (operations that can execute simultaneously are evident without the need for any explicit language notation). The language uses function- and expression-based features that prohibit all side effects, which simplifies translation to graphs. The salient language features are described and illustrated through examples taken from a complete VAL program for adaptive quadrature. Analysis of the language shows that VAL meets the critical needs for a data flow environment. The language encourages programmers to think in terms of general concurrency, enhances readability (due to the absence of side effects), and possesses a structure amenable to verification techniques. However, VAL is still evolving. The language definition needs refining, and more support tools for programmer use need to be developed. Also, some new kinds of optimization problems should be addressed

  5. How Could Language Have Evolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.; Tattersall, Ian; Chomsky, Noam; Berwick, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the faculty of language largely remains an enigma. In this essay, we ask why. Language's evolutionary analysis is complicated because it has no equivalent in any nonhuman species. There is also no consensus regarding the essential nature of the language “phenotype.” According to the “Strong Minimalist Thesis,” the key distinguishing feature of language (and what evolutionary theory must explain) is hierarchical syntactic structure. The faculty of language is likely to have emerged quite recently in evolutionary terms, some 70,000–100,000 years ago, and does not seem to have undergone modification since then, though individual languages do of course change over time, operating within this basic framework. The recent emergence of language and its stability are both consistent with the Strong Minimalist Thesis, which has at its core a single repeatable operation that takes exactly two syntactic elements a and b and assembles them to form the set {a, b}. PMID:25157536

  6. Venezuela e ALBA: regionalismo contra-hegemônico e ensino superior para todos Venezuela and the ALBA: counter-hegemonic regionalism and higher education for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Muhr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partindo de um quadro teórico neo-gramsciano crítico à globalização, este artigo aplica a nova teoria do regionalismo (NTR e a teoria do regionalismo regulatório (TRR à sua análise e teorização dos tratados de comércio da Aliança Bolivariana para os Povos da Nossa América (ALBA-TCP como regionalismo contra-hegemônico na América Latina e Caribe (ALC. A ALBA está centrada na ideia de um Socialismo do Século XXI, que, como (inicialmente também a Revolução Bolivariana da Venezuela, substitui a 'vantagem competitiva' pela 'vantagem cooperativa'. Em seu caráter de conjunto de processos multidimensionais e transnacionais a ALBA-TCP opera dentro de/transversalmente a um número de setores e escalas, ao mesmo passo que as transformações estruturais são movidas pela interação de agentes do Estado e agentes não estatais. A política de Educação Superior para Todos (ESPT do governo venezuelano rejeita a agenda neoliberal globalizada de mercadorização, privatização e elitismo e reinvindica educação pública gratuita em todos os níveis como um direito humano fundamental. A ESPT está sendo regionalizado em um espaço educacional emergente da ALBA e assume um papel-chave nos processos de democracia direta e participatória, dos quais a construção popular (bottom-up da contra-hegemonia e a redefinição política e econômica da ALC dependem. Antes de produzir sujeitos empreendedores conformes ao capitalismo global, a ESPT procura formar subjetividades ao longo de valores morais de solidariedade e cooperação. Isso será ilustrado com referência a um estudo etnográfico de caso da Universidade Bolivariana da Venezuela (UBV.This paper employs new regionalism theory and regulatory regionalism theory in its analysis and theorisation of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA as a counter-hegemonic Latin American and Caribbean (LAC regionalism. As (initially the regionalisation of Venezuela's Bolivarian

  7. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  8. Worldwide State of Language MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perifanou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the age of globalization, the need for language learning is greater than ever before. "Globalization is a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and [function] together" (Chomsky, 2006, cited in Ivan, 2012, p. 81). As global citizens we need to be able to work in settings characterized by linguistic…

  9. [First language acquisition research and theories of language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.

  10. Language development and assessment in the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    Most young children make significant progress in learning language during the first 4 years of life. Delays or differences in patterns of language acquisition are sensitive indicators of developmental problems. The dynamic, complex nature of language and the variability in the timing of its acquisition poses a number of challenges for the assessment of young children. This paper summarises the key developmental milestones of language development in the preschool years, providing a backdrop for understanding difficulties with language learning. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are characterised illustrating the types of language difficulties they exhibit. Genetic evidence for language impairment suggests complex interactions among multiple genes of small effect. There are few consistent neurobiological abnormalities and currently there is no identified neurobiological signature for language difficulties. The assessment of young children's language skills thus focuses on the evaluation of their performances in comparison to typically developing peers. Assessment of language abilities in preschool children should involve an evaluation of both expressive and receptive skills and should include an evaluation of more than one dimension of language. The use of a single measure of a language component, such as vocabulary, is considered inadequate for determining whether preschool children have typical language or language impairment. Available evidence supports the inclusion of measures of phonological short-term memory in the assessment of the language abilities of preschool children. Further study of genetic, neurobiological and early behavioural correlates of language impairments in preschool children is needed.

  11. LANGUAGE, SCIENCE AND ART – CONSIDERATIONS ON “TRAGIC DRAMA” BY WALTER BENJAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Benito OLIVEIRA FERRAZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The wealth, diversity and complexity of Walter Benjamin’s thoughts led us to deepen our understanding of some aspects of his ideas, notably those that refer to a reflection of the role of the truth in the hegemonic philosophical-scientific discourse and its relation to the artistic language as a redimensioning vehicle of the process for the human knowledge creation. In this sense, we have chosen the work `The Origin of German Tragic Drama` as an idea reference towards our worries, highlighting the role of individual experience in order to establish narratives which are able to build a social memory, and technical and technological perseverance as central for the new human perceptions. Such ideas have revealed how modern and important his writings are as far as understanding human beings is concerned.

  12. "Sleeping Beauty Gets a Makeover": Using the Retelling of Fairytales to Create an Awareness of Hegemonic Norms and the Social Construction of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brule, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Media use gender imagery to define "the cultural representations of gender and embodiment of gender in symbolic language and artistic productions that reproduce and legitimate gender statuses." The heroines and heroes in fairytales present images of women being young, beautiful, passive, and helpless while men are portrayed as strong, powerful,…

  13. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  14. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  15. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  16. Bilingualism: theoretical perspectives of language diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbart, C L

    1992-01-01

    Bilingualism and second language acquisition are discussed with reference to different theoretical perspectives. An integrated definition of bilingualism is provided and concepts underlying second language acquisition are presented. Theoretical perspectives according to Dodson (1985), Skinner (1985) and Krashen (1982) are explored. It is concluded that due to the diverse nature of bilingualism, a single universal theory of second language acquisition does not seem feasible. The need for an increased awareness of the complexity of bilingualism and second language acquisition, particularly within the multicultural and multilingual South African context, is highlighted.

  17. Lexical Choice and Language Selection in Bilingual Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kai J.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined single-word code-mixing produced by bilingual preschoolers in order to better understand lexical choice patterns in each language. Analysis included item-level code-mixed responses of 606 five-year-old children. Per parent report, children were separated by language dominance based on language exposure and use. Children were…

  18. Globalisme og hegemonisk tænkning i sprogpolitiken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    of globalism than of globalization. In the discourse about the present dominance (or globality) of English, the term ‘hegemony’ is often used in a rather vague sense, almost synonymously with ‘dominance’. But hegemony is rather the organization of consent (following Gramsci). It contains an element...... of acceptance as well as one of dominance, and it rules by persuasion, not by force. As has been suggested for the analysis of political hegemony, it is also better not to focus too much on the hegemony of single nation states but to take into account the possibility of more complex, multi-centered hegemonic...... projects. Language hegemony may also be analyzed in terms of linguistic hegemonic projects which are not tied to a single-state hegemon as in classical ‘language imperialism’ analyses. Finally, a type of hegemonic discourse is discussed that bases itself on common sense and contributes to the organization...

  19. Education and language: A human right for sustainable development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia; Geo-JaJa, Macleans A.; Lou, Shizhou

    2012-10-01

    Pre-colonial Africa was neither an educationally nor a technologically unsophisticated continent. While education was an integral part of the culture, issues of language identification and standardisation which are subject to contentious debate today were insignificant. Children learned community knowledge and history by asking questions instead of being taught in a hegemonic alien language. This article argues that education and development should take place in a broader context of human rights, and explores the links between three areas often dealt with separately, namely: language, education and development. The authors of this paper demonstrate that changing the face of the multi-dimensionalities of poverty within societies is possible only when education is constructed in a rights perspective over the favoured colonial languages, which are not an integral part of the culture and resources of a community. The authors make a distinction between the right to education and rights in education, the latter of which are found to be more significant for the challenges Africa faces. It is argued here that the elements of Amartya Sen's "threshold" conditions for inclusion in human rights and self-development in education are essential, and that a more promising architecture of education would include what the authors term meta-narrative frameworks, i.e. interrelated policies. The authors contend that the neoliberal commodification of the knowledge sector has only exacerbated human rights and capabilities deprivation - which encompasses both human and income poverty.

  20. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... models. Our language, Featherweight VML, has several distinctive features. Its architecture and operations are inspired by the recently proposed Common Variability Language (CVL). Its semantics is considerably simpler than that of CVL, while remaining confluent (unlike CVL). We simplify complex......, which makes it suitable to serve as a specification for implementations of trustworthy variant derivation. Featherweight VML offers insights in the execution of other variability modeling languages such as the Orthogonal Variability Model and Delta Modeling. To the best of our knowledge...

  1. Cross-lingual parser selection for low-resource languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    In multilingual dependency parsing, transferring delexicalized models provides unmatched language coverage and competitive scores, with minimal requirements. Still, selecting the single best parser for any target language poses a challenge. Here, we propose a lean method for parser selection....... It offers top performance, and it does so without disadvantaging the truly low-resource languages. We consistently select appropriate source parsers for our target languages in a realistic cross-lingual parsing experiment....

  2. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  3. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  4. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  5. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  6. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  7. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  8. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  9. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  10. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  11. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  12. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  13. Let There Be Languages!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Petur

    1992-01-01

    Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)

  14. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  15. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  16. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, Babette; Dusseldorp, Elise; Bol, Gerard; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Verkerk, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case–control study, children attending special needs schools for severe

  17. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Dusseldorp, E.; Bol, G.W.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case-control study, children attending special needs schools for severe speech

  18. Does São Paulo need a foreign policy? Hegemony, diplomacy and paradiplomacy in Brazil ¿Necesita São Paulo una política exterior? Hegemonía, diplomacia y paradiplomacia en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida MEDEIROS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues, on the one hand, that the hegemonic condition of the state of São Paulo in the the Brazilian federation incites it to practice an endogenous paradiplomatic action; on the other hand, it alleges that this endogenous paradiplomatic action coincides with a phenomenon of des-concentration (and not of federalization of the national diplomacy. The conclusion is that if the gradual desconcentration of the Brazilian diplomacy demands a consistent effort of the endogenous paradiplomacy, this does not mean that, for the maximization of the profits, the exogenous paradiplomacy does not have to be implemented.El presente trabajo argumenta dos cosas. Por un lado, que la condición hegemónica del estado de São Paulo en el seno de la federación brasileña lo predispone a una acción paradiplomática endógena. Por otra parte, alega que esta acción paradiplomática endógena coincide con un fenómeno de desconcentración (y no de federalización de la diplomacia nacional. La conclusión a la que se llega es que si la desconcentración paulatina de la diplomacia brasileña exige un esfuerzo capitalizado de la paradiplomacia endógena, esto no significa que para maximizar las ganancias la paradiplomacia exógena no deba ser implementada. La hegemonía del estado de São Paulo no justifica un comportamiento poco expresivo respecto a una elaboración coordinada de la estrategia de gestión de sus negocios extranjeros.

  19. Hegemonia e contra-hegemonia no processo de implantação da Casa de Parto no Rio de Janeiro Hegemonía y contra hegemonía en el proceso de implantación de la Casa de Parto en Rio de Janeiro Hegemony and counter-hegemony in the process of implementing the Casa de Parto Birth Center in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o processo de implantação da primeira Casa de Parto no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Por meio de pesquisa qualitativa objetivou-se identificar os determinantes do processo de implantação da Casa de Parto e analisar a influência dos grupos hegemônicos e contra-hegemônicos neste processo de implantação. O referencial teórico foi o conceito de hegemonia. O método dialético orientou a análise dos dados por meio das categorias metodológicas: contradição, totalidade e historicidade. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas no período de janeiro a julho de 2007. Os entrevistados foram quatro gestores da saúde municipal e onze profissionais técnico-administrativos designados para implantar a Casa de Parto. A síntese deste estudo revelou que a implantação da Casa de Parto foi determinada pela contra-hegemonia estabelecida na assistência à gestação e parto fisiológicos.Se estudió el proceso de implantación de la primera Casa de Parto en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS en la ciudad del Rio de Janeiro. Por medio de una investigación cualitativa se objetivó identificar los determinantes del proceso de implantación de la Casa de Parto y analizar la influencia de los grupos hegemónicos y contra hegemónicos en ese proceso de implantación. El marco teórico fue el concepto de hegemonía. El método dialéctico orientó el análisis de los datos por medio de las categorías metodológicas: contradicción, totalidad e historicidad. Fueron realizadas entrevistas semiestructuradas en el período de enero a julio de 2007. Los entrevistados fueron cuatro gestores de la salud municipal y once profesionales técnicos y administrativos designados para implantar la Casa de Parto. La síntesis de este estudio reveló que la implantación de la Casa de Parto fue determinada por la contra hegemonía establecida en la asistencia a la gestación y parto fisiológicos.This study addressed the

  20. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E

    1991-01-01

    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  11. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  12. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-02-10

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca's area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca's area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca's area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard.

  13. Critical language awareness in foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Farias

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a panoramic description of the ways in which the so-called Critical Language Awareness (CLA), can contribute to the teaching and learning of English as a global language, which increasingly involves a wide range of visual, verbal, and digitally-delivered media and modes of communication. The overview presented begins with the concept of Language Awareness, and goes into more depth with respect to that of Critical Language Awareness, establishing a parallel with Paulo Freir...

  14. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  15. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  16. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  17. Triple representation of language, working memory, social and emotion processing in the cerebellum: convergent evidence from task and seed-based resting-state fMRI analyses in a single large cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, Xavier; Gabrieli, John D E; Schmahmann, Jeremy D

    2018-02-02

    Delineation of functional topography is critical to the evolving understanding of the cerebellum's role in a wide range of nervous system functions. We used data from the Human Connectome Project (n = 787) to analyze cerebellar fMRI task activation (motor, working memory, language, social and emotion processing) and resting-state functional connectivity calculated from cerebral cortical seeds corresponding to the peak Cohen's d of each task contrast. The combination of exceptional statistical power, activation from both motor and multiple non-motor tasks in the same participants, and convergent resting-state networks in the same participants revealed novel aspects of the functional topography of the human cerebellum. Consistent with prior studies there were two distinct representations of motor activation. Newly revealed were three distinct representations each for working memory, language, social, and emotional task processing that were largely separate for these four cognitive and affective domains. In most cases, the task-based activations and the corresponding resting-network correlations were congruent in identifying the two motor representations and the three non-motor representations that were unique to working memory, language, social cognition, and emotion. The definitive localization and characterization of distinct triple representations for cognition and emotion task processing in the cerebellum opens up new basic science questions as to why there are triple representations (what different functions are enabled by the different representations?) and new clinical questions (what are the differing consequences of lesions to the different representations?). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  19. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  20. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Giraldo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved—what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students and teachers. This reflective article reviews assessment literacy from general education experts and language education scholars and shows how the meaning of language assessment literacy has expanded. To add to the discussion of this construct, the article focuses on the specific language assessment literacy for language teachers and proposes a core list of assessment knowledge, skills, and principles for these stakeholders.

  1. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOFF, ERIKA; CORE, CYNTHIA; PLACE, SILVIA; RUMICHE, ROSARIO; SEÑOR, MELISSA; PARRA, MARISOL

    2015-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1;10 to 2;6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed. PMID:21418730

  2. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  3. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  4. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  5. Quantitative Entropy Study of Language Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, R. R.; Deng, W. B.; Wang, D. J.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the entropy of Chinese and English texts, based on characters in case of Chinese texts and based on words for both languages. Significant differences are found between the languages and between different personal styles of debating partners. The entropy analysis points in the direction of lower entropy, that is of higher complexity. Such a text analysis would be applied for individuals of different styles, a single individual at different age, as well as different groups of the popul...

  6. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    where one’s mother tongue is usually not the language of education and government. . Even though English and the other well-provisioned languages are... software system that is frequently tweaked and rebuilt. Datasets are provided both as single aggregated files (one per resource type), and as many...provide information from both. However, because Ethnologue GIS data may not be redistributed, we locate and supply the nearest populated place instead

  7. Optimizing Tokenization Choice for Machine Translation across Multiple Target Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalmout Nasser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tokenization is very helpful for Statistical Machine Translation (SMT, especially when translating from morphologically rich languages. Typically, a single tokenization scheme is applied to the entire source-language text and regardless of the target language. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that SMT performance may benefit from different tokenization schemes for different words within the same text, and also for different target languages. We apply this approach to Arabic as a source language, with five target languages of varying morphological complexity: English, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese. Our results show that different target languages indeed require different source-language schemes; and a context-variable tokenization scheme can outperform a context-constant scheme with a statistically significant performance enhancement of about 1.4 BLEU points.

  8. Constitutionalising Language: A Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    existing languages in a new born state. The discussion began remarking upon the enormous significance of language in political, identity and constitutional terms. It follows comparing different constitutional systems in the world and the status of minority languages in Argentina, Bolivia, Croatia, Serbia....... The paper emphasises the international human right to language, and proposes an accommodation strategy in which the traditional majority language forms the lingua franca, other major languages are granted equal official status, and the government promotes and respects important minority languages. The paper...

  9. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  10. The Language Exposure Assessment Tool: Quantifying Language Exposure in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop the Language Exposure Assessment Tool (LEAT) and to examine its cross-linguistic validity, reliability, and utility. The LEAT is a computerized interview-style assessment that requests parents to estimate language exposure. The LEAT yields an automatic calculation of relative language exposure and captures qualitative aspects of early language experience. Method Relative language exposure as reported on the LEAT and vocabulary size at 17 months of age were measured in a group of bilingual language learners with varying levels of exposure to French and English or Spanish and English. Results The LEAT demonstrates high internal consistency and criterion validity. In addition, the LEAT's calculation of relative language exposure explains variability in vocabulary size above a single overall parent estimate. Conclusions The LEAT is a valid and efficient tool for characterizing early language experience across cultural settings and levels of language exposure. The LEAT could be a useful tool in clinical contexts to aid in determining whether assessment and intervention should be conducted in one or more languages. PMID:27784032

  11. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  12. Lost in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nellemann, Kristian Lindhardt; Birk, Nikoline Aarup; Toft-Nielsen, Nina Kristine; Justice, Alexandra Isabella; Løkkegaard, Jakob Ludvig; Mørch, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to investigate the intricate processes immigrants in Denmark go through when learning Danish as a foreign or second language. It builds from an understanding of language as a social practice and a view of language learning as having more than a cognitive level. By combining theory on second language acquisition with theory on identity and communities of practice, this project looks to explore how immigrants through investment in language learning create or maintain a meanin...

  13. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  14. Local languages as the languages of internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    on offering programs rather in English than the local language. At Copenhagen Business School, 56.4% of the students at MA level followed courses in English in 2009. Many students come to Denmark from abroad, follow the English language programs offered, but are motivated to learn Danish, the local language......International (or more properly, according to Hannerz (1996), transnational) communication can happen in many languages. Focus has recently been mostly on English as the ‘lingua franca of the world’, but maybe unduly so; since there are alternatives. Especially when it comes to transnational...... student mobility, the local language of the host university can become the language of internationalization. As a starting point, I distinguish with Beck (2000) between globalization as a historical process and its result, viz. the ever changing degree of globality in world society, and from the ideology...

  15. Native language, spoken language, translation and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Melitz; Farid Toubal

    2012-01-01

    We construct new series for common native language and common spoken language for 195 countries, which we use together with series for common official language and linguis-tic proximity in order to draw inferences about (1) the aggregate impact of all linguistic factors on bilateral trade, (2) whether the linguistic influences come from ethnicity and trust or ease of communication, and (3) in so far they come from ease of communication, to what extent trans-lation and interpreters play a role...

  16. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...... topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education...

  17. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  18. Teaching language arts to English language learners

    CERN Document Server

    Vásquez, Anete; Smith, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of Teaching Language Arts to English Language Learners provides readers with the comprehensive understanding of both the challenges that face ELLs and ways in which educators might address them in the language arts classroom. The authors offer proven techniques that teachers can readily use to teach reading, writing, grammar, and vocabulary as well as speaking, listening, and viewing skills. A complete section is also devoted to ways teachers can integrate all five strands of the language arts curriculum into a comprehensive unit of study w

  19. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Thoroughly updated to reflect the most current developments in language design and implementation, the second edition*Addresses key developments in programming language design:+ Finalized C99 standard+ Java 5+ C# 2.0+ Java concurrency package (JSR 166) and comparable mechanisms in C#+ Java and C# generics*Introduces and discusses scripting languages throughout the book and in an entire new chapter that covers:+ Application domains: shell languages, text processing and report generation, mathematics and statistics, "glue" languages and general purpose scripting, extension languages, scripting t

  20. La transformación de las políticas culturales en Argentina durante la primera década kirchnerista: entre la hegemonía y la diversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martín Zamorano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde 2003, igualmente que en muchos países latinoamericanos que participaron del llamado “giro a la izquierda”, las políticas culturales argentinas se profundizaron y diversificaron. Esta nueva política cultural ha sido caracterizada como un instrumento de construcción de hegemonía en un sentido gramsciano, pero dicha afirmación no ha sido explicada y la relación de la administración pública de la cultura con los particularismos sociales y la diversidad cultural tampoco ha sido analizada. El presente trabajo examina esta problemática, estudiando continuidad y cambio en la historia de las políticas culturales argentinas y focalizando en el período 2003-2013. De este modo, precisa su particular configuración administrativa, programática y constitutiva durante la década estudiada, donde paradigma de la diversidad cultural tuvo una relevancia secundaria en relación con el concepto peronista de pueblo.

  1. Los gobiernos de hegemonía del Partido de los Trabajadores (PT y los medios de prensa. Las elecciones de 2014 y la crisis política del segundo gobierno de Dilma Rousseff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Alejandro Goldstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la coyuntura que se extiende desde la campaña de laselecciones presidenciales de 2014 en Brasil hasta los primeros meses del segundomandato de Dilma Rousseff, a partir de la perspectiva interdisciplinar de medios ypolítica. Luego de realizar una reconstrucción de la relación entre medios y políticadurante los dos gobiernos de Lula da Silva y el primero de Rousseff, el artículosugiere que durante la campaña presidencial de 2014 los principales medios deprensa intentaron perfilar inicialmente como “candidata revelación” a Marina Silva,proyectando sus posibilidades; al constatar que no entraría al balotaje apoyaron alcandidato Aécio Neves, a la vez que buscaron involucrar a Rousseff en escándalosde corrupción. Finalmente, se considera el escenario político del segundo mandatode Rousseff, donde la candidata de la coalición de hegemonía petista, si bien hatriunfado electoralmente, se encuentra actualmente con restricciones en su accionarpolítico originadas, entre otros factores, por su inacción en la política de regulaciónde los medios.

  2. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available México como Brasil (primera década del 2000 comenzaron a desplegar proyecciones geoeconómicas y geopolíticas sobre su entorno inmediato (la subregión de pertenencia y su entorno mediato (la subregión vecina, además de jugar roles políticos destacados en su entorno lejano (la región latinoamericana y caribeña y en su entorno remoto (el continente americano. En consecuencia, hemos propuesto y desarrollado las ideas de que estas situaciones y realidades son las de procesos de constitución de dos Estados con roles de "subhegemones", con sus respectivas funciones de "subhegemonía". Preguntamos: ¿Cómo y por qué México y Brasil se encuentran definiendo roles de "subhegemones"? ¿Son posibles tales roles y funciones en un espacio continental donde un Estado "superpotencia" ejerce una "supremacía" indiscutible, además de buscar redefinir su "hegemonía" (la que está en crisis? Para trabajar el tema de las relaciones geopolíticas de México con Centroamérica realizamos cuatro aproximaciones: posicionamiento actual de México, antecedentes históricos de las relaciones, proceso de institucionalización de la cooperación y campo de acción de la relaciones. Además, se concluye el trabajo con algunas ideas sobre la visión geopolítica de México. La aproximación al posicionamiento estructural de México en el mundo y el continente americano, busca poner en evidencia las realidades de su condición de país semiperiférico y "subhegemón". La aproximación histórica conduce a la década de los años ochenta y a la década de los años noventa, donde se sientan los antecedentes y se inicia y profundiza la cooperación de México con Centroamérica. La aproximación institucional, centrada en la década de los años noventa e inicios de la primera década del año 2000, aborda el campo de acción de las relaciones geopolíticas y geoeconómicas de México con Centroamérica. Esta parte es central en el trabajo, pues se trata de

  3. A Review of the cross-Strait Relations According to the Rise of the Chinese Community and the Hegemonic Competition: The Strategic Consideration of the cross-Oceanic Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ren-rang Chyou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to "A German Media Forecasts the next 30 year of China" a report which appeared in November 2016 in the internet, around the year 2033, surrounding the Chinese mainland, a Greater China region will be formed. It is expected that its total economy will be similar in size to that of the United States. It seems inevitable that by 2040, the Oriental world wealth will be more than the Western world’s, while the global GDP ranking after re-shuffling may be sorted as follows: 1. Greater China; 2. European Union; 3. North America (USA and Canada; 4. Japan; 5. Republic of Greater Korea; and, 6. India. Through the presentation of this argument, this article hopes to understand the process of China's rise, the Chinese community's future overall cooperation, as a way to approach the hegemonic competition between China and the United States, and the future of cross-Strait relations. Finally, from the angle of the trans-oceanic canal construction, some observations will also be made

  4. Cultura y hegemonía de Ariel a El payador (o cómo hacer de la dura arcilla de las muchedumbres un elemento maleable de la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Rogers

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Las conferencias de El payador han sido habitualmente interpretadas como un gesto de rechazo hacia los grupos sociales inmigratorios. Sin embargo, en nuestra lectura, el gaucho prototípico diseñado por Lugones se corresponde menos con la noción de "pureza" cultural que tradicionalmente se le ha atribuido que con una figura cuya diversidad podía suscitar imaginariamente las identificaciones de sectores heterogéneos. El presente articulo señala en el texto una posición que, contra lo que Lugones hubiera deseado, no puede dejar de registrar la progresiva democratización social, tal como lo habían planteado ya otros intelectuales desde el cambio de siglo: Las multitudes argentinas (1898 de Ramos Mejía y Ariel (1900 de Rock La llamada "cultura popular" fue el material para elaborar las transformaciones para una política cultural, y con notables dosis de paternalismo, intentar reconstituir en ella el terreno de la lucha por la hegemonía. El payador registra indirectamente la existencia de un público amplio y heterogéneo, que no fue destinatario directo del discurso, Pero si era el objeto imaginario de reforma cultural.

  5. Cultura y hegemonía de Ariel a El payador (o cómo hacer de la dura arcilla de las muchedumbres un elemento maleable de la política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Rogers

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Las conferencias de El payador han sido habitualmente interpretadas como un gesto de rechazo hacia los grupos sociales inmigratorios. Sin embargo, en nuestra lectura, el gaucho prototípico diseñado por Lugones se corresponde menos con la noción de "pureza" cultural que tradicionalmente se le ha atribuido que con una figura cuya diversidad podía suscitar imaginariamente las identificaciones de sectores heterogéneos. El presente articulo señala en el texto una posición que, contra lo que Lugones hubiera deseado, no puede dejar de registrar la progresiva democratización social, tal como lo habían planteado ya otros intelectuales desde el cambio de siglo: Las multitudes argentinas (1898 de Ramos Mejía y Ariel (1900 de Rock La llamada "cultura popular" fue el material para elaborar las transformaciones para una política cultural, y con notables dosis de paternalismo, intentar reconstituir en ella el terreno de la lucha por la hegemonía. El payador registra indirectamente la existencia de un público amplio y heterogéneo, que no fue destinatario directo del discurso, Pero si era el objeto imaginario de reforma cultural.

  6. Políticas indigenistas en Argentina: entre la hegemonía neoliberal de los años noventa y la “nacional y popular” de la última década

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA BRIONES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of indigenist policies that is limited to detailing existing legal frameworks, describing the measures adopted, or specifying what has not been done or what needs to be done, says little of other parameters that are equally important for evaluating such policies as processes of construction of cultural hegemony, the effects of which must be weighted by other factors, by redefining the fields of political dialogue, resignifying the ideas and practices of citizenship and their effects on subjectivities. Based on the Argentine experience, this article discusses the idea of sedimentation of neoliberal measures in a context of hegemonic reappropriation of a perspective of "national and popular" sovereignty over territories and resources. This analysis of the effects of the indigenist policies of the past decade upon the indigenous movement therefore focuses on examining the development model that has been adopted and transformations in the ways of characterizing the plebs (the field of the popular or the least privileged as either a tangential or an essential part of the populus or the people of the nation and, therefore, of the demos, the space of those who can “legitimately” give form and content to the populus and put their world into words.

  7. Language, Mathematics and English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoniou, Misty; Qing, Yi

    2014-01-01

    There is a correlation between language proficiency and achievement in mathematics (Riordain & O'Donoghue, 2009), and this is particularly evident for children who speak English as an additional language or dialect. More effort needs to be made in mathematics classrooms to develop cognitive competencies, including the ability to decode and…

  8. Natural Language Video Description using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-23

    language with a single deep neural network. We use deep recurrent nets (RNNs), which have recently demonstrated strong results for machine translation (MT...Donahue, Marcus Rohrbach, Raymond Mooney, and Kate Saenko. Translating videos to natural language using deep recurrent neural net - works. In NAACL, 2015...Natural Language Video Description using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks Subhashini Venugopalan University of Texas at Austin vsub@cs.utexas.edu

  9. Should bilingual children learn reading in two languages at the same time or in sequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, Melody S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Is it best to learn reading in two languages simultaneously or sequentially? We observed 2nd and 3rd grade children in two-way dual-language learning contexts: (i) 50:50 or Simultaneous dual-language (two languages within same developmental period) and (ii) 90:10 or Sequential dual-language (one language, followed gradually by the other). They were compared to matched monolingual English-only children in single-language English schools. Bilinguals (home language was Spanish only, English-only, or Spanish and English in dual-language schools), were tested in both languages, and monolingual children were tested in English using standardized reading and language tasks. Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses. By contrast, bilinguals in 90:10 programs performed better than bilinguals in the 50:50 programs on English Phonological Awareness and Reading Decoding tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for surface phonological regularity analysis. Notably, children from English-only homes in dual-language learning contexts performed equally well, or better than, children from monolingual English-only homes in single-language learning contexts. Overall, the findings provide tantalizing evidence that dual-language learning during the same developmental period may provide bilingual reading advantages. PMID:23794952

  10. Coalition Battle Management Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tolk, Andreas; Galvin, Kevin; Hieb, Michael; Khimeche, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    Battle Management Language (BML) is being developed as an unambiguous language to command and control forces and equipment conducting military operations and to provide for situational awareness and a shared common operational picture...

  11. Language Management Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of existing literature on the topic of language management tools – the means by which language is managed – in multilingual organisations. By drawing on a combination of sociolinguistics and international business and management studies, a new taxonomy of language...... management tools is proposed, differentiating between three categories of tools. Firstly, corporate policies are the deliberate control of issues pertaining to language and communication developed at the managerial level of a firm. Secondly, corporate measures are the planned activities the firm’s leadership...... may deploy in order to address the language needs of the organisation. Finally, front-line practices refer to the use of informal, emergent language management tools available to staff members. The language management tools taxonomy provides a framework for operationalising the management of language...

  12. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  13. Language teaching strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanchick, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes some strategies of teaching English language. Special attention was paid to adult learning, writing problem and some others. The aim of the paper is to show advantages of intensive learning of English language

  14. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dual Diagnosis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  15. Flexible Language Interoperability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Torbjörn; Mechlenborg, Peter; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    Virtual machines raise the abstraction level of the execution environment at the cost of restricting the set of supported languages. Moreover, the ability of a language implementation to integrate with other languages hosted on the same virtual machine typically constrains the features...... of the language. In this paper, we present a highly flexible yet efficient approach to hosting multiple programming languages on an object-oriented virtual machine. Our approach is based on extending the interface of each class with language-specific wrapper methods, offering each language a tailored view...... of a given class. This approach can be deployed both on a statically typed virtual machine, such as the JVM, and on a dynamic virtual machine, such as a Smalltalk virtual machine. We have implemented our approach to language interoperability on top of a prototype virtual machine for embedded systems based...

  16. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  17. Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  18. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the intermixing of local sign languages and French Sign Language (LSF, or Langue des Signes Française). ... phrases with similar neural mechanisms as when we speak, new study finds New York University ( 4/03/ ...

  19. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  20. Language Management x 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2017-01-01

    into the Language Management Theory (LMT). A second definition of language management, diverting from LMT, can be found in the work of Spolsky, who treats language management as a theoretical component of the wider concept of language policy. Furthermore, over the past 15 years a number of scholars, particularly...... definitions of language management, before discussing five main focus points, which may be used to highlight their analytical differences.......The term ‘language management’ has become a widely used expression in the sociolinguistic literature. Originally introduced by Jernudd and Neustupný in 1987, as a novel continuation of the language planning tradition stemming from the 1960/70s, language management along these lines has developed...

  1. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in attaining language mastery with students from diverse language backgrounds and levels of ability confront educators around the world. Experiments, research, and experience see positive effects of adding sign language in communication methods to pre-school and K-12 education. Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages. Theories of learning that embrace play, drama, motion, repetition, socializing, and self-efficacy connect to the options for using sign language with learners in inclusive and mainstream classes. The methodical use of sign language by this researcher-educator over two and a half decades showed signing does build thinking skills, add enjoyment, stimulate communication, expand comprehension, increase vocabulary acquisition, encourage collaboration, and helps build appreciation for cultural diversity.

  2. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  3. Numerical Recipes in C++: The Art of Scientific Computing (2nd edn). Numerical Recipes Example Book (C++) (2nd edn). Numerical Recipes Multi-Language Code CD ROM with LINUX or UNIX Single-Screen License Revised Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherds, P

    2003-01-01

    The two Numerical Recipes books are marvellous. The principal book, The Art of Scientific Computing, contains program listings for almost every conceivable requirement, and it also contains a well written discussion of the algorithms and the numerical methods involved. The Example Book provides a complete driving program, with helpful notes, for nearly all the routines in the principal book. The first edition of Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing was published in 1986 in two versions, one with programs in Fortran, the other with programs in Pascal. There were subsequent versions with programs in BASIC and in C. The second, enlarged edition was published in 1992, again in two versions, one with programs in Fortran (NR(F)), the other with programs in C (NR(C)). In 1996 the authors produced Numerical Recipes in Fortran 90: The Art of Parallel Scientific Computing as a supplement, called Volume 2, with the original (Fortran) version referred to as Volume 1. Numerical Recipes in C++ (NR(C++)) is another version of the 1992 edition. The numerical recipes are also available on a CD ROM: if you want to use any of the recipes, I would strongly advise you to buy the CD ROM. The CD ROM contains the programs in all the languages. When the first edition was published I bought it, and have also bought copies of the other editions as they have appeared. Anyone involved in scientific computing ought to have a copy of at least one version of Numerical Recipes, and there also ought to be copies in every library. If you already have NR(F), should you buy the NR(C++) and, if not, which version should you buy? In the preface to Volume 2 of NR(F), the authors say 'C and C++ programmers have not been far from our minds as we have written this volume, and we think that you will find that time spent in absorbing its principal lessons will be amply repaid in the future as C and C++ eventually develop standard parallel extensions'. In the preface and introduction to NR

  4. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  5. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  6. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  7. Language Nests and Language Acquisition: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Eve K.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the findings from interviews conducted with language nest workers, teachers, language nest coordinators, administrators of language revitalization programs, principals and directors of language immersion schools that work in close proximity with language nests, and linguists involved in language revitalization efforts.…

  8. Potential Prometheus Effects of Sign Language as Research Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David G.

    1992-01-01

    This article promotes the utilization of Sign Language of the Deaf as a primary and secondary research language. The article discusses English as the traditional research language, the role of sign language in bilingualism, possible uses for American Sign Language (ASL) as a research language, and the availability of ASL-based literature for…

  9. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  10. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  11. Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  12. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela JIREGHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the idea of an effective communication between teacher and students aiming to prove that classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. The emphasis lies on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing rather than form (correctness of language and language structure.

  13. Language Policy in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak-Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2012-01-01

    The historical background, political changes, migration processes, EU membership and the current socio-linguistic situation have all influenced language policy and language planning in Slovenia. This article presents the most important aspects of language policy in Slovenia with a focus on the concept of linguistic diversity. The ethnic make-up of…

  14. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  15. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  16. Modern programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  17. Minorities and Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, D.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between minorities and language is complicated and related to the development of nation-states. Language minorities, as a social group, are distinguished from minority languages. The definition of minority is problematic. The size of a minority can differ widely. For membership,

  18. Cassirer's View of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Myth is the breakthrough point of [Ernest] Cassirer's philosophy; Art is one of key words to understand his defined language; and Symbolism infiltrates into all aspects of human cultures especially language. The shift of Cassirer from great theories of science and philosophy to the world of art, language, myth, and culture mirrors his bold and…

  19. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones On this page: How do speech ... and language developmental milestones? How do speech and language develop? The first 3 years of life, when ...

  20. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  1. Expanding Horizons and Unresolved Conundrums: Language Testing and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Constant; Lewkowicz, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Since the last "TESOL Quarterly" commemorative issue 15 years ago, there have been too many important developments in language testing and assessment for all of them to be discussed in a single article. Therefore, this article focuses on issues that we believe are integrally linked to pedagogic and curriculum concerns of English language teaching.…

  2. Britannica Review of Foreign Language Education, Volume 3, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dale L., Ed.

    This third volume in a series on foreign language education reviews the experience, writing, and research in the United States during 1970. The central theme, pluralism in foreign language education, is exemplified in each chapter. This theme suggests that the profession is no longer consciously oriented to a single approach to the learning of a…

  3. LANGUAGE TRAVEL SUPPLY: LANGUAGE TOURISM PRODUCT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of literature up to date reflects great scholarly interest in the impacts of study abroad (SA sojourns on foreign language learners’ communicative competence. This paper provides an overview on gains in sociolinguistic and pragmatic competences drawing upon research carried out in this field, which in broad terms supports the belief that both types of competences are effectively developed in SA stays. This article also offers a detailed account of the main constituents of the language tourism product -the travel component and the language learning component- with a special focus on the educational input and the language learning complements included in the latter. Thus, a fundamental part of the language tourism market system will be depicted from a supply perspective. Following an exploratory approach, a literature review was conducted in order to identify existing and missing knowledge in the field of language travel supply, and key aspects were pinpointed and classified. The taxonomy and underpinning concepts resulting from the categorisation of those key features may be considered the starting point for future investigations on SA programmes. The model offered in this exploratory study aims at constituting the underlying conceptual framework for subsequent research on the role of different SA programme design characteristics within the language tourism experience.

  4. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  5. Programming Language Pragmatics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Programming Language Pragmatics is the most comprehensive programming language textbook available today. Taking the perspective that language design and language implementation are tightly interconnected, and that neither can be fully understood in isolation, this critically acclaimed and bestselling book has been thoroughly updated to cover the most recent developments in programming language design. With a new chapter on run-time program management and expanded coverage of concurrency, this new edition provides both students and professionals alike with a solid understanding of the most impo

  6. Mixed language programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burow, Burkhard D.

    1996-01-01

    Computing in the next millennium will be using software from this millennium. Programming languages evolve and new ones continue to be created. The use of legacy code demonstrates why some present and future applications may span programming languages. Even a completely new application may mix programming languages, if it allows its components to be more conveniently expressed. Given the need, mixed language programming should be easy and robust. By resolving a variety of difficulties, the well established cfortran.h package provides, the desired convenient interface across the C and Fortran programming languages, as demonstrated using CERN's Book. (author)

  7. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  8. Visual languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Visual languages have long been a pursuit of effective communication between human and machine. With rapid advances of the Internet and Web technology, human-human communication through the Web or electronic mobile devices is becoming more and more prevalent. Visual Languages and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to diagrammatical visual languages. This book discusses what visual programming languages are, and how such languages and their underlying foundations can be usefully applied to other fields in computer science. It also covers a broad range of contents from the underlying t

  9. South African Journal of African Languages: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS AND LAYOUT: Articles may not exceed 10 000 words in length (about 30 typed pages in 1.5 spacing). .... An indented quotation in a language other than English must appear in italics and must be followed by an English translation in normal print and between single quotation marks.

  10. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  11. Indian Language Document Analysis and Understanding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    authoritative manner outlining all the issues involved. The next two papers deal with com- plete systems designed for processing printed text documents in a single language. The paper by Chaudhuri, Pal and Mitra, which is also an invited contribution, describes a system for recognition of printed Oriya script. The paper by ...

  12. ¿Subversión o hegemonía cultural? Clemencia para los esclavos condenados a muerte en Virginia, 1800-1860 Subversion or Cultural Hegemony? Leniency for Slaves Condemned to Death in Virginia, 1800-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gurza Lavalle

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La política penal hacia los esclavos en Virginia atravesó un proceso de reformas durante las décadas anteriores a la guerra civil. Aunque el código para esclavos era excesivamente severo, en la práctica las autoridades mitigaron su dureza mediante la constante conmutación de las sentencias de muerte por deportación. La pena capital se convirtió en el castigo para los delitos más graves, y la mayor parte de los esclavos condenados a muerte en realidad fueron deportados. La mayoría de los historiadores del Sur estadounidense ha interpretado esta suavización de los castigos como parte del esfuerzo de la clase propietaria de esclavos para incrementar la legitimidad de su sistema social, y también su hegemonía cultural sobre la sociedad sureña en su conjunto. Desde esta perspectiva, los dueños de esclavos estaban dispuestos a promover reformas de este tipo para disminuir las críticas y cuestionamientos morales dirigidos contra la institución fundamental de su sociedad. Más allá de los ataques externos, a cargo de abolicionistas norteños y europeos, las reformas buscaban disminuir el espacio para las críticas y la disidencia interna, y asegurar el consenso doméstico en torno a la preservación de la esclavitud. Este artículo cuestiona los presupuestos de la "interpretación hegemónica" y, mediante el análisis detallado de varios casos de crimen esclavo, propone que las actitudes reformistas contenían ideas y actitudes antiesclavistas, así como cierto potencial para subvertir el orden social sureño.Penal policy towards slaves in Virginia underwent a process of reforms during the decades leading up to the Civil War. Although the code for slaves was excessively severe, in practice, the authorities made it less harsh by constantly commuting death sentences to deportation. Capital punishment became a punishment for only the most serious crimes alone while most of the slaves condemned to death were actually deported. Most of the

  13. Hegemonía empresaria y nuevas lógicas de control social: la formación del mando Enterprise Hegemony and new logics of social control: The management training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Figari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de reestablecimiento y consolidación de la hegemonía empresarial sobre el trabajo han generado efectos de exclusión, incremento de las selectividades y fragmentación entre los colectivos de trabajadores. Los años 90 han configurado un escenario propicio desde el cual se dio fisonomía a un nuevo orden laboral/profesional. Con posterioridad, las políticas corporativas empresariales han sofisticado y afianzado los dispositivos que encauzan las doctrinas corporativas en la materialidad del proceso de trabajo. En ese contexto, las políticas empresarias han impulsado nuevas configuraciones profesionales y la instrumentación de una nueva agencia simbólica/pedagógica que asume un papel estratégico en el control, social de la fuerza laboral. Y, es en este sentido que tiene lugar la consolidación de un patrón de disciplinamiento laboral, de tal forma que contribuya en el sostenimiento de la hegemonía empresaria sobre el trabajo. El artículo analiza los dispositivos de control social imperantes en el actual orden empresario y pone en evidencia las tendencias más significativas derivadas de la labor investigativa con relación a la emergencia y estabilización de modelos de profesionalización que regulan el inicio de la relación laboral y el acceso al mando. Se sostiene la importancia de considerar en forma conjunta ambas cuestiones con el fin de poner de manifiesto la relación existente entre el patrón de disciplinamiento laboral imperante y la emergencia de nuevos itinerarios de profesionalización. En este sentido, el artículo focaliza el análisis en el papel que asumen las pasantías y la formación del mando. Recuperamos los principales hallazgos derivados de las líneas de investigación que venimos encarando en empresas privatizadas en la década de los 90 (del sector eléctrico e hidrocarburos y grandes empresas transnacionales (en el sector de productos electrónicos, textil/química, farmacéutica, bebidas

  14. Developing cross-cultural communicative competence via computer-assisted language learning: the case of pre-service ESL/EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Salim Sehlaoui

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the relevant literature strongly suggests that many, if not most, English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL teacher education programmes typically utilize concepts of culture and strategies for teaching and learning that are open to some cogent, but constructive, critiques from the perspective of critical educational theory. In addition, according to Wise (1995, throughout the last ten years the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education has required that colleges of teacher education must integrate technology into their curricula. In fact, ESL/EFL teacher education programmes are increasingly incorporating computer-based technologies and software into their curricula. However, this integration is often done in ways that seem to leave unquestioned the potential cultural and hegemonic ramifications of such technology (see, for example, Bowers, 1988; Jones, 1995; Morton, 1996; Murray, 1997; Sehlaoui, 1999.

  15. A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbahira Mohamad Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three main theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition in an attempt to elucidate how people acquire their first language (L1 and learn their second language (L2. Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist offer different perspectives on language learning and acquisition which influence the acceptance of how an L2 should be taught and learned. This paper also explicates the relationship between L1 and L2, and elaborates on the similarities and differences between the two. This paper concludes that there is no one solid linguistic theory which can provide the ultimate explanation of L1 acquisition and L2 learning as there are many interrelated factors that influence the success of language acquisition or language learning. The implication is that teachers should base their classroom management practices and pedagogical techniques on several theories rather than a single theory as learners learn and acquire language differently. It is hoped that this paper provides useful insights into the complex process involved in language acquisition and learning, and contributes to the increased awareness of the process among the stakeholders in the field of language education. Keywords: behaviorist, innatist, interactionist, language acquisition, second language learning

  16. Discriminating languages in bilingual contexts: the impact of orthographic markedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaponsa, Aina; Carreiras, Manuel; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2014-01-01

    Does language-specific orthography help language detection and lexical access in naturalistic bilingual contexts? This study investigates how L2 orthotactic properties influence bilingual language detection in bilingual societies and the extent to which it modulates lexical access and single word processing. Language specificity of naturalistically learnt L2 words was manipulated by including bigram combinations that could be either L2 language-specific or common in the two languages known by bilinguals. A group of balanced bilinguals and a group of highly proficient but unbalanced bilinguals who grew up in a bilingual society were tested, together with a group of monolinguals (for control purposes). All the participants completed a speeded language detection task and a progressive demasking task. Results showed that the use of the information of orthotactic rules across languages depends on the task demands at hand, and on participants' proficiency in the second language. The influence of language orthotactic rules during language detection, lexical access and word identification are discussed according to the most prominent models of bilingual word recognition.

  17. Language attitudes in the second language situation

    OpenAIRE

    Riana Roos

    2013-01-01

    A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van a...

  18. The Linguistic Interpretation for Language Union – Language Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Balalykina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the problem of determination of the essence of language union and language family in modern linguistics, which is considered important, because these terms are often used as absolute synonyms. The research is relevant due to the need to distinguish the features of languages that are inherited during their functioning within either language union or language family when these languages are compared. The research has been carried out in order to present the historical background of the problem and to justify the need for differentiation of language facts that allow relating languages to particular language union or language family. In order to fulfill the goal of this work, descriptive, comparative, and historical methods have been used. A range of examples has been provided to prove that some languages, mainly Slavonic and Baltic languages, form a language family rather than a language union, because a whole number of features in their systems are the heritage of their common Indo-European past. Firstly, it is necessary to take into account changes having either common or different nature in the system of particular languages; secondly, one must have a precise idea of what features in the phonetic and morphological systems of compared languages allow to relate them to language union or language family; thirdly, it must be determined whether the changes in compared languages are regular or of any other type. On the basis of the obtained results, the following conclusions have been drawn: language union and language family are two different types of relations between modern languages; they allow identifying both degree of similarity of these languages and causes of differences between them. It is most important that one should distinguish and describe the specific features of two basic groups of languages forming language family or language union. The results obtained during the analysis are very important for linguistics

  19. Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language: Immersion Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Bih Ni; Kiu Su Na

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese so...

  20. Language Worldview of Yakima Indians, Compared with English and Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitsky Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of conceptualization the information as well as its further verbalization remains one of the topical issues of present-day linguistic research, though the languages of Native Americans (like Sahaptin – the language of the Yakima nation still need a more detailed analysis. The present study is the first to single out the means of verbalization the information on ENVIRONMENT & TIME in two distantly related languages (English and Ukrainian on the background of Sahaptin (the language of Yakima people.

  1. Calculating Certified Compilers for Non-deterministic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning about programming languages with non-deterministic semantics entails many difficulties. For instance, to prove correctness of a compiler for such a language, one typically has to split the correctness property into a soundness and a completeness part, and then prove these two parts...... be used to formally derive -- from the semantics of the source language -- a compiler that is correct by construction. For such a derivation to succeed it is crucial that the underlying correctness argument proceeds as a single calculation, as opposed to separate calculations of the two directions...... of the correctness property. We demonstrate our technique by deriving a compiler for a simple language with interrupts....

  2. An Integrated Framework to Specify Domain-Specific Modeling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can be used by DSL designers to implement their desired graphical domain-specific languages. This framework relies on Microsoft DSL Tools, a meta-modeling framework to build graphical domain-specific languages, and an extension of ForSpec, a ...... language to define their semantics. Integrating these technologies under the umbrella of Microsoft Visual Studio IDE allows DSL designers to utilize a single development environment for developing their desired domain-specific languages....

  3. Language Use in Six Study Abroad Programs: An Exploratory Analysis of Possible Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Baker, Wendy; Martinsen, Rob A.; Gold, Carrie; Eggett, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A common predictor of language gains during study abroad (SA) is amount of language use. Yet little attention has been given to determining what factors influence the extent of language use while abroad. Studies in this area have mainly been case studies of learners in single locations. In this larger study, we seek to determine variables…

  4. A Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Vocabulary Approach for Young Latino Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucia I.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Dina C.; Kainz, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the role of the language of vocabulary instruction in promoting English vocabulary in preschool Latino dual language learners (DLLs). The authors compared the effectiveness of delivering a single evidence-informed vocabulary approach using English as the language of vocabulary instruction (English culturally responsive…

  5. Exercises in Free Syntax. Syntax Definition, Parsing, and Assimilation of Language Conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.

    2008-01-01

    In modern software development the use of multiple software languages to constitute a single application is ubiquitous. Despite the omnipresent use of combinations of languages, the principles and techniques for using languages together are ad-hoc, unfriendly to programmers, and result in a poor

  6. Language Testing in the Context of Citizenship and Asylum: The Case of Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the current article is language testing in the context of citizenship and asylum in Estonia, a country that regained independence in 1991. Estonian as the single official language of the country (according to the new language legislation laws) and a new political system have caused changes in use of and attitudes toward Estonian among…

  7. Stability of Core Language Skill from Early Childhood to Adolescence: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    This four-wave prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of language in 324 children from early childhood to adolescence. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multiple age-appropriate multisource measures of child language on single-factor core language skills at 20 months and 4, 10, and 14 years. Large stability…

  8. The Politics of Language in Education: The "Mikro" Case in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueno, David P.

    2012-01-01

    School language policies stand at the nexus of identity politics and human rights in contemporary South Africa. Since 1996, litigation on school language policies has been resolved on the basis of language rights. Courts have emphasized that the mere mention of single-medium schools in the constitution in no way privileges these institutions over…

  9. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga B. Akimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its spread around the world. At the same time, the Russian Government has approved a number of relevant documents, established the Council on the Russian language under the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as established the Council on the Russian language under the President of the Russian Federation. The large-scale package of measures aimed at promotion of the Russian language as an official language and as a language of international communication, as well as at supporting the Russian language abroad, has been implemented in the framework of the three federal target Russian language programs. However, the analysis of implementation of the mentioned above programs, as well as received social effects and current practice does not provide relevant solutions for the major problems and does not always correspond to the rapidly changing realities.Practical significance. The perspective directions of the state language policy in the field of the Russian language and literature are specified and formulated: the analysis of the programs and projects aimed at the development, distribution and support of the Russian language; providing coordination of actions of executive authorities in the presented study; improvement of the Russian language studying quality in schools in accordance with features of the general education in the national republics; professional level improvement of teachers of the Russian language; preservation of national languages of

  10. Foreign Language Mediation Activities in the Dialogue of Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Voevoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the CEFR extended set of language proficiency descriptors. The author points out that education, as well as the language, make an integral part of national culture and reflect the problems existing in society including the problems in communication and social interaction. In the early 21st century the process of communication became largely monolingual with English as the global lingua franca. The Bologna process contributed to building the European education environment based on the principle of multilinguism, which implies that representatives of different ethnic groups with different mother tongues communicate in the same language within a single social group. In 2001, in order to synchronize the national curricula, the Council of Europe adopted CEFR - Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment which presents descriptors of the six levels of language proficiency. Ten years later it became evident that the descriptors needed to be revised. While economies were converging, cultures began to diverge. Globalization made Europeans realize the value of every single ethnic culture. That led to the idea of plurolinguism which argues that an individual can communicate in a variety of languages using a variety of language forms known to them. The process of communication thus calls for mediation activities that facilitates communication if the interlocutors are unable to understand each other directly. That means that the aim of language learning changes from perfecting a certain foreign language to building plurilingual and pluricultural competences.

  11. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    factors to be examined concern the absolute number of community members, their geographical distribution, the number of Croatian language speakers, and the number of those with Croatian as their mother tongue. According to the 2011 census, there were 114 880 Canadians of Croatian origin, representing an increase of 3.5% over 2006. In 2006, 110 880 Canadian residents reported Croatian ancestry, representing a percentage change of 12.5% from 2001. In 2001, there were 97 050 Canadians who self-identified as being of Croatian origin, representing a percentage change of 13% from 1996, when there were 84 495 Canadians of Croatian origin. Furthermore, census data show that the percentage of Canadians of Croatian origin reporting multiple ethnicity increased over the period; in 1996, there were 65.5% single ethnic origin responses, compared to 60% in 2001, 50.9% in 2006, and only 45.1% in 2011. In terms of geographical distribution of members of Croatian community in Canada, almost two thirds of all Canadians of Croatian descent (74 020 live in the province Ontario, with significant numbers also in British Columbia (19 855 and Alberta (10 055. The largest Croatian community is in the Toronto area, where 35 115 Croatians live, with significant numbers also in Vancouver (13 025 and Hamilton (11 640. The census data presented here indicate that demographic factors that positively influence Croatian language maintenance are the size of the linguistic group and geographic concentration of the group. More precisely, the absolute number of people of Croatian descent living in Canada is on the rise and the population of Croatian origin is mostly concentrated in the province of Ontario and in major urban centers in other provinces. On the other hand, the rise in the percentage of Canadians of Croatian descent reporting more than one ancestry could be viewed as a factor that negatively affects Croatian language maintenance. It is provided by the evidence of gradually changing marriage

  12. Book Review : A DICTIONARY OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF KEY TERMS IN FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan Kaswan

    2014-01-01

    As  with language, language acquisition (LA), particularly second language acquisition (SLA)  is not simple. SLA  is complex  and paradoxical.  SLA is complex because it cannot be scrutinized using a single approach.  SLA  is complex;  nevertheless  it is  a curious fact that the study of  (SLA has historically been dominated by a single broad approach—that which goes by the name of “cognitive (Atkinson (ed), 2011). Among views on acquisition which can be characterized as cognitive are: 1...

  13. Everyday Language Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwazume, Michiaki; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Itho, Noriko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Fujishiro, Hiroko; Sugeno, Michio

    The aim of this study is to provide all people, from small children to aged persons, with a computational environment for everyday language communication. In order to achieve this, we propose a framework for a language-based operating system. In this paper, we explain our approach to dealing with the meaning of language, the architecture of the language operating system and its components. In particular, we describe the notion of language protocol and its resource representation (i.e., semiotic base), compared to the other protocols and their resource representations. We argue that by processing meaning of language rather than processing information, we attempt to provide a more human-like computer system and an intelligent computational environment to all people.

  14. Rights to Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    topics can cross-fertilize each other, and that our understanding of the issues can benefit from coverage that is global, reflective and committed. A website with additional resource material to this book can be found at http://babel.ruc.dk/-robert/. Brings together scholarship in language, education......This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication...

  15. The language of football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Skrubbeltrang, Lotte Stausgaard

    2014-01-01

    users embedded in different collective social institutions such as national cultures that affect their choices in game-playing situations. Thus, the actions of Italian, English and Brazilian players become different dialects within the same language system. These dialects are expressed in actions...... language to have two components: a language system and language users (Danesi, 2003). Consequently, football can be characterized as a language containing a system with specific rules of the game and users with actual choices and actions within the game. All football players can be considered language...... levels (Schein, 2004) in which each player and his actions can be considered an artefact - a concrete symbol in motion embedded in espoused values and basic assumptions. Therefore, the actions of each dialect are strongly connected to the underlying understanding of football. By document and video...

  16. How arbitrary is language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Shillcock, Richard C.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Kirby, Simon

    2014-01-01

    It is a long established convention that the relationship between sounds and meanings of words is essentially arbitrary—typically the sound of a word gives no hint of its meaning. However, there are numerous reported instances of systematic sound–meaning mappings in language, and this systematicity has been claimed to be important for early language development. In a large-scale corpus analysis of English, we show that sound–meaning mappings are more systematic than would be expected by chance. Furthermore, this systematicity is more pronounced for words involved in the early stages of language acquisition and reduces in later vocabulary development. We propose that the vocabulary is structured to enable systematicity in early language learning to promote language acquisition, while also incorporating arbitrariness for later language in order to facilitate communicative expressivity and efficiency. PMID:25092667

  17. Own-Language Use in Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Graham; Cook, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the assumption of the language-teaching literature has been that new languages are best taught and learned monolingually, without the use of the students' own language(s). In recent years, however, this monolingual assumption has been increasingly questioned, and a re-evaluation of teaching that relates the language being taught to…

  18. Bilinguals' Existing Languages Benefit Vocabulary Learning in a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    Learning a new language involves substantial vocabulary acquisition. Learners can accelerate this process by relying on words with native-language overlap, such as cognates. For bilingual third language learners, it is necessary to determine how their two existing languages interact during novel language learning. A scaffolding account predicts…

  19. Language Awareness in Language Learning and Teaching: A Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Following on from my state-of-the-art article on "Language Awareness and language learning" (Svalberg 2007), in this paper I will discuss specific research tasks which are centrally concerned with different aspects of language awareness (LA): "explicit knowledge about language, and conscious perception and sensitivity in language learning,…

  20. Language Schemes--A Useful Policy Tool for Language Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Flatharta, Peadar

    2015-01-01

    The Irish language is recognised in Bunreacht na hÉireann [The Constitution of Ireland] as the national and first official language, and provisions to support the language are to found in c.120 specific enactments in Irish legislation. In 2007, the Irish language was designated as an official working language of the European Union. In 2003, the…

  1. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  2. MODERN STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Olga B. Akimova; Tatyana S. Tabachenko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to denote the necessity of strengthening of the Russian language position as one of the strategic humanitarian priorities of the Russian Federation.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalisation of the documents’ content in the last two years, concerning problems of the Russian language and the Russian literature.Results. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Russia takes active and comprehensive measures to support the Russian language and its...

  3. Language Policy, Language Choice and Language Use in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among parliamentarians. Nevertheless, we observe that language contact phenomena such as various forms of alternation between Swahili and. English occur quite regularly in parliamentary debates and submissions. The paradox however is that various forms of documentation in parliament are drafted in English.

  4. Language and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with teaching physics in English and students' native languages. Reviews studies on the topic, including Whorf's linguistic relativity. Includes suggestions for further research. (SK)

  5. Third Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulutsan, Metro

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the two main types of trilingualism, individual trilingualism and societal trilingualism, or multilingualism. Research directions in third language learning are also noted. (CLK)

  6. C++ Programming Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  7. Higher Education Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    to determine the needs, the measures that are already in place, and the measures that need to be put in place in order for them to do so. The recommendations of the sections on pages 3‐11 are meant to assist HEI leadership and management teams in this process. These recommendations are collected here......(s) of communication at institutional / departmental / research group / administrative unit, etc. levels?  What is/are the language(s) of instruction?  Who are the HEI stakeholders / targets audiences, and which language(s) is / are used in communication with these audiences? HEIs should further consider...

  8. Stability of Core Language Skill Stability of Core Language Skill from Early Childhood to Adolescence: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2014-01-01

    This four-wave prospective longitudinal study evaluated stability of language in 324 children from early childhood to adolescence. Structural equation modeling supported loadings of multiple age-appropriate multi-source measures of child language on single-factor core language skills at 20 months and 4, 10, and 14 years. Large stability coefficients (standardized indirect effect = .46) were obtained between language latent variables from early childhood to adolescence and accounting for child nonverbal intelligence and social competence and maternal verbal intelligence, education, speech, and social desirability. Stability coefficients were similar for girls and boys. Stability of core language skill was stronger from 4 to 10 to 14 years than from 20 months to 4 years, so early intervention to improve lagging language is recommended. PMID:25165797

  9. Languaging Everyday Life in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, David; Beauchemin, Faythe

    2016-01-01

    We explore how the languaging of everyday life in classrooms promulgates conceptions of personhood. We use the term "languaging" to argue for a shift from conceptions of language as a noun to languaging as a verb, a view of language as inseparable from and constitutive of the actions and reactions of people in response to each other. It…

  10. Teacher Talk and Language Output

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    As an important input and teaching media in foreign language teaching classes, teacher talk (TT) has a great effect on language output. This paper explores the problems related to teacher talk (TT) and language output in practical ELT (English Language Teaching) classroom and presents some suggestions for solving the problems which affect learner' effective language output.

  11. Sign language: an international handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of

  12. Second Languages in Primary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Mildred R.; Kunkle, John F.

    A book on second languages in primary education, designed to assist both classroom teachers and language specialists, is presented. The following topics are addressed: (1) reasons for studying a second language; (2) reasons for children to learn a second language; (3) language choices; (4) qualifications of teachers; (5) FLES, bilingual education,…

  13. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S

    2015-10-01

    Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number and characteristics of latent (unobservable) language ability groups in an unclassified sample of predominantly Spanish-speaking children. An unclassified sample of 431 predominantly Spanish-speaking 5- to 7-year-olds learning English participated in the study. The groups were identified on the basis of (a) language sample analyses (semantic, grammatical, and sentence-length measures); (b) language processing tasks (phonological working memory and processing speed measures); and (c) nonverbal cognitive abilities assessed using a standardized measure. All tasks were administered in Spanish. Latent profile analysis was used to examine the number and nature of distinct language ability groups in the unclassified sample. Results indicated that a three-group model best represented the data, characterized by low grammaticality in one group, low phonological working memory in another group, and average skills in a third group. Classifying children into two groups, those with and without language impairment, may lead to misidentification of language impairment.

  14. Language Planning and Planned Languages: How Can Planned Languages Inform Language Planning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Tonkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of language planning (LP has largely ignored planned languages. Of classic descriptions of LP processes, only Tauli (preceded by Wüster suggests that planned languages (what Wüster calls Plansprache might bear on LP theory and practice. If LP aims "to modify the linguistic behaviour of some community for some reason," as Kaplan and Baldauf put it, creating a language de novo is little different. Language policy and planning are increasingly seen as more local and less official, and occasionally more international and cosmopolitan. Zamenhof's work on Esperanto provides extensive material, little studied, documenting the formation of the language and linking it particularly to issues of supranational LP. Defining LP decision-making, Kaplan & Baldauf begin with context and target population. Zamenhof's Esperanto came shortly before Ben-Yehuda's revived Hebrew. His target community was (mostly the world's educated elite; Ben-Yehuda's was worldwide Jewry. Both planners were driven not by linguistic interest but by sociopolitical ideology rooted in reaction to anti-Semitism and imbued with the idea of progress. Their territories had no boundaries, but were not imaginary. Function mattered as much as form (Haugen's terms, status as much as corpus. For Zamenhof, status planning involved emphasis on Esperanto's ownership by its community - a collective planning process embracing all speakers (cf. Hebrew. Corpus planning included a standardized European semantics, lexical selectivity based not simply on standardization but on representation, and the development of written, and literary, style. Esperanto was successful as linguistic system and community language, less as generally accepted lingua franca. Its terminology development and language cultivation offers a model for language revival, but Zamenhof's somewhat limited analysis of language economy left him unprepared to deal with language as power.

  15. Six principles of language development: implications for second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Haruka; Kanero, Junko; Freeman, Max R; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The number of children growing up in dual language environments is increasing in the United States. Despite the apparent benefits of speaking two languages, children learning English as a second language (ESL) often face struggles, as they may experience poverty and impoverished language input at home. Early exposure to a rich language environment is crucial for ESL children's academic success. This article explores how six evidenced-based principles of language learning can be used to provide support for ESL children.

  16. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Russian Language Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  18. Medical Query Language

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Mary M.; Beaman, Peter D.; Shusman, Daniel J.; Hupp, Jon A.; Zielstorff, Rita D.; Barnett, G. Octo

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the Medical Query Language (MQL), a “formal” language which enables unsophisticated users, having no background in programming or computer science, to express information retrieval and analysis questions of their data bases. MQL is designed to access any MUMPS data base. Most MQL applications to date have dealt with the COmputer STored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR) data base.

  19. The language of communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the attitude and humility of the doctor and much depends on language. As we pass through a world where technology and machinery replace the fundamentals of medical investigation, where notes contain phrases such as 'not sonographically or clinically appendicitis', basic skills are being lost. The use of language, the ...

  20. The Spoofax language workbench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, L.C.L.; Visser, E.

    2010-01-01

    Spoofax is a language workbench for efficient, agile development of textual domain-specific languages with state-of-the-art IDE support. It provides a comprehensive environment that integrates syntax definition, program transformation, code generation, and declarative specification of IDE components

  1. Reading, Perception and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

    The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

  2. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  3. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  4. Foreign Languages and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

  5. Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Tumors URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Brain Tumors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  6. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Brain Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  8. The Language of Ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests language used to depict the elderly is overwhelmingly negative. Points out many ageist terms are doubly offensive because they contain both ageist and sexist references. Urges the establishment of a set of guidelines for language usage in the various media to reduce ageism. (Author/RC)

  9. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  10. Friction in Different Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Sarah Jessica; Murray, Alexa Lee; Cormas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson taught in a designated English Language Learner (ELL) classroom in an elementary school in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, using a sheltered instruction approach. Eighty one percent of the students at this school are from diverse ethnic backgrounds where 25 per cent of them receive ELL services. A variety of languages are…

  11. Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others

    The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…

  12. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  13. Signed languages and globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf people who form part of a Deaf community communicate using a shared sign language. When meeting people from another language community, they can fall back on a flexible and highly context-dependent form of communication called international sign, in which shared elements from their own sign

  14. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  15. Natural Language Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva; And Others

    This sourcebook is intended to provide researchers and users of natural language computer systems with a classification scheme to describe language-related problems associated with such systems. Methods from the disciplines of artificial intelligence (AI), education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and psychometrics were applied in an…

  16. Moodling English Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  17. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  18. Language Planning and Intellectualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The development of the national language of the Philippines is sketched from the initial selection of Tagalog to its standardization and propagation as national language and its renaming as Pilipino, subsequently Filipino. The intellectualization phase is examined as process and product and according to its psychological and sociological…

  19. Literature in Language Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiser, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Teaching modern foreign languages is not all about communicative skills. It is also about testing functional abilities. While we still pay lip service to the creed of communicative language teaching, we have adopted test formats and teaching styles that follow a hidden agenda: the production of human capital. The main objective of teaching is…

  20. Second Language at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Svendsen; Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    The articles in this publication discuss theoretical issues in relation to the teaching/learning of a second language in the workplace and present practical experiences from workplace language programmes for immigrant workers carried out in a number of European countries....

  1. Language and Language-in-Education Planning in Multilingual India: A Minoritized Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores India's linguistic diversity from a language policy perspective, emphasizing policies relevant to linguistic minorities. The Kumaun region of Utterakhand provides a local, minority-language perspective on national-level language planning. A look at the complexity of counting India's languages reveals language planning…

  2. Rogue America: Benevolent Hegemon or Occupying Tyrant?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samuels, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    .... Based on this working definition, America?s foreign policy history does not support characterization as a rogue state, though its dominant military and some imperialist history are exploited in rogue-America rhetoric...

  3. Assessing China’s Hegemonic Ambitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-17

    Rawski 2001). In 2000, Premier Zhu Rongji also complained in his report on 5 governmental work that “falsification and exaggeration are rampant...concept of “ haiyang 50 guotu guan” (sea as national territory). The National People’s Congress in 1992 adopted “The Law of the People’s Republic...Security Assessment 2004). Wen Jiabao, the current premier of China, had Zhu Rongji, the former premier, as his political patron. One can expect the

  4. Rogue America: Benevolent Hegemon or Occupying Tyrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire (New York: Metropolitan Books), 3. 5 Noam Chomsky , Rogue States (Cambridge: South End Press, 2000), 4. 6 For more on...convenience in making their argument. Focusing his attention on the United States, linguistics professor Noam Chomsky limits his rogue state definition to...14. 39 Noam Chomsky , “Rogue States Draw the Usual Line,” The Noam Chomsky Website, May 2001, http://www.chomsky.info/interviews/200105--.htm

  5. hegemonía comunicacional en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrivalca Ramsenia Canelón-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como!nalidad exponer una suerte de cartografíaque dé cuenta del estado de los medios de comunicación social en Venezuelacon base en la retrospectiva de la última década, en la ruta de calibrar la inci-dencia que, sobre la estructura de medios, tuvieron las políticas públicas decomunicación formuladas y ejecutadas por el Gobierno Bolivariano durantela administración del presidente Hugo Chávez –todavía vigentes-, poniendoel acento sobre los cambios legales registrados en el área durante el período,la relación de los medios de propiedad privada con las instancias de poder, elpapel jugado por los medios en manos del Estado, la densidad de los mediosalternativos-comunitarios y, a trazos gruesos, la composición de las platafor-mas mediáticas públicas y privadas de prensa, radio y televisión.

  6. Language universals at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Berent, Iris; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Cattarossi, Luigi; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of human languages is driven both by primitive biases present in the human sensorimotor systems and by cultural transmission among speakers. However, whether the design of the language faculty is further shaped by linguistic biological biases remains controversial. To address this question, we used near-infrared spectroscopy to examine whether the brain activity of neonates is sensitive to a putatively universal phonological constraint. Across languages, syllables like blif are preferred to both lbif and bdif. Newborn infants (2–5 d old) listening to these three types of syllables displayed distinct hemodynamic responses in temporal-perisylvian areas of their left hemisphere. Moreover, the oxyhemoglobin concentration changes elicited by a syllable type mirrored both the degree of its preference across languages and behavioral linguistic preferences documented experimentally in adulthood. These findings suggest that humans possess early, experience-independent, linguistic biases concerning syllable structure that shape language perception and acquisition. PMID:24706790

  7. Distributed Language and Dialogism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Sune Vork

    2015-01-01

    addresses Linell’s critique of Distributed Language as rooted in biosemiotics and in theories of organism-environment systems. It is argued that Linell’s sense-based approach entails an individualist view of how conspecific Others acquire their status as prominent parts of the sense-maker’s environment......This article takes a starting point in Per Linell’s (2013) review article on the book Distributed Language (Cowley, 2011a) and other contributions to the field of ‘Distributed Language’, including Cowley et al. (2010) and Hodges et al. (2012). The Distributed Language approach is a naturalistic...... and anti-representational approach to language that builds on recent developments in the cognitive sciences. With a starting point in Linell’s discussion of the approach, the article aims to clarify four aspects of a distributed view of language vis-à-vis the tradition of Dialogism, as presented by Linell...

  8. Culture in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means also the study of a different culture. This study focuses on the introduction of the topic of culture in language teaching into the curriculum of the subject Language Teaching Methodology for teacher trainees studying at Translation And Interpreting Studies, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş. This topic has not been treated separately so far, it has only been discussed implicitly, included in other topics. But we believe that future teachers should have a more thorough theoretical and practical training in terms of what incorporating culture into language teaching implies. For this purpose, we are going to examine and discuss some of the recommendations and principles stated in the specialized literature regarding culture in foreign language teaching and reflect on what the ideal content of a course related to the teaching of this skill should be.

  9. Creativity in language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C Richards

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in learners – particularly those involving studentcentred, interaction-based, and open-ended elements. Drawing on teacher narratives and conversations with teachers, the notion of creativity in language teaching is explored from three different perspectives: 1. the qualities creative teachers possess. 2. how teachers apply creativity in their teaching. 3. how creativity can be supported in the school. Examples illustrate how creative teachers’ conceptualize their approaches to teaching.

  10. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  11. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  12. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  13. Language considerations for every teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Moate, Josephine

    2017-01-01

    The national core curriculum for basic education in Finland emphasizes language aware education (kielitietoisuus) with each adult a language model and language teacher (FNBE, 2014: 28). This approach recognises pupil diversity and the need to address language as a key tool in teaching and learning as well as for societal integration. In language aware education, the responsibility for pupils’ language development is shared across the school community. Discussions around this issue recognise t...

  14. First Language Status and Second Language Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of growing numbers in high schools and colleges, US-resident adolescent bilingual learners, sometimes termed "English as a second language" (ESL) or "Generation 1.5," are not succeeding academically in proportion to their monolingual English-speaking peers. This achievement gap is evident in their writing as they enter…

  15. Smart Cities and Languages: The Language Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gobbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to analyze the potential of smart cities from a linguistic perspective, with particular attention towards aspects such as second language acquisition (SLA, social inclusion and innovation, but also positive influences on sectors such as tourism and commerce. After an introduction of the theoretical foundations, the possible developing scenarios will be taken into consideration and analyzed more in detail.

  16. Languages of Immigrants as Modern Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans H.; Pornbacher, Ulrike

    Policy and planning concerning the minority languages of immigrants are discussed, focusing on three countries receiving many immigrants: England, France, and Germany. First, similarities and differences in the immigration histories of the three countries, and in their policies concerning education of immigrants, are examined. Then policy…

  17. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  18. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Terrorism in Newsweek: Unveiling the Connection between Language, Ideology, and Powe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Trisno Adi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the discourse on terrorism in the Newsweek magazine and exposes how the notion of ideology and power contributes to the hegemonic representations of Muslims and Islam in the post 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Centre (WTC. Two Newsweek articles appeared on the 24th September 2001 were selected. The study employed Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA; this is a five-stage analytical methodology that perceives language within a three-dimensional framework: text, discourse, and society. The representation of discourse on terrorism, as found in the analysis, supports a conception that media coverage is not merely the representation of facts but also that of ideas which has gone through various considerations incorporating the three key notions of text, discourse and society altogether. The elements within the textual level and discourse level were ideologically used to represent terrorism with regard to its actor, process, and goal, constituting a commonsense as to how it should be perceived. The study concluded that the representation of discourse on terrorism in Newsweek during the post 9/11 period was perceived from what Chomsky considers as the propagandistic approach

  20. Language in Web Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    Having taught and carried out research in LSP and business communication for many years, I have come across, again and again, the problems arising from the inferior status of language in the business environment. Being convinced that it does not have to be so, instead of going on trying to convin...... non-linguistically trained colleagues of the importance of language via the usual arguments, I suggest that we let them experience the problems arising from the non-recognition of the importance of language via a Web communication crash course, inspired by a course taught to BA students...

  1. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  2. LK Scripting Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-27

    The LK scripting language is a simple and fast computer programming language designed for easy integration with existing software to enable automation of tasks. The LK language is used by NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM), the SAM Software Development Kit (SDK), and SolTrace products. LK is easy extensible and adaptable to new software due to its small footprint and is designed to be statically linked into other software. It is written in standard C++, is cross-platform (Windows, Linux, and OSX), and includes optional portions that enable direct integration with graphical user interfaces written in the open source C++ wxWidgets Version 3.0+ toolkit.

  3. Optimizing New Language Use by Employing Young Learners' Own Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga-Baldwin, W. L. Quint; Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The use and appropriate amount of students' own language (OL) in foreign language classes remains a subject of debate. While exclusive new language (NL) use may not necessarily always benefit all learners, especially young language learners (YLLs), overuse of the students' OL may not provide the same range of communicative experiences as greater…

  4. Language Identity among Iranian English Language Learners: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…

  5. Short message service (SMS) language and written language skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMS language is English language slang, used as a means of mobile phone text messaging. This practice may impact on the written language skills of learners at school. The main aim of this study was to determine the perspectives of Grade 8 and 9 English (as Home Language) educators in Gauteng regarding the ...

  6. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  7. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of LARSP. Communication Disorders across Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Martin; Crystal, David; Fletcher, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a resource book for those working with language disordered clients in a range of languages. It collects together versions of the well-known Language Assessment Remediation Screening Procedure (LARSP) prepared for different languages. Starting with the original version for English, the book then presents versions in more than a…

  8. Language and identity: A case of Igbo language, Nigeria | Igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is the most important information and communication characteristics of all the human beings. Language is power as well as a great instrument for cultural preservation. The world community is made up of many languages and each of these languages is being used to identify one speech community or race.

  9. Exploring Language Awareness through Students' Engagement in Language Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores Korean students' demonstration of language awareness through their engagement in language play. Grounded in the understanding of the relationship between language play and an "engagement with language" (EWL) perspective, this ethnographic and discourse analytic study investigates how Korean students aged 11-15…

  10. Language Ideology, Language Theory, and the Regulation of Linguistic Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seargeant, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between entrenched beliefs about language ("language ideologies") and the linguistic system, and considers how conflicts between propositional and procedural knowledge about language have an effect upon the way in which language is regulated within society. It examines the epistemological foundations for…

  11. Second Language Learners' Divergence from Target Language Pragmatic Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatic competence is an indispensable aspect of language ability in order for second and foreign language (L2/FL) learners to understand and be understood in their interactions with both native and nonnative speakers of the target language. Without a proper understanding of the pragmatic rules in the target language, learners may run the risk…

  12. language and identity: a case of igbo language, nigeria igbokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language is the key note of culture because without it, culture does not exist. It is the medium of language ... instance is the language of the Jews (Hebrew), which has been the secret and root of the existence of the ..... intelligence data across the globe have exploited the apparent exclusiveness of the. Hebrew language.

  13. Seamless Language Learning: Second Language Learning with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper describes a language learning model that applies social media to foster contextualized and connected language learning in communities. The model emphasizes weaving together different forms of language learning activities that take place in different learning contexts to achieve seamless language learning. it promotes social…

  14. Our ways of learning language | Lepota | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its results are discussed within the contours of five categories: learners' motivations for learning language; their ideas about language learning aptitude; their opinions of the difficulty of learning English; their second language learning and communication strategies; and, finally, their views on the nature of language learning.

  15. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  16. Reframing Language Allocation Policy in Dual Language Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Teresa; García, Ofelia; Solorza, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses language allocation policies in what is increasingly called "Dual Language Education" (DLE) in the U.S., offering a challenge to the strict language separation policies in those programs and a proposal for flexibility that transforms them into "Dual Language Bilingual Education" (DLBE). The article offers…

  17. Assessing Academic Language of English Language Learners. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Jeff; Rhodes, Nancy

    A project to identify alternative strategies for assessing the academic language of English language learners is reported. First, literature on the concept of academic language is reviewed, and then findings from classroom research are used to propose an alternative conceptualization of academic language, one which focuses on the role of stylistic…

  18. America's Languages: The Future of Language Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William P.; Brecht, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    In honor of the 50th Anniversary of "Foreign Language Annals," and recognizing the seminal role this journal has in informing the language education profession about policies and programs, we sketch a future for advocacy for language education in the United States. Drawing on the Languages for All initiative and the work of the…

  19. Whole Language Strategies for ESL Students. Language and Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald-Taylor, Gail

    This handbook outlines learning strategies in language arts for children in kindergarten to third grade learning English as a second language (ESL). They are designed for the Whole Language or Natural Approach. Although reading and writing are the key language components emphasized, listening, speaking, drama, and visual arts activities have been…

  20. Formulaic speech in disorders of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sidtis

    2014-04-01

    Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.

  1. Language attitudes in the second language situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Roos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is made between attitudes and specifically language attitudes. The process of acculturation is dealt with and its influence upon the motivation of ESL learners. Integrational and instmmental motivation are defined. Teachers' language attitudes, the dangers of prejudice and stereotyping are discussed. ,Attitude changes are analysed as well as the teacher's role in effecting them. 'n Onderskeid word getref tussen algemene houdings en houdings ten opsigte van taal. Die proses van akkulturasie word behandel, asook die invloed daarvan op die motivering van Engels Tweede Taal-leerders. Die skrywer onderskei verder tussen integrerende en instmmentale motivering. Die onderwysers se houding teenoor die taal word ook bespreek, asook die gevare van bevooroordeeldheid en stereotipering. Veranderinge in houdings word ontleed, en vera! die rol wat die onderwyser speel om die veranderinge teweeg te bring.

  2. Immigrant Language Proficiency, Earnings, and Language Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao, Xingshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper addresses two questions: 1 what are the impacts of language proficiency on the earnings of Canadian adult immigrants; 2 what are the current policy responses. Using a five-level scale of English/French language use, our analysis of Public Use Microdata Filefor the 2001 census confirms the positive association between proficiency in Canada’s charter language(s and immigrant earnings. Compared to permanent residents who are highly proficient in English and/or French, those with lower levels of proficiency have lower weekly earnings. Quantile regressions reveal that the relative advantage of English/French language proficiency is higher for those in the top quarter of the earnings distribution; conversely, greaterpenalties exist for immigrants with low levels of language proficiency at the upper end of the earnings distribution. The likely impacts of federal policies on increasing English/French language proficiency of immigrant workers are discussed, focusing on two federal government initiatives for language training and two recent immigration policy changes. RésuméCet article adresse deux questions : 1 quels sont les effets de la maîtrise de la langue sur les gains des immigrants canadiens adultes, et 2 quelles sont les politiques correctives actuelles. En nous servant d’une échelle à cinq niveaux d’usage des langues française et anglaise, notre analyse des microdonnées à grande diffusion du recensement de 2001 confirme la relation positive entre la maîtrise d’une ou des deux langues officielles du Canada et les gains des immigrants. Comparés aux résidents permanents qui ont une excellente maîtrise du français et/ou de l’anglais, les immigrants qui ont des bons niveaux de maîtrise de ces langues gagnentdes salaires hebdomadaires plus réduits. Les régressions par quantiles révèlent que la maîtrise du français et/ou de l’anglais apporte un plus grand avantage pour ceux dans le quart supérieur de

  3. Neuromuscular Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Neuromuscular Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  4. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Anal Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  5. Esophagus Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Esophagus Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  6. Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Parathyroid Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  7. Muscle Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Muscle Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  8. The Language of Fractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Hartmut; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The production and application of images based on fractal geometry are described. Discussed are fractal language groups, fractal image coding, and fractal dialects. Implications for these applications of geometry to mathematics education are suggested. (CW)

  9. Wearable Language Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    VIA Team Mission Statement: To develop a near real time, two way, mobile, lightweight, robust and low cost multi-lingual language translation device that can be operated with minimal training in a hands free manner...

  10. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  11. Next Generation Systems Languages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is to explore techniques for making today's software, which is largely written in type-unsafe, low-level languages such as C, as reliable and trustworthy as code written in type...

  12. Language, Subject, Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A. Ivanov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s  discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology. 

  13. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  14. Handbook for Language Detectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryanne, Ulla; Bruntt, Karen Scheel Lassen

    Handbook for Language Detectives gives a thorough presentation of English grammar and discusses how to teach grammar. The book unveils to the readers, who will be working as grammar detectives, the fascinating world of language. It does not only deal with "traditional grammar" but also discusses...... what different grammatical structures mean (semantics) and how they influence the level of style (pragmatics). Grammar should not be taught as a separate discipline; it can and should be integrated in communicative language teaching. The book gives you innovative and valuable ideas of how this can...... be done. The book serves a double purpose: - English grammar and language usage at bachelor level from a functional linguistic point of view. - How to teach English grammar within a communicative approach. The book is mainly intended for Danish student teachers of English, but anyone else interested...

  15. Graphical Language for Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A graphical language for processing data allows processing elements to be connected with virtual wires that represent data flows between processing modules. The processing of complex data, such as lidar data, requires many different algorithms to be applied. The purpose of this innovation is to automate the processing of complex data, such as LIDAR, without the need for complex scripting and programming languages. The system consists of a set of user-interface components that allow the user to drag and drop various algorithmic and processing components onto a process graph. By working graphically, the user can completely visualize the process flow and create complex diagrams. This innovation supports the nesting of graphs, such that a graph can be included in another graph as a single step for processing. In addition to the user interface components, the system includes a set of .NET classes that represent the graph internally. These classes provide the internal system representation of the graphical user interface. The system includes a graph execution component that reads the internal representation of the graph (as described above) and executes that graph. The execution of the graph follows the interpreted model of execution in that each node is traversed and executed from the original internal representation. In addition, there are components that allow external code elements, such as algorithms, to be easily integrated into the system, thus making the system infinitely expandable.

  16. Migrant family language practices and language policies in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Shahzaman

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the language practices and language policies of an Indian migrant family in their daily life in Finland. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of an empirical case study on migration to understand the interrelationship between macro and micro analyses of language policies and practices. Though the migrant language instruction is encouraged and executed under the national language policy in Finland, the second generation of the...

  17. Embodiment, language and mimesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatev, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    The present focus on embodiment in cognitive science undervalues concepts such as convention/norm, representation and consciousness. I argue that these concepts constitute essential properties of language, and this makes it problematic for “embodiment theories” to account for human language and cognition. These difficulties are illustrated by examining a particular, highly influential approach to embodied cognition, that of Lakoff and Johnson (1999), and exposing the problematic character of ...

  18. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  19. The Power of Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Liliegren, Ann-Sofie; Peulicke Borggreen, Babette; Slott Nielsen, Christoffer; Granados Fernandez, Esther; Bellido Ponferrada, Isabel; Løwenstein Holmen, Ida; Wakimura, Yurie

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how revealing it is to talk about English as the new Latin. Parallels between the two languages are drawn by using different approaches from the linguistic, philosophical and communicational field. This is put into context by a historical background of Latin, as well as the status of English today. Throughout the report, the focal point is Francis Bacon’s statement, ‘knowledge is power’, and the complex relation between knowledge, power and language. ...

  20. Language and Social Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Language Analysis Tool Development Tools in other languages. Given the multicultural nature of many working groups within the Army and within...Linguistic analysis of workplace computer-mediated communication. Proceedings of Computer Supported Cooperative Work 2010, ACM Press. Seider, B...Science, 17, 660–664. *Tausczik, Y. R. (2009) Linguistic analysis of workplace computer-mediated communication (Unpublished master’s thesis.) The

  1. The Medical Query Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusman, Daniel J.; Morgan, Mary M.; Zielstorff, Rita; Barnett, G. Octo

    1983-01-01

    The Medical Query Language (MQL) is an English-like query language with which a user with little or no training in programming or computer science can formulate and satisfy inquiries on data contained in his/her Standard MUMPS database. To date, major applications of MQL have been in the areas of quality assurance, medical research, and practice administration at sites using the COmputer STored Ambulatory Record (COSTAR) database system.

  2. Automatic Language Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    hundreds guish one language from another. The reader is referred of input languages would need to be supported , the cost of to the linguistics literature...eventually obtained bet- 108 TRAINING FRENCH GERMAN ITRAIING FRENCH M- ALGORITHM - __ GERMAN NHSPANISH TRAINING SPEECH SET OF MODELS: UTTERANCES ONE MODEL...i.e. vowels ) for each speech utterance are located malized to be insensitive to overall amplitude, pitch and automatically. Next, feature vectors

  3. Second Language Syntax Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of syntactic properties in a second language. To understand how syntactic properties are acquired, a theoretical approach of Universal Grammar is presented, with an emphasis on the application of the Universal Grammar approach to second language acquisition. Acquisition of the following syntactic properties is being described: acquisition of morphemes, acquisition of negation and verb movement, acquisition of word order, acquisition of questions and acquisi...

  4. The Gilaki Language

    OpenAIRE

    Rastorgueva, V.S.; Kerimova, A.A.; Mamedzade, A.K.; Pireiko, L.A.; Edel’man, D.I.; Lockwood, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    This is a translation of the original book entitled: Giljanskij Jazyk. It includes an additional appendix containing an interlinearized version of the Gilaki texts.  English translation editing and expanded content by Ronald M. Lockwood Original Abstract This monograph presents a description of one of the insufficiently explored Iranian languages widespread in the Northern part of Iran (in the province of Gilan). A description of the phonetic and grammatical system of the Gilaki language is g...

  5. The languages of the world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzner, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    ... on populations and the numbers of people speaking each language. Features include: * * * * * nearly 600 languages identified as to where they are spoken and the family to which they belong over 200 languages individually described, with sample passages and English translation fascinating insights into the history and development of individual languages a...

  6. Language Correlates of Disciplinary Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2012-01-01

    Disciplinary literacy is defined here as the ability to engage in social, semiotic, and cognitive practices consistent with those of content experts. Characterizing literacy development as a process of braiding 3 language strands of everyday language, abstract language, and metaphoric language, this article describes the lexical and grammatical…

  7. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  8. English as an African Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Gaurav

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the role of the English language in postcolonial African literature, focusing on the politics of language, "Africanized" English, and the social languages used in Chinua Achebe's novels and concludes that English today is as much an African language as a British or American one. (Contains 37 references.) (MDM)

  9. Information Structure in Sign Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Pfau, R.; Féry, C.; Ishihara, S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that the Information Structure notions Topic and Focus are relevant for sign languages, just as they are for spoken languages. Data from various sign languages reveal that, across sign languages, Information Structure is encoded by syntactic and prosodic strategies, often

  10. Language Teaching=Linguistic Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Linguistic imperialism is the expansion of a small number of privileged languages at the cost of a large number of others. The language teaching profession needs to address the ecological impact of language teaching and focus on the well-being of the inhabitants of a language ecology rather than on the economic benefits of the teaching…

  11. Multi-language Development Enviroments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge

    development artifacts are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language software systems; they pose a real problem to development and evolution of multi-language software systems, (c) users highly appreciated cross-language support mechanisms of multi-language development environments, (d) generic MLDEs......, and considering typical properties of heterogeneous development artifact relations....

  12. A Leaner, Meaner Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online & CD-ROM Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 a working group of the World Wide Web Consortium developed and released a simpler form of markup language, Extensible Markup Language (XML), combining the flexibility of standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) and the Web suitability of HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Reviews SGML and discusses XML's suitability for journal…

  13. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  14. Visual Structure Language; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; ESPINOZA, JUAN

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new language, Visual Structure Language (VSL), designed to describe the structure of a program and explain its pieces. This new language is built on top of a general-purpose language, such as C. The language consists of three extensions: explanations, nesting, and arcs. Explanations are comments explicitly associated with code segments. These explanations can be nested. And arcs can be inserted between explanations to show data- or control-flow. The value of VSL is that it enables a developer to better control a code. The developer can represent the structure via nested explanations, using arcs to indicate the flow of data and control. The explanations provide a ''second opinion'' about the code so that at any level, the developer can confirm that the code operates as it is intended to do. We believe that VSL enables a programmer to use in a computer language the same model-a hierarchy of components-that they use in their heads when they conceptualize systems

  15. Natural language generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Mark T.

    The goal of natural language generation is to replicate human writers or speakers: to generate fluent, grammatical, and coherent text or speech. Produced language, using both explicit and implicit means, must clearly and effectively express some intended message. This demands the use of a lexicon and a grammar together with mechanisms which exploit semantic, discourse and pragmatic knowledge to constrain production. Furthermore, special processors may be required to guide focus, extract presuppositions, and maintain coherency. As with interpretation, generation may require knowledge of the world, including information about the discourse participants as well as knowledge of the specific domain of discourse. All of these processes and knowledge sources must cooperate to produce well-written, unambiguous language. Natural language generation has received less attention than language interpretation due to the nature of language: it is important to interpret all the ways of expressing a message but we need to generate only one. Furthermore, the generative task can often be accomplished by canned text (e.g., error messages or user instructions). The advent of more sophisticated computer systems, however, has intensified the need to express multisentential English.

  16. Robots with language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Parisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Trying to understand human language by constructing robots that have language necessarily implies an embodied view of language, where the meaning of linguistic expressions is derived from the physical interactions of the organism with the environment. The paper describes a neural model of language according to which the robot’s behaviour is controlled by a neural network composed of two sub-networks, one dedicated to the non-linguistic interactions of the robot with the environment and the other one to processing linguistic input and producing linguistic output. We present the results of a number of simulations using the model and we suggest how the model can be used to account for various language-related phenomena such as disambiguation, the metaphorical use of words, the pervasive idiomaticity of multi-word expressions, and mental life as talking to oneself.. The model implies a view of the meaning of words and multi-word expressions as a temporal process that takes place in the entire brain and has no clearly defined boundaries. The model can also be extended to emotional words if we assume that an embodied view of language includes not only the interactions of the robot’s brain with the external environment but also the interactions of the brain with what is inside the body.

  17. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  18. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  20. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.

  1. Psychogenic stuttering and other acquired nonorganic speech and language abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Spector, Jack; Youngjohn, James R

    2012-08-01

    Three cases are presented of peculiar speech and language abnormalities that were evaluated in the context of personal injury lawsuit or workers compensation claims of brain dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injuries. Neuropsychological measures of effort and motivation showed evidence of suboptimal motivation or outright malingering. The speech and language abnormalities of these cases probably were not consistent with neurogenic features of dysfluent speech including stuttering or aphasia. We propose that severe dysfluency or language abnormalities persisting after a single, uncomplicated, mild traumatic brain injury are unusual and should elicit suspicion of a psychogenic origin.

  2. Language Recognition via Sparse Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    exploiting variation of the nonzero locations and magnitude, we can build a discrimi- native pipeline for language recognition. Figure 1 describes a...classify each language as a target within six predefined language clusters. The language clusters are Ara- bic, Chinese, English , French, Slavic, and... Language Recognition via Sparse Coding† Youngjune L. Gwon1, William M. Campbell1, Douglas Sturim1, H. T. Kung2 1MIT Lincoln Laboratory 2Harvard

  3. On fuzzy multiset regular languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work is to study some algebraic aspect of fuzzy multiset regular languages. In between, we show the equivalence of multiset regular language and fuzzy multiset regular language. Finally, we introduce the concept of pumping lemma for fuzzy multiset regular languages, which we use to establish a necessary and sufficient condition for a fuzzy multiset language to be non-constant.

  4. The Language Question in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages) and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca). While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon reveali...

  5. Language Alternation and Language Norm in Vocational Content and Language Integrated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Janne; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The present article deals with language choice as communicative strategies in the language learning environment of an English-medium content and language integrated learning (CLIL) workshop at an auto mechanics class in a Swedish upper secondary school. The article presents the organisation and functions of language alternations (LAs) which are…

  6. Social Network Development, Language Use, and Language Acquisition during Study Abroad: Arabic Language Learners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Dan P.; Belnap, R. Kirk; Hillstrom, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Language learners and educators have subscribed to the belief that those who go abroad will have many opportunities to use the target language and will naturally become proficient. They also assume that language learners will develop relationships with native speakers allowing them to use the language and become more fluent, an assumption…

  7. The Metapedagogic Function of Language: Language for Language Teaching (Cases from the Nepalese Context)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Kamal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The metalingual (also called "metalinguistic") function of language is a well-discussed concept in the literature of functional linguistics. It is often conceived as a purpose in which language is used to define or talk about language itself. Similarly, the purpose in which language is used for teaching in general is explained as the…

  8. Effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review Instructional Approach on Caregiver Use of Language Support Strategies and Children's Expressive Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Wolfe, Cathy E.; Bryant, Julie D.; Spidalieri, Alexandria M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Method: Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study.…

  9. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to

  10. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  11. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  12. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2017-10-01

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Language beyond action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Ivan; de Lange, Floris P; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Hagoort, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in macaques and of a similar system in humans has provided a new and fertile neurobiological ground for rooting a variety of cognitive faculties. Automatic sensorimotor resonance has been invoked as the key elementary process accounting for disparate (dys)functions, like imitation, ideomotor apraxia, autism, and schizophrenia. In this paper, we provide a critical appraisal of three of these claims that deal with the relationship between language and the motor system. Does language comprehension require the motor system? Was there an evolutionary switch from manual gestures to speech as the primary mode of language? Is human communication explained by automatic sensorimotor resonances? A positive answer to these questions would open the tantalizing possibility of bringing language and human communication within the fold of the motor system. We argue that the available empirical evidence does not appear to support these claims, and their theoretical scope fails to account for some crucial features of the phenomena they are supposed to explain. Without denying the enormous importance of the discovery of mirror neurons, we highlight the limits of their explanatory power for understanding language and communication.

  14. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  15. Aging in language dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Human languages evolve continuously, and a puzzling problem is how to reconcile the apparent robustness of most of the deep linguistic structures we use with the evidence that they undergo possibly slow, yet ceaseless, changes. Is the state in which we observe languages today closer to what would be a dynamical attractor with statistically stationary properties or rather closer to a non-steady state slowly evolving in time? Here we address this question in the framework of the emergence of shared linguistic categories in a population of individuals interacting through language games. The observed emerging asymptotic categorization, which has been previously tested--with success--against experimental data from human languages, corresponds to a metastable state where global shifts are always possible but progressively more unlikely and the response properties depend on the age of the system. This aging mechanism exhibits striking quantitative analogies to what is observed in the statistical mechanics of glassy systems. We argue that this can be a general scenario in language dynamics where shared linguistic conventions would not emerge as attractors, but rather as metastable states.

  16. Preschool language interventions for latino dual language learners with language disorders: what, in what language, and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    About a quarter of young children in the United States are dual language learners. The large majority are Latino children who are exposed to Spanish in their homes. The language needs of Latino dual language preschoolers are different from the needs of monolingual English-speaking children. As a group, they are likely to live in environments that put them at risk of delays in language development. This situation is direr for dual language preschoolers with language impairment. Recent findings from studies on interventions for Spanish-English preschoolers with language impairment suggest that a bilingual approach does not delay English vocabulary and oral language learning and promotes Spanish maintenance. Targets and strategies for different language domains are described. The effects of pullout versus push-in interventions for this population are preliminarily explored. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  18. Spanish language teacher program

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    These one-week programmes are held in one of the national languages of CERN Member States. National teacher programmes are also open for teachers from other countries speaking the same language. To follow up after each teacher programme, the lecture material and video recordings of selected lectures are archived to act as unique resources for all physics teachers when introducing particle physics into the classroom. CERN provides all scientific, administrative and technical support for the programme free of charge. This includes the scientific content and provision of national language facilitators, lecturers, and guides. However, costs for travel, accommodation and meals have to be covered individually by the teachers or by official sources, e.g. educational foundations or national authorities.

  19. Language policy from below:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Janus

    2014-01-01

    internationalisation, and English is accordingly promoted as the ‘obvious’ language of instruction for international education in many university policies. This article argues that the idea that university internationalisation should equal the exclusive use of English as a lingua franca is essentially misguided...... groups at an international study programme in Denmark were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis shows that although there is a quantitative preference for English in the three groups which matches the general pro-English language ideology at the programme, the groups have nevertheless......, to varying degrees, developed practice-based language policies ‘from below’ that allow for alternating and sometimes syncretic use of English and Danish....

  20. School of German Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Evteev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of German is one of the oldest language departments at MGIMO. Since its foundation in 1944 the military experienced teachers of the department, most of whom were native speakers, have begun to develop a unique method of teaching the German language, thereby revolutionize learning this foreign language. The first steps made under the supervision of the Department of Antonina V. Celica. The department refused to conventional time and is still used in universities such as the Moscow Linguistic University, separate teaching phonetics, grammar and vocabulary, which was due to the specific objectives set for the teaching staff: prepare for short term specialists in international relations, active Germanspeaking. The department can be proud of its graduates, many of whom continue his career in the walls of native high school. Many graduates have dedicated their lives to serving the State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  1. School of Roman Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Department of Romance languages (Italian, Portuguese and Latin named after professor T.Z. Cherdantseva was created November 26, 2002. The main task of the department is a professionally-oriented teaching of Italian and Portuguese (both as first and a second language for all faculties of MGIMO-University in all majors and minors on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Special attention is paid to teaching courses on socio-political, economic and legal translation. Teaching begins with a zero level, and by the end of training a student reaches a level of high proficiency. In accordance with the agreements with ICA (Portugal a lecturer from the Institute Camöes (Portugal João Mendonça conducts classes on spoken language, listening and abstracting. He also lectures on the history and culture of Portugal and co-authored (with G. Petrova a textbook "Portuguese for Beginners".

  2. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  3. LANGUAGE AND GENDER IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murni Mahmud

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the impact of gender differences in English Language Teaching. It explores students’ learning styles as affected by the notions about men and women differences in communication. The data collected in 2008 from 20 males and 20 females’ English students of the State University of Makassar. It is to reveal their attitudes towards speaking to different sex, strategy to express opinion, group work preferences, activeness/passiveness, and their perception to increase English skills dealing with sex difference. It is revealed that female than male students were reluctant to speak to different sex; females preferred the direct way to express opinions (writing, work with the same sex, and tended to be passive in class. In addition, females saw the high possibility to increase their English skills by working with the same sex but the reverse is true for males. These different styles of female and male students in learning English were affected by the notions of women’s language.

  4. Similarities and differences between Turkic languages and comparative methods in teaching them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulzura Zhumakunova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkic languages are cognate language which stem back to the single ancestor – Proto-Turkic language. In the course of long and convoluted history of Turkic-speaking peoples, all of their languages suffered various degrees of change on every level of its structure – in phonemes, morphemes, vocabulary and syntax. At the same time, all of these languages have preserved some of their common features which link them to their ancestor tongue. In this article, the author, from her long experience of teaching Kyrgyz at Ankara University, explains her vision of teaching Turkic languages in general and describes the methods and approaches which she deems helpful in successful teaching on university level. In teaching a Turkic language, the main objective is not to focus on language study as such, but take a breathtaking journey along the hidden paths of one’s mother tongue and get to understand it in a more profound way, in its historical retrospective. Turkic languages have always attracted linguists and were in the focus of their studies. Getting acquainted with various linguistic theories and the works of prominent Turkologists, as seen from teaching practice, is also very helpful to shape an enduring interest in learning both the target language and first language more profoundly. We also have to take into account such extralinguistic factors as the objective of language study, friendliness of the environment and the demand for language in a given environment. The article examines these issues through the alphabets and their various uses among Turkic peoples. When setting up a language study program, it is also important to take into account how familiar students are with the target language. Overall, this new type of work required a fundamental study of methodological foundations of language teaching. New types of academic and learners’ dictionaries have to be prepared, as well as new textbooks to help students of a specific Turkic language.

  5. Instant Cassandra query language

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Amresh

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. It's an Instant Starter guide.Instant Cassandra Query Language is great for those who are working with Cassandra databases and who want to either learn CQL to check data from the console or build serious applications using CQL. If you're looking for something that helps you get started with CQL in record time and you hate the idea of learning a new language syntax, then this book is for you.

  6. [Medical and surgical language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Pérez, Josep; Villalba-Ferrer, Francisco; Roig-Vila, José V

    2008-07-01

    Medical language contains many faults. One of them is the use of cultured and elegant words without knowing its proper significance. A second error is the recourse to using foreign words or phrases (foreignisms), particularly Anglicisms, both in their original spelling (raw foreignisms) and Hispanicised (adapted word); an overlapping mode of foreignism are so-called "calques" or loan translations. Thirdly, there is the use of words that do not exist in Spanish, palabros. Finally, the words are not correctly pronounced. In this article some examples of these errors are demonstrated and it is directed towards the appropriate use of language.

  7. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  8. The programming language EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  9. Monitoring language laboratory work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Walt

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Barely six years after the establishment of the first language laboratory at the University of Utah and five years after a similar language lab had been introduced at Ohio State University, E.H. Schneck complained that students who were supposed to stamp time-slips as evidence of their attendance "(got someone else to stamp a time-slip; or a student might stamp one when entering, leave the laboratory, and come back to stamp it several hours later" (1930:31.

  10. Language in trouble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice; Wagner, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We examine the language and multimodal character of ’warnings’ in moments of potential ‘trouble’ in tasks for mobile collaborative work. The participants are forklift truck drivers moving objects from one place to another at a training and certification site (a simulated warehouse scene). Our dat......: Language and the Body in Motion. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter Nevile, 2004. Beyond the Black Box: Talk-in-Interaction in the Airline Cockpit. Series: Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate....

  11. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  12. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depth investigations on the issues that are highlighted in this article like the nature of languages involved, the directionality of translation, and the types of texts translated. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 2011, 29(3): ...

  13. Understanding Language Change: Phonetics, Phonology and Child Language Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volk, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Language change is a phenomenon that has fascinated scholars for centuries. As a science, linguistic theory has evolved considerably during the 20th century, but the overall puzzle of language change still remains unsolved...

  14. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  15. Two key concepts of language endangerment : language obsolescence and language death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary context of world-wide language endangerment, of linguistic imperialism and regression of minority languages, it is of vital importance to take initiatives for the maintenance and protection of linguistic biodiversity.  Languages that become extinct are a major loss, not only for the communities concerned but also for humanity in general. The role of linguists should not be confined to documentation and recording of threatened languages, but should be extended to policies  aimed at the revitalization of languages in the process of obsolescence and extinction, and to programs for stimulating language awareness and language cult. Although practical work and immediate political interventions remain the most urgent tasks, there is also need for a theoretical discussion on the value of language maintenance and preservation. It is important to define adequately the basic concepts to be used in discussions, as well as in scholarly and "bureaucratic" writings in the field of language endangerment. The aim of the present paper has been to clarify the concepts of 'language obsolescence' and 'language death', with an eye at offering a general characterization and typology of both phenomena. Accurate information on the causes and contextual factors involved in language obsolescence and language death can help to elaborate a theoretically coherent frame for construing open-minded language policies and for arousing a widespread feeling of respect for the linguistic rights of speech communities, however small and unprotected they may be.

  16. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  17. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  18. RESEARCH ON LANGUAGE AND LEARNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alcón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account severa1 limitations of communicative language teaching (CLT, this paper calls for the need to consider research on language use and learning through communication as a basis for language teaching. It will be argued that a reflective approach towards language teaching and learning might be generated, which is explained in terms of the need to develop a context-sensitive pedagogy and in terms of teachers' and learners' development.

  19. The Language Question in Cameroon

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    Echu, George

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In multilingual Cameroon, 247 indigenous languages live side by side with English and French (the two official languages and Cameroon Pidgin English (the main lingua franca. While the two official languages of colonial heritage dominate public life in the areas of education, administration, politics, mass media, publicity and literature, both the indigenous languages and Cameroon Pidgin English are relegated to the background. This paper is a critique of language policy in Cameroon revealing that mother tongue education in the early years of primary education remains a distant cry, as the possible introduction of an indigenous language in the school system is not only considered unwanted by educational authorities but equally combated against by parents who believe that the future of their children lies in the mastery of the official languages. This persistent disregard of indigenous languages does not only alienate the Cameroonian child culturally, but further alienates the vast majority of Cameroonians who are illiterate (in English and French since important State business is carried out in the official languages. As regards the implementation of the policy of official language bilingualism, there is clear imbalance in the use of the two official languages as French continues to be the dominant official language while English is relegated to a second place within the State. The frustration that ensues within the Anglophone community has led in recent years to the birth of Anglophone nationalism, a situation that seems to be widening the rift between the two main components of the society (Anglophones and Francophones, thereby compromising national unity. The paper is divided into five major parts. After a brief presentation of the country, the author dwells on multilingualism and language policy since the colonial period. The third, fourth and last parts of the paper focus on the critique of language policy in Cameroon with emphasis first on

  20. Language Background and Learners' Attitudes to Own-Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel; Horverak, May Olaug; Krzebietke, Weronika; Askland, Sigrunn

    2017-01-01

    Learners' language background is one of the factors which may influence the amount and functions of own-language use in English instruction. This article reports a study in which a group of almost 400 Polish and Norwegian secondary school learners of English were asked how their own languages are used in the classroom, how they use them when they…