WorldWideScience

Sample records for single glazed air

  1. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  2. Measuring Air Temperature in Glazed Ventilated Facades in the Presence of Direct Solar Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Zanghirella, Fabio; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive element of buildings with a double glazed façade is naturally or mechanically driven flow in a ventilated cavity. Accurate air temperature measurements in the cavity are crucial to evaluate the dynamic performance of the façade, to predict and control its behavior as a significant...... part of the complete ventilation system. Assessment of necessary cooling/heating loads and of the whole building energy performance will then depend on the accuracy of measured air temperature. The presence of direct solar radiation is an essential element for the façade operation, but it can heavily...... affect measurements of air temperature and may lead to errors of high magnitude using bare thermocouples and even adopting shielding devices. Two different research groups, from Aalborg University and Politecnico di Torino, tested separately various techniques to shield thermocouples from direct...

  3. Directional and hemispherical solar energy transmittance of single and double glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugot-Le Goff, le A; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and visual light transmittance, color appearance, thermal emissivity, and other optical properties of architectural glazing are in general angular dependent. Realistic computation of solar properties, therefore, requires the angular behavior to be known. Determination of these properties for

  4. Experimental Study of the Slit Spacing and Bed Height on the Thermal Performance of Slit-Glazed Solar Air Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahdi Taheri Mousavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performances of three slit-glazed solar air heaters (SGSAHs were investigated experimentally. Three SGSAHs with different bed heights (7 cm, 5 cm, and 3 cm were fabricated with multiple glass panes used for glazing. The length, width, and thickness of each pane were 154 cm, 6 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. Ambient air was continuously withdrawn through the gaps between the glass panes by fans. The experiments were conducted for four different gap distances between the glass panes (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm and the air mass flow rate was varied between 0.014 kg/s and 0.057 kg/s. The effects of air mass flux on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. For the SGSAH with bed height of 7 cm and glass pane gap distance of 0.5 mm, the highest efficiency was obtained as 82% at a mass flow rate of 0.057 kg/s and the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet (∆T was maximum (27°C when the mass flow rate was least. The results demonstrate that for lower mass flow rates and larger gaps, the performance of SGSAH with a bed height of 3 cm was better compared to that of others. However, for higher mass flow rates, the SGSAH with 7 cm bed height performed better.

  5. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  6. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  7. Determination of critical breakage conditions for double glazing in fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ke; Su, Yanfei; Lu, Wei; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; He, Linghui; Liew, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical heat fluxes of exposed and ambient panes are 6 kW/m"2 and 25 kW/m"2. • Critical temperature difference of fire side pane is around 60 °C. • The ambient pane survives three times longer due to radiation filter and air gap. • Heat transfer in double glazing is revealed by a heat flux based theoretical model. - Abstract: Double glazing unit normally demonstrates better fire resistance than single glazing, but the knowledge on its thermal behavior and heat transfer mechanism during fire is limited. In this work, nine double glazing units were heated by a 500 × 500 mm"2 pool fire. The incident heat flux, temperature on four surfaces, breakage time and cracking behavior were obtained. The critical breakage conditions for interior and exterior panes were determined through gradually decreasing the glass-burner distance from 750 mm to 450 mm. It is established that in double glazing the pane at ambient side can withstand significantly more time than the pane exposed to fire. The critical temperature difference for interior pane is 60 °C; the critical temperature of exterior pane breakage is much higher due to no frame-covered area. In addition, the heat flux at the time of crack initiation is 6 kW/m"2 for the pane at fire side, while more than 25 kW/m"2 for ambient side pane. To reveal the heat transfer mechanism in glazing-air-glazing, theoretical and numerical investigations are also performed, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  8. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  9. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  10. Key design features of multi-vacuum glazing for windows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vacuum glazed windows is increasing due to their application in mod-ern building design. Among various types of vacuum glazed windows reported in literature, thermal transmittance of single glass sheet (conventional window i. e 6 W/m2k is reduced by 66 and 77% using air filled double glazed and air filled triple glazed windows, respectively. Using low emittance coatings thermal transmittance of double glazed windows is reduced by 53%, however it offsets the visibility by reduc-ing light transmittance by 5%. Stresses due to temperature/pressure gradients if not eliminated may lead to reduction in service life of vacuum glazed windows. Vacuum created between the glass sheets is used to reduce conductive heat transfer. Degrada-tion in the vacuum is caused by number of factors such as, permeation of gaseous molecules through glass sheets, leakage through sealing, thermal/optical desorption, and photo-fragmentation of organic species have been critically reviewed and future trends are outlined.

  11. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space ......) combined with a solar energy transmittance above 0.75.......This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  12. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  13. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  14. Optimization of single channel glazed photovoltaic thermal (PVT) array using Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and carbon credit earned by the optimized array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay; Gadh, Rajit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of SCGPVT array using Evolutionary Algorithm. • The overall exergy gain is maximized with an Evolutionary Algorithm. • Annual Performance has been evaluated for New Delhi (India). • There are improvement in results than the model given in literature. • Carbon credit analysis has been done. - Abstract: In this paper, work is carried out in three steps. In the first step, optimization of single channel glazed photovoltaic thermal (SCGPVT) array has been done with an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) keeping the overall exergy gain is an objective function of the SCGPVT array. For maximization of overall exergy gain, total seven design variables have been optimized such as length of the channel (L), mass flow rate of flowing fluid (m_F), velocity of flowing fluid (V_F), convective heat transfer coefficient through the tedlar (U_T), overall heat transfer coefficient between solar cell to ambient through glass cover (U_S_C_A_G), overall back loss heat transfer coefficient from flowing fluid to ambient (U_F_A) and convective heat transfer coefficient of tedlar (h_T). It has been observed that the instant overall exergy gain obtained from optimized system is 1.42 kW h, which is 87.86% more than the overall exergy gain of a un-optimized system given in literature. In the second step, overall exergy gain and overall thermal gain of SCGPVT array has been evaluated annually and there are 69.52% and 88.05% improvement in annual overall exergy gain and annual overall thermal gain respectively than the un-optimized system for the same input irradiance and ambient temperature. In the third step, carbon credit earned by the optimized SCGPVT array has also been evaluated as per norms of Kyoto Protocol Bangalore climatic conditions.

  15. Partial Rarefaction as Way to Reduce Distortion Curve of double-glazed unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Use of Insulated Glass Units (IGU) as glazing on building façades causes optical distortions of mirrored images of neighboring buildings in glazed surfaces. Optical distortions are caused by varying distances between glass panes in IGUs as a result of climate factors. This paper examines available engineering solutions that reduce such distortions: use of more rigid outer glasses, encasing the building in a shell of single glass panes, known as the ‘double façade’, and use of vacuum IGUs. A new way is proposed to reduce optical distortions by installing additional pointed or linear supports and creating pre-stress with partial rarefaction inside the IGU. Overpressure that can cause IGU expansion and glass deformation was calculated. In the urban environment of Moscow, reduction of air pressure with simultaneous increase of air pressure inside the IGU during summer heat waves can be as high as 5%, and this figure determines the level of rarefaction.

  16. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  17. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  18. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  19. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  20. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  1. Experimental investigation of flame impingement on vertical and inclined glazing facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and fallout of glazing systems create openings in an enclosure that affect the fire growth and the development of post flashover flames emerging outside of the openings. The behaviour of glazing is the result of its thermally induced stress response to the heat fluxes from the fire in an enclosure. In recent times building façade designs have evolved and now incorporate many different shapes, orientations and materials. The conventional single and double glazing panels have been surpassed by composite type glazing systems which include glazing and transparent resins. This paper presents experimental testing of these composite glazing panels subjected to localized fires, which have the same fire load. The effect of localized fire on the materials tested as seen in the final char patterns on both glazing systems is note-worthy. The paper also includes details of comparative calculations with EN 1991-1-2. Furthermore, results of detailed material analysis testing of the intermediate transparent resin within the glazing sandwich panels are included.

  2. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  3. Development of ceramic glaze with photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezza, V.B.; Uggioni, E.; Carrera, A.A. Duran; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glazes were developed by adding anatase in commercial ceramic plates as an agent of photocatalysis. The glazes were coated on ceramic tiles, which were fired between 800 and 1000°C. The formulations were characterized (SEM, XRD), and the wettability was determined by measuring the water contact angle. The microstructural analysis (SEM) showed that the anatase particles can disperse properly in the glaze matrix. The X-ray diffraction shows that from 1000°C, the glaze becomes very reactive, and particles of anatase are transformed into titanite or rutile, depending on the glaze used. The determination of the contact angle shows the clear influence of the glaze type and sintering temperature on the wettability characteristics of the obtained layer. (author)

  4. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  5. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  6. Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1988-01-01

    . This phenomenon is considered being the main obstacle to incorporate the material in clear glazings but a significant improvement of the optical quality of aerogel has been observed during the last five years. A number of prototypical evacuated 500x500x28 mm aerogel double glazed units employing a new edge seal...... competetion in heating dominated climates....

  7. Zirconia-based colors for ceramic glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The history of color development for use in ceramic glazes is outlined. The most significant modern development is based on zirconia and zircon. These materials have gained increasing acceptance in the industry since their introduction in the late 1950's and early 1960's, due to their superior stability during firing of the glaze

  8. Mathematical modeling of optical glazing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Wittwer, V.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical modelling can be a powerful tool in the design and optimalization of glazing. By calculation, the specifications of a glazing design and the optimal design parameters can be predicted without building costly prototypes first. Furthermore, properties which are difficult to measure, like

  9. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface

  10. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeberg, Linda [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: lfroberg@abo.fi; Hupa, Leena [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  11. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  12. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  13. Energy efficient glazed office buildings with double skin facades in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Bo; Blomsterberg, Aake (WSP Environmental (Sweden)). e-mail: bo.eriksson@wspgroup.se

    2009-07-01

    Many modern office buildings have highly glazed facades. Their energy efficiency and indoor climate are, however, being questioned. Therefore more and more of these buildings are being built with double skin facades, which can provide improvements: A project BESTFACADE, with participants from Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal (France) and Sweden, was therefore funded by the European Commission (IEE) to actively promote well-performing concepts of double skin facades. Included were best practice guidelines, which included the determination of the energy use and thermal comfort by simulations for warm, mild and cold climates. The main conclusion is that the choice of glazing properties such as glazing area, U-value (thermal transmittance) of the glazing and its profiles, g-value (the total solar energy transmittance) of the glazing and type of solar shading are crucial for the energy and indoor climate performance of an office. The choice of control strategies for ventilation of the cavity and operation of solar shading are crucial. The above choices are very dependant on the climate. Choices which are optimal in a cold climate, will not work very well in a warm climate, and vice versa. From an energy and indoor climate point of view a highly glazed office with a double skin facade is often preferred to a single

  14. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M, E-mail: mgajek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramic, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6{approx}8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm{sup 2} (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5{approx}6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  15. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  16. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M

    2011-01-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6∼8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm 2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5∼6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  17. Advanced connection systems for architectural glazing

    CERN Document Server

    Afghani Khoraskani, Roham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a detailed study to explore the behavior of architectural glazing systems during and after an earthquake and to develop design proposals that will mitigate or even eliminate the damage inflicted on these systems. The seismic behavior of common types of architectural glazing systems are investigated and causes of damage to each system, identified. Furthermore, depending on the geometrical and structural characteristics, the ultimate horizontal load capacity of glass curtain wall systems is defined based on the stability of the glass components. Detailed attention is devoted to the incorporation of advanced connection devices between the structure of the building and the building envelope system in order to minimize the damage to glazed components. An innovative new connection device is introduced that results in a delicate and functional system easily incorporated into different architectural glazing systems, including those demanding maximum transparency.

  18. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1977-11-01

    The composition of the glazes of 14 fragments of medieval ceramics from Sistan in the south-west of Afghanistan has been determined quantitatively by means of electron probe microanalysis. The results were compared with materials and recipes, which are described in a Persian treatise on the manufacutre of glazed ceramic objects dated 1300 A.D. The mineral ''muzzarad'' which was used for the black underglaze painting, could be identified as chromite. The light blue colouring of the glaze was accomplished by admixtue of Cu, while Co was used for the dark blue painting. Most probably the Co pigment originated from Kashan in Persia. Only two glazes Pb was found, one of which contained also Sn. Based on the results of the quantitative analyses, a frit composition was calculated, which agrees with the medieval description of one identifies another so far unknown material mentioned in the treatise (qamsari) as dolomitic sandstone. (author)

  19. Photoactive glazed polymer-cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Liana; Patachia, Silvia; Tierean, Mircea; Ekincioglu, Ozgur; Ozkul, Hulusi M.

    2018-04-01

    Macro defect free cements (MDF), a kind of polymer-cement composites, are characterized by remarkably high mechanical properties. Their flexural strengths are 20-30 times higher than those of conventional cement pastes, nearly equal to that of an ordinary steel. The main drawback of MDF cements is their sensitivity to water. This paper presents a method to both diminish the negative impact of water on MDF cements mechanical properties and to enlarge their application by conferring photoactivity. These tasks were solved by glazing MDF cement with an ecological glaze containing nano-particles of TiO2. Efficiency of photocatalytic activity of this material was tested against methylene blue aqueous solution (4.4 mg/L). Influence of the photocatalyst concentration in the glaze paste and of the contact time on the photocatalysis process (efficiency and kinetic) was studied. The best obtained photocatalysis yield was of 97.35%, after 8 h of exposure to 254 nm UV radiation when used an MDF glazed with 10% TiO2 in the enamel paste. Surface of glazed material was characterized by optic microscopy, scratch test, SEM, XRD, and EDS. All these properties were correlated with the aesthetic aspect of the glazed surface aiming to propose using of this material for sustainable construction development.

  20. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  1. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  2. Ceramic glaze analysis by simultaneous in-beam PGAA and XRFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-one ready-to-use hobby glazes, of which 18 were labeled 'safe for food containers' (SFFC), were analyzed for Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Pb, Si, Sm, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr by neutron capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis (PGAA). Simultaneously, Pb was also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) using Pb K X-rays induced by the γ-ray component of the neutron beam. The XRFS limits of detection were 200-400 μg Pb x g -1 (dry weight), a factor of ∼100 better than those for PGAA. Pb concentrations (by dry weight: with weight losses ranging from 28 to 49% after air-drying) found were 0.16-27.2% in the SFFC glazes and 0.86-32% in the other glazes. The SFFC glazes contained from -1 , and Co, Cr and Cu (elements which may enhance Pb leaching from fired glazes) were found in concentrations up to 1.2, 2.7, and 5.6%, respectively. Method accuracy was demonstrated with the analysis of soil, fly ash, and glass standard reference materials. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  4. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazings.The apparatus has been constructed...

  5. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from a train or when placed on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a); (2) A car is on a shop or repair track, as defined in § 232.303(a), for any reason and has not received a single car air... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232...

  6. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  7. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kwak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control, polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S. Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10. Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05. For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed.

  8. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  9. A systematization of glaze spalling in azulejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detachment of the glaze in azulejos is the ultimate form of decay, since it leads to the loss of the pictorial content. The detachment is usually considered in a diffuse way, however a close observation allows recognizing several types, often related to crazing, which this paper proposes to systematize.

  10. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this paragraph; (ii) The name of the manufacturer; and (iii) The type or brand identification of...; and (C) The type or brand identification of the material. (d) Glazing securement. Each exterior window... words conveying that meaning, in letters at least 3/8 of an inch high. [64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as...

  11. Comfort Study of Office Buildings with Large Glazed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the buildings with large glazed areas the biggest problem is the space overheating during the warm season. This causes increased energy demand for cooling. The survey was carried out during the warm and cold seasons in two office buildings with large glazed areas. The methodology was prepared for evaluating indoor climate parameters using objective and subjective evaluation. The measurements have shown that there are problems with lighting in workplaces of both buildings during both the warm and cold seasons. The biggest problem is too dry air during the cold period, an acceptable temperature is also not always in the building No. 2. The survey has shown that some employees are dissatisfied with the indoor climate in the workplace, the bigger dissatisfaction is in building No. 2. Assessing according to the O. Fanger methodology was obtained that the number of PPD is in the normal range during the cold period, whereas close to the limit when the building can not be operated in the warm period.

  12. THE EFFECT OF OPACIFIERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OFCERAMIC GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarjahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface smoothness of ceramic glazes is always an important characteristic of ceramic glazes as a point of surface engineering studies. Surface roughness affects chemical resistivity, glossiness and stainabiliy of glazes. In fact, less surface roughness improves cleanability of the surface by the least usage amount of detergents. In this investigation, surface topography of two common opaque glazes, zirconia and titania-based, has been investigated. Crystallinity of the surface has been studied from SEM images, and comparison of EDS elemental results with phase analysis results of XRD. Surface roughness profile measured by Marsurf M300, shows that titania-based glaze is almost 24% percentage more smooth than zirconia based glaze. Surface smoothness is in relation with crystallinity of glaze surface, crystal type and crystal distribution in amorphous matrix phase

  13. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  14. Thermal performance of a room with a double glazing window using glazing available in Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.O.; Xamán, J.; Olazo-Gómez, Y.; Hernández-López, I.; Becerra, G.; Jaramillo, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal evaluation of a Room coupled with different types of Double Glazing Window (DGW) is analyzed. • Four cases were simulated: Case 1: DGW (clear); Case 2: DGW (absorbent), Case 3: DGW (Low-e) and Case 4: DGW (reflective). • Case 4 presents the better energy saving of all cases analyzed, ∼73% lower than Case 1. • Cases 2 and 3 have a similar thermal behavior, almost 34% less than Case 1. • The global balance costs indicate that Case 4 is the better option for energy saving in warm climate. • Case 4 allows us to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h in a year in comparison to Case 1. - Abstract: A thermal evaluation of a four configurations of double glass window (DGW) coupling to a room is presented. The DGW consists of two vertical semitransparent walls separated by a 12 mm air gap. The effect of varying the ambient temperature and the incident solar radiation in the warm climate conditions in México is analyzed. Numerical simulations were conducted for four configurations; Case 1: clear glass + air gap + clear glass (Reference); Case 2: clear glass + air gap + absorbent glass; Case 3: clear glass + air gap + Low-e glass; and Case 4: clear glass + air gap + reflective glass. Optical transmittance and specular reflectance were measured individually and in one sample piece for each case. The results showed that Case 4 reduces the heat flux to the indoors by up to 73%, with respect to Case 1. Moreover, Cases 2 and 3 had a similar behavior, obtaining a reduction of indoor heat flow close to 33.5% with respect to Case 1. Case 4 is the best option for energy savings in a warm climate, where it is possible to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h per year, in comparison to Case 1. In addition, the payback period for Case 4 is 3.7 years. Therefore, the use of reflective double pane window is highly recommended in Mexican warm climates.

  15. Potential application of glazed transpired collectors to space heating in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lixin; Bai, Hua; Mao, Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) is developed. • Glazing results in optical loss, but it decreases convective heat loss effectively. • Thermal performance of GTC shows considerable improvement on flat-plate collectors. • GTC using recirculated air is applicable to space heating in cold climates. - Abstract: Although unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) succeed in industrial ventilation applications, solar fraction is very low when they are used in space heating in cold climates due to the lower exit air temperature. Considering the potential for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) using recirculated air for space heating applications in cold climates, a mathematical model is developed for predicting the thermal performance of GTC. Simulation results show that although glazing results in optical loss, it could decrease convective heat loss resulted from high crosswind velocities effectively. For a solar radiation of 400 W/m 2 , an ambient temperature of −10 °C, and a suction velocity of 0.01 m/s, the exit air temperature of GTC is higher than that of UTC for crosswind velocities exceeding 3.0 m/s. By comparison with a conventional flat-plate solar air collector operating under the same conditions, the thermal performance of GTC shows a significant improvement. For a five-storey hotel building located in the severe cold climate zone of China, case study shows that the annual solar fraction of the GTC-based solar air heating system is about 20%, which is two times higher than that of the flat-plate collector-based system and nearly nine times higher than that of the UTC-based system respectively. Hence, an enormous amount of energy will be saved with the application of GTC to space heating in cold climates

  16. Effect of dissolved air content on single bubble sonoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Arakeri, Vijay H

    1993-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that a single gas bubble in a liquid medium can be driven hard enough by an acoustic pressure field to make it emit light which is visible to the naked eye in a dark room. This phenomenon termed as single bubble sonoluminescence has shown some extraordinary physical properties. In the present investigation the author has shown that dissolved air content has a significant influence on this phenomenon.

  17. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  18. Fabricate-On-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James W. [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-19

    PPG proposed to design a fabricate-on-demand manufacturing process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulated glazing (VIG) units. To do so, we focused on improving three areas of VIG manufacturing that drive high costs and limit the ability for smaller manufacturers to enter the market: edge sealing, pillar design/placement, and evacuating the VIG.

  19. Development of an air heating system for single family housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gunner, Amalie; Nikolaisen, Christian Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    The initial objective of the project was to break with common thinking about Space heating and to document that air heating can be used as the sole source of heating in a single Family house. The basic idea is that the ventilation must be installed in any case and it may equally well form the heat...

  20. Surface Abrasion of Glazed Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, L.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles have a considerable influence on their mechanical response to the various stresses coming from the environment. In this regard, one of the most important parameters to define the correct use of these products is the wear behaviour of the proper surface. Since the glaze layer is the physical interface between the environment and ceramic body, its characteristics also determine the service life of the tile. The objective of the research reported here was to assess the influence of hardness, fracture toughness and porosity of the glaze layer on the wear behaviour of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles. The results obtained show a clear relationship between the characteristics of the glaze layer and the material removal in the form of normalised weight loss, which can be considered a useful tool to predict the wear behaviour of these products.

    Las características de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados tiene una influencia considerable en la respuesta mecánica de éstos a las distintas tensiones provenientes del entorno. De acuerdo con esto, uno de los parámetros más importantes que definen la correcta utilización de estos productos es el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie. Debido a que la capa de esmalte es la conexión física entre el entorno y el cuerpo cerámico, sus características también determinan vida útil del azulejo. El objetivo de la investigación de la que damos cuenta aquí fue calcular la influencia de la dureza, resistencia a la fractura y porosidad de la capa de esmalte en el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una clara relación entre las características de la capa de esmalte y la eliminación del material en forma de pérdida de peso normalizada, que puede ser considerada como una herramienta útil para

  1. Controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse and a series of single Trichel pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Berendt, Artur; Akishev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a simple method for the controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses of a regulated repetition frequency in air is proposed. The concept of triggering a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses is based on the precise controlling the voltage inception of the negative corona, which can be accomplished through the use of a ramp voltage pulse or a series of such pulses with properly chosen ramp voltage pulse parameters (rise and fall times, and ramp voltage pulse repetition frequency). The proposal has been tested in experiments using a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement in air, and reproducible Trichel pulses (single or in a series) were obtained by triggering them with an appropriately designed voltage waveform. The proposed method and results obtained have been qualitatively analysed. The analysis provides guidance for designing the voltage ramp pulse in respect of the generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses would be a helpful research tool for the refined studies of the fundamental processes in a negative corona discharge in a single- (air is an example) and multi-phase gaseous fluids. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of Trichel pulses can also be attractive for those corona treatments which need manipulation of the electric charge and heat portions delivered by the Trichel pulses to the object.

  2. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na 2 O), its content in B 2 O 3 being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  4. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  5. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using 109 Cd and 57 Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm 2 for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV Κ α1 X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm 2 . For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of ≤4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm 2 ) in 39 of 47 fired open-quotes food-safeclose quotes glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm 2 ). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Influence of alumina characteristics on glaze properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrufat, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium oxide is a synthetic raw material manufactured from bauxite by the Bayer process, whose Al2O3 content typically exceeds 99%. Four main types of alumina can be defined, depending on the processing used: hydrargillite Al(OH3, boehmite AlOOH, transition aluminas (calcined at low temperatures, 1000 °C, with an intermediary crystallographic structure between hydrates and alpha alumina, and α-Al2O3 (calcined at high temperatures, >1100 °C. In glaze manufacturing, α-Al2O3 is the main type of alumina used. This raw material acts as a matting agent: the matt effect depends on alumina particle size and content in the glaze. This study examines the effect of the degree of alumina calcination on glaze technical and aesthetic properties. For this purpose, aluminas with different degrees of calcination were added to a glaze formulated with a transparent frit and kaolin, in order to simplify the system to be studied. The results show that, depending on the degree of calcination, alumina particles can react with the glaze components (SiO2, CaO, and ZnO to form new crystalline phases (anorthite and gahnite. Both crystallisations extract CaO and ZnO from the glassy phase, increasing glassy phase viscosity. The variation in crystalline phases and glassy phase viscosity yields glazes with different technical and aesthetic properties.

    El óxido de aluminio es una materia prima sintética fabricada a partir de la bauxita por medio del proceso Bayer, cuyo contenido de Al2O3 supera, por regla general, el 99%. Se pueden definir cuatro tipos de alúmina, en función del tipo de proceso usado: hidrargilita Al(OH3, boehmita AlOOH, alúminas de transición (calcinadas a bajas temperaturas, 1000 °C, con una estructura cristalográfica intermedia entre los hidratos y la alfa alúmina, y la α-Al2O3 (calcinada a

  7. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... items of glazing are also defined according to their construction characteristics. For example, item 1... a boil and a bake test to determine whether safety glazing can withstand exposure to high... (150[emsp14][deg]F) water for three minutes and then placed in boiling water for three hours. The bake...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... glazing material is considered to be any glazing material capable of passing the requirements of Safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.113... shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  9. Study on 95 alumina ceramic metallizing and glazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qun; Wang Wei

    2007-12-01

    Electric heater is a component of pressurizer in NPP. So the connector of heater must suit for special requirement with high reliability. It need join 95% alumina ceramic and special metal together. Traditional technique is to glazing ceramic at first, then sintering metal powder on ceramic. It result in melting glaze when metallizing at high temperature. The research on high temperature glaze hasn't got ideal result. In another way, the experiments prove low temperature metallizing couldn't get enough strength. Base on present conditions, a new technique is introduced. It is first metallizing then glazing. It can not only provide high strength with high temperature metallizing , but also avoid melting glaze at high temperature. Compared with other ways, the experiments prove it is feasible. The test data can satisfy requirement. This research has been put into production. (authors)

  10. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  11. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  12. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1978-08-01

    42 fragments of medieval glazed pottery from seven sites in Iran, Afghanistan and India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In addition a secondary clay standard and some samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for their main components. The results of the trace analysis formed the basis for cluster analysis using the graphtheoretical method of the minimum spanning tree. The samples were partitioned into five clusters, which were compared with the provenance of their respective members. Preliminary results indicate that pottery from the north of Afganistan can be differentiated from the southern one, while the southern ware seems to be homogeneous over a large area from Herat to Ghazni. Some of the pottery samples from Sistan have a different composition, which is due to a different production technique. The mass probably consisted of a 4 : 1 mixture of quartz and clay or a 15 : 4 : 1 mixture of quartz, clay and frit for the glaze. A similar recipe is described by Abu'l-Quasim, a medieval Persian potter. (author)

  13. Triple vacuum glazing: Heat transfer and basic mechanical design constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, H.; Brunner, S.; Wullschleger, L. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Laboratory for Applied Physics in Building, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    Given the major role played by windows with regard to energy losses from buildings in cold climates, low thermal transmittance is an indispensable property of glazing in low-energy buildings. Evacuation offers the only means of achieving negligible gaseous conduction in glazing cavities. Application of low-emittance coatings to glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity reduces the radiative heat transfer. The feasibility of double vacuum glazing using arrays of support pillars between the glass sheets has been shown by other authors. This type of glazing is commercially manufactured today. Based on these achievements, our study set out to investigate heat transfer in triple vacuum glazing by means of (i) an analytical thermal network model and (ii) a numerical finite difference model. The study focused on the impact of the following parameters on thermal transmittance: emittances of glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity, support pillar radius, support pillar separation and thermal conductivity of support pillar material. The design procedure for triple vacuum glazing taking into account not only thermal but also mechanical stresses due to atmospheric pressure, i.e., to enable identification of favourable parameter sets, is presented. Our findings suggest that use of the triple vacuum glazing concept can significantly reduce the thermal transmittances achieved by the best insulation glazing units currently on the market. E.g., a centre-of-glazing thermal transmittance of less than 0.2Wm{sup -2}K{sup -1} is achievable using stainless steel support pillars, 6mm/4mm/6mm sheets of untempered soda-lime glass and four low-emittance coatings ({epsilon}=0.03). (author)

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GLAZES AND CERAMIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kavanova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of stress relations of ceramic body - glaze systems of model and real, both historical and contemporary ceramics. The systems were characterized in terms of chemical composition, linear thermal coefficients and degradation effects. The results show that calculation of stress relations between ceramic body and glaze is affected predominantly by the difference in values of thermal expansion coefficients. Calculated results provide relevant information about the accordance of the glaze - ceramic body and for the characterization of surface defects.

  15. Optical And Environmental Properties Of NCAP Glazing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Konynenburg, Peter; Wipfler, Richard T.; Smith, Jerry L.

    1989-07-01

    The first large area, commercially available, electrically-controllable glazing products sold under the tradename VARILITETM are based on a new liquid crystal film technology called NCAP. The glazing products can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for high visibility) with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are demonstrated to meet the general requirements for architectural glazing use. The first qualified indoor product is described in detail.

  16. A new liquid-phase-separation glaze containing neodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, S.; Xianque, C.; Luxing, K.; Pentecost, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A color-changeable opaque glaze containing neodymium oxide was investigated. Results show that the glaze is a new example of the liquid-phase-separation type. The discrete phase droplets are from 50 to 500 nm in size. They are rich in Nd, Zn, Ca, and Mg and the continuous phase is rich in Si, Al, and K. The concentration of the discrete phase is approx. =45%. The large number of discrete droplets and the zinc oxide in the glaze increase its opacity to cover the selective light absorption and scattering of the neodymium ion and reduce the opalescence effect

  17. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  18. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  19. Calcium in ancient glazes and glasses: a XAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, J.P. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Figueiredo, M.O. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Crystallography and Mineralogy Centre, IICT, and INETI/IGM, Dept. Min. Resources, Alfragide (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Ceramic tiles used to manufacture artistic panels during the XVI to the XVIII centuries were decorated with high-lead soda-lime glazes, incorporating a diversity of chromophore cations, as ascertained by SRXRF (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence). Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies have shown that sodium and lead are hosted by the glassy matrix in those glazes. However, the possible role of calcium as a modifier of the tetrahedral silica network is not fully clarified, despite being recognized that calcium cations alter some fundamental properties of glazes, namely transparency. An X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study of glazes with varied colorings was therefore undertaken at Ca K- and L-edges. Well crystallized oxide minerals were used to model distinct coordination environments by oxygen atoms - close to octahedral geometry in calcite and dodecahedral in gypsum - while fluorite was chosen to mimic ideal cubic coordination. A first XAS approach suggested a minor variation in the energy separation between L{sub 2}-L{sub 3} absorption edges when comparing blue and yellow glazes, irrespective of the period of manufacture. A further study on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) carried out at the K-edge corroborated this difference and, along with the theoretical spectra modeling performed with the FEFF code, allowed interpreting of the Ca 1s absorption spectra of glazes as arising from a non-regular high-coordination environment within the silica matrix. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  1. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... injuries resulting from impact to glazing surfaces, to ensure a necessary degree of transparency in motor... material that will minimize the loss of transparency, and instructions for removing frost and ice, and, at...

  2. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  3. SIMULATION OF SOLAR LITHIUM BROMIDE–WATER ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM WITH DOUBLE GLAZED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FOR ADRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML CHOUGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrar is a city in the Sahara desert, in southern Algeria known for its hot and dry climate, where a huge amount of energy is used for air conditioning. The aim of this research is to simulate a single effect lithium bromide–water absorption chiller coupled to a double-glazed flat plate collector to supply the cooling loads for a house of 200m2 in Adrar. The thermal energy is stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system was designed to cover a cooling load of 10.39KW for design day of July. Thermodynamic model was established to simulate the absorption cycle. The results have shown that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 65.3 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

  4. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  5. Glass-ceramics frits for high mechanical resistance glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wojczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The obtaining and application of glass-ceramics frits for glazes were discussed by many authors. This glazes are characterized by raised mechanical parameters and chemical resistance. Factors, that determines crystallization process are initial composition, heat treatment and nucleation agents. The kind of crystalline phases, crystal habit and the content of residual glass phase play the decisive role in the strengthening of the glaze. In this paper are shown results of investigation over controlled crystallization in the ternary systems; Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , with or without nucleation agents. (author)

  6. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  7. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  8. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  9. Air tightness measurements in older Danish single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2017-01-01

    of the building envelope of older buildings despite the fact that the air tightness has a major influence on the energy use. In connection with renovation of the Danish building stock, the coming years will see increased focus on the air tightness of the building envelope like in other countries. This paper...

  10. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  11. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  12. Characterization of glazes, enamels and oxides by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarek, Iheb

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to control the technique of X-ray fluorescence, both in qualitative and quantitative characterization for ceramic glazes, enamels and oxides. it's a recent subject of investigation, its purpose is to discover the presence of toxic substances (Pb, Cd, Sn, As ..) and their quantities if it exists in the manufacturing materials.

  13. Characterization of the interaction between glazes and ceramic bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavanová, M.; Kloužková, A.; Kloužek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 267-275 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glazes * ceramic s * thermal analysis * coefficients of the thermal expansion * dilatometry Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramic s Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  14. Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Air Pocket Encapsulated Ultraviolet Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jin; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Meyyappan, M

    2017-11-22

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a promising candidate as a sensor material for the sensitive detection of gases/vapors, biomarkers, and even some radiation, as all these external variables affect the resistance and other properties of nanotubes, which forms the basis for sensing. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation does not impact the nanotube properties given the substantial mismatch of bandgaps and therefore, CNTs have never been considered for UV sensing, unlike the popular ZnO and other oxide nanwires. It is well-known that UV assists the adsorption/desorption characteristics of oxygen on carbon nanotubes, which changes the nanotube resistance. Here, we demonstrate a novel sensor structure encapsulated with an air pocket, where the confined air is responsible for the UV sensing mechanism and assures sensor stability and repeatability over time. In addition to the protection from any contamination, the air pocket encapsulated sensor offers negligible baseline drift and fast recovery compared to previously reported sensors. The air pocket isolated from the outside environment can act as a stationary oxygen reservoir, resulting in consistent sensor characteristics. Furthermore, this sensor can be used even in liquid environments.

  15. Single-shot LIBS spectral quality for waste particles in open air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, H.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the ability of LIBS to produce quality spectra from small particles of concrete demolition waste using single-shot spectra collected in open air. The 2–8?mm materials are rounded river gravel, green glass shards, and plastic flakes. Considered are focal length, air, moisture,

  16. Electronic transport properties of pentacene single crystals upon exposure to air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurchescu, OD; Baas, J; Palstra, TTM; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the effect of air exposure on the electronic properties of pentacene single crystals. Air can diffuse reversibly in and out of the crystals and influences the physical properties. We discern two competing mechanisms that modulate the electronic transport. The presence of oxygen increases

  17. Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor and cloud properties from AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Fredrick W.; Kahn, Brian H.; Schreier, Mathias M.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fishbein, Evan; Fu, Dejian; Kalmus, Peter; Wilson, R. Chris; Wong, Sun; Yue, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Single-footprint Atmospheric Infrared Sounder spectra are used in an optimal estimation-based algorithm (AIRS-OE) for simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, surface temperature, cloud-top temperature, effective cloud optical depth and effective cloud particle radius. In a departure from currently operational AIRS retrievals (AIRS V6), cloud scattering and absorption are in the radiative transfer forward model and AIRS single-footprint thermal infrared data are used directly rather than cloud-cleared spectra (which are calculated using nine adjacent AIRS infrared footprints). Coincident MODIS cloud data are used for cloud a priori data. Using single-footprint spectra improves the horizontal resolution of the AIRS retrieval from ˜ 45 to ˜ 13.5 km at nadir, but as microwave data are not used, the retrieval is not made at altitudes below thick clouds. An outline of the AIRS-OE retrieval procedure and information content analysis is presented. Initial comparisons of AIRS-OE to AIRS V6 results show increased horizontal detail in the water vapor and relative humidity fields in the free troposphere above the clouds. Initial comparisons of temperature, water vapor and relative humidity profiles with coincident radiosondes show good agreement. Future improvements to the retrieval algorithm, and to the forward model in particular, are discussed.

  18. Single and double long pulse laser ablation of aluminum induced in air and water ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari Jafarabadi, Marzieh; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser ablation of aluminum target by single and double pulse (∼ 5 ns delay) in ambient air and distilled water • Comparing with air, in ambient water, plasma confinement results in higher crater depth. • In comparison with single pulse laser ablation, the absorption of the laser pulse energy is higher for double pulse regime. • As a result of ablated material expansion, the crater depth is decreased if the target is placed at lower depth. - Abstract: In this paper, single pulse and double pulse laser ablation of an aluminum target in two interaction ambient was investigated experimentally. The interaction was performed by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser beam in air and four depths (i.e. 9, 13, 17, and 21 mm) of distilled water ambient. The irradiation was carried out in single and collinear double pulse configurations in both air and liquid ambient. Crater geometry (depth and diameter) was measured by an optical microscope. The results indicated that the crater geometry strongly depends on both single pulse and double pulse configurations and interaction ambient. In single pulse regime, the crater diameter is higher for all water depths compared to that of air. However, the crater depth, depend on water depth, is higher or lower than the crater depth in air. In double pulse laser ablation, there are greater values for both crater diameters and crater depths in the water.

  19. Oxidation behavior of stainless steel 430 and 441 at 800 C in single (air/air) and dual atmosphere (air/hydrogen) exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufner, J.; Gannon, P.; White, P.; Deibert, M.; Teintze, S. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, 306 Cobleigh Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3920 (United States); Smith, R.; Chen, H. [Physics, Montana State University, 306 Cobleigh Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Intermediate temperature ({proportional_to}800 {sup o}C) planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) allow the use of ferritic stainless steel (FSS) interconnects. SOFC FSS interconnects are used to stack individual cells into series, and are simultaneously exposed to air on the cathode side and fuel on the anode side, creating a 'dual atmosphere' exposure. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers on the air side of FSSs 430 and 441 were analyzed as a function of simulated dual atmosphere exposures (moist air/moist hydrogen) for up to 300 h. FSS 430 showed some changes in oxidation behavior, with a slight Fe concentration increase and localized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodule formation observed in the dual atmosphere TGO layer relative to its single atmosphere (air/air) counterpart. Significantly accelerated and anomalous oxidation was observed with FSS 441 subjected to dual atmosphere exposures compared with air/air exposures. The TGO layer formed on the 441 exposed to air/air was comprised of Mn-rich, Cr and Fe-containing isomorphic spinel surface crystallites, with a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (eskolaite)-based bottom layer, having a total TGO layer thickness of <2{mu} m after 300 h. In contrast, the TGO layer formed on 441 during dual atmosphere exposure was much faster-growing (>6{mu} m in 20 h) and exhibited a continuous, porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich surface layer with a relatively thin (<2{mu} m) sublayer of similar composition to the TGO layer formed during the air/air exposure. Spontaneous TGO layer spallation was also observed for the air side of 441 exposed to dual atmosphere for >100h. The observed oxidation behavior and TGO layer evolution of 441 in both air/air and dual atmosphere are presented, with possible mechanisms and implications discussed. (author)

  20. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... glass panes and a specific rim seal. A heat treatment phase (after the supercritical CO2 drying) of the aerogel is currently being developed in order to improve its optical quality. This step increases the solar transmittance about 6 percent points. For glazing prototypes with an aerogel thickness...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  1. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  2. Solar chimney integrated with passive evaporative cooler applied on glazing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Touma, Albert; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ismail, Nagham

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of a hybrid system applied on glazing surfaces for reducing the space cooling load and radiation asymmetry. The proposed system combines the principles of passive evaporative cooling with the natural buoyant flow in solar chimneys to entrain outdoor air and attenuate the window surface temperature. A predictive heat and mass transport model combining the evaporative cooler, glazing section, solar chimney and an office space is developed to study the system performance in harshly hot climates. The developed model was validated through experiments conducted in a twin climatic chamber for given ambient temperature, humidity, and solar radiation conditions. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted window temperatures and space loads at maximum discrepancy lower than 4.3%. The proposed system is applied to a typical office space to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the window temperature, the space load and radiation asymmetry, while maintaining the indoor comfort conditions. Results have shown that the system is reduced the space load by −19.8% and attenuated the radiation asymmetry significantly for office spaces having window-to-wall ratio of 40% in climate of Riyadh, KSA. The system performance diminished when applied in locations suffering from humid weather climates. - Highlights: • A passive evaporative-cooled solar chimney system is introduced to decrease window temperature. • A mathematical model is developed of the system to predict induce air flow and window surface temperature. • The model is validated with experiments in twin room climatic chamber and using artificial solar lamps. • The system reduces window maximum temperature by 5 °C in the hot dry climate of Riyadh, KSA. • It reduced the space load by 19.4% for office spaces at window-to-wall ratio of 40% in Riyadh, KSA.

  3. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  4. Single and double pass solar air heaters with wire mesh as packing bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldabbagh, L.B.Y.; Egelioglu, F. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Magosa, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Ilkan, M. [School of Computing and Tecnology, Eastern Mediterranean University, Magosa, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    The thermal performances of single and double pass solar air heaters with steel wire mesh layers are used instead of a flat absorber plate are investigated experimentally. The effects of mass flow rate of air on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. The results indicate that the efficiency increases with increasing the mass flow rate for the range of the flow rate used in this work between 0.012 and 0.038 kg/s. For the same flow rate, the efficiency of the double pass is found to be higher than the single pass by 34-45%. Moreover, the maximum efficiencies obtained for the single and the double pass air collectors are 45.93 and 83.65% respectively for the mass flow rate of 0.038 kg/s. Comparison of the results of a packed bed collector with those of a conventional collector shows a substantial enhancement in the thermal efficiency. (author)

  5. Experimental and simulation studies on a single pass, double duct solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K. [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kumasi (Ghana); Rajakaruna, H. [De Montfort Univ., School of Engineering and Technology, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    A mathematical model of a single pass, double duct solar air heater (SPDDSAH) is described. The model provides a design tool capable of predicting: incident solar radiation, heat transfer coefficients, mean air flow rates, mean air temperature and relative humidity at the exit. Results from the simulation are presented and compared with experimental ones obtained on a full scale air heater and a small scale laboratory one. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured values is demonstrated. Predicted results from a parametric study are also presented. It is shown that significant improvement in the SPDDSAH performance can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the collector parameters and the top to bottom channel depth ratio of the two ducts. The air mass flow rate is shown to be the dominant factor in determining the overall efficiency of the heater. (Author)

  6. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  7. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    . In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...... by placing electrodes at the same side of the wall. Thus it may be possible to desalinate tile panels, without any physical damage of the fragile glaze, by placing electrodes on the back of the wall or by removing some tiles, placing electrodes in their spaces, and extracting the salts from there before...... the tiles are placed back again....

  8. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade......, for use in the design phase, is done. The methods used are initially based on thermal building calculations. This analysis shows that a dynamic adaptive facade is the only way in which future office buildings can fulfil the energy regulations. By designing the facade according to the usage...

  9. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  10. Gothic green glazed tile from Malbork Castle: Multi-analytical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svorová Pawełkowicz, S.; Rohanová, D.; Svora, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 27. ISSN 2050-7445 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) * Green glazed tile * Malbork Castle * Medieval technology * Opacifiers * Silica-lead glaze Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  11. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A.M.; Casimiro, T.M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO 2 . All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  12. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  13. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei; Ren, Lijiao; Pu, Yuepu; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5

  14. Spatio-temporal resolved diagnostics of the single filament barrier discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.; Brandenburg, R.; Michel, P.; Kozlov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    First experimental results on the spatio-temporal development of single filaments of DBDs in dry air at atmospheric pressure are presented. The measurements allow a detailed visualisation and interpretation of the streamer development. In combination with the kinetic model they are used to get information on the spatiotemporal development of the reduced field-strength E/n, too

  15. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof

  16. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  17. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite.

  18. PIXE analysis of Moroccan architectural glazed ceramics of 14th-18th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Azzou, A.; El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of glazes and ceramic bodies of a set of architectural glazed ceramics (mostly the zellige mosaics), sampled from seven Moroccan monuments from the 14th to the 18th century AD, has been performed. We have identified high lead glazes, opacified with tin-oxide, laid over a calciferous body to produce hard tiles easy to chisel as required by the zellige technique. The analysis has revealed significant differences between the monuments examined: in particular in the formulation of the base glass and in the use of stains to produce coloured glazes. We observed the peculiarity of materials used in Marrakech and we could distinguish, both in terms of glazes and ceramic bodies, the two almost contemporary Madersas dedicated to the sultan Bou Inan, one in Meknes the other in Fez. The PIXE measurements integrate a broad range of spectrometric investigations performed in the past few years. (author)

  19. Analytical analysis of solar thermal collector with glass and Fresnel lens glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifle, Idris; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz Hj; Othman, Mohd Yusof Hj; Ibarahim, Zahari

    2018-04-01

    Solar thermal collector is a system that converts solar radiation to heat. The heat will raise the temperature higher than the ambient temperature. Absorber and glazing are two important components in order to increase the temperature of the collector. The thermal absorber will release heat by convection and as radiation to the surrounding. These losses will be reduced by glazing. Other than that, glazing is beneficial for protecting the collector from dust and water. This study discusses about modelling of solar thermal collector effects of different mass flow rates with different glazing for V-groove flat plate solar collectors. The glazing used was the glass and linear Fresnel lens. Concentration ratio in this modelling was 1.3 for 0.1m solar collector thickness. Results show that solar collectors with linear Fresnel lens has the highest efficiency value of 71.18% compared to solar collectors with glass which has efficiency 54.10% with same operation conditions.

  20. A preliminary study on Fe valence of porcelain glaze by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Maolin; Wang Changsui; Jin Pujun; Wei Shiqiang; Xu Wei; Chen Dongliang; Wu Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    Ru ware was a famous celadon in Song dynasty, whose structure analysis of glaze had always been a difficulty in scientifically analysis of ancient porcelains. The X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum (XAFS) of Fe element in glaze of Ru ware excavated in Qingliang temple was obtained. Fe valence state in porcelain glaze samples was stud/ed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) along with linear combination fitting method. The main wavelength of the samples was also obtained by color/meter. The results show that the cyan glaze samples have great Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ , while the yellow glaze samples have small Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ . The work also showed that X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum was very suitable in nondestructive analysis of ancient ceramics. (authors)

  1. Research on Properties of Foamed Concrete Reinforced with Small Sized Glazed Hollow Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete (400 kg/m3 was prepared through a physical foaming method using ordinary Portland cement (42.5R, vegetable protein foaming agent, fly ash, and glazed hollow beads (GHB, K46 as raw materials. The performance of cement paste as well as the structure and distribution of air voids was characterized by rheometry, SEM, and XRD analyses with imaging software. The effects of GHBs on the compressive strength and thermal conductivity of the foamed concrete sample were also explored. Results show that the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the test sample mixed with 2.4 wt% GHBs are 94.44%, 182.10 μm, 2.39 MPa, and 0.0936 w/(m·k, respectively. Excessive amount of GHBs (>2.4 wt% increases the amount of air voids with diameter smaller than 50 μm in the hardened foamed concrete as well as the degree of open porosity. Moreover, the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the sample mixed with 4.0 wt% GHBs are 88.54%, 140.50 μm, 2.05 MPa, and 0.0907 w/(m·k, respectively.

  2. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good....... The method took the angle dependence of the solar characteristic into account, including the simplified hourly building model developed according to EN 13790 to evaluate the influence of the controlled façade on both the indoor environment (indoor air temperature, solar transmittance through the façade...

  3. A portable system powered with hydrogen and one single air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Moreno, J.; Guelbenzu, G.; Martín, A.J.; Folgado, M.A.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Chaparro, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A portable system based on hydrogen and single air breathing PEM fuel cell. • Control electronics designed for low single cell voltage (0.5–0.8 V). • Forced air convection and anode purging required to help water management. • Application consisting of a propeller able to display a luminous message. • Up to 20 h autonomy with continuous 1.1 W consumption, using 1 g H 2 . - Abstract: A portable system for power generation based on hydrogen and a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been built and operated. The fuel cell is fed in the anode with hydrogen stored in a metal hydrides cartridge, and in the cathode with oxygen from quiescent ambient air (‘air breathing’). The control electronics of the system performs DC–DC conversion from the low voltage (0.5–0.8 V) and high current output (200–300 mA cm −2 ) of the single fuel cell, up to 3.3 V to power an electronic application. System components assist fuel cell operation, including an electronic valve for anode purging, a fan in front of the open cathode, two supercapacitors for auxiliary power requirements, four LED lights, and a display screen. The influence of the system components on fuel cell behaviour is analyzed. The cathode fan and anodic purging help excess water removal from the electrodes leading to steadier cell response at the expense of extra power consumption. The power system is able to provide above 1 W DC electricity to an external application during 20 h using 1 g of H 2 . An application consisting of a propeller able to display a luminous message is chosen to test system. It is shown that one single air breathing PEM fuel cell powered with hydrogen may provide high energy density and autonomy for portable applications

  4. Robustness of tungsten single atom tips to thermal treatment and air exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesa, Cristian; Urban, Radovan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Pitters, Jason L., E-mail: jason.pitters@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Wolkow, Robert A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council of Canada, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • W(1 1 1) single atom tips (SATs) were exposed to air. • SATs could be regenerated by field assisted chemical etching after exposure. • Warming procedures to minimize tip contamination were developed. • Degassing temperatures for air exposed tips were established. • Tip faceting occurred when SATs and unetched tips were annealed above 1200 °C. - Abstract: Experiments aimed at assessing the robustness of nitrogen-etched, single-atom tips (SATs) prepared using W(1 1 1) single crystal wire were performed. Our experiments showed that single-atoms tips sustain minimal damage when exposed to atmospheric conditions and can be readily and quickly nitrogen-etched to single-atom tips thereafter. The SATs can be annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C with minimal shape changes. Moreover, annealing temperatures in excess of 1200 °C resulted in an apex faceting which may prove important in further single-atom tip creation. Procedures for warming of the SATs from operating temperatures of 80 K were also evaluated to determine conditions that limit tip contamination. These results show that SATS could be fabricated in a dedicated vacuum system and subsequently transferred to other instruments where they would undergo a brief conditioning procedure to recover the single-atom apex configuration prior to being subjected to operating conditions.

  5. Demonstration of acoustic source localization in air using single pixel compressive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey S.; Rohde, Charles A.; Guild, Matthew D.; Naify, Christina J.; Martin, Theodore P.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic source localization often relies on large sensor arrays that can be electronically complex and have large data storage requirements to process element level data. Recently, the concept of a single-pixel-imager has garnered interest in the electromagnetics literature due to its ability to form high quality images with a single receiver paired with shaped aperture screens that allow for the collection of spatially orthogonal measurements. Here, we present a method for creating an acoustic analog to the single-pixel-imager found in electromagnetics for the purpose of source localization. Additionally, diffraction is considered to account for screen openings comparable to the acoustic wavelength. A diffraction model is presented and incorporated into the single pixel framework. In this paper, we explore the possibility of applying single pixel localization to acoustic measurements. The method is experimentally validated with laboratory measurements made in an air waveguide.

  6. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  7. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  8. Single room control for user-optimised room air conditions; Einzelraumregelung fuer nutzungsoptimiertes Raumklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezius, A. [Staefa Control System GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 14 of the anthology about building control the single room control for achieving user-optimised room air conditions is described. The following aspects are discussed: What is comfort? What is economic efficiency? Systems for secondary air treatment, adapted functions of the measurement and control technique, management functions, orientation of the demand at the use, investment and amortisation. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 14 des Sammelbandes ueber Building control ist dem Thema der Einzelraumregelung zur Erzielung eines nutzungsoptimierten Raumklimas gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themenbereiche angesprochen: Was ist Komfort? Was ist Wirtschaftlichkeit? Systeme fuer sekundaere Luftbehandlung; Angepasste Funktionen der MSR-Technik; Managementfunktionen; Bedarfsorientierung an der Nutzung; Investition und Amortisation. (BWI)

  9. Growth and characterization of air annealing Mn-doped YAG:Ce single crystal for LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Weidong; Zhong, Jiasong; Zhao, Yinsheng; Zhao, Binyu; Liang, Xiaojuan; Dong, Yongjun; Zhang, Zhimin; Chen, Zhaoping; Liu, Bingfeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The YAG:Ce,Mn single crystal was well synthesized by the Czochralski (CZ) method. ► The emission intensity of the sample has been influenced after annealing. ► Annealed in the air at 1200 °C was the most optimal annealing condition. ► The single crystal could be used in the white light LED which emitted by blue light. - Abstract: The growth of Mn-doped YAG:Ce (yttrium aluminum garnet doped cerium) single crystal by the Czochralski (CZ) method and the characterization of its spectroscopy and color-electric parameters are presented. The absorption spectra indicate that the crystal absorbed highly in the 300–500 nm wavelength range. The emission spectrum of the crystal consists of a peak around 538 nm when excited by 460 nm blue light, which prove the YAG:Ce,Mn single crystal could be used in the white light emitting doides (LED). The different charges of Mn ions have different luminescence properties, and the air annealing process for the single crystal would change the concentration of Mn ions with different charges, which could influence the emission intensity of the single crystal.

  10. Modeling and simulation of a solar powered two bed adsorption air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Sumathy, K.

    2004-01-01

    A simple lumped parameter model is established to investigate the performance of a solar powered adsorption air conditioning system driven by flat-type solar collectors with three different configurations of glazes: (i) single glazed cover; (ii) double glazed cover and (iii) transparent insulation material (TIM) cover. The dynamic performance of a continuous adsorption cycle using a double adsorber along with heat recovery is measured in terms of the temperature histories, gross solar coefficient of performance and specific cooling power. Also, the influences of some important design and operational parameters on the performance of the system are studied. It is found that the chosen three types of collector configurations make no big difference on the performance, but the adsorbent mass and lumped capacitance have significant effects on the system performance as well as on the system size. Simulation results indicate that the effect of overall heat transfer coefficient is not predominant if the cycle duration is longer. Also, there exists an optimum time to initiate the heating of the adsorbent bed in a day's operation

  11. Modeling and experimental validation of the solar loop for absorption solar cooling system using double-glazed collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, Olivier; Praene, Jean-Philippe; Bastide, Alain; Lucas, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Solar cooling applied to buildings is without a doubt an interesting alternative for reducing energy consumption in traditional mechanical steam compression air conditioning systems. The study of these systems should have a closely purely fundamental approach including the development of numerical models in order to predict the overall installation performance. The final objective is to estimate cooling capacity, power consumption, and overall installation performance with relation to outside factors (solar irradiation, outside temperature...). The first stage in this work consists of estimating the primary energy produced by the solar collector field. The estimation of this primary energy is crucial to ensure the evaluation of the cooling capacity and therefore the cooling distribution and thermal comfort in the building. Indeed, the absorption chiller performance is directly related to its heat source. This study presents dynamic models for double glazing solar collectors and compares the results of the simulation with experimental results taken from our test bench (two collectors). In the second part, we present an extensive collector field model (36 collectors) from our solar cooling installation at The University Institute of Technology in St Pierre, Reunion Island as well as our stratified tank storage model. A comparison of the simulation results with real scale solar experimental data taken from our installation enables validation of the double glazing solar collector and stratified tank dynamic models.

  12. Experimental characterization of mass, work and heat flows in an air cooled, single cylinder engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Blanco, H.

    2004-01-01

    Small air cooled engines, although large in numbers, receive scant attention in the literature. Experimental data for a four stroke, air cooled, single cylinder engine are presented in this report. Air to fuel ratios, indicated and output power, exhaust composition and heat loss are determined to result in suitable thermal and mechanical efficiencies. The data obtained are discussed with the perspective obtained from other literature references. Exhaust composition figures appear reasonable, but the measurement of the transient exhaust flows is still a concern. Based on the measurements, a graph illustrating the different energy transformations in the engine is produced. Undergraduate students in the curriculum routinely use the engine and the present work allows one to conclude that the measurement approach produces reasonable results. These results could be used by engine modelers and others interested in this wide field of technology

  13. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  14. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  15. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    for elemental oxides using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum. The results indicate that silicon oxide content of the glazed sherds varies between approx. 73 and 77%, forming three-fourths of the total composition, while it ranges from...

  16. Infrared reflecting glazing for automotive application. New developments to improve fuel efficiency and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, R.; Wahl, A.; Kleinhempel, R. [Southwall Europe GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Coda, M.; Boman, L. [Southwall Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solar control coatings in automotive glazing improve the thermal comfort for passengers, degrease solar irradiation into the cabin and reduce fading of materials. In IRR glazing solar radiation reduction is performed by silver based low-e-stacks with high visual transmittance and high near infrared reflectance. The proposed ARB regulation for Califormia published 2009 demanded for reduced total solartransmittance Tts of <50% of automotive glazing in new cars from 2012 on and of <40% starting 2016. Unfortunately, the regulation was ceased last minute and of March 2010 due to some technical concerns related to proper operation of electronic communication devices. Nevertheless, the technical goals regarding the total solar energy transmittance became a widely accepted performance target for solar heat protection glazing in upcoming new car models for the next years. In order to achieve the challenging new Tts target <40% major steps forward in coating design and optimization of layer properties are required. (orig.)

  17. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  18. Foundations for computer simulation of a low pressure oil flooded single screw air compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bein, T. W.

    1981-12-01

    The necessary logic to construct a computer model to predict the performance of an oil flooded, single screw air compressor is developed. The geometric variables and relationships used to describe the general single screw mechanism are developed. The governing equations to describe the processes are developed from their primary relationships. The assumptions used in the development are also defined and justified. The computer model predicts the internal pressure, temperature, and flowrates through the leakage paths throughout the compression cycle of the single screw compressor. The model uses empirical external values as the basis for the internal predictions. The computer values are compared to the empirical values, and conclusions are drawn based on the results. Recommendations are made for future efforts to improve the computer model and to verify some of the conclusions that are drawn.

  19. performance simulation of a natural circulation solar air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    in a single glazed flat plate natural circulation solar a prepared in modules .... Nigerian Journal of Technology, used instead of ... boundary associated with the melting the phase ...... Mathematical Modeling of the Thin Layer Drying of Sweet ...

  20. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Design and cold-air test of single-stage uncooled turbine with high work output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, T. P.; Szanca, E. M.; Whitney, W. J.; Behning, F. P.

    1980-01-01

    A solid version of a 50.8 cm single stage core turbine designed for high temperature was tested in cold air over a range of speed and pressure ratio. Design equivalent specific work was 76.84 J/g at an engine turbine tip speed of 579.1 m/sec. At design speed and pressure ratio, the total efficiency of the turbine was 88.6 percent, which is 0.6 point lower than the design value of 89.2 percent. The corresponding mass flow was 4.0 percent greater than design.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of the arovenance relation of tang tri-color glazed potteryies of huangye kiln and yaozhou kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln and Yaozhou kiln. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data. The results indicate that the places of origin of raw materials of body samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln are very concentrated, and that the places of origin of raw materials of body and glaze samples are scattered the places of origin of raw materials of the body and glaze raw material cover that of the body raw material. The source of raw materials of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln is obviously different from that of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Yaozhou kiln. (authors)

  3. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, Hamada; Abd El Hady M M

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  4. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  5. Application of large-area chromogenics to architectural glazings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-03-01

    Glass plays a significant role in the design of building envelopes today. Since its emergence during the last century as a major building material, glass has evolved into an ubiquitous and versatile building design element, performing functions today that would have been unimaginable a few years ago. The optical clarity and transparency of glass that we take for granted is one of its most unique features. Glass windows keep out the cold wind and rain without blocking the view, but also perform many more complex functions which require variable properties and tradeoffs between conflicting conditions. The glazing that provides view must also provide visual privacy at other times and must sometimes become totally opaque (for audiovisual shows, for example). Transparent glass admits daylight, providing good color rendition and offsetting electric lighting energy needs, but it can also create discomfort and disability glare conditions. The sun provides desirable warmth in winter but its heat is unwelcome in summer when it contributes to thermal discomfort and cooling energy requirements. And glass is an important element in the appearance and aesthetics of a building, both interior and exterior.

  6. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Soule, D.E. (Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. The temporal evolution process from fluorescence bleaching to clean Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyong; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Wang, Chuji

    2017-12-01

    We observe the entire temporal evolution process of fluorescence and Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air. The spectra initially contain strong fluorescence with weak Raman peaks, then the fluorescence was bleached within seconds, and finally only the clean Raman peaks remain. We construct an optical trap using two counter-propagating hollow beams, which is able to stably trap both absorbing and non-absorbing particles in air, for observing such temporal processes. This technique offers a new method to study dynamic changes in the fluorescence and Raman spectra from a single optically trapped particle in air.

  8. Optimal control and performance of photovoltachromic switchable glazing for building integration in temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favoino, Fabio; Fiorito, Francesco; Cannavale, Alessandro; Ranzi, Gianluca; Overend, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The features and properties of photovoltachromic switchable glazing are presented. • The different possible control strategies for the switchable glazing are presented. • Thermal and daylight performance are co-simulated for rule-based and optimal control. • A novel building performance simulation framework is developed for this aim. • Switchable glazing performance is compared for different controls and climates. - Abstract: The development of adaptive building envelope technologies, and particularly of switchable glazing, can make significant contributions to decarbonisation targets. It is therefore essential to quantify their effect on building energy use and indoor environmental quality when integrated into buildings. The evaluation of their performance presents new challenges when compared to conventional “static” building envelope systems, as they require design and control aspects to be evaluated together, which are also mutually interrelated across thermal and visual physical domains. This paper addresses these challenges by presenting a novel simulation framework for the performance evaluation of responsive building envelope technologies and, particularly, of switchable glazing. This is achieved by integrating a building energy simulation tool and a lighting simulation one, in a control optimisation framework to simulate advanced control of adaptive building envelopes. The performance of a photovoltachromic glazing is evaluated according to building energy use, Useful Daylight Illuminance, glare risk and load profile matching indicators for a sun oriented office building in different temperate climates. The original architecture of photovoltachromic cell provides an automatic control of its transparency as a function of incoming solar irradiance. However, to fully explore the building integration potential of photovoltachromic technology, different control strategies are evaluated, from passive and simple rule based controls, to

  9. The effect of glazing and aging on the surface properties of CAD/CAM resin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Fidan, Sinan; Tuncer, Safa; Kara, Dilan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of accelerated aging on surface properties of glazed CAD/CAM resin blocks using a 2D surface profilometer and a 3D non-contact optical profilometer. Three types of CAD/CAM resin restorative materials, LAVA Ultimate (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), VITA Enamic (Vita Zahnfabrik H. Rauter, Bad Säckingen, Germany), and Cerasmart (GC Corparation, Tokyo, Japan) were used for this study. CAD/CAM blocks were cut in 3-mm thickness slabs and divided into three groups; Group 1: control group (specimens polished with 600 grit SCI paper); Group 2: specimens sandblasted, silanized, and glazed with Optiglaze Color (GC); Group 3: glazed specimens subjected to 5000 thermocycles (n=15). The surface roughness (R a and R z ) was evaluated using a profilometer and a 3D scanning instrument. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test ( P .05). For VITA and Cerasmart, the specimens in Group 1 exhibited significantly higher R a values than Group 2 ( P .05). Glaze material Optiglaze Color makes CAD/CAM resin surfaces smooth and glazed CAD/CAM surfaces seem resistant to deterioration under 5000 thermocycles.

  10. Hot air balloon engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, Ian [Solartran Pty Ltd, 12 Lentara Street, Kenmore, Brisbane 4069 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper describes a solar powered reciprocating engine based on the use of a tethered hot air balloon fuelled by hot air from a glazed collector. The basic theory of the balloon engine is derived and used to predict the performance of engines in the 10 kW to 1 MW range. The engine can operate over several thousand metres altitude with thermal efficiencies higher than 5%. The engine thermal efficiency compares favorably with the efficiency of other engines, such as solar updraft towers, that also utilize the atmospheric temperature gradient but are limited by technical constraints to operate over a much lower altitude range. The increased efficiency allows the use of smaller area glazed collectors. Preliminary cost estimates suggest a lower $/W installation cost than equivalent power output tower engines. (author)

  11. Thermal design of a modern, air-conditioned, single-floor, solar-powered desert house

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis of a single-floor, solar-powered desert house. The house is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. Electrical power, which drives the entire energy system, is generated by roof-mounted photovoltaic modules. The modules are fixed on special cradles which fold at night to expose the roof to the night sky, thereby enhancing night-time cooling, which is substantial in the desert environment. A detailed dynamic heat transfer analysis is conducted for the building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model. Application to a typical Middle-Eastern desert site reveals that indeed such a design is feasible with present-day technology; and should be even more attractive with future advances in technology. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of gold surface in air and isopropyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Rudenko, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Single-shot IR femtosecond-laser ablation of gold surfaces in ambient air and liquid isopropyl alcohol was studied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater topographies and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of ablative plumes in regimes, typical for non-filamentary and non-fragmentation laser production of nanoparticle sols. Despite one order of magnitude shorter (few nanoseconds) lifetimes and almost two orders of magnitude lower intensities of the quenched ablative plume emission in the alcohol ambient at the same peak laser fluence, craters for the dry and wet conditions appeared with rather similar nanofoam-like spallative topographies and the same thresholds. These facts envision the underlying surface spallation as one of the basic ablation mechanisms relevant for both dry and wet advanced femtosecond laser surface nano/micro-machining and texturing, as well as for high-throughput femtosecond laser ablative production of colloidal nanoparticles by MHz laser-pulse trains via their direct nanoscale jetting from the nanofoam in air and fluid environments.

  13. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  14. Soft tissue adhesion of polished versus glazed lithium disilicate ceramic for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunot-Gohin, C; Duval, J-L; Azogui, E-E; Jannetta, R; Pezron, I; Laurent-Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Egles, C

    2013-09-01

    Ceramics are widely used materials for prosthesis, especially in dental fields. Despite multiple biomedical applications, little is known about ceramic surface modifications and the resulting cell behavior at its contact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response of polished versus glazed surface treatments on lithium disilicate dental ceramic. We studied a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max(®) Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 3 different surface treatments: raw surface treatment, hand polished surface treatment, and glazed surface treatment (control samples are Thermanox(®), Nunc). In order to evaluate the possible modulation of cell response at the surface of ceramic, we compared polished versus glazed ceramics using an organotypic culture model of chicken epithelium. Our results show that the surface roughness is not modified as demonstrated by equivalent Ra measurements. On the contrary, the contact angle θ in water is very different between polished (84°) and glazed (33°) samples. The culture of epithelial tissues allowed a very precise assessment of histocompatibility of these interfaces and showed that polished samples increased cell adhesion and proliferation as compared to glazed samples. Lithium disilicate polished ceramic provided better adhesion and proliferation than lithium disilicate glazed ceramic. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time, how it is possible to use simple surface modifications to finely modulate the adhesion of tissues. Our results will help dental surgeons to choose the most appropriate surface treatment for a specific clinical application, in particular for the ceramic implant collar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental, economic and energy analysis of double glazing with a circulating water chamber in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lopez, Tomas; Gimenez-Molina, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glazed façade area is the part that produces greatest energy losses and gains. ► A potential for energy savings has been detected in residential buildings. ► Active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. ► Analysis of energy performance, economic viability and impact on carbon footprint. ► Natural gas condensing boilers is the less contaminating and more efficient option. -- Abstract: In general, the glazed façade area of a building is the part that produces the greatest energy losses and gains. The basic aim of this work is to achieve a more efficient heat control in closed spaces. To this end, an exhaustive study has been made of active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. Not only has the energy consumption been analysed but also the energy efficiency according to fuel type, the amount of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere and the economic cost. The results of this study, from the points of view of economic feasibility and energy efficiency, show that the solution of double glazing with a circulating water chamber is a less polluting and more efficient option than the systems currently used. This solution is able to reduce the energy losses and gains that are produced through the glazed façade of a building by 18.26% for calorific and frigorific energy compared to the total consumption of the building. The layout of the proposed installation facilitates its integration into any type of residential building, either under construction or being renovated. Moreover, its zero visual impact means it can even be implemented in places with strict town-planning regulations.

  16. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  17. PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elarga, Hagar; Dal Monte, Andrea; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2017-01-01

    . An exploratory step has also been considered prior to the optimization algorithm: it evaluates the energy profiles before and after the application of PCM to PV module integrated in glazed building. The optimization analysis investigate parameters such as ventilation flow rates and time schedule to obtain......The study describes a multi-objective optimization algorithm for an innovative integration of forced ventilated PV-PCM modules in glazed façade buildings: the aim is to identify and optimize the parameters that most affect thermal and energy performances. 1-D model, finite difference method FDM...

  18. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  19. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  20. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Micrometer-Long Air-Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A.; Uda, T.; Kato, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    Statistics of photons emitted by mobile excitons in individual carbon nanotubes are investigated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the chiralities and suspended lengths of air-suspended nanotubes, and photon-correlation measurements are performed at room temperature on telecommunication-wavelength nanotube emission with a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup. We obtain zero-delay second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) less than 0.5, indicating single-photon generation. Excitation power dependence of the photon antibunching characteristics is examined for nanotubes with various chiralities and suspended lengths, where we find that the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ) is obtained at the lowest power. The influence of exciton diffusion and end quenching is studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and we derive an analytical expression for the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ). Our results indicate that mobile excitons in micrometer-long nanotubes can in principle produce high-purity single photons, leading to new design strategies for quantum photon sources.

  1. Thermal Simulation of a Zero Energy Glazed Pavilion in Sofia, Bulgaria. New Strategies for Energy Management by Means of Water Flow Glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ama Gonzalo, Fernando; Hernandez Ramos, Juan A.; Moreno, Belen

    2017-10-01

    The building sector is primarily responsible for a major part of total energy consumption. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directives (EPBD) emphasized the need to reduce the energy consumption in buildings, and put forward the rationale for developing Near to Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). Passive and active strategies help architects to minimize the use of active HVAC systems, taking advantage of the available natural resources such as solar radiation, thermal variability and daylight. The building envelope plays a decisive role in passive and active design strategies. The ideal transparent façade would be one with optical properties, such as Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible Transmittance (VT), that could readily adapt in response to changing climatic conditions or occupant preferences. The aim of this article consists of describing the system to maintain a small glazed pavilion located in Sofia (Bulgaria) at the desired interior temperature over a whole year. The system comprises i) the use of Water Flow Glazing facades (WFG) and Radiant Interior Walls (RIW), ii) the use of free cooling devices along with traditional heat pump connected to photo-voltaic panels and iii) the use of a new Energy Management System that collects data and acts accordingly by controlling all components. The effect of these strategies and the use of active systems, like Water Flow Glazing, are analysed by means of simulating the prototype over one year. Summer and Winter energy management strategies are discussed in order to change the SHGC value of the Water Flow Glazing and thus, reduce the required energy to maintain comfort conditions.

  2. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  3. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  4. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  5. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Castelldefels (Spain); Molera, J.; Pla, J. [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior, Vic (Spain); Labrador, A. [BM16-ESRF, LLS, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD. (orig.)

  6. The characterisation of the daylighting properties of special glazings and solar shading devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.A.L. van; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Within the EU DGXII R&D Programme JOULE a project, called REVIS. started in 1998 and will be completed within 2.5 years, with the objective to develop detailed daylight product information of novel products of glazings and solar shading devices. This involves a test procedure, definition of product

  7. Modelling the optical and thermal properties of advanced glazing overview of recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenfeld, J.L.J.; Platzer, W.J.; Dijk, H.A.L. van; Maccari, A.

    2001-01-01

    The recently completed ALTSET project was part of the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing programme. Its objective was the development of European standard test procedures for the determination of angular-dependent light and total solar energy transmittance for complex glazings

  8. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    to 1000 m²/g), the material is proposed to serve as substrate for catalytic materials. • The special pore structure of aerogel could be used for gas filters in the 20 to 100 nm region. • The sound velocity within aerogel is in the range of 100 to 300 m/s, which should be one of the lowest for an inorganic......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  9. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  10. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...

  11. Oil and the Translucent. Varnishing and glazing in practice, recipes and historiography, 1100-1600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, M.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies for the first time the history of varnishing and glazing in relation to the use of drying oils in the workshop of the medieval painter until the late sixteenth century. Results from technical research and historical reconstructions will be combined with an analysis of

  12. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  13. Nanometre-thick single-crystalline nanosheets grown at the water-air interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Seo, Jung-Hun; Luo, Guangfu; Starr, Matthew B.; Li, Zhaodong; Geng, Dalong; Yin, Xin; Wang, Shaoyang; Fraser, Douglas G.; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang; Wang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    To date, the preparation of free-standing 2D nanomaterials has been largely limited to the exfoliation of van der Waals solids. The lack of a robust mechanism for the bottom-up synthesis of 2D nanomaterials from non-layered materials has become an obstacle to further explore the physical properties and advanced applications of 2D nanomaterials. Here we demonstrate that surfactant monolayers can serve as soft templates guiding the nucleation and growth of 2D nanomaterials in large area beyond the limitation of van der Waals solids. One- to 2-nm-thick, single-crystalline free-standing ZnO nanosheets with sizes up to tens of micrometres are synthesized at the water-air interface. In this process, the packing density of surfactant monolayers adapts to the sub-phase metal ions and guides the epitaxial growth of nanosheets. It is thus named adaptive ionic layer epitaxy (AILE). The electronic properties of ZnO nanosheets and AILE of other materials are also investigated.

  14. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5.7-4.5), and increased conductivity (2.4-4.7mS/cm), soluble COD (2.66-15.5g/L), and volatile fatty acids (1.9-10.1g/L). To lower the COD and increase pH, fermentation supernatant was diluted with primary effluent before being used in the MFCs. The maximum power density was 0.32±0.01W/m2, compared to 0.24±0.03W/m2 with only primary effluent. Power densities were higher with phosphate buffer added to the supernatant (1.03±0.06W/m2) or the solution (0.87±0.05W/m2). Coulombic efficiencies ranged from 18% to 57%, and sCOD removals from 84% to 94%. These results demonstrated that sludge can effectively be used for power generation when fermented and then diluted with only primary effluent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other ap...

  16. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  17. Changes to Glazed Dental Ceramic Shade, Roughness, and Microhardness after Bleaching and Simulated Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos Roberto Teixeira; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate shade stability, surface roughness, microhardness, and compressive strength of a glazed feldspathic ceramic subjected to bleaching and simulated brushing. Eighty-eight glazed feldspathic ceramic specimens were made from microparticulate leucite and divided into eight groups (n = 10). The whitening products used were: Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme (Ultradent), Opalescence®\\ PF 15% (Ultradent), and Oral-B 3D White Whitestrips. All substances for whitening were used for 4 hours/day for a period of 14 days; the control group was not bleached. Next, half of the specimens were individually brushed. Microhardness and surface roughness data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The diametrical tensile strength data were subjected to two-way ANOVA. The shade change data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. The significance level was set at 5%. Glazed feldspathic ceramic surface microhardness was significantly affected by bleaching agents (p = 0.007). Initially, glazed ceramic microhardness was significantly higher than that observed after contact with the bleaching agents, whether or not brushing was performed. The specimens submitted to bleaching in preloaded trays presented lower surface roughness values after brushing (p = 0.037). The surface roughness was significantly lower in the brushed specimens (p = 0.044). The diametrical tensile strength was not significantly affected by the application of bleaching agents (p = 0.563) or by brushing (p = 0.477). When the specimens were brushed, however, shade change was significantly influenced by the bleaching agent used (p = 0.041). Bleaching agents associated with brushing cycles can alter surface properties and shade stability of glazed feldspathic ceramics, though such findings may not reflect the performance of unglazed feldspathic ceramics. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tres de Março Av., 511, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, 18087-180 (Brazil); Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Inter-Flat Air Cross-Contamination under the Condition of Single-Sided Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Niu, Jianlei; Perino, Marco

    2008-01-01

    ventilated room, the renormalization group based k-ε model, together with carbon dioxide used as a tracer, is chosen to reveal this air cross-contamination. The simulation results are in agreement with our prior on-site tracer-gas measurements, revealing that the windows flush with a flat fa ade can...... be a major route of the air cross-contamination in high-rise residential buildings. Finally, an assessment index is proposed to evaluate the potential infection risks associated with this inter-flat air flow occurring in high-rise residential buildings....... the two sides, each of which has a flat fa ade with openable windows. When the wind speed is extremely low, with doors closed and windows opened, the flats become single-sided naturally ventilated driven by buoyancy effects. The air pollutants can travel from a lower flat to a vertically adjacent upper...

  20. Solar-powered single-and double-effect directly air-cooled LiBr–H2O absorption prototype built as a single unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; González-Gil, A.; Palacios, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work presents a novel solar cooling air-cooled absorption prototype for buildings. • The solution (LiB r –H 2 O) and the refrigerant (H 2 O) are cooled directly by air. • The cooling is produced from solar energy when operates in single-effect mode. • If the demand is not met the prototype is able to operate in double-effect mode. - Abstract: This work describes an installation in Madrid, Spain, designed to test a new solar-powered air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. This installation essentially consists of a-48 m 2 field of flat-plate solar collectors, a 1500-L hot water storage tank and a single and-double effect air-cooled lithium bromide absorption prototype. Designed and built by our research group, this prototype is able to operate either as a single-effect unit (4.5 kW) or as a double-effect unit (7 kW). In operation as single-effect mode, the prototype is driven by solar energy, whereas in operation as a double effect mode, an external energy source may be used. The prototype’s evaporator is connected to a fan-coil placed inside an 80-m 2 laboratory that represent the average size of a Spanish housing unit. In August 2009, the cooling system was tested in the single-effect operation mode. The results show that the system is able to meet approximately 65% of the laboratory’s seasonal cooling demand, although 100% may be reached for a few days. The prototype can also operate in double-effect mode to meet the cooling demand. In that case, the prototype is fed by thermal oil, which is warmed until it reaches the process temperature in the high-temperature generator. The prototype can operate in either single-effect mode or in double-effect mode or can also operate simultaneously both modes using the components common to both modes, namely, the absorber, evaporator, condenser, solution pumps and control equipment. This paper reports the experimental results from the prototype operating separately in single-effect and

  1. Impact of covariate models on the assessment of the air pollution-mortality association in a single- and multipollutant context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jason D; Ito, Kazuhiko; Wilson, William E; Neas, Lucas M

    2012-10-01

    With the advent of multicity studies, uniform statistical approaches have been developed to examine air pollution-mortality associations across cities. To assess the sensitivity of the air pollution-mortality association to different model specifications in a single and multipollutant context, the authors applied various regression models developed in previous multicity time-series studies of air pollution and mortality to data from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (May 1992-September 1995). Single-pollutant analyses used daily cardiovascular mortality, fine particulate matter (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm; PM(2.5)), speciated PM(2.5), and gaseous pollutant data, while multipollutant analyses used source factors identified through principal component analysis. In single-pollutant analyses, risk estimates were relatively consistent across models for most PM(2.5) components and gaseous pollutants. However, risk estimates were inconsistent for ozone in all-year and warm-season analyses. Principal component analysis yielded factors with species associated with traffic, crustal material, residual oil, and coal. Risk estimates for these factors exhibited less sensitivity to alternative regression models compared with single-pollutant models. Factors associated with traffic and crustal material showed consistently positive associations in the warm season, while the coal combustion factor showed consistently positive associations in the cold season. Overall, mortality risk estimates examined using a source-oriented approach yielded more stable and precise risk estimates, compared with single-pollutant analyses.

  2. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.O., E-mail: ondina.figueiredo@lneg.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); Silva, T.P. [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure - Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co{sup 2+} ions close to tetrahedral and

  3. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.O.; Silva, T.P.; Veiga, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. ► Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co 2+ ions. ► Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure – Co 3 O 4 , CoAl 2 O 4 and Co 2 SiO 4 , plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co 2+ ions close to tetrahedral and substantiate the dual role of cobalt as network former plus modifier in the glaze of ancient Chinese porcelains.

  4. Radiometric method for the determination of uranium in soil and air: single-laboratory evaluation and interlaboratory collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.; Bishop, C.T.; Glosby, A.A.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative study of a method for determining uranium isotopes in soil and air samples are presented. The method is applicable to 10-gram soil samples and to both glass fiber and polystyrene (Microsorban) air filter samples. Sample decomposition is accomplished with a nitric-hydrofluoric acid dissolution. After a solvent extraction step to remove most of the iron present, the uranium is isolated by anion exchange chromatography and electrodeposition. Alpha spectrometry is used to measure the uranium isotopes. Two soil samples, a glass fiber air filter sample, and a polystyrene air filter sample were used to evaluate the method for uranium concentrations ranging from a few tenths to about one hundred disintegrations per minute per sample. Tracer recoveries for the single-laboratory evaluation averaged 78%, while the tracer recoveries for the collaborative study averaged 66%. Although the precision of the collaborative study results did not approach counting statistics errors, the measured uranium concentrations for these samples agreed to within 5% of the reference concentrations when the uranium concentration was greater than one disintegration per minute per gram of soil or one disintegration per minute per air filter

  5. Air flow distribution in and around a single-sided naturally ventilated room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, M.M.; Marjanovic, L.D.; Pinnock, D.J. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Building Engineering

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this research is to compare calculated and measured air flow distributions inside a test room which is naturally ventilated. The test room is situated in a relatively sheltered location and to visualise the resultant local wind pattern around the room for all prevailing wind directions, wind tunnel trials were carried out. Both the wind tunnel and full-scale measurements show that the wind direction at the test cell was generally restricted to either a westerly or an easterly direction. To investigate air flow inside the room, the air pressures and velocities across the openings together with indoor air temperature and velocity at four locations and six different levels are measured. The experimental results demonstrate that for both winter and summer the air was entering the test room at bottom and leaving at the top louvre. Separate air flow and thermal modelling programs are used to predict the spatial distribution of the air flow and thermal comfort. The air flow distribution was predicted using a network air flow program. The predicted flow showed similar trends and the simulation results were in agreement with the measured data. An explicit finite-difference thermal modeling simulation package was used to predict the thermal comfort indices.(author)

  6. Effect of air-drying time of single-application self-etch adhesives on dentin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Miyazaki, Masashi; Tsubota, Keishi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Moore, B Keith

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of air-drying time of adhesives on the dentin bond strength of several single-application self-etch adhesive systems. The adhesive/resin composite combinations used were: Adper Prompt L-Pop/Filtek Z250 (AP), Clearfil Tri-S Bond/Clearfil AP-X (CT), Fluoro Bond Shake One/Beautifil (FB), G-Bond/Gradia Direct (GB) and One-Up Bond F Plus/Palfique Estelite (OF). Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in self-curing resin and wet ground with #600 SiC to expose labial dentin. Adhesives were applied according to each manufacturer's instructions followed by air-drying time for 0 (without air-drying), 5 and 10 seconds. After light irradiation of the adhesives, the resin composites were condensed into a mold (phi4x2 mm) and polymerized. Ten samples per test group were stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 24 hours; they were then shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD tests (alpha = 0.05) were done. FE-SEM observations of the resin/dentin interface were also conducted. Dentin bond strength varied with the different air drying times and ranged from 5.8 +/- 2.4 to 13.9 +/- 2.8 MPa for AP, 4.9 +/- 1.5 to 17.1 +/- 2.3 MPa for CT, 7.9 +/- 2.8 to 13.8 +/- 2.4 MPa for FB, 3.7 +/- 1.4 to 13.4 +/- 1.2 MPa for GB and 4.6 +/- 2.1 to 13.7 +/- 2.6 MPa for OF. With longer air drying of adhesives, no significant changes in bond strengths were found for the systems used except for OF. Significantly lower bond strengths were obtained for the 10-second air-drying group for OF. From FE-SEM observations, gaps between the cured adhesive and resin composites were observed for the specimens without the air drying of adhesives except for OF. The data suggests that, with four of the single-application self-etch adhesive systems, air drying is essential to obtain adequate dentin bond strengths, but increased drying time does not significantly influence bond strength. For the other system studied, the bond strength

  7. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value......) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing) of a double glazing unit. Double glazing unit is defined as 1D model with nodes representing different layers of material. Several models with different number of nodes and position of these are compared and verified in order...... to find a simplified method which can calculate the performance as accurately as possible. The calculated performance in terms of internal surface temperature is verified with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). The advantage...

  8. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  9. Air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for urethral pressure measurement: a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Burkhard, Fiona C; Kessler, Thomas M

    2008-09-01

    We determined and compared urethral pressure measurements using air charged and microtip catheters in a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial. A consecutive series of 64 women referred for urodynamic investigation underwent sequential urethral pressure measurements using an air charged and a microtip catheter in randomized order. Patients were blinded to the type and sequence of catheter used. Agreement between the 2 catheter systems was assessed using the Bland and Altman 95% limits of agreement method. Intraclass correlation coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest were 0.97 and 0.93, and for functional profile length they were 0.9 and 0.78, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Lin's concordance coefficients of air charged and microtip catheters were r = 0.82 and rho = 0.79 for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest, and r = 0.73 and rho = 0.7 for functional profile length, respectively. When applying the Bland and Altman method, air charged catheters gave higher readings than microtip catheters for maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (mean difference 7.5 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (mean difference 1.8 mm). There were wide 95% limits of agreement for differences in maximum urethral closure pressure at rest (-24.1 to 39 cm H(2)O) and functional profile length (-7.7 to 11.3 mm). For urethral pressure measurement the air charged catheter is at least as reliable as the microtip catheter and it generally gives higher readings. However, air charged and microtip catheters cannot be used interchangeably for clinical purposes because of insufficient agreement. Hence, clinicians should be aware that air charged and microtip catheters may yield completely different results, and these differences should be acknowledged during clinical decision making.

  10. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  11. Childhood Blood Lead Reductions Following Removal of Leaded Ceramic Glazes in Artisanal Pottery Production: A Success Story

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Mario Covarrubias Pérez; Bret Ericson; Daniel Estrada Sánchez; Sandra Gualtero; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS; Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lead exposure within artisanal ceramics workshop communities in Mexico continues to be a major source of childhood lead poisoning. Artisanal ceramics workshops expose children through direct ingestion, contaminated soil, and food prepared in lead-glazed pottery. Conversion to non-lead glazes alone may not effectively reduce exposure. This paper describes a model comprehensive intervention and environmental remediation of an artisanal ceramics workshop in the state of Hidalgo, Mexi...

  12. Reversible air-induced optical and electrical modulation of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huotian; Liu, Yiting; Lu, Haizhou; Deng, Wan; Yang, Kang; Deng, Zunyi; Zhang, Xingmin; Yuan, Sijian; Wang, Jiao; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Jin, Qingyuan; Feng, Hongjian; Zhan, Yiqiang; Zheng, Lirong

    2017-09-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) variations of organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites in different atmospheres are well documented, while the fundamental mechanism still lacks comprehensive understandings. This study reports the reversible optical and electrical properties of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3 or CH3NH3PbBr3) single crystals caused by air infiltration. With the change in the surrounding atmosphere from air to vacuum, the PL intensity of perovskite single crystals decreases, while the conductivity increases. By means of first-principles computational studies, the shallow trap states are considered as key elements in PL and conductivity changes. These results have important implications for the characterization and application of organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites in vacuum.

  13. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Single-Stranded RNA Virus Discovered in Indoor Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Fierer, Noah; Breitbart, Mya

    2018-03-22

    Viral metagenomic analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters recovered the near-complete genome sequence of a novel virus, named HVAC-associated R NA v irus 1 (HVAC-RV1). The HVAC-RV1 genome is most similar to those of picorna-like viruses identified in arthropods but encodes a small domain observed only in negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2018 Rosario et al.

  14. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  15. Measurement of natural radioactivity in commercial granites and glazing stones from Aswan area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Shousha, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ornamental stones are considered as an important source of the mineral wealth in Egypt. These rocks have characteristics that enable them to be used in decoration as being hard, able to be polished and have low water absorption. A knowledge of radioactivity present in these natural rock samples helps to assess the possible radiological hazards to human health and hence take safety precautions if necessary. For the first time, the natural radioactivity of glazing stones used in granite possessing was measured. The concentration of natural radionuclides U-238, Th-232 and K-40 for eighteen ore and three processed granite samples from Aswan area have been determined using a shielded high purity germanium detector coupled to a computerized multichannel analyzer. Also, the gamma activities of 13 glazing stones, which are used in processing of granite, were measured. The average values of the measured activities for granite were 66.15 ± 4.48, 86.12 ± 5.43 and 1902.03 ± 50.64 Bq/kg and for glazing stones were 44.05 ± 3.54, 51.58 ± 4.44 and 87.55 ± 5.46 Bq/kg for U-238, Th-232 and K-40, respectively. The main absorbed dose rates were 167.04 ± 7.52 and 56.72 ± 7.00 n Gy/h at one meter above the ground level for granite and glazing stones, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent was 335.75 ± 16.48 and 124.55 ± 11.36 Bq/kg for granite and glazing stones, respectively. This value is comparable with the reported values for many countries (370 Bq/kg). The external hazard index varied from 0.5 ± 0.02 to 1.79 ± 0.09 mGy/y for granite and from 0.042 ± 0.011 to 0.852 ± 0.080 mGy/y for glazing stones. Cs-137 concentration ranged from 0.15 ± 0.07 to 3.31 ± 0.29 Bq/kg for granite and from 0.29 ± 0.02 to 1.49 ± 0.010 Bq/kg for glazing stones. For glazing stones, the measured samples are acceptable for use and safe to the workers in granite processing. The radon exhalation rate for granite samples was calculated using nuclear track detector (CR-39). It was

  16. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  17. PIXE and {mu}-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  18. PIXE and μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-01-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action

  19. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in ambient air and precipitation at a single site in Washington, DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaku, Samuel; Morris, Vernon; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Hosten, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric samples of precipitation and ambient air were collected at a single site in Washington, DC, for 7 months (for ambient air samples) and 1 year (for wet deposition samples) and analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for 6-day wet deposition samples collected over the 1-year period were 0.20-1.3 μg/l, 0.060-5.1 μg/l, 0.062-4.6 μg/l and 0.11-3.2 μg/l for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 5% for more than 95% of the measurements. The ranges of heavy metal concentrations for the 6-day ambient air samples were 0.800-15.7 ng/m 3 , 1.50-30.0 ng/m 3 , 16.8-112 ng/m 3 , and 2.90-137 ng/m 3 for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, respectively, with a precision better than 10%. The spread in the heavy metal concentration over the observation period suggests a high seasonal variability for heavy metal content in both ambient air and wet deposition samples. - High seasonal variability of heavy metals were observed in both ambient air and wet deposition samples

  20. Study parameters process for production of red glazed ceramic plates with waste of stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.; Silva, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of fine waste's solid dimension stone industry has required a destination appropriate for them due to environmental and economic issues. The main goal of this work was to study the produce plates of glazed pottery with dimension stone waste. For analyzing the crystal structure, the test was conducted X-ray and X-ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition of clay and the waste. Particle size was analysed too. Ceramic duo type (120x30x10mm) were sintered at 1280° C for 15 and 60 minutes. Characterized the samples for water absorption. The glaze had a strong anchorage in the ceramic base, but the high melting temperature caused cracks in the ceramic base, increasing the water absorption values. Thus, flux was added, based on the phase diagram Na_2O: CaO: SiO_2, which reduced the melting temperature of the glaze to 980 °C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 30 minutes, more uniform surface and best technological properties. (author)

  1. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  2. 2004 Survey of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sottile, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century has ushered in an era marked by the growing integration of technology and other scientific advances into commercial buildings and residential homes. Of particular interest to many architects, developers and builders are 'switchable' glazing, a new category of technologically advanced glass and plastic building materials that can be used to control light, glare and heat entering an office or a home. Interest in switchable glazing technology is influenced by a variety of factors, including a growing movement to offer sustainable, energy-efficient building solutions, and the emerging desire by users to maintain greater control over their working and living environments. This paper examines the movement toward sustainable development and the end-user needs that are driving it. Further, it presents the results of a proprietary survey research study of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazing. This study includes an examination of the attributes most desired by architects regarding smart window technology, and provides additional insight into the potential application of this smart material to the building community

  3. Time-Dependent Effects of Glaze Ice on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tabatabaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to estimate the dynamic loads acting over a glaze-iced airfoil. This work studies the performance of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS simulations in predicting the oscillations over an iced airfoil. The structure and size of time-averaged vortices are compared to measurements. Furthermore, the accuracy of a two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence model, the shear stress transport (SST model, is investigated in the case of the dynamic load analysis over a glaze-iced airfoil. The computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of critical ice accretions on a 0.610 m chord NACA 0011 airfoil. Leading edge glaze ice accretion was simulated with flat plates (spoiler-ice extending along the span of the blade. Aerodynamic performance coefficients and pressure profiles were calculated and validated for the Reynolds number of 1.83 × 106. Furthermore, turbulent separation bubbles were studied. The numerical results confirm both time-dependent phenomena observed in previous similar measurements: (1 low-frequency mode, with a Strouhal number Sth≈0,013–0.02, and (2 higher frequency mode with a Strouhal number StL≈0,059–0.69. The higher frequency motion has the same characteristics as the shedding mode and the lower frequency motion has the flapping mode characteristics.

  4. Performance demonstration and evaluation of the synergetic application of vanadium dioxide glazing and phase change material in passive buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zou, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VO 2 and PCM were combined in passive building application for the first time. • Synergetic performance of them is demonstrated in a full size room. • Synergetic application has a better performance than the solo ones. • The materials interact with each other in synergetic application. • ESI can be used to evaluate the performance of the synergetic application. - Abstract: One of the key methods to improve the energy saving performance of a building is to apply advanced materials or components to the building envelope. However, the two parts of a building’s envelope, the transparent one and the non-transparent one, are usually investigated individually by existing literature. In this study, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) glazing, an advanced energy-efficient element applied to the transparent parts of the building envelope, and phase change material (PCM), a typical thermal storage material used to improve the non-transparent parts of the building envelope, were adopted simultaneously for the first time. The synergetic performance of VO 2 glazing and PCM, demonstrated in a full-scale, lightweight, passive room, resulted in a significant improvement in the thermal comfort degree. The Energy Saving Index (ESI) is a simple and effective indicator that can be used to evaluate the passive application performance of a single energy-efficient material or component on a common standpoint. In this work, the index was broadened to evaluate the performance of more than one material, showing that ESI is feasible and favorable to analyze the coefficient application of several building materials and/or components. Using the ESI, the performance of the synergetic application was also compared with those of the sole materials, indicating that the synergetic application has a better performance during the cooling period. Furthermore the synergetic application involves an interplay rather than a simple combination of the energy-efficient materials. The

  5. Forecast of thermal-hydrological conditions and air injection test results of the single heater test at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1996-12-01

    The heater in the Single Heater Test (SHT) in alcove 5 of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) was turned on August 26, 1996. A large number of sensors are installed in the various instrumented boreholes to monitor the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical responses of the rock mass to the heat generated in the single heater. In this report the authors present the results of the modeling of both the heating and cooling phases of the Single Heater Test (SHT), with focus on the thermal-hydrological aspect of the coupled processes. Also in this report, the authors present simulations of air injection tests will be performed at different stages of the heating and cooling phase of the SHT

  6. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods

  7. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pevenage, J., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verhaeven, E. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, University College Antwerp, Blindestraat 9, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lauwers, D., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Moens, L., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, P. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods.

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Development and sensitivity study of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing facade and verified by a full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for double glazing facade to calculate its thermal and solar properties (U and g value) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing). Double glazing is defined as 1D model with nodes representing......, taking the thermal mass of the glazing into account. In addition, angle and spectral dependency of solar characteristic is also considered during the calculation. By using the method, it is possible to calculate whole year performance at different time steps, which makes it a time economical and accurate...

  10. Development of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing façade with night insulation and validated by full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to develop a simplified calculation method to simulate the performance of double glazing fac¸ ade with night insulation. This paper describes the method to calculate the thermal properties (Uvalue) and comfort performance (internal surface temperature of glazing) of the double...... with night insulation is calculated and compared with that of the facade without the night insulation. Based on standards EN 410 and EN 673, the method takes the thermal mass of glazing and the infiltration between the insulation layer and glazing into account. Furthermore it is capable of implementing whole...

  11. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan Qiuli [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  12. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Li, Rongwu; Pan, Qiuli; Li, Guoxia; Zhao, Weijuan; Liu, Zhiguo

    2009-01-01

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Single-Stage-To-Orbit Rocket and Air-Breathing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    passion to explore. I am indebted to my friends and co-workers who, through their humor and shenanigans , have made this educational experience both...the Nixon administration canceling the program, NASA enlisted financial support from the Air Force in exchange for USAF use of the Shuttle

  14. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  15. Convective losses through an air-filled gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, V A; Ovezsakhatov, N

    1976-01-01

    Simplified formulas for the heat fluxes with given parameters of the air are used to calculate the specific heat losses by convection in a number of solar-energy systems (water heater, thermal generator, double-glazed window, and still). Heat losses by convection and radiation are compared.

  16. Vibration tests on single heat exchanger tubes in air and static water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, A.E.; Warneford, I.P.

    1978-07-01

    The vibrational characteristics of a 7 span straight tube and a 26 span U-tube have been investigated for the effects of fluid medium (air/water), tube-grid clearance, tube-grid contact force, vibration transmission and scale. Measured frequency response and mode shapes compared favourably with theoretical values, vibration with pin-pin tube support being most readily excited. The frequency reduction on immersion in water corresponded to an added mass equivalent to the liquid displaced mass. Dynamic magnifiers varied in the range 12 to 135 with mean values of 30 to 40 in water and 45 to 60 in air. Principal vibration modes and damping values were reproducible in a half-scale model of a U-tube. (author)

  17. Effect of single point defects on the confinement losses of air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Wei-Hua; Zhao Yan; Qian Li-Guo; Chen He-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The confinement losses in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers (PBGFs) with air hole missing are studied with the full-vector finite-element method.It is confirmed that there are two loss peaks (1.555 and 1.598 μm) if there is a hole missing in the cladding far from the core.The closer to the core the hole missing is,the larger the confinement losses are,and even no mode could propagate in the core.The main power of the fundamental mode leaks from the core to the cladding defect.The quality of PBGFs can be improved through controlling the number and position of defects.

  18. The effect of glaze on the quality of frozen stored Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma fillets under stable and unstable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Žoldoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen fillets (n = 288 of Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma were used to evaluate the effect of glaze on lipid oxidation and microbiological indicators during 6 months of freezing storage under stable (−18 °C and unstable temperature (varying from −5 to −18 °C conditions. The amount of glaze, moisture, fat and protein content were measured. Despite the low fat content in Alaska pollack, a positive effect of glazing and stable freezing conditions of storage on the range of oxidative changes of lipids expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was found. Total counts of viable cells slightly rose before the end of the storage period in both groups with commercially glazed fish. The average counts of psychrotrophs in each group ( were at the same level, ranging from 9.1 ×103 CFU·g-1 to 1.1 × 104 CFU·g-1. According to the microbiological results fillets stored under unstable conditions were considered to be acceptable, but sensory evaluation showed that at the end of frozen storage they could not be consumed because of rancidity. Based on our results, glaze application ranged from 10 to 15% guarantee of final quality, however, prevention of temperature fluctuation during storage is important to keep the quality of the frozen fillets. This is the first similar study in Alaska pollack.

  19. Exergetic performance evaluation of a single pass baffled solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzpooshani, M.; Mohammadi, K.; Khorasanizadeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the exergetic performance of a baffled type solar air heater has been evaluated theoretically. A detailed parametric study was done to investigate the effect of variation of fin and baffle parameters, number of glass covers, bottom insulation thickness and inlet air temperature at different mass flow rates on the exergy efficiency. The results indicated that attaching fins and baffles at low mass flow rates can lead to noticeable enhancement of the exergy efficiency. The results revealed that the trend of variation of the energy and exergy efficiencies are not the same and the exergy efficiency is the chief criterion for performance evaluation. Increasing the baffles width, reducing the distance between baffles and increasing the number of fins are effective at low mass flow rates, but at high mass flow rates the inverse trend is observable, such that exergy efficiency reduces sharply. The results showed that exergy efficiency increases with increasing the solar radiation intensity. By adding the second glass cover the exergy efficiency enhances at low mass flow rates. Increasing the insulation thickness over an optimum value doesn't improve the exergy efficiency. Increasing the inlet air temperature increases the exergy efficiency especially at high mass flow rates. - Highlights: • We study the exergetic performance of an upward type baffled solar air heater. • The effect of several design parameters on the performance is investigated. • Exergetic performance is very sensitive to the variation of baffles parameters. • Adding fins and baffles and increasing their parameters are efficient at low m . . • At high m . increment of baffles parameters causes decline of the exergy efficiency

  20. Effect of internal woven roller shade and glazing on the energy and daylighting performances of an office building in the cold climate of Shillong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated a number of glazing and interior roller shade alternatives. • Office room has been simulated for three window-to-wall ratios in a cold climate. • Daylighting and energy performances have been assessed for each alternative. • Maximum energy savings have been estimated in the office with a 30% glazed area. • Energy saving decreases for larger glazed area and fabric transmittance. - Abstract: The energy and visual performances of the façades are defined by many parameters including façade size, properties of glazings and shadings, and their arrangements as well as control strategies. In this study, a number of combinations of internal woven roller shades and four double glazings have been proposed and assessed in integrated manner in order to improve the energy efficiency and visual comfort in new or existing office buildings. Office rooms facing south, east, north and west have been simulated for cold climate, by varying glazed areas and proposed glazing and shading alternatives. Results have been calculated, compared and analyzed in terms of the energy consumptions, energy saving potentials, daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminance and discomfort glare free time, for each of the combinations. Simulation results show that the choice of glazing and shading alternatives can have substantial impact on energy and visual performances of the office space. Regardless of façade orientation, the maximum energy saving is achieved for a window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of 30%. Saving potential decreases significantly for larger glazed area and for each façade orientation. For all façade orientations and glazed areas (except for 30% WWR in the north wall), a bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.616 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.209, τ_v = 0.301) is found to be the most energy efficient choice. For 30% north glazing, the energy efficiency can be maximized with a different bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.628 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.370, τ_v = 0

  1. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Nagay, Bruna Egumi; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Moreno, Amália; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008 h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p < 0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins. - Highlights: • We analyzed the influence of polishing on two acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis. • We performed different analyzes of esthetic, mechanical and physical properties. • The glaze is an inadequate surface treatment to ocular prosthesis acrylic resin.

  2. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nagay, Bruna Egumi; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moreno, Amália [Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, UNESP, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008 h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p < 0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins. - Highlights: • We analyzed the influence of polishing on two acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis. • We performed different analyzes of esthetic, mechanical and physical properties. • The glaze is an inadequate surface treatment to ocular prosthesis acrylic resin.

  3. Modeling of Single and Dual Reservoir Porous Media Compressed Gas (Air and CO2) Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Liu, H.; Borgia, A.; Pan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent renewable energy sources are causing increasing demand for energy storage. The deep subsurface offers promising opportunities for energy storage because it can safely contain high-pressure gases. Porous media compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES) is one approach, although the only facilities in operation are in caverns (C-CAES) rather than porous media. Just like in C-CAES, PM-CAES operates generally by injecting working gas (air) through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Unlike in C-CAES, the storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Because air is the working gas, PM-CAES has fairly low thermal efficiency and low energy storage density. To improve the energy storage density, we have conceived and modeled a closed-loop two-reservoir compressed CO2 energy storage system. One reservoir is the low-pressure reservoir, and the other is the high-pressure reservoir. CO2 is cycled back and forth between reservoirs depending on whether energy needs to be stored or recovered. We have carried out thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the performance of an idealized two-reservoir CO2 energy storage system under supercritical and transcritical conditions for CO2 using a steady-state model. Results show that the transcritical compressed CO2 energy storage system has higher round-trip efficiency and exergy efficiency, and larger energy storage density than the supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage. However, the configuration of supercritical compressed CO2 energy storage is simpler, and the energy storage densities of the two systems are both higher than that of PM-CAES, which is advantageous in terms of storage volume for a given

  4. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Tutelea, L N; University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Electrical Engineering Department, Vasile Parvan str., no. 1-2, 300223 Timisoara (Romania))" >Boldea, I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Deaconu, S I; University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Electrotechnical Engineering and Industrial Informatics, 5 Revolution Street, Hunedoara, 331128 (Romania))" >Popa, G N

    2014-01-01

    The actual e – continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper

  5. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  6. Constructing a generalized network design model to study air distribution in ventilation networks in subway with a single-track tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugin, IV

    2018-03-01

    In focus are the features of construction of the generalized design model for the network method to study air distribution in ventilation system in subway with the single-track tunnel. The generalizations, assumptions and simplifications included in the model are specified. The air distribution is calculated with regard to the influence of topology and air resistances of the ventilation network sections. The author studies two variants of the subway line: half-open and closed with dead end on the both sides. It is found that the total air exchange at a subway station depends on the station location within the line. The operating mode of fans remains unaltered in this case. The article shows that elimination of air leakage in the station ventilation room allows an increase in the air flow rate by 7–8% at the same energy consumption by fans. The influence of the stop of a train in the tunnel on the air distribution is illustrated.

  7. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  8. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER(1z)). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER(2z)). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER(2z) and AER(1z) estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER(2z) was higher than AER(1z). Overall, the AER(1z) estimates underestimated AER(2z) by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. The results of this study suggest that the long-standing assumption that a home represents a single well-mixed air zone may result in a substantial negative bias in air exchange estimates. Indoor air quality professionals should take this finding into consideration when developing study designs or making decisions related to the recommendation and installation of residential ventilation systems. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  9. Assessment of five control strategies of an adjustable glazing at three different climate zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Ritter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for operating modern office spaces is often driven by either the annual heating demand, cooling demand or the demand for electrical lighting. The irradiation of the sun directly and indirectly affects the demand of all three. Consequently, the glazing of higher office buildings is often treated with coating that allows a fixed transmittance. Due to changing exterior conditions and interior needs, a fix-transmittance value is a compromise and most often doesn’t provide optimal thermal and visual conditions. The team in the research project named Fluidglass develops a new glazing in which the transmittance of the glazing can be adjusted. This is possible by colouring a fluid, which is circulated in chambers of the glazing. The concentration of the colorant can be infinitely adjusted. In addition, this window allows collecting heat in the exterior fluid and allows the interior fluid chamber to operate as heating panel. This paper presents a first assessment of different control strategies for adjusting the colorant concentration with a simplified model. The assessed control strategies result in considerably different overall energy demands. Certain control strategies have high potential for reducing the energy demand for heating and cooling depending on the locations (Munich 20–30% , Madrid 50–70% , Dubai 50–60%. However, certain control strategies increase the electricity demand for lighting, which needs to be considered in the further development. In general, control strategies that only consider the solar irradiation are less promising strategies in temperate climate than strategies that also take the interior temperature into account. The results of controls that also respect the thermal comfort based on a Predicted Mean Vote (PMV index can achieve low energy demand, presuming that a deviation from the highest level of comfort is acceptable. At this stage of research, none of the studied control strategies shows to be

  10. Study on the glaze ice accretion of wind turbine with various chord lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Liu, Maolian; Wang, Ruiqi; Wang, Yuhang

    2018-02-01

    Wind turbine icing often occurs in winter, which changes the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades and reduces the work efficiency of the wind turbine. In this paper, the glaze ice model is established for horizontal-axis wind turbine in 3-D. The model contains the grid generation, two-phase simulation, heat and mass transfer. Results show that smaller wind turbine suffers from more serious icing problem, which reflects on a larger ice thickness. Both the collision efficiency and heat transfer coefficient increase under smaller size condition.

  11. Ultra-wide tuning single channel filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystal with an air cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Yang, Yibiao; Chen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuncai; Fei, Hongming; Deng, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    By inserting an air cavity into a one-dimensional photonic crystal of LiF/GaSb, a tunable filter covering the whole visible range is proposed. Following consideration of the dispersion of the materials, through modulating the thickness of the air cavity, we demonstrate that a single resonant peak can shift from 416.1 to 667.3 nm in the band gap at normal incidence by means of the transfer matrix method. The research also shows that the transmittance of the channel can be maximized when the number of periodic LiF/GaSb layers on one side of the air defect layer is equal to that of the other side. When adding a period to both sides respectively, the full width at half maximum of the defect mode is reduced by one order of magnitude. This structure will provide a promising approach to fabricate practical tunable filters in the visible region with ultra-wide tuning range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61575138, 61307069, 51205273), and the Top Young Academic Leaders and the Outstanding Innovative Teams of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi.

  12. Evaluation of mixing downstream of tees in duct systems with respect to single point representative air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehong; O'Neal, Dennis L; Ortiz, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Air duct systems in nuclear facilities must be monitored with continuous sampling in case of an accidental release of airborne radionuclides. The purpose of this work is to identify the air sampling locations where the velocity and contaminant concentrations fall below the 20% coefficient of variation required by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society N13.1-1999. Experiments of velocity and tracer gas concentration were conducted on a generic "T" mixing system which included combinations of three sub ducts, one main duct, and air velocities from 0.5 to 2 m s (100 to 400 fpm). The experimental results suggest that turbulent mixing provides the accepted velocity coefficients of variation after 6 hydraulic diameters downstream of the T-junction. About 95% of the cases achieved coefficients of variation below 10% by 6 hydraulic diameters. However, above a velocity ratio (velocity in the sub duct/velocity in the main duct) of 2, velocity profiles were uniform in a shorter distance downstream of the T-junction as the velocity ratio went up. For the tracer gas concentration, the distance needed for the coefficients of variation to drop 20% decreased with increasing velocity ratio due to the sub duct airflow momentum. The results may apply to other duct systems with similar geometries and, ultimately, be a basis for selecting a proper sampling location under the requirements of single point representative sampling.

  13. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  14. Passive air exchanges between building and urban canyon via openings in a single facade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrios, K.; Hunt, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of an experimental study examining the steady exchange of air and heat between a building and an urban canyon are presented. The focus is on the effect of the canyon aspect ratio on the airflow through openings made exclusively in one side of the building. The interaction of the external wind flow and the internal thermally-driven flow was shown to depend upon the ratio of the building height H b to the canyon width W (distance between buildings forming the canyons). The trends observed as this aspect ratio (H b /W) was varied allow for identification of canyon geometries that yield reduced or enhanced building ventilation airflow rates

  15. Study of the composition and viscosity of engobe and glazed from dimension stones wastes for application in red tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastenreiter, L.L. G.; Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The dimension stones wastes has some constituents that may be employed in the ceramic. This work is about the production of engobe and glaze for ceramic coating. Chemical characterization of the residue and Clay (XRF) was performed. Several compositions were tested in order to decrease the melting temperature of the glaze to 980°C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 15 to 60 minutes, it presenting more uniform and better technological properties of the surface. The viscosities of some compositions of glaze and engobe were studied, to be applied on the red tile (100x100mm) to obtain the ceramic coating. These were analyzed for resistance to abrasion, according to NBR 13 818/1997 and it was found that the ceramic was classified as PEI 1 and may be used, eg in residential bathrooms and dormitories with no doors to the outside. (author)

  16. Experimental study of a single fuel jet in conditions of highly preheated air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lille, Simon; Blasiak, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Highly Preheated Air Combustion (HPAC) is a technique to reduce consumption of fuel and decrease NO{sub x} formation in furnaces. The main change that occur in the furnace chamber is that the flow pattern of flue gases changes dramatically resulting in a more uniform heat transfer. The usefulness of regenerative combustion is very clear, but the advantages have so far been accompanied by high levels of pollutants, such as NO{sub x}. The combination of the regeneration technique and internal flue gas recirculation, thus decreasing NO{sub x} and keeping the other advantages, has made HPAC a very attractive combustion technology with application to heat treatment reheating and melting processes. This work gives an introduction to regenerative combustion with diluted air, including theory on flame stabilization. Furthermore, a description of a new test furnace is given with results from a parametric study and from tests using schlieren color visualization, direct photography, and laser Doppler anemometry. In the parametric study NO{sub x}-emission, CO-emission, lift-off, fluctuations, and some flame characteristics are related to nozzle diameter, oxygen concentration, and preheat temperature. For the schlieren technique and direct photography, both still and high-speed cameras were used.

  17. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity—a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  18. Short-term effects of air quality and thermal stress on non-accidental morbidity-a multivariate meta-analysis comparing indices to single measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokys, Hanna Leona; Junk, Jürgen; Krein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations. We used air pollution, meteorological and hospital admission data from 28 administrative districts along a north-south gradient in western Germany from 2001 to 2011. We compared the performance of the single measure particulate matter (PM10) and air temperature to air quality indices (MPI and CAQI) and the biometeorological index UTCI. Based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC), it can be shown that using air quality indices instead of single measures increases the model strength. However, using the UTCI in the model does not give additional information compared to mean air temperature. Interaction between the 3-day average of air quality (max PM10, max CAQI and max MPI) and meteorology (mean air temperature and mean UTCI) did not improve the models. Using the mean air temperature, we found immediate effects of heat stress (RR 1.0013, 95% CI: 0.9983-1.0043) and by 3 days delayed effects of cold stress (RR: 1.0184, 95% CI: 1.0117-1.0252). The results for air quality differ between both air quality indices and PM10. CAQI and MPI show a delayed impact on morbidity with a maximum RR after 2 days (MPI 1.0058, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.0102; CAQI 1.0068, 95% CI: 1.0030-1.0107). Latitude was identified as a significant meta-variable, whereas the number of inhabitants was not significant in the model.

  19. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Kazuo, E-mail: meicun2006@163.com; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Conjugates of protein, DNA, and SWNTs were observed by AFM in liquid. • Non-uniform binding of proteins was visualized in liquid. • Thickness of DNA molecules on SWNT surfaces was well characterized in liquid. - Abstract: Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA–SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids.

  20. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  1. Innovations for glazing of buildings; Innovationen fuer die Verglasung von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Thermische und Optische Systeme

    1998-02-01

    There are two main aspects in the development of new glazing. On the one hand, windows with extremely low thermal conductivity are wanted. On the other hand, solar irradiation should contribute to thermal gains during the heating season. A large number of different coatings and window systems is suited for many different applications. In particular for the prevention of overheating in the summer, there is a huge interest in glazing regulating the irradiation itself without additional mechanical devices. Indeed, innovations have sprung using several of these ideas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Entwicklung neuer Verglasungen spielen zwei Gesichtspunkte eine hervorragende Rolle. Zum einen ist man an Fenstern mit sehr geringen Waermeverlusten interessiert. Zum anderen soll aber auch die solare Einstrahlung waehrend der Heizperiode zu thermischen Gewinnen beitragen. Die Vielfalt der einsetzbaren Beschichtungen und Fenstersysteme ermoeglicht eine breite Palette von Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. Insbesondere um Ueberhitzungsprobleme im Sommer auszuschliessen, ist man an Verglasungen interessiert, die die Einstrahlung selber, d.h. ohne mechanische Zusaetze, regeln. Tatsaechlich fuehren hierfuer verschiedene Ansaetze zu Neuentwicklungen. (orig.)

  2. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Ms Ahmad; Kamel, M Rahmati; Hashemi, Sh Mahmood; Imani, M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments. Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primer and adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (Ptensile bond strength.

  3. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  4. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012 [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015 [2]. A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  5. Chemical behavior and spectroscopic properties of rare earth borates in glazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezhnina, Marina M., E-mail: marina@fh-muenster.de [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); Kätker, Heike [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); Kaiser, Martin [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Stegemann, Linda [University of Muenster, Physical Institute, Heisenbergstr. 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Voss, Eckhard [Wendel GmbH, Am Güterbahnhof 30, 35683 Dillenburg (Germany); Resch-Genger, Ute [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Strassert, Cristian [University of Muenster, Physical Institute, Heisenbergstr. 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kynast, Ulrich [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Efficient Near UV excited materials (350<λ<400 nm) responding with green line emission are sparse in comparison to higher energy UV excited emitters (λ<350 nm), while corresponding red line emitters are more abundant, albeit typically also restricted to excitation wavelengths below 400 nm. This situation is disadvantageous for several important actual and potential applications. Among these, excitation with high power UV-LEDs and laser diodes are of particular interest. Here we present results on green emitting YBO{sub 3}:Ce, Tb, which can be excited with 370–380 nm radiation at quantum efficiencies of up to 60% and decay times in excess of 2 ms. Moreover, as powderous phosphors typically require stable matrices to be hosted in, we investigated low melting, lead- and fluoride-free glasses for their capability to accommodate the phosphor and yet retain its optical properties. In these, we even observed an increase of the quantum efficiencies of up to 70% at decay times approaching 3 ms. Finally, we characterized the thermal quenching behavior, which showed a clear advantage of the phosphors in glassy matrices. - Highlights: • YBO3:Ce, Tb revisited as a reference material for Near UV excitation. • Absolute quantum yields determined independently at different institutions. • Efficient luminescence from glazing YBO{sub 3}:Ce,Tb with glass forming compositions. • Glaze composites retain or surpass pure phosphor’s optical performance.

  6. Microstructure characteristics of vacuum glazing brazing joints using laser sealing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixing; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shanwen; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qi

    2018-05-01

    Two pieces of plate glass were brazed into a composite of glazing with a vacuum chamber using PbO-TiO2-SiO2-RxOy powder filler alloys to develop a new type of vacuum glazing. The brazing process was carried out by laser technology. The interface characteristics of laser brazed joints formed between plate glass and solder were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that the inter-diffusion of Pb/Ti/Si/O elements from the sealing solder toward the glass and O/Al/Si elements from the glass toward the solder, resulting in a reaction layer in the brazed joints. The microstructure phases of PbTiO3, AlSiO, SiO2 and PbO in the glass/solder interface were confirmed by XRD analysis. The joining of the sealing solder to the glass was realized by the reaction products like fibrous structures on interface, where the wetting layer can help improve the bonding performance and strength between the sealing solder and the plate glass during the laser brazing process.

  7. A preliminary study on coloring mechanism of Jun copper red glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shibing; Liu Yuzhen; Zhang Maolin; Wang Lihua; Wang Cangsui; Xie Yaning

    2009-01-01

    The origin of a red color glazes decorated on the ancient Jun porcelain has been attributed to the presence of combined copper clusters and cuprous oxide, or cuprous oxide alone. For better understanding of the color-forming mechanism, X-ray absorption at the Cu-edge by the red area of a Jun porcelain shard was carried out. By comparing the XANFS spectra of the sample with metal copper and cubic Cu 2 O, we found that the spectra of the red layer of sample were similar to the spectrum combination of 37% Cu 2 O and 63% metal copper,while the spectra from surface of the red spot mainly resembled that of cubic Cu 2 O. The EXAFS results showed that monovalence copper cations were isolated in the glaze matrix, and copper atoms were formed to metallic copper clusters or mutimers dominantly distributed in the inner layer. These can be responsible to the optical properties of the red decoration with the presence of colloidal composition containing copper particles and the Cu + ions. In conclusion, a preliminary non-destructive elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation-induce X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is demonstrated, and mechanism about the formation of the complicated structures is discussed. (authors)

  8. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Panya, Preecha [Kamphaengphet Rajabhat University, Kamphaengphet (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Scales, Peter J. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2} media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2}, within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl{sub 2} more than in 0.1 mM MgCl{sub 2}.

  9. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  10. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  11. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong; Panya, Preecha; Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth; Scales, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl 2 media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl 2 at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl 2 , within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl 2 corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl 2 more than in 0.1 mM MgCl 2

  12. Evaluation of the probability distribution of intake from a single measurement on a personal air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Muirhead, C.R.; James, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the k-sum distribution, formed by summing k random variables from a lognormal population. Poisson statistics are used with this distribution to derive distribution of intake when breathing an atmosphere with a constant particle number concentration. Bayesian inference is then used to calculate the posterior probability distribution of concentrations from a given measurement. This is combined with the above intake distribution to give the probability distribution of intake resulting from a single measurement of activity made by an ideal sampler. It is shown that the probability distribution of intake is very dependent on the prior distribution used in Bayes' theorem. The usual prior assumption, that all number concentrations are equally probable, leads to an imbalance in the posterior intake distribution. This can be resolved if a new prior proportional to w -2/3 is used, where w is the expected number of particles collected. (author)

  13. Solar project description for Helio-Thermics, Inc., lot 6 single family residence; Greenville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D.

    1981-03-01

    An instrumented single family residence in Greenville, South Carolina, has approximately 1086 square feet on conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the home and preheating domestic and water (DHW). Solar energy enters the attic through a 416 square foot aperture which is double glazed with corrugated, translucent, fiberglass reinforced, acrylic panels. Warm air accumulates in the peak of the attic roof and circulates through the conditioned space or through storage by an air handler. Solar energy is stored in an 870 cubic foot storage bin containing 85,460 pounds of crushed rock located under the house. cold water is preheated in the attic by thermosiphoning water from the 80 gallon preheat tank through a manifold system of copper tubes. These tubes are attached to black sheet metal plates. Preheated city water is stored in the preheat tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 80 gallon DHW tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a water to air heat exchanger in the hot air supply duct provides auxiliary energy for space heating. A gas fired water heater provides auxiliary energy for the water to air heat exchanger and the DHW.

  14. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF6 reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF 6 was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF 6 -atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF 6 into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Spatial distribution of bacterial communities on volumetric and planar anodes in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vargas, Ignacio T.

    2013-05-29

    Pyrosequencing was used to characterize bacterial communities in air-cathode microbial fuel cells across a volumetric (graphite fiber brush) and a planar (carbon cloth) anode, where different physical and chemical gradients would be expected associated with the distance between anode location and the air cathode. As expected, the stable operational voltage and the coulombic efficiency (CE) were higher for the volumetric anode than the planar anode (0.57V and CE=22% vs. 0.51V and CE=12%). The genus Geobacter was the only known exoelectrogen among the observed dominant groups, comprising 57±4% of recovered sequences for the brush and 27±5% for the carbon-cloth anode. While the bacterial communities differed between the two anode materials, results showed that Geobacter spp. and other dominant bacterial groups were homogenously distributed across both planar and volumetric anodes. This lends support to previous community analysis interpretations based on a single biofilm sampling location in these systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Air conditioning using an air-cooled single effect lithium bromide absorption chiller: Results of a trial conducted in Madrid in August 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Lizarte, R.; Marcos, J.D.; Gutierrez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Trials were conducted to determine the performance of a commercial (Rotartica 045v) 4.5-kW air-cooled, single effect LiBr/H 2 O absorption chiller for residential use. The experiments were run at La Poveda, Arganda del Rey, Madrid, in August 2005. Three typical August days, with different outdoor temperatures, were chosen for the study. The hot water inlet temperature in the generator varied throughout the day from 80 to 107 o C. Thermal demand was calculated, along with period energy balance and COP. Variations in machine component temperatures were recorded and chilling power and the daily COP calculated for each of the three days. The results for the period as a whole showed that cooling power tended to decline with rising outdoor dry bulb temperatures. At temperatures from 35 to 41.3 o C the chilled water outlet temperature in the evaporator climbed to over 15 o C. The average COP for the period, when auxiliary equipment was included into the calculations, was 0.37

  17. A fast atom bombardment study of the lead isotope ratios in early nineteenth century Niagara Peninsula pottery glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Jones, T.R.B.; Kenney, Tina; Rupp, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead

  18. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  19. Development of lime based mortars for repairing glazed tile coatings of historic buildings in the city of Ovar, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal is one of the European countries in which built heritage is a testimony of its history. In this context, the legacy of the decorative glazed tile coatings of facades must be preserved and restored. This research is dedicated to the conservation of such facades in the city of Ovar, considered an example due to its rich heritage in glazed tiles, a high percentage of which requires a deep intervention. Therefore, this work is focused on the study of lime renders serving as a support for this type of tile facades. For this, samples were collected from several buildings in the city, targeting their mechanical and physical study with the aim of producing compatible mortars to be used for application of detached tiles in these buildings and generally for the repair of the facades with glazed tile coatings. For this purpose, four lime mortar formulations with different volumetric ratios were composed. The aggregates used were: ordinary river sand and local gravel. In three of the mixtures, metakaolin was added, with the intention of acting as an artificial pozzolan and thus improving the performance of these mortars. The use of a pozzolanic addition promotes hardening of lime mortars in cases when the ingression of carbon dioxide is low as is the case of mortars placed below glazed tile coatings. These mortars were also tested in the laboratory taking into account their physical and mechanical characteristics. The mechanical characteristics determined were: modulus of elasticity by two different methods, compressive strength and flexural strength. In turn, the physical characteristics determined were: water vapour permeability and water absorption by total immersion and capillary action. The best mechanical behaviour (compressive and flexural was observed in the mortar with pozzolanic additions. Similarly, the value of the modulus of elasticity was better in mortars with pozzolanic additions. The performance of these mortars was also adequate

  20. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  1. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation; Utilizacion de una nueva materia prima boracica para la formulacion de esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), its content in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Modern low-energy buildings are often associated with efficient shading devices, as an inevitable component to reduce the peak heat gain in the building and to improve visual comfort. Internal shading devices may have inferior performance compared to external shading, but these are still the most...... used in practice due to lower cost, simplicity and better acceptance between architects and users. The interplay between glazing systems and internal shading devices has been studied and in everyday practice this interplay is described by the solar shading coefficient and the total g......-value of the system (window + roller blind). Solar shading coefficient in such practice is assumed to be independent of the window properties and solar incidence angle. This paper is aimed to illustrate the deviation between the actual and assumed performance of the window system with internal roller blind. This task...

  3. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A; Manso, M; Pessanha, S; Carvalho, M L; Zegzouti, A; Elaatmani, M; Bendaoud, R; Coroado, J; Santos, J M F dos

    2013-01-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  4. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  5. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    batch. Furthermore the production time has been reduced to 1/3 of the initial production time through detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of especially the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  6. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  7. Overall energy, exergy and carbon credit analysis by different type of hybrid photovoltaic thermal air collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Tiwari, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comparative study of PVT air collectors. ► CO 2 analysis of all type of PVT air collectors. ► Study of thermal energy, exergy gain and exergy efficiency. ► Exergy efficiency of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is most efficient. - Abstract: In this paper, comparative analysis of different type of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) air collector namely: (i) unglazed hybrid PVT tiles, (ii) glazed hybrid PVT tiles and (iii) conventional hybrid PVT air collectors have been carried out for the composite climate of Srinagar (India). The comparative study has been carried out in terms of overall thermal energy and exergy gain, exergy efficiency and carbon credit earned by different type of hybrid PVT air collectors. It has been observed that overall annual thermal energy and exergy gain of unglazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 27% and 29.3% respectively as compared to glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector and by 61% and 59.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. It has also been observed that overall annual exergy efficiency of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 9.6% and 53.8% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector. On the basis of comparative study, it has been concluded that CO 2 emission reduction per annum on the basis of overall thermal energy gain of unglazed and glazed hybrid PVT tiles air collector is higher by 62.3% and 27.7% respectively as compared to conventional hybrid PVT air collector and on the basis of overall exergy gain it is 59.7% and 22.7%.

  8. Nitrogen removal in a single-chamber microbial fuel cell with nitrifying biofilm enriched at the air cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Hengjing

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen removal is needed in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for the treatment of most waste streams. Current designs couple biological denitrification with side-stream or combined nitrification sustained by upstream or direct aeration, which negates some of the energy-saving benefits of MFC technology. To achieve simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, without extra energy input for aeration, the air cathode of a single-chamber MFC was pre-enriched with a nitrifying biofilm. Diethylamine-functionalized polymer (DEA) was used as the Pt catalyst binder on the cathode to improve the differential nitrifying biofilm establishment. With pre-enriched nitrifying biofilm, MFCs with the DEA binder had an ammonia removal efficiency of up to 96.8% and a maximum power density of 900 ± 25 mW/m 2, compared to 90.7% and 945 ± 42 mW/m 2 with a Nafion binder. A control with Nafion that lacked nitrifier pre-enrichment removed less ammonia and had lower power production (54.5% initially, 750 mW/m 2). The nitrifying biofilm MFCs had lower Coulombic efficiencies (up to 27%) than the control reactor (up to 36%). The maximum total nitrogen removal efficiency reached 93.9% for MFCs with the DEA binder. The DEA binder accelerated nitrifier biofilm enrichment on the cathode, and enhanced system stability. These results demonstrated that with proper cathode pre-enrichment it is possible to simultaneously remove organics and ammonia in a single-chamber MFC without supplemental aeration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Characteristics and Sampling Efficiencies of Two Impactor Bioaerosol Samplers: MAS-100(Registered) (Microbial Air Monitoring System) and Single-Stage Andersen Viable Microbial Samplers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottell, K

    2004-01-01

    .... A petri dish with agar is used as the impaction surface for these samplers. The MAS-l00 is a single-stage impactor that aspirates air through a 400-hole perforated entry plate onto an agar plate at an airflow rate of 100 L/min...

  10. Surpassing 10% Efficiency Benchmark for Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells by Scalable Coating in Air from Single Nonhalogenated Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Long [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Xiong, Yuan [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Zhang, Qianqian [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Li, Sunsun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Wang, Cheng [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Jiang, Zhang [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Hou, Jianhui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; You, Wei [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Ade, Harald [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA

    2018-01-10

    The commercialization of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) relies critically on the response under typical operating conditions (for instance, temperature, humidity) and the ability of scale-up. Despite the rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of spin-coated devices fabricated in a protective atmosphere, the device efficiencies of printed nonfullerene OSC devices by blade-coating are still lower than 6%. This slow progress significantly limits the practical printing of high-performance nonfullerene OSCs. Here, a new and stable nonfullerene combination was introduced by pairing a commercially available nonfluorinated acceptor IT-M with the polymeric donor FTAZ. Over 12%-efficiency can be achieved in spincoated FTAZ:IT-M devices using a single halogen-free solvent. More importantly, chlorinefree, in air blade-coating of FTAZ:IT-M is able to yield a PCE of nearly 11%, despite a humidity of ~50%. X-ray scattering results reveal that large π-π coherence lengths, high degree of faceon orientation with respect to the substrate, and small domain spacings of ~20 nm are closely correlated with such high device performance. Our material system and approach yields the highest reported performance for nonfullerene OSC devices by a coating technique approximating scalable fabrication methods and holds great promise for the development of low-cost, low-toxicity, and high-efficiency OSCs by high-throughput production.

  11. Effect of incorporation of natural chemicals in water ice-glazing on freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during -18 °C frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Wang, Weihua; Chen, Wei; Tang, Haiqing; Jiang, Li; Yu, Zhifang

    2017-12-14

    Microbial spoilage and lipid oxidation are two major factors causing freshness deterioration of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) during frozen storage. To provide a remedy, the effects of several natural chemicals incorporated alone or in combination in traditional water ice-glazing on the freshness and shelf-life of Pacific saury during frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. Pacific sauries were subjected to individual quick freezing followed immediately by dipping into cold tap water (control) or solutions containing nisin, chitosan, phytic acid (single-factor experiment) or their combinations ((L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal experiment) for 10 s at 1 °C and then packaged in polypropylene bags before frozen storage at -18 °C. The storage duration tested was up to 12 months. All ice-glazing treatments with individual chemicals could significantly (P shelf-life of Pacific saury could be extended up to 12 months at -18 °C. The study indicated that the combination treatment with natural chemicals could be commercially utilized to maintain the freshness and prolong the shelf-life of Pacific saury. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Mössbauer analysis of the firing process of the sky-green glaze of the imitative ancient Chinese Ru porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhua, Chen; Zhengyao, Gao; Guoju, Hu; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The variation of the Mössbauer parameters of the imitative ancient Ru porcelain skygreen glaze with the firing conditions is studied in detail in the present paper. The Mössbauer spectra show that the sky-green glaze contains three kinds of iron minerals, i.e. the structural iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+); Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. The relative intensity of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+ increases and the magnetic ratio of the magnetic peak decreases with increasing temperature. Based on the variation of the quadrupole splitting ( QS) of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+, the phase transformation characteristics of the sky-green glaze in the firing process is discussed. The coloring mechanism of the sky-green glaze and the variation of its magnetism in the firing process are also investigated in the present paper.

  13. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing...

  14. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Luehl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngiesser, B. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36 D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with {mu}-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each 'layer'. Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  15. Long-term ageing tests on glazing materials for solar collectors; Langzeit-Alterungsuntersuchung an Abdeckungsmaterialien fuer thermische Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch, F.; Brunold, S.; Haeuselmann, T.; Frank, E.; Frei, U.

    2008-02-15

    This report made by the Swiss Institute for Solar Technology at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland, for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project that investigated the long-term behaviour of glazing materials for solar collectors. The locations tested and their associated meteorological data are presented and the tests made concerning the optical characteristics of several different types of glazing are discussed. Soiling and degradation are also looked at. An overview of the solar transmission of the various materials is presented. Details on the various materials such as glass, polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), fluorised plastics, unsaturated polyester (UP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are presented.

  16. Dose rate measurements in the beta-photon radiation field from UO2 pellets and glazed ceramics containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, the handling of UO 2 pellets results in a significant exposure, mainly due to beta rays. Depth dose distributions have been investigated at source-to-detector distances of 5 to 80 cm using LiF detectors of different thicknesses. Detailed data for the dose equivalent quantities H(0.07), H(3) and H(10) are presented. These data are compared with those found for the use of glazed tiles and ceramics containing natural uranium. (author)

  17. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Glazing façade modules : daylighting performance simulation for Bragança, Coimbra, Évora and Faro

    OpenAIRE

    Sacht, Helenice Maria; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Caram, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    The daylighting performance improvement is one better strategy to reduce the artificial lighting consumption in buildings and obviously requires solar radiation from the exterior. Daylighting comes not only from direct sunlight but also from illumination provided by the sky on overcast days. Particular attention must be given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy consumption. Visual comfort of glazing façades is a fundamental ...

  19. Glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen office block in Middelthunsgt. 17. [Oslo, Norway]. Glassgaardsklima i Kredittkassens kontorbygg i Middelthunsgt. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Harsem, T T

    1986-09-01

    The report deals with the glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen head office block in Oslo (Norway). The climate has been simulated by means of the computer program Royal-DEBAK. Considered in particular are the summery and bright sunny day conditions together with the annual power required and energy consumption. The use of insulating glasses, indoor curtains, ventilation systems in the narrow zone of the glass roof, and cooling systems in the floor are important parts of the concept. 9 drawings.

  20. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  1. Thermochromic Oxide-Based Thin Films and Nanoparticle Composites for Energy-Efficient Glazings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes G. Granqvist

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s advances in materials science and technology can lead to better buildings with improved energy efficiency and indoor conditions. Particular attention should be directed towards windows and glass facades—jointly known as “glazings”—since current practices often lead to huge energy expenditures related to excessive inflow or outflow of energy which need to be balanced by energy-intensive cooling or heating. This review article outlines recent progress in thermochromics, i.e., it deals with materials whose optical properties are strongly dependent on temperature. In particular, we discuss oxide-based thin surface coatings (thin films and nanoparticle composites which can be deposited onto glass and are able to regulate the throughput of solar energy while the luminous (visible properties remain more or less unaltered. Another implementation embodies lamination materials incorporating thermochromic (TC nanoparticles. The thin films and nanocomposites are based on vanadium dioxide (VO2, which is able to change its properties within a narrow temperature range in the vicinity of room temperature and either reflects or absorbs infrared light at elevated temperatures, whereas the reflectance or absorptance is much smaller at lower temperatures. The review outlines the state of the art for these thin films and nanocomposites with particular attention to recent developments that have taken place in laboratories worldwide. Specifically, we first set the scene by discussing environmental challenges and their relationship with TC glazings. Then enters VO2 and we present its key properties in thin-film form and as nanoparticles. The next part of the article gives perspectives on the manufacturing of these films and particles. We point out that the properties of pure VO2 may not be fully adequate for buildings and we elaborate how additives, antireflection layers, nanostructuring and protective over-coatings can be employed to yield improved

  2. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto

    2005-01-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 μg of enamel /mm 2 weared surface. There was no statistical difference (α=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  3. Assessment of Bond Strength between Metal Brackets and Non-Glazed Ceramic in Different Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Harririan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between metal brackets and non-glazed ceramic with three different surface treatment methods.Materials and Methods: Forty-two non-glazed ceramic disks were assigned into three groups. Group I and II specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid. Subsequently in group I, silane and adhesive were applied and in group II, bonding agent was used only.In group III, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid and then silane and adhesive were applied. Brackets were bonded with light-cured composites. The specimens were stored in water in room temperature for 24 hours and then thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C.Results: The difference of tensile bond strength between groups I and III was not significant(P=0.999. However, the tensile bond strength of group II was significantly lower than groups I, and III (P<0.001. The adhesive remnant index scores between the threegroups had statistically significant differences (P<0.001.Conclusion: With the application of scotch bond multi-purpose plus adhesive, we can use phosphoric acid instead of hydrofluoric acid for bonding brackets to non-glazed ceramic restorations.

  4. Measurement of transient thickness between the body and glaze layers of ancient porcelains using microprobe EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng

    2004-01-01

    The oxide contents of TiO 2 , MnO, SrO and Fe 2 O 3 in the body and glaze layers of the Jiao-Tan-Xia (JTX) and Lao-Hu-Dong (LHD) porcelains in Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.) have been determined using an International Eagle-II μ-probe EDXRF spectrometer. The results show that the contents in the body are much different from those in the glaze one. Therefore, the transient thickness (TT) between the body and glaze layers can be measured through determination of a distance of the drift change in the chemical contents. The TT average for the JTX porcelains is 161 μm, while that for the LHD porcelains is 258 μm, which are consistent with a range of 0.15-0.3 mm in the Ru-Yao porcelains. The different TT is related to the variances in firing temperature and raw material for manufacturing the respective porcelains. (authors)

  5. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Moosavi, Horieh; Forghani, Maryam; Managhebi, Esmatsadat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO), Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB), Bond Force (BF). Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream...

  6. Influencing Factors on the Interface Microhardness of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Consisting of Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregate concrete consisting of glazed hollow bead (GHB as lightweight aggregate is studied for the influence of nanosilica (NS content, prewetting time for GHB, water-cement ratio, and curing humidity, on the interface structure between GHB and cement paste. This research analyzed the influences of various factors on the interface zone structure by measuring microhardness (HV and hydration degree of cement paste (HD nearby the interface zone (1 mm between GHB and cement paste at different periods of aging. Due to the sampling limitation, the interface zone in this test is within 1 mm away from the surface of lightweight aggregate. The HD of cement paste was determined through chemically combined water (CCW test. The results were expected to reflect the influence of various factors on the interface zone structure. Results showed that the rational control of the four factors studied could fully mobilize the water absorption and desorption properties of GHB to improve the characteristics of the interfacial transition zone.

  7. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Toshio; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero.

    1995-01-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author)

  8. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Toshio [Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe (Japan). Forensic Science Lab.; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero

    1995-06-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author).

  9. Experimental Study on Hygrothermal Deformation of External Thermal Insulation Cladding Systems with Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houren Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the thermal and strain behavior of external thermal insulation cladding systems (ETICS with Glazed Hollow Beads (GHB thermal insulation mortar under hygrothermal cycles weather test in order to measure its durability under extreme weather (i.e., sunlight and rain. Thermometers and strain gauges are placed into different wall layers to gather thermal and strain data and another instrument measures the crack dimensions after every 4 cycles. The results showed that the finishing coat shrank at early stage (elastic deformation and then the finishing coat tends to expand and become damaged at later stage (plastic deformation. The deformation of insulation layer is similar to that of the finishing coat but its variation amplitude is smaller. Deformation of substrate expanded with heat and contracted with cold due to the small temperature variation. The length and width of cracks on the finishing coat grew as the experiment progressed but with a decreasing growth rate and the cracks stopped growing around 70 cycles.

  10. Microchemical and microstructural characterisation of medieval and post-medieval ceramic glaze coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, R.; Bultrini, G.; Fragalà, I.; Giarrusso, R.; Montana, G.

    A large number of ceramic samples (from the 10th to the 19th century), found during the excavation of Sicilian archaeological sites (Syracuse, Caltagirone, Sciacca and Piazza Armerina), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and optical microscopy. Attention has been focused on the microchemical and microstructural properties of the painted surfaces to investigate the nature of the enamels and pigments in the decorative layers. The general perspective has been the identification of consistent archeometric criteria, other than the standard stylistic considerations, which can be used for a reliable recognition of the production sites. The results collected for each ceramic typology were used to cluster the different ceramic reference groups in a wide database suitable for a reliable discrimination of the provenance of artefacts. Moreover, the same compositional and microstructural data allow the identification of the raw materials used for pigments. There is evidence of some differences with existing information found in the literature concerning the formulas used in ancient times. Finally, attention has also been devoted to identify the technological aspects of the manufacturing techniques and firing conditions adopted for each typology of glaze coating depending on different ceramic materials .

  11. Thermomechanical modelling of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Tamanna, N.; Naher, S.

    2018-03-01

    A two-dimensional thermomechanical finite element (FE) model of laser surface glazing (LSG) has been developed for H13 tool steel. The direct coupling technique of ANSYS 17.2 (APDL) has been utilised to solve the transient thermomechanical process. A H13 tool steel cylindrical cross-section has been modelled for laser power 200 W and 300 W at constant 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. The model can predict temperature distribution, stress-strain increments in elastic and plastic region with time and space. The crack formation tendency also can be assumed by analysing the von Mises stress in the heat-concentrated zone. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models have been applied separately to predict the after-yield phenomena. At 200 W laser power, the peak surface temperature achieved is 1520 K which is below the melting point (1727 K) of H13 tool steel. For laser power 300 W, the peak surface temperature is 2523 K. Tensile residual stresses on surface have been found after cooling, which are in agreement with literature. Isotropic model shows higher residual stress that increases with laser power. Conversely, kinematic model gives lower residual stress which decreases with laser power. Therefore, both plasticity models could work in LSG for H13 tool steel.

  12. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  13. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  14. Dispersion stability of a ceramic glaze achieved through ionic surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Preecha; Arquero, Orn-anong; Franks, George V; Wanless, Erica J

    2004-11-01

    The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, and kaolin has been investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the average particle zeta potential have been studied in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles at pH 7 and 9 results in strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. At higher surfactant concentrations a zeta potential of more than +60 mV results from the bilayered adsorbed surfactant, providing stability at salt concentrations dispersion or hydrophobic interactions, the magnitude of the negative zeta potential increases slightly. At pH 9 this increase is enough to promote stability with an average zeta potential of more than -55 mV, whereas at pH 7 the zeta potential is lower at about -45 mV. The stability of suspensions at pH 7 is additionally due to steric repulsion caused by the adsorption of thick layers of neutrally charged Ca(DBS)2 complexes created when the surfactant interacts with dissolved calcium ions from the calcium carbonate component.

  15. STUDY OF FLOW IN AIR-INTAKE SYSTEM FOR A SINGLE-CYLINDER GO-KART ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sulaiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intake-air manifolds have a major effect on a vehicle’s engine performance and emission of noise and pollutants. Differences in engine outputs and applications require different designs of intake-air manifolds in order to achieve the best volumetric efficiency and thus the best engine performance. In the present work, the flow characteristics of air flowing in various designs of air-intake manifold of a 200-cc four-stroke Go-Kart engine are studied. The study is done by three dimensional simulations of the flow of air within six designs of air-intake manifold into the combustion chamber by using commercial CFD software, Fluent version 6.2. The simulation results are validated by an experimental study performed using a flow bench. The study reveals that the variations in the geometry of the air-intake system can result in a difference of up to 20% in the mass flow rate of air entering the combustion chamber.

  16. Coupling Characteristics of Fused Optical Fiber Coupler Formed with Single-Mode Fiber and Photonic Crystal Fiber Having Air Hole Collapsed Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Yokota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused coupler forming with a single-mode fiber (SMF and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF is one of the solutions for optical coupling from a light source to a PCF. In this paper, we presented coupling characteristics of a fused fiber coupler formed with an ordinary SMF and a PCF having air hole collapsed taper. A prototype of SMF-PCF coupler with air hole collapsed taper was fabricated using CO2 laser irradiation. The coupling efficiency from SMF to PCF was −6.2 dB at 1554 nm wavelength in the fabricated coupler. The structure of the SMF-PCF coupler to obtain high coupling efficiency was theoretically clarified by beam propagation analysis using an equivalent model of the coupler with simplification. It was clarified that appropriately choosing the prestretched or etched SMF diameter and the length of air hole collapsed region was effective to obtain high coupling efficiency that was a result of high extinction ratio at cross port and low excess loss. We also demonstrated that the diameter of prestretched SMF to obtain high coupling efficiency was insensitive to the air hole diameter ratio to pitch of the PCF in the air hole collapsed SMF-PCF coupler.

  17. Spatial distribution of bacterial communities on volumetric and planar anodes in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vargas, Ignacio T.; Albert, Istvan U.; Regan, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrosequencing was used to characterize bacterial communities in air-cathode microbial fuel cells across a volumetric (graphite fiber brush) and a planar (carbon cloth) anode, where different physical and chemical gradients would be expected

  18. A comparative study on the effect of glazing and cooling for compound parabolic concentrator PV systems – Experimental and analytical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaidarah, Haitham M.; Gandhidasan, P.; Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Tanweer, Bilal; Mahmood, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active water cooling. • Model is validated with experimental results and found good agreement. • Significant increase in the maximum power output is observed with active cooling. • Unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output. • Levelized cost of energy found was found lower for unglazed CPC with cooling. - Abstract: A key barrier to achieving the economic viability and widespread adoption of photovoltaic (PV) technology for the direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity is the losses related to the high operating temperatures of typical flat-type PV modules. This technical and economic study addresses the cost reduction of PV systems by proposing a methodology for the improvement of solar cell efficiency using low-concentration PV technology and compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the performance of PV-CPC systems considering their optical, thermal and electrical properties. The model was implemented to investigate glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active cooling and it was validated against experimental data. A laboratory-scale bench-top PV string was designed and built with symmetrically truncated CPC modules in these four configurations. The constructed glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems were used for measurements at the geographic location of Dhahran and showed a very good agreement of 3.8–6.5% between the calculated and experimental results. The effect of glazing was studied and from the electrical point of view, glazing was found to reduce the power output. From the thermal point of view, glazing increased the thermal gain of the PV-CPC system. An unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output, and glazed system is recommended for higher thermal gain. For economic feasibility, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using annual

  19. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  20. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  1. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.G.; Geddis, A.M.; Henrich, M.J.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Neuman, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    This document summarizes air permeability estimates obtained from single hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Covered Borehole Site (CBS) within the larger apache Leap Research Site (ALRS). Only permeability estimates obtained from a steady state interpretation of relatively stable pressure and flow rate data are included. Tests were conducted in five boreholes inclined at 45 degree to the horizontal, and one vertical borehole. Over 180 borehole segments were tested by setting the packers 1 m apart. Additional tests were conducted in segments of lengths 0.5, 2.0, and 3.0 m in one borehole, and 2.0 m in another borehole, bringing the total number of tests to over 270. Tests were conducted by maintaining a constant injection rate until air pressure became relatively stable and remained so for some time. The injection rate was then incremented by a constant value and the procedure repeated. The air injection rate, pressure, temperature, and relative humidity were recorded. For each relatively stable period of injection rate and pressure, air permeability was estimated by treating the rock around each test interval as a uniform, isotropic porous medium within which air flows as a single phase under steady state, in a pressure field exhibiting prolate spheroidal symmetry. For each permeability estimate the authors list the corresponding injection rate, pressure, temperature and relative humidity. They also present selected graphs which show how the latter quantities vary with time; logarithmic plots of pressure versus time which demonstrate the importance of borehole storage effects during the early transient portion of each incremental test period; and semilogarithmic plots of pressure versus recovery time at the end of each test sequence

  2. Effect of different air-drying time on the microleakage of single-step self-etch adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horieh Moosavi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effect of three different air-drying times on microleakage of three self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Class I cavities were prepared for 108 extracted sound human premolars. The teeth were divided into three main groups based on three different adhesives: Opti Bond All in One (OBAO, Clearfil S3 Bond (CSB, Bond Force (BF. Each main group divided into three subgroups regarding the air-drying time: without application of air stream, following the manufacturer's instruction, for 10 sec more than manufacturer's instruction. After completion of restorations, specimens were thermocycled and then connected to a fluid filtration system to evaluate microleakage. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-test (α = 0.05. Results The microleakage of all adhesives decreased when the air-drying time increased from 0 sec to manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. The microleakage of BF reached its lowest values after increasing the drying time to 10 sec more than the manufacturer's instruction (p < 0.001. Microleakage of OBAO and CSB was significantly lower compared to BF in all three drying time (p < 0.001. Conclusions Increasing in air-drying time of adhesive layer in one-step self-etch adhesives caused reduction of microleakage, but the amount of this reduction may be dependent on the adhesive components of self-etch adhesives.

  3. Growth and characterization of air annealing Tb-doped YAG:Ce single crystal for white-light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Maogao [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Liang, Xiaojuan [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhong, Jiasong; Chen, Daqin [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Jun; Gu, Guorui; Yang, Cheng; Xiang, Run [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • We report preparation of transparent Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal by Czochralski method. • The effect of annealing on Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal had been investigated. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal after annealing exhibited better optical performance. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal could be used as an ideal candidate for WLED. - Abstract: We report the preparation of transparent Ce and Tb co-doped Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystal by the Czochralski method. The characterization of the resulting single crystal was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption peak of the single crystal at about 460 nm has been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different annealing condition. Its optical properties also have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometer. What’s more, its photoelectric parameters were studied by LED fast spectrometer. The constructed single crystal based white-light-emitting diode exhibits a high luminous efficiency of 140.89 lm/W, and a correlated color temperature of 4176 K as well as a color rendering index of 56.7, which reveal the prominent feasibility of the present single crystal material in white-light-emitting diode application.

  4. Growth and characterization of air annealing Tb-doped YAG:Ce single crystal for white-light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Maogao; Xiang, Weidong; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhong, Jiasong; Chen, Daqin; Huang, Jun; Gu, Guorui; Yang, Cheng; Xiang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report preparation of transparent Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal by Czochralski method. • The effect of annealing on Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal had been investigated. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal after annealing exhibited better optical performance. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal could be used as an ideal candidate for WLED. - Abstract: We report the preparation of transparent Ce and Tb co-doped Y 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal by the Czochralski method. The characterization of the resulting single crystal was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption peak of the single crystal at about 460 nm has been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different annealing condition. Its optical properties also have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometer. What’s more, its photoelectric parameters were studied by LED fast spectrometer. The constructed single crystal based white-light-emitting diode exhibits a high luminous efficiency of 140.89 lm/W, and a correlated color temperature of 4176 K as well as a color rendering index of 56.7, which reveal the prominent feasibility of the present single crystal material in white-light-emitting diode application

  5. Modeling of solar transmission through multilayer glazing facade using shading blinds with arbitrary geometrical and surface optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    A system model that can accurately simulate the instantaneous solar transmittance through multilayer glazing façade (MGF) and shading device can provide a solid foundation for the thermal and daylighting performance calculation of MGF as well as indoor visual comfort evaluation. Traditional optical models for venetian blind and glazing façade meet with their limitations to analyze new prototype of shading blind like photovoltaic (PV) blind which has quite different surface optical properties compared with conventional venetian blind. The present study proposed a new system model for MGF using shading blind with arbitrary geometrical and optical features which is suitable for a wide range of applications. Three major calculation types for modeling of shading blinds cover all the possible situations in application. Guess Integer-Valued Function is adopted for delivering a general description on direct radiation transport. The direct-direct, direct-diffuse and diffuse-diffuse radiation transports are separately considered. A series of experiments were carried out to validate the model under various parameter settings and different weather conditions. Parametric study revealed some new findings in the evaluations of influence of ambient radiation situations, geometrical and optical features of blind space on both solar transmittance and solar absorption by blind layer. - Highlights: • Solar transport through glazing façades with PV blind with arbitrary geometry is simulated. • Ray-tracing and radiosity method are coupled in calculation. • Guess Integer-Valued Function is used in calculation of direct radiation transport. • Experiment and simulated data are compared for model validation. • Parametric study is conducted for evaluating the impact of different factors on the system.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of polishing on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and its comparison with autoglazing and over glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramic restorations are popular because they can provide the most natural replacement for teeth. However, the brittleness of ceramics is a primary disadvantage. There are various methods for strengthening ceramics such as metal framework, ceramic cores, and surface strengthening mechanisms through glazing, work hardening and ion exchange. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polish on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and to compare it with overglaze and autoglaze. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, one brand of feldspathic porcelain (colorlogic, Ceramco was used and forty bars (25×6×3 mm were prepared according to ISO 6872 and ADA No. 69. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: overglazed, auto glazed, fine polish and coarse polish (clinic polish. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined by three point bending test (Universal Testing Machine, Zwick 1494, Germany. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: A significant difference was observed among the studied groups (P<0.0001. According to post-hoc test, flexural strength in overglaze and fine polish group were significantly stronger than clinic polish and autoglaze group (P<0.001. Although the mean value for overglazed group was higher than fine polish group, this was not statistically significant (P=0.9. Also no statistical difference was seen between autoglazed and coarse polish group (P=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, flexural strength achieved by fine polish (used in this study can compete with overglazing the feldespathic porcelains. It also can be concluded that a final finishing procedure that involves fine polishing may be preferred to simple staining followed by self-glazing.

  7. ANN Synthesis Model of Single-Feed Corner-Truncated Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with an Air Gap for Wideband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided design model based on the artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to directly obtain patch physical dimensions of the single-feed corner-truncated circularly polarized microstrip antenna (CPMA with an air gap for wideband applications. To take account of the effect of the air gap, an equivalent relative permittivity is introduced and adopted to calculate the resonant frequency and Q-factor of square microstrip antennas for obtaining the training data sets. ANN architectures using multilayered perceptrons (MLPs and radial basis function networks (RBFNs are compared. Also, six learning algorithms are used to train the MLPs for comparison. It is found that MLPs trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm are better than RBFNs for the synthesis of the CPMA. An accurate model is achieved by using an MLP with three hidden layers. The model is validated by the electromagnetic simulation and measurements. It is enormously useful to antenna engineers for facilitating the design of the single-feed CPMA with an air gap.

  8. InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture microcavities for single-photon sources at 1.55-μm telecommunication band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijie; Zheng, Yanzhen; Weng, Zhuo; Yao, Haicheng; Ju, Yuhao; Zhang, Lei; Ren, Zhilei; Gao, Ruoyao; Wang, Zhiming M.; Song, Hai-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture micropillar cavities are proposed to serve as 1.55-μm single photon sources, which are indispensable in silica-fiber based quantum information processing. Owing to air-apertures introduced to InP layers, and adiabatically tapered distributed Bragg-reflector structures used in the central cavity layers, the pillar diameters can be less than 1 μm, achieving mode volume as small as (λ/n)3, and the quality factors are more than 104 - 105, sufficient to increase the quantum dot emission rate for 100 times and create strong coupling between the optical mode and the 1.55- μm InAs/InP quantum dot emitter. The mode wavelengths and quality factors are found weakly changing with the cavity size and the deviation from the ideal shape, indicating the robustness against the imperfection of the fabrication technique. The fabrication, simply epitaxial growth, dry and chemical etching, is a damage-free and monolithic process, which is advantageous over previous hybrid cavities. The above properties satisfy the requirements of efficient, photonindistinguishable and coherent 1.55-μm quantum dot single photon sources, so the proposed InGaAsP/InP-air-aperture micropillar cavities are prospective candidates for quantum information devices at telecommunication band.

  9. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A.; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  10. Low emissivity insulating glazing materials: principle and examples; Les vitrages isolants a basse emissivite: principe et exemples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, A. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    1996-12-31

    One of the stakes of flat glass industry is the limitation of thermal losses from indoor to outdoor through glass walls (K coefficient) in order to increase energy savings. Thermal insulation performances of a double glazing can be reinforced by the application of a highly reflective (low emissive) film with respect to thermal infrared radiation. The low emissive character is obtained with the use of surface-deposited materials that can be described using the Drude model: vacuum pulverization of metals, and vacuum pulverization or pyrolysis deposition of doped semi-conductor oxides. (J.S.)

  11. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  12. Daylight and solar control in buildings. General evaluation and optimization of a new angle selective glazing facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontini, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost 40% of the overall energy consumption in Europe. For the future energy scenarios, the building envelope, especially the facades, becomes really important as it provides the necessary area for the installation of PV modules or solar collectors to produce energy, using renewable energy sources. A new multifunctional building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) glazed facade for this application is presented here. The new angle-selective see through facade combines four important tasks in one element: solar control, glare protection, visual contact and electricity generation. Mathematical analysis and complex simulations with the software Radiance are performed to optimize the geometry and to assess the visual impact and optical properties of the new window. In order to evaluate the impact of the new facade in building spaces a new method for modelling the total solar energy transmittance, in building energy simulations software, for complex glazing facades is presented. The new black-box-model (BBM) is implemented into ESP-r software and is validated. The BBM is used to assess the impact of modelling accurately the g-value of complex facade within building simulation. It is shown that the new method can significantly increase the accuracy of heating/cooling loads and room temperatures. (orig.)

  13. Pressure drop and heat transfer of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow in a helical tube under a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Momozaki, Yoichi

    2000-01-01

    For the reduction of a large magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop of a liquid metal single-phase flow, a liquid metal two-phase flow cooling system has been proposed. As a fundamental study, MHD pressure drops and heat transfer characteristics of a mercury single-phase flow and an air-mercury two-phase flow were experimentally investigated. A strong transverse magnetic field relevant to the fusion reactor conditions was applied to the mercury single-phase flow and the air-mercury two-phase flow in a helically coiled tube that was inserted in the vertical bore of a solenoidal superconducting magnet. It was found that MHD pressure drops of a mercury single-phase flow in the helically coiled tube were nearly equal to those in a straight tube. The Nusselt number at an outside wall was higher than that at an inside wall both in the mercury single-phase flow in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. The Nusselt number of the mercury single-phase flow decreased, increased and again decreased with an increase in the magnetic flux density. MHD pressure drops did not decrease appreciably by injecting air into a mercury flow and changing the mercury flow into the air-mercury two-phase flow. Remarkable heat transfer enhancement did not appear by the air injection. The injection of air into the mercury flow enhanced heat transfer in the ranges of high mercury flow rate and low magnetic flux density, possibly due to the agitation effect of air bubbles. The air injection deteriorated heat transfer in the range of low mercury flow rates possibly because of the occupation of air near heating wall

  14. The Design And Development Of A Double Glazed Gape – Roof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On exposure of the developed dryer to the open for solar heating, the hot air in the solar collector plate (absorber) enters the drying chamber by natural circulation. While the heated air flows over the pellets moisture is extracted from the products. By this means, the cassava pellets achieve about 70% moisture, reduction, ...

  15. Optimum Design Parameters of Box Window DSF Office at Different Glazing Types under Sub Interval of Intermediate Sky Conditions (20-40 klux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, O. K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrita, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Despite Double skin façade (DSF) buildings are widely deployed worldwide, daylighting strategy is not commonly incorporated in these buildings compare to other strategies. Therefore, further theoretical and experimental studies would lead to adopting daylighting strategy in DSF office buildings. The aim of this study is to investigate the daylighting performance of office building at different design parameters of box window DSF using different glazing types under sub interval of intermediate sky conditions (20-40) klux using the (IES VE) simulation tool from Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment. The implemented design parameters are window wall ratio (WWR) of internal façade (10-100) %, cavity depth (CD) of DSF (1-2.5) m and different glazing types. The glazing types were selected from the list available in the (IES VE) simulation tool. After series of evaluations, bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) is implemented for the exterior façade while clear float, clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), grey and brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float) and blue coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) are implemented for the interior façade. In this paper, several evaluation parameters are used to quantify the optimum design parameters that would balance the daylighting requirements of a box window DSF office versus sky conditions range (20-40) klux. The optimum design parameters of DSF office building obtained under different glazing types are highlighted as follows. When using bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) for the exterior façade, the glazing types of interior façade that showed superior daylighting performance of DSF office at (CD of 1.0m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 1.5m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) and (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) are grey tinted coating (Anti-sun float), clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float), and clear float glazing respectively. Blue Coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) of interior façade glazing

  16. Growth of yttrium iron garnet single crystals in Na2O-B2O3 flux system in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Tarun; Saha, Prasenjit

    1977-01-01

    Detailed studies of growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) in the flux system Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 were made to delineate the phase stability regions of YIG and the neighbouring crystalline phases, and a tentative working diagram of Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -YIG in air was drawn from the results of small batch crystal growth runs and solubility studies. The occurrence of a rather narrow field of YIG crystallization in this system was explained on the basis of relative solubilities of different oxides constituting YIG. Several long-time growth runs with some typical compositions were carried out in this system to evaluate its suitability for bulk growth of YIG crystals. The system, although possessing some inherent advantages, was found to suffer from limitations because the maximum size of the self-nucleated crystals grown hardly exceeded 2.00 mm. (author)

  17. Effects of small-grit grinding and glazing on mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuan; Si, Wenjie; Jiang, Danyu; Sun, Ting; Shao, Longquan; Deng, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of small-grit grinding on the mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia and to investigate the necessity of glazing for the small-grit ground zirconia. Small-grit grinding was performed using two kinds of silicon carbide abrasive papers. The control group received no grinding. The unground surfaces and the ground surfaces were glazed by an experienced dental technician. Finally, the zirconia materials were thermally aged in water at 134°C for 5h. After aforementioned treatments, we observed the surface topography and the microstructures, and measured the extent of monoclinic phase, the nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the possible transformed zone and the flexural strength. Small-grit grinding changed the surface topography. The zirconia microstructure did not change obviously after surface treatments and thermal ageing; however, the glaze in contact with zirconia showed cracks after thermal ageing. Small-grit grinding did not induce a phase transformation but improved the flexural strength and ageing resistance. Glazing prevented zirconia from thermal ageing but severely diminished the flexural strength. The nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the surface layer were increased by ultrafine grinding. The results suggest that small-grit grinding is beneficial to the strength and ageing resistance of the super-translucent dental zirconia; however, glazing is not necessary and even impairs the strength for the super-translucent dental zirconia. This study is helpful to the researches about dental grinding tools and maybe useful for dentists to choose reasonable zirconia surface treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  19. The IVAIRE project--a randomized controlled study of the impact of ventilation on indoor air quality and the respiratory symptoms of asthmatic children in single family homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, P; Aubin, D; Gingras, V; Daigneault, P; Ducharme, F; Gauvin, D; Fugler, D; Leclerc, J-M; Won, D; Courteau, M; Gingras, S; Héroux, M-È; Yang, W; Schleibinger, H

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial was carried out to measure the impact of an intervention on ventilation, indoor air contaminants, and asthma symptoms of children. Eighty-three asthmatic children living in low-ventilated homes were followed over 2 years. Several environmental parameters were measured during the summer, fall, and winter. The children were randomized after Year 1 (43 Intervention; 40 Control). The intervention included the installation of either a Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) or Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV). During the fall and winter seasons, there was a significant increase in the mean ventilation rate in the homes of the intervention group. A statistically significant reduction in mean formaldehyde, airborne mold spores, toluene, styrene, limonene, and α-pinene concentrations was observed in the intervention group. There was no significant group difference in change in the number of days with symptoms per 14 days. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of children who experienced any wheezing (≥1 episode) and those with ≥4 episodes in the 12-month period in the intervention group. This study indicates that improved ventilation reduces air contaminants and may prevent wheezing. Due to lack of power, a bigger study is needed. Positive findings from this study include the fact that, upon recruitment, most of the single family homes with asthmatic children were already equipped with a mechanical ventilation system and had relatively good indoor air quality. However, the 8-h indoor guideline for formaldehyde (50 μg/m3) was frequently exceeded and the ventilation rates were low in most of the homes, even those with a ventilation system. Both ERVs and HRVs were equally effective at increasing air exchange rates above 0.30 ACH and at preventing formaldehyde concentrations from exceeding the 50 μg/m3 guideline during the fall and winter seasons. Furthermore, the ERVs were effective at preventing excessively low relative

  20. Electrochemically exfoliated graphene anodes with enhanced biocurrent production in single-chamber air-breathing microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Amin Taheri; Ng, Norvin; Gyenge, Előd

    2016-07-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) present promising options for environmentally sustainable power generation especially in conjunction with waste water treatment. However, major challenges remain including low power density, difficult scale-up, and durability of the cell components. This study reports enhanced biocurrent production in a membrane-free MFC, using graphene microsheets (GNs) as anode and MnOx catalyzed air cathode. The GNs are produced by ionic liquid assisted simultaneous anodic and cathodic electrochemical exfoliation of iso-molded graphite electrodes. The GNs produced by anodic exfoliation increase the MFC peak power density by over 300% compared to plain carbon cloth (i.e., 2.85Wm(-2) vs 0.66Wm(-2), respectively), and by 90% compared to conventional carbon black (i.e., Vulcan XC-72) anode. These results exceed previously reported power densities for graphene-containing MFC anodes. The fuel cell polarization results are corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicating three times lower charge transfer resistance for the GN anode. Material characterizations suggest that the best performing GN samples were of relatively smaller size (~500nm), with higher levels of ionic liquid induced surface functionalization during the electrochemical exfoliation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detailed pressure drop measurements in single-and two-phase adiabatic air-water turbulent flows in realistic BWR fuel assembly geometry with spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraghiaur, Diana; Frid, Wiktor; Tillmark, Nils

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, advance numerical simulation tools based on CFD methods have been increasingly used in various multi-phase flow applications. One of these is two-phase flow in fuel assemblies of Boiling Water Reactors. The important and often missing aspect of this development is validation of CFD codes against proper experimental data. The purpose of the current paper is to present detailed pressure measurements over a spacer grid in low pressure adiabatic single- and bubbly two-phase flow, which will be used to further develop a CFD code for BWR fuel bundle analysis. The experiments have been carried out in a n asymmetric 24-rod sub-bundle, representing one quarter of a Westinghouse SVEA-96 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Single-phase flow measurements have been performed at superficial velocities between 0.90-4.50 m/s and in the two-phase flow, which was simulated by air-water mixture, measurements have been performed at void fractions ranging from 4 to 12% and liquid superficial velocity of 4.50 m/s. In order to increase the number of measuring points, five pressure taps were drilled in one of the rods, which was easily moved vertically by a traversing system, covering most of the points in axial direction. Any of the rods in the bundle could be substitute by the pressure sensing rod and the measurements were made for five pressure taps facing-angles. A detailed pressure distribution comparison between single- and two-phase flows for different sub-channel positions and different flow conditions was performed over one of the spacers. In addition, single-phase pressure drop measurements in the upper part of the test section comprising two spacer grids have been carried out. (author)

  2. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  3. Effect of air-exposed biocathode on the performance of a Thauera-dominated membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nuan; Zhan, Guoqiang; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Yanyan; Jiang, Qinrui; Li, Daping; Xiang, Yuanying

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air-exposed biocathode (AEB) on the performance of single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), wastewater quality, bioelectrochemical characteristics and the electrode biofilms were researched. It was demonstrated that exposing the biocathode to air was beneficial to nitrogen removal and current generation. In Test 1 of 95% AEB, removal rates of ammonia, total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 99.34%±0.11%, 99.34%±0.10% and 90.79%±0.12%, respectively. The nitrogen removal loading rates were 36.38gN/m 3 /day. Meanwhile, current density and power density obtained at 0.7A/m 3 and 104mW/m 3 respectively. Further experiments on open-circuit (Test 2) and carbon source (Test 3) indicated that this high performance could be attributed to simultaneous biological nitrification/denitrification and aerobic denitrification, as well as bioelectrochemical denitrification. Results of community analysis demonstrated that both microbial community structures on the surface of the cathode and in the liquid of the chamber were different. The percentage of Thauera, identified as denitrifying bacteria, maintained at a high level of over 50% in water, but decreased gradually in the AEB. Moreover, the genus Nitrosomonas, Alishewanella, Arcobacter and Rheinheimera were significantly enriched in the AEB, which might contribute to both enhancement of nitrogen removal and electricity generation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    The duration and the amount of pressure and shear must be reduced in order to minimize the risk of pressure ulcer development. Alternating low pressure air mattresses with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells have been developed to relieve pressure by sequentially inflating and deflating the air cells. Evidence about the effectiveness of this type of mattress in clinical practice is lacking. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of an alternating low pressure air mattress that has a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells with an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. A randomised controlled trial was performed in a convenience sample of 25 wards in five hospitals in Belgium. In total, 610 patients were included and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=298) or the control group (n=312). In the experimental group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. In the control group, patients were allocated to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. The outcome was defined as cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV). An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. There was no significant difference in cumulative pressure ulcer incidence (Grade II-IV) between both groups (Exp.=5.7%, Contr.=5.8%, p=0.97). When patients developed a pressure ulcer, the median time was 5.0 days in the experimental group (IQR=3.0-8.5) and 8.0 days in the control group (IQR=3.0-8.5) (Mann-Whitney U-test=113, p=0.182). The probability to remain pressure ulcer free during the observation period in this trial did not differ significantly between the experimental group and the control group (log-rank χ(2)=0.013, df=1, p=0.911). An alternating low pressure air mattress with multi-stage inflation

  5. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  6. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  7. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin, E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.c [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Meitian; Kim Youshi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Jiangxi Province 330025 (China); Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Rongwu [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  8. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Varinlioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg -1 and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  9. An air-breathing single cell small proton exchange membrane fuel cell system with AB5-type metal hydride and an ultra-low voltage input boost converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyasaka, Akihiro; Shodai, Takahisa [NTT Energy and Environment System Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    A new strategy for increasing the power density of an air-breathing small proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for the main energy source of portable consumer electronics is presented. The small PEMFC system is composed of a single cell. Utilizing the output voltage of the single cell, we introduce a newly designed ultra-low voltage input boost converter. The boost converter can generate 4.1 V output from input sources with low voltage ranges, such as under 1.0 V. The cathode plate is made from a thin SUS 316L stainless steel plate and has ribs that prevent the cathode from bending. The hydrogen is supplied by a metal hydride (MH) tank cartridge. The MH tank contains highly packed AB5-type MH. The MH tank cartridge has a volume of 13.2 cm{sup 3} and can absorb 6.7 L of hydrogen. The maximum power of the small PEMFC is 4.42 W at room temperature. Using 6.7 L of hydrogen, the small PEMFC can generate 11 Wh of electricity. The power density of the small PEMFC reaches 0.51 Wh cm{sup -3}. And the power density of the whole small PEMFC system, which contains the boost converter, a small Li-ion battery for a load absorber, and a case for the system, reaches 0.14 Wh cm{sup -3}. This value matches that of external Li-ion battery chargers for cell phones. We installed the small PEMFC system in a cell phone and confirmed the operations of calling, receiving, videophone, connecting to the Internet, and watching digital TV. And also confirmed that the small PEMFC system provides approximately 8.25 h of talk time, which is about three times as long as that for the original Li-ion battery. (author)

  10. Analytical performances of laser-induced micro-plasma of Al samples with single and double ultrashort pulses in air and with Ar-jet: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A.; Dutouquet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser microablation coupled with optical emission spectroscopy was under study to obtain several micro-LIBS analytical features (shot-to-shot reproducibility, spectral line intensity and lifetime, calibration curves, detection limits). Laser microablation of Al matrix samples with known Cu- and Mg-concentrations was performed by single and double pulses of 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration in air and with Ar-jet. The micro-LIBS analytical features obtained under different experimental conditions were characterized and compared. The highest shot-to-shot reproducibility and gain in plasma spectral line intensity were obtained with double pulses with Ar-jet for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulse durations. The best calibration curves were obtained with 1 ps pulse duration with Ar-jet. Micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses may find its effective application for surface elemental microcartography. - Highlights: • Analytical performances of micro-LIBS with ultrashort double pulses were studied. • The maximal line intensity gain of 20 was obtained with double pulses and Ar-jet. • LIBS gain was obtained without additional ablation of a sample by the second pulse. • LIBS properties were almost the same for both 50 fs and 1 ps pulses. • The micro-LIBS detection limit was around 35 ppm

  11. Oxidation behavior of a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T., E-mail: liuchunting76@yahoo.com.c [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Ma, J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Sun, X.F. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-02-18

    The oxidation behavior of a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy DD32 was studied in air at 900 and 1000 {sup o}C and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). At 900 and 1000 {sup o}C, two oxidation steps appear in the oxidation kinetics. The first one is controlled by NiO growth and the second by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth until a continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer formed under the previously grown NiO layer after a critical time. The variations in the chemical composition due to segregations, which resulted from the solidification process, led to the formation of different kinds of oxide scale on the dendritic and interdendritic area during oxidation between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C. The scales formed between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C were complicated, and consisted of three layers: an outer columnar NiO layer with a small amount of CoO, an intermediate layer mainly composed of W{sub 20}O{sub 58}, CrTaO{sub 4}, a small amount of spinels NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, an inner continuous layer of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  12. Electrochemical characteriztion of the bioanode during simultaneous azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation in an air-cathode single chambered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian; Hu Yongyou; Hou Bin

    2011-01-01

    To achieve high power output based on simultaneously azo dye decolorization using microbial fuel cell (MFC), the bioanode responses during decolorization of a representative azo dye, Congo red, were investigated in an air-cathode single chambered MFC using representative electrochemical techniques. It has been found that the maximum stable voltage output was delayed due to slowly developed anode potential during Congo red decolorization, indicating that the electrons recovered from co-substrate are preferentially transferred to Congo red rather than the bioanode of the MFC and Congo red decolorization is prior to electricity generation. Addition of Congo red had a negligible effect on the Ohmic resistance (R ohm ) of the bioanode, but the charge-transfer resistance (R c ) and the diffusion resistance (R d ) were significantly influenced. The R c and R d firstly decreased then increased with increase of Congo red concentration, probably due to the fact that the Congo red and its decolorization products can act as electron shuttle for conveniently electrons transfer from bacteria to the anode at low concentration, but result in accelerated consumption of electrons at high concentration. Cyclic voltammetry results suggested that Congo red was a more favorable electron acceptor than the bioanode of the MFC. Congo red decolorization did not result in a noticeable decrease in peak catalytic current until Congo red concentration up to 900 mg l -1 . Long-term decolorization of Congo red resulted in change in catalytic active site of anode biofilm.

  13. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  14. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  15. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza-Machado, Sergio; Larrabee Strow, L.; Tangborn, Andrew; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Yang, Qiguang

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR) satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs) as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2-4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA). The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds). From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT) which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO) cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and NWP thermodynamic and cloud

  16. Single-footprint retrievals for AIRS using a fast TwoSlab cloud-representation model and the SARTA all-sky infrared radiative transfer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DeSouza-Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional variational retrievals of temperature and moisture fields from hyperspectral infrared (IR satellite sounders use cloud-cleared radiances (CCRs as their observation. These derived observations allow the use of clear-sky-only radiative transfer in the inversion for geophysical variables but at reduced spatial resolution compared to the native sounder observations. Cloud clearing can introduce various errors, although scenes with large errors can be identified and ignored. Information content studies show that, when using multilayer cloud liquid and ice profiles in infrared hyperspectral radiative transfer codes, there are typically only 2–4 degrees of freedom (DOFs of cloud signal. This implies a simplified cloud representation is sufficient for some applications which need accurate radiative transfer. Here we describe a single-footprint retrieval approach for clear and cloudy conditions, which uses the thermodynamic and cloud fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP models as a first guess, together with a simple cloud-representation model coupled to a fast scattering radiative transfer algorithm (RTA. The NWP model thermodynamic and cloud profiles are first co-located to the observations, after which the N-level cloud profiles are converted to two slab clouds (TwoSlab; typically one for ice and one for water clouds. From these, one run of our fast cloud-representation model allows an improvement of the a priori cloud state by comparing the observed and model-simulated radiances in the thermal window channels. The retrieval yield is over 90 %, while the degrees of freedom correlate with the observed window channel brightness temperature (BT which itself depends on the cloud optical depth. The cloud-representation and scattering package is benchmarked against radiances computed using a maximum random overlap (RMO cloud scheme. All-sky infrared radiances measured by NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and NWP

  17. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators with different pore sizes in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Separators are needed in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to reduce electrode spacing and preventing electrode short circuiting. The use of nylon and glass fiber filter separators in single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs was examined for their effect on performance. Larger pore nylon mesh were used that had regular mesh weaves with pores ranging from 10 to 160 μm, while smaller pore-size nylon filters (0.2-0.45 μm) and glass fiber filters (0.7-2.0 μm) had a more random structure. The pore size of both types of nylon filters had a direct and predictable effect on power production, with power increasing from 443 ± 27 to 650 ± 7 mW m-2 for pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm, and from 769 ± 65 to 941 ± 47 mW m-2 for 10 to 160 μm. In contrast, changes in pore sizes of the glass fiber filters resulted in a relatively narrow change in power (732 ± 48 to 779 ± 43 mW m-2) for pore sizes of 0.7 to 2 μm. An ideal separator should increase both power density and Coulombic efficiency (CE). However, CEs measured for the different separators were inversely correlated with power production, demonstrating that materials which reduced the oxygen diffusion into the reactor also hindered proton transport to the cathode, reducing power production through increased internal resistance. Our results highlight the need to develop separators that control oxygen transfer and facilitate proton transfer to the cathode. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Effects of nitrate and sulfate on the performance and bacterial community structure of membrane-less single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoonjoo; Kang, Hyemin; Chang, Sumin; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2018-01-02

    Membrane-less, single-chamber, air-cathode, microbial fuel cells (ML-SC MFCs) have attracted attention as being suitable for wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of nitrate and sulfate on the performance of ML-SC MFCs and their bacterial structures were evaluated. The maximum power density increased after nitrate addition from 8.6 mW·m -2 to 14.0 mW·m -2 , while it decreased after sulfate addition from 11.5 mW·m -2 to 7.7 mW·m -2 . The chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies remained at more than 90% regardless of the nitrate or sulfate additions. The nitrate was removed completely (93.0%) in the ML-SC MFC, while the sulfate removal efficiency was relatively low (17.6%). Clostridium (23.1%), Petrimonas (20.0%), and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae (6.2%) were dominant on the anode before the addition of nitrate or sulfate. After the addition of nitrate, Clostridium was still the most dominant on the anode (23.6%), but Petrimonas significantly decreased (6.0%) and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae increased (17.1%). After the addition of sulfate, the amount of Clostridium almost doubled in the composition on the anode (43.2%), while Petrimonas decreased (5.5%). The bacterial community on the cathode was similar to that on the anode after the addition of nitrate. However, Desulfovibrio was remarkably dominant on the cathode (32.9%) after the addition of sulfate. These results promote a deeper understanding of the effects of nitrate or sulfate on the ML-SC MFCs' performance and their bacterial community.

  19. Single-Step Fabrication Using a Phase Inversion Method of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Activated Carbon Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2014-10-14

    Air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to have high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction, but they must also be easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and watertight. A simple one-step, phase inversion process was used here to construct an inexpensive MFC cathode using a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder and an activated carbon catalyst. The phase inversion process enabled cathode preparation at room temperatures, without the need for additional heat treatment, and it produced for the first time a cathode that did not require a separate diffusion layer to prevent water leakage. MFCs using this new type of cathode produced a maximum power density of 1470 ± 50 mW m–2 with acetate as a substrate, and 230 ± 10 mW m–2 with domestic wastewater. These power densities were similar to those obtained using cathodes made using more expensive materials or more complex procedures, such as cathodes with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diffusion layer, or a Pt catalyst. Even though the PVDF cathodes did not have a diffusion layer, they withstood up to 1.22 ± 0.04 m of water head (∼12 kPa) without leakage, compared to 0.18 ± 0.02 m for cathodes made using PTFE binder and PDMS diffusion layer. The cost of PVDF and activated carbon ($3 m–2) was less than that of the stainless steel mesh current collector ($12 m–2). PVDF-based AC cathodes therefore are inexpensive, have excellent performance in terms of power and water leakage, and they can be easily manufactured using a single phase inversion process at room temperature.

  20. Corrosion of synthesized glasses and glazes as analogs for nuclear waste glass degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandiver, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    Synthesized glasses provide an opportunity to study natural corrosion processes which are intermediate in time span between geological examples of natural glasses, such as obsidians and tektites, and relatively short term laboratory tests lasting a few hours to several decades. In addition, synthesized glasses can usually be tracked to particular archaeological find sites with known dates of production and often burial. Environmental conditions are routinely measured at archaeological sites as a part of the excavation-process, such that information is available on the yearly cycling of temperature and relative humidity, sometimes at the depth at which the artifact was found. Whether the artifacts were excavated in an air enclosure, such as a tomb, or in the soil can also be reconstructed, such that one can determine whether aqueous or atmospheric corrosion was involved in the degradation process. For instance, so-called open-quotes Roman glassclose quotes may span a time period of production of 800 years and a geographical range from Germany to North Africa and from Britain to Afghanistan. One example is the storage during World War II of glass from the British Museum in underground metro stations. Some of these glasses have been in collections for over 100 years. Thus, populations of glasses can be chosen for experimentation which compare variations in bulk composition, dopants, microstructure, heat treatment, ground vs. fire polished surfaces, aqueous vs. atmospheric corrosion, geographic, geological as well as recent storage conditions. Glasses in museums are generally considered to have had their corrosion arrested and be stable because changes in visual appearance are not obvious. However, if we attempt to measure the range of surface water content in these glasses using Fourier transform infrared analysis, a considerable variability is found, as shown

  1. Thermal insulation with glazings and windows. Implementation of requirements and outlook on future development; Waermeschutz mit Verglasungen und Fenstern. Umsetzung der Anforderungen und Ausblick auf Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, H. [Institut fuer Fenstertechnik e.V., Rosenheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In the past, windows and glazings were often considered as being a weak point as regards thermal insulation in the external envelope of a building. Increasing demands on thermal insulation in construction have been seen as a challenge by all those involved. The development of new glazings and of improved frames made it possible to use large sized windows and glazed facade elements even after the new Heat Loss Regulation (Waermeschutzverordnung) dated 1st January 1995 came into effect. In this connection, the possible consideration of energy gain from the outside via transparent building elements is very important. The individual components of windows, window elements and light facades such as frames, glazings, panels and additional components e.g. roller shutters have to be designed very precisely now. Apart from thermal properties the other criteria such as fire resistance, sound insulation, solar protection and safety have to be taken into account. The new Building Regulations of the Laender (Landesbauordnung) and the Building Products Regulation (Bauregelliste) of the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik regulate which evidence of usability and conformity are necessary for the various building products such as frame, glass, window, roller shutter, radiator guards, etc. For the time being, it is still mainly referred to national regulations. In future, an increasing number of European standards will be completed and also implemented. There will also be some decisive changes as regards windows and glazings. To a larger extent the effects of thermal bridges will be taken into account. For determining thermal properties there increasingly exists the possibility of carrying out calculations. As regards thermal insulation today, windows and glazings are highly developed building products when correctly designed and manufactured. These building products enable energy saving construction also of large sized dimensions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fenster und Verglasungen wurden in

  2. Design, construction and performance evaluation of aBox type solar cooker with a glazing wiper mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Ademe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with three reflectors and with a vapor wiper mechanism fabricated using locally available materials. The box cooker has external box dimensions of 600 mm × 600 mm × 250 mm and pyramidal internal box dimensions of 460 mm × 460 mm top face and 300 mm × 300 mm bottom face with depth of 150 mm. The thermal performance was tested as per the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of a box-type solar cooker. The obtained test results after employing required calculations were figures of merit F1 = 0.123 Km2/W, F2 = 0.540, the standard cooking power P50 = 36 W and the cumulative efficiency to be 22%, whereas with the application of the wiper mechanism, it was found that F1 = 0.123, F2 = 0.827, the standard cooking power (P50 = 51 W, and the cumulative efficiency to be 31.4%. The standard boiling time of 1.43 kg of water was calculated to be 53.54 and 88.84 minutes for the cooker with and without the application of wiper mechanism respectively. The thermal distribution of the cooker was modeled using interior box geometry as a boundary condition with ANSYS 15.0. The temperature distribution inside the box was simulated and the maximum wall temperature was found to be 139 ℃. This was lower than the experimental results by 22 ℃. The method of modeling and simulation of the cooker with and without a wiper mechanism is similar except for the variation of the transmittance of the glass due to shading of vapor which can be deducted from the cumulative efficiency for the latter case. The results show that using the vapor wiper mechanism increases the cumulative efficiency by 9.4% and reduces the boiling time by 35.3 minutes. Finally, the techno-economic analysis shows that the cooker with a vapor wiper mechanism has a good reliability for outdoor cooking of food and is economically feasible.

  3. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  4. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  5. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  6. Energy conservation with semi-controlled areas by air conditioning in nursery schools. The nursery school Dragvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brattset, O; Hestnes, A G

    1985-02-01

    Dragvoll nursery school in Trondheim (Norway) is designed with a central winter garden built up by glazed walls and a glass roof, and surrounded by classrooms. The ventilating air is preheated in a heat exchanger, and then postheated in the said garden by the solar flux before entering the air conditioning system. A comparative evaluation of the energy consumption with the total floor area of about 57 m/sup 2/ is done in relation to a conventionally built nursery school with a floor area of about 520 m/sup 2/. The saving potential is found to 52%. 9 drawing.

  7. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  8. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    show that the dynamic façade opposed to the static façade can decrease energy demand for building services by approximately 75 %. The focus is therefore on analyzing the used technologies which concern dynamic U-value, dynamic g-value, thermal energy storage and control strategies for dynamic facades...... through use of thermal building simulation software as well as full-scale experiments. The façade control system, which uses the results from the developed numerical models of the dynamic façade technologies, can lower the energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting as a results of the heat transfer...... across the façade by between 50 % and 88 %. The obtained results from the initial analysis through the developed numerical models to the final analysis show that there are significant energy savings in the design of the dynamic façade. The energy savings need to be further investigated under laboratory...

  9. Influencia del acristalamiento sobre los parámetros y la calificación energética de acuerdo con la orientación del edificio y los porcentajes de aberturas de fachada = The influence of glazing over the parameters and energy rating according to the building orientation and the façade openings percentages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ávila-Delgado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Es bien conocida la importancia de los cristales en la demanda de energía del edificio, ya que la envolvente térmica es lo más importante. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio de la influencia de la transmitancia térmica (factor U y el factor solar (valor g de tres tipos diferentes de acristalamiento en la calificación energética. Se ha realizado el análisis en una vivienda unifamiliar situada en la ciudad de Sevilla, España, con diferentes hipótesis, en concreto seis porcentajes de apertura que van desde 10 a 60% considerado por el Código Técnico de la Edificación español, y cuatro orientaciones según las direcciones cardinales. Para los tipos de zona climático y acristalamiento considerados, el valor del parámetro g tiene mayor incidencia en el rendimiento energético que la transmitancia térmica. Se ha establecido qué orientación proporciona mayor ahorro de energía, independientemente de la demanda de calefacción y enfriamiento y de la calificación energética. Además, hay que considerar los valores ideales de ambos parámetros para cada orientación con el fin de mejorar la calificación energética. Por lo tanto, al seleccionar un tipo de acristalamiento, sería importante tener en cuenta los mejores valores de los parámetros "T" y "g" para cada orientación con el fin de obtener menor gasto de energía. Abstract It is well known the significant impact of glazing over the building energy demand making it the thermal envelope’s most important part. A study of the influence of thermal transmittance (U-factor and solar factor (g-value of three different glazing types over the parameters and energy rating are shown in this paper. A single-family dwelling located in Seville city, Spain, has been analyzed to which a set of hypotheses, six opening percentages ranging from 10 to 60% considered by the Spanish Building Code on its simplified option, and different combinations, four orientations matching the cardinal

  10. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. Single-mode pumped high air-fill fraction photonic crystal fiber taper for high-power deep-blue supercontinuum sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Jakobsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Dispersion control with axially nonuniform photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) permits supercontinuum (SC) generation into the deep-blue from an ytterbium pump laser. In this Letter, we exploit the full degrees of freedom afforded by PCFs to fabricate a fiber with longitudinally increasing air-fill fr...

  12. Single-Step Fabrication Using a Phase Inversion Method of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Activated Carbon Air Cathodes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin; He, Weihua; Zhang, Fang; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Air cathodes used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) need to have high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction, but they must also be easy to manufacture, inexpensive, and watertight. A simple one-step, phase inversion process was used here to construct

  13. Energy and Exergy Performances of Air-Based vs. Water-Based Heating and Cooling Systems: A Case Study of a Single-Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Different indoor terminal units can be used to heat and cool indoor spaces. These terminal units mostly rely on convection and radiation heat transfer mechanisms but their relative ratios can vary significantly for air-based and water-based systems with implications on whole system performance, i...

  14. Air-Stable Surface-Passivated Perovskite Quantum Dots for Ultra-Robust, Single- and Two-Photon-Induced Amplified Spontaneous Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Banavoth, Murali; Dursun, Ibrahim; Peng, Wei; Parida, Manas R.; Liu, Jiakai; Sinatra, Lutfan; AlYami, Noktan; Zhao, Chao; Alarousu, Erkki; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate ultra-air- and photostable CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) by using an inorganic–organic hybrid ion pair as the capping ligand. This passivation approach to perovskite QDs yields high photoluminescence quantum yield with unprecedented

  15. Performance of jet impingement in unglazed air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belusko, M.; Saman, W.; Bruno, F. [Institute for Sustainable Systems and Technologies, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2008-05-15

    Jet impingement is effective at improving the heat transfer between air and a heated surface. Studies have shown that jet impingement can marginally improve the thermal efficiency of a glazed collector. However, little attention has been placed on applying jet impingement to an unglazed solar air collector. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation identifying the performance characteristics of jet impingement. Overall, jet impingement was able to improve the thermal efficiency of the collector by 21%. An increase in the pressure loss was also measured but found to be small. The flow distribution of jets along the collector was the most significant factor in determining the efficiency. Increasing the hole spacing was found to improve the efficiency. (author)

  16. Relationship between lung function and quantitative computed tomographic parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A single-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Ruth A; Barker, Bethan L; Newby, Chris; Pakkal, Mini; Baldi, Simonetta; Kajekar, Radhika; Kay, Richard; Laurencin, Marie; Marshall, Richard P; Sousa, Ana R; Parmar, Harsukh; Siddiqui, Salman; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Chris E

    2016-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies comparing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on thoracic quantitative computed tomographic (QCT) parameters. We sought to compare QCT parameters of airway remodeling, air trapping, and emphysema between asthmatic patients and patients with COPD and explore their relationship with airflow limitation. Asthmatic patients (n = 171), patients with COPD (n = 81), and healthy subjects (n = 49) recruited from a single center underwent QCT and clinical characterization. Proximal airway percentage wall area (%WA) was significantly increased in asthmatic patients (62.5% [SD, 2.2]) and patients with COPD (62.7% [SD, 2.3]) compared with that in healthy control subjects (60.3% [SD, 2.2], P Emphysema assessed based on lung density measured by using Hounsfield units below which 15% of the voxels lie (Perc15) was a feature of COPD only (patients with COPD: mean, -964 [SD, 19.62] vs asthmatic patients: mean, -937 [SD, 22.7] and healthy subjects: mean, -937 [SD, 17.1], P < .001). Multiple regression analyses showed that the strongest predictor of lung function impairment in asthmatic patients was %WA, whereas in the COPD and asthma subgrouped with postbronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted value of less than 80%, it was air trapping. Factor analysis of QCT parameters in asthmatic patients and patients with COPD combined determined 3 components, with %WA, air trapping, and Perc15 values being the highest loading factors. Cluster analysis identified 3 clusters with mild, moderate, or severe lung function impairment with corresponding decreased lung density (Perc15 values) and increased air trapping. In asthmatic patients and patients with COPD, lung function impairment is strongly associated with air trapping, with a contribution from proximal airway narrowing in asthmatic patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An air-based corrugated cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Roman; Pedretti, Andrea; Barbato, Maurizio; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze a novel tubular cavity-receiver for solar parabolic trough collectors. • Four-fold solar concentration ratio is reached compared to conventional receivers. • Efficient operation at up to 500 °C is possible. • The pumping power requirement is found to be acceptably low. - Abstract: A tubular cavity-receiver that uses air as the heat transfer fluid is evaluated numerically using a validated heat transfer model. The receiver is designed for use on a large-span (9 m net concentrator aperture width) solar parabolic trough concentrator. Through the combination of a parabolic primary concentrator with a nonimaging secondary concentrator, the collector reaches a solar concentration ratio of 97.5. Four different receiver configurations are considered, with smooth or V-corrugated absorber tube and single- or double-glazed aperture window. The collector’s performance is characterized by its optical efficiency and heat loss. The optical efficiency is determined with the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. Radiative heat exchange inside the receiver is calculated with the net radiation method. The 2D steady-state energy equation, which couples conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer, is solved for the solid domains of the receiver cross-section, using finite-volume techniques. Simulations for Sevilla/Spain at the summer solstice at solar noon (direct normal solar irradiance: 847 W m −2 , solar incidence angle: 13.9°) yield collector efficiencies between 60% and 65% at a heat transfer fluid temperature of 125 °C and between 37% and 42% at 500 °C, depending on the receiver configuration. The optical losses amount to more than 30% of the incident solar radiation and constitute the largest source of energy loss. For a 200 m long collector module operated between 300 and 500 °C, the isentropic pumping power required to pump the HTF through the receiver is between 11 and 17 kW

  18. Fundamental Study of a Single Point Lean Direct Injector. Part I: Effect of Air Swirler Angle and Injector Tip Location on Spray Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, Kathleen M.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Lean direct injection (LDI) is a combustion concept to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for next generation aircraft gas turbine engines. These newer engines have cycles that increase fuel efficiency through increased operating pressures, which increase combustor inlet temperatures. NOx formation rates increase with higher temperatures; the LDI strategy avoids high temperature by staying fuel lean and away from stoichiometric burning. Thus, LDI relies on rapid and uniform fuel/air mixing. To understand this mixing process, a series of fundamental experiments are underway in the Combustion and Dynamics Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. This first set of experiments examines cold flow (non-combusting) mixing using air and water. Using laser diagnostics, the effects of air swirler angle and injector tip location on the spray distribution, recirculation zone, and droplet size distribution are examined. Of the three swirler angles examined, 60 degrees is determined to have the most even spray distribution. The injector tip location primarily shifts the flow without changing the structure, unless the flow includes a recirculation zone. When a recirculation zone is present, minimum axial velocity decreases as the injector tip moves downstream towards the venturi exit; also the droplets become more uniform in size and angular distribution.

  19. Parameter identification of the glazed photovoltaic thermal system using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach and its comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System approach. • Overall exergy efficiency has been evaluated with different optimization tools. • Comparative analysis has been done. • GA–FS is very efficient and fast technique. • Overall exergy efficiency has been improved. - Abstract: In this paper, Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach is used to identify the optimized parameters of the glazed photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system and to improve its overall exergy efficiency. The fuzzy knowledge base is used to improve the efficiency of Genetic Algorithm (GA). It is observed that three GA parameters, namely: (i) crossover probability (P cross ), (ii) mutation probability (P mut ) and (iii) population size are changing dynamically during the program, according to fuzzy knowledge base to maximize the efficiency of the GA. Here, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function during the optimization process for GA–FS approach. The effort has been made to identify the different optimized parameters like; length and depth of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid, overall heat transfer coefficient from solar cell to ambient and flowing fluid and overall back loss heat transfer coefficient from flowing fluid to the ambient to maximize the overall exergy efficiency using GA–FS approach. Performance of glazed PVT using GA–FS approach has been compared with performance using GA approach and without GA. It has also been observed that the GA–FS approach is a better approach as compared to GA approach because it converges faster as compare to GA because the use of the fuzzy knowledge base with GA and take less time for identification of optimized system parameters.

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates decrements in cardiac mechanical function and dysrhythmia caused by a single air pollution exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work, which will be presented at SOT 2014, demonstrates that a single exposure to either ozone or acrolein causes decrements in cardiac function and altered electrical activity (i.e. arrhythmia). The results suggest that this effect is mediated by the airway sensor TRPA1. ...

  2. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  3. Air-Stable Surface-Passivated Perovskite Quantum Dots for Ultra-Robust, Single- and Two-Photon-Induced Amplified Spontaneous Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jun

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate ultra-air- and photostable CsPbBr3 quantum dots (QDs) by using an inorganic–organic hybrid ion pair as the capping ligand. This passivation approach to perovskite QDs yields high photoluminescence quantum yield with unprecedented operational stability in ambient conditions (60 ± 5% lab humidity) and high pump fluences, thus overcoming one of the greatest challenges impeding the development of perovskite-based applications. Due to the robustness of passivated perovskite QDs, we were able to induce ultrastable amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in solution processed QD films not only through one photon but also through two-photon absorption processes. The latter has not been observed before in the family of perovskite materials. More importantly, passivated perovskite QD films showed remarkable photostability under continuous pulsed laser excitation in ambient conditions for at least 34 h (corresponds to 1.2 × 108 laser shots), substantially exceeding the stability of other colloidal QD systems in which ASE has been observed.

  4. Stator Vibration Characteristic Identification of Turbogenerator among Single and Composite Faults Composed of Static Air-Gap Eccentricity and Rotor Interturn Short Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the radial stator vibration characteristics of turbogenerator under the static air-gap eccentricity (SAGE fault, the rotor interturn short circuit (RISC fault, and the composite faults (CFs composed of SAGE and RISC, respectively. Firstly, the impact of the faulty types on the magnetic flux density (MFD is analyzed, based on which the detailed expressions of the magnetic pull per unit area (MPPUA on the stator under different performing conditions are deduced. Then, numerical FEM simulations based on Ansoft and an experimental study are carried out, taking the SDF-9 type fault simulating generator as the study object. It is shown that SAGE will increase the stator vibration at 2f (f is the electrical frequency which already exists even in normal condition, while RISC and CF will bring in stator vibrations at f, 2f, 3f, and 4f at the same time. The vibration amplitudes under CF are larger than those under RISC. As SAGE increases, the vibration amplitudes of each harmonic component under CF will all be increased, while the development of RISC will decrease the 2nd harmonic vibration but meanwhile increase the 4th harmonic vibration. The achievements of this paper are beneficial for fault identification and condition monitoring of the turbogenerator.

  5. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of the 13th to the Late 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharov Sergei G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glazed ceramics of Byzantine origin, which came has been found on town sites of the Northern Black Sea region referring to the Golden Horde period (second half of the 13th – late 14th cc., is characterized in the article. Materials from the urban centers of the Crimea (Solkhat, Sudak, Kaffa, Chersonese, Cembalo, the Azov Sea region (Azaq, and the lower reaches of the Don and Kuban rivers are discussed. The applied principles of ceramics classification have been formulated. On their basis, six major groups of Byzantine ceramic imports have been identified. For each group, a description of morphological and technological features, ornamentation methods and motifs has been provided; chronological framework of their arrival in the region has been specified. Conclusions have been offered as to the extent of distribution and the role played by diverse groups of Byzantine glazed ceramics in the cities of the Northern Black Sea region.

  6. A portable high-power diode laser-based single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Schmidt, M. J. J.; Li, L.; Edwards, R. E.; Gale, A. W.

    2002-02-01

    By means of a 60 W high-power diode laser (HPDL) and a specially developed grout material the void between adjoining ceramic tiles has been successfully sealed. A single-stage process has been developed which uses a crushed ceramic tile mix to act as a tough, inexpensive bulk substrate and a glazed enamel surface to provide an impervious surface glaze. The single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process yielded seals produced in normal atmospheric conditions that displayed no discernible cracks and porosities. The single-stage grout is simple to formulate and easy to apply. Tiles were successfully sealed with power densities as low as 200 kW/ mm2 and at rates of up to 600 mm/ min. Bonding of the enamel to the crushed ceramic tile mix was identified as being primarily due to van der Waals forces and, on a very small scale, some of the crushed ceramic tile mix material dissolving into the glaze. In terms of mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics, the single-stage ceramic tile grout was found to be far superior to the conventional epoxy tile grout and, in many instances, matched and occasionally surpassed that of the ceramic tiles themselves. What is more, the development of a hand-held HPDL beam delivery unit and the related procedures necessary to lead to the commercialisation of the single-stage ceramic tile grout sealing process are presented. Further, an appraisal of the potential hazards associated with the use of the HPDL in an industrial environment and the solutions implemented to ensure that the system complies with the relevant safety standards are given.

  7. A 3 years retrospective study of survival for zirconia-based single crowns fabricated from intraoral digital impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico; Mandelli, Federico; Capparè, Paolo; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Traini, Tonino; Ferrini, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of glass-ceramic/zirconia crowns fabricated using intraoral digital impressions - a retrospective study with a three-year follow-up. 70 consecutive patients with a total of 86 glass-ceramic/zirconia crowns were treated by a single clinician using standardized clinical and laboratory protocols. A complete digital workflow was adopted for the purpose except for the veneering procedure for the glass-ceramic crowns. Occlusal adjustments were made before the ceramic glazing procedure. Before cementation, all abutments where carefully cleaned with a 70% alcoholic solution and air dried. Cementation was performed using dual-curing, self-adhesive resin cement. Patients were re-examined after 12, 24 and 36 months, to assess crown chipping/fractures. After the three-year follow-up, none of the zirconia-based restoration was lost ("apparent" survival rate 100%) otherwise, the chipping rate of the veneering material increased from 9.3% after 12 months, to 14% after 24 months to 30.2% after 36 months. As a consequence, the "real" success rate after 3 years was 69.8%. After 3 years the success rate of zirconia-based crowns was 69.8%, while the incidence of the chipping was 30.2%. Assuming an exponential increase in chipping rate between 12 and 36 months it can be argued that, among others, the fatigue-mechanism could be advocated as the main factor for the failure of glass-ceramic veneered zirconia especially after 24 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor air pollution by emissions of fossil fuel single stoves: possibly a hitherto underrated risk factor in the development of carcinomas in the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, A; Senneweld, E; Maier, H

    1995-02-01

    We have carried out three case-control studies on the relative risk of head and neck cancer in association with indoor air pollution. The studies performed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University of Heidelberg comprised 369 male patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and 1476 healthy control subjects matched for sex, age, and residential area. The OR of laryngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove-heating with oil, coal, gas, and wood for longer than 40 years was 2.5 (CI = 1.51 to 4.05). After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol, the OR declined slightly to 2.0 (CI = 1.10 to 3.46) but still was significant. Elevated ORs were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with an oil, coal, or wood oven for longer than 40 years (OR = 1.7, CI = 1.01 to 2.71; after tobacco and alcohol adjustment, OR = 1.4, CI = 0.76 to 2.41). The OR of pharyngeal cancer related to daily exposure to fossil fuels due to stove-heating with oil, coal, gas, and wood for longer than 40 years was 3.6 (CI = 2.04 to 6.41). After adjustment for tobacco and alcohol the OR declined slightly to 3.3 (CI = 1.43 to 7.55) but still was significant. Elevated ORs were also found for daily presence in a kitchen with an oil, coal, or wood oven for longer than 40 years (OR = 1.6, CI = 0.89 to 2.77; after tobacco and alcohol adjustment, OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03 to 6.30).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  10. Design of Solar Heat Sheet for Air Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, S. Shanmuga; Premalatha, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, I.

    2011-12-01

    The technique of harnessing solar energy for drying offers significant potential to dry agricultural products such as food grains, fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants, thereby eliminating many of the problems experienced with open-sun drying and industrial drying, besides saving huge quantities of fossil fuels. A great deal of experimental work over the last few decades has already demonstrated that agricultural products can be satisfactorily dehydrated using solar energy. Various designs of small scale solar dryers have been developed in the recent past, mainly for drying agricultural products. Major problems experienced with solar dryers are their non-reliability as their operation largely depends on local weather conditions. While back-up heaters and hybrid dryers partly solved this issue, difficulties in controlling the drying air temperature and flow rate remains a problem, and affects the quality of the dried product. This study is aimed at eliminating the fluctuations in the quality of hot air supplied by simple solar air heaters used for drying fruits, vegetables and other applications. It is an attempt to analyse the applicability of the combination of an glazed transpired solar collector (tank), thermal storage and a intake fan(suction fan) to achieve a steady supply of air at a different atmospheric temperature and flow rate for drying fruits and vegetables. Development of an efficient, low-cost and reliable air heating system for drying applications is done.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRANDO, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping. Table 1-1 lists 18 SSTs covered by this NOC. This NOC also addresses other activities that are performed in support of salt well pumping but do not require the application of a portable exhauster. Specifically this NOC analyzes the following three activities that have the potential for emissions. (1) Salt well pumping (i.e., the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) under nominal tank operating conditions. Nominal tank operating conditions include existing passive breathing rates. (2) Salt well pumping (the actual transferring of waste from one tank to another) with use of a portable exhauster. (3) Use of a water lance on the waste to facilitate salt well screen and salt well jet pump installation into the waste. This activity is to be performed under nominal (existing passive breathing rates) tank operating conditions. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTs as schedules for salt well pumping dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping

  12. Revisiting a many-body model for water based on a single polarizable site: from gas phase clusters to liquid and air/liquid water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réal, Florent; Vallet, Valérie; Flament, Jean-Pierre; Masella, Michel

    2013-09-21

    We present a revised version of the water many-body model TCPE [M. Masella and J.-P. Flament, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)], which is based on a static three charge sites and a single polarizable site to model the molecular electrostatic properties of water, and on an anisotropic short range many-body energy term specially designed to accurately model hydrogen bonding in water. The parameters of the revised model, denoted TCPE/2013, are here developed to reproduce the ab initio energetic and geometrical properties of small water clusters (up to hexamers) and the repulsive water interactions occurring in cation first hydration shells. The model parameters have also been refined to reproduce two liquid water properties at ambient conditions, the density and the vaporization enthalpy. Thanks to its computational efficiency, the new model range of applicability was validated by performing simulations of liquid water over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, as well as by investigating water liquid/vapor interfaces over a large range of temperatures. It is shown to reproduce several important water properties at an accurate enough level of precision, such as the existence liquid water density maxima up to a pressure of 1000 atm, the water boiling temperature, the properties of the water critical point (temperature, pressure, and density), and the existence of a "singularity" temperature at about 225 K in the supercooled regime. This model appears thus to be particularly well-suited for characterizing ion hydration properties under different temperature and pressure conditions, as well as in different phases and interfaces.

  13. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, M.L.; Muralha, V.S.F.; Mirao, J.; Veiga, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified. (orig.)

  14. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, M.L. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, REQUIMTE-CQFB, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Muralha, V.S.F. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Research Unit VICARTE, Vidro e Ceramica para as Artes, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Mirao, J. [Universidade de Evora, Laboratorio HERCULES, Evora (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified. (orig.)

  15. Feasibility study on the sol-gel deposition of nanostructured materials based on oxides and fluorides for coatings on solar collector glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Chambrier, E. De

    2005-10-15

    This illustrated annual report reviews work done at the Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, Switzerland, on the architectural integration of thermal solar collectors into buildings. This is often limited by their black colour and the visibility of the tubes and corrugations of the absorber sheets. Although a certain freedom in the choice of colour would be desirable, the coloured appearance should not cause excessive performance degradation. Multi-layered thin film interference filters on the collector glazing can produce a coloured reflection while transmitting the non-reflected radiation entirely to the absorber. The paper describes suitable optical interference filters which have been designed and optimised by numerical simulation and that will be manufactured by the sol-gel dip-coating process. Light scattering has to be avoided, which implies a need for particle sizes much smaller than the wavelengths of the incoming light. The paper proposes that corresponding thin films should therefore consist of nano-structured materials. The sol-gel deposition of all proposed materials has been demonstrated successfully. The paper presents the results of the work using various materials including titanium-silicon mixed oxides, gold-silicon dioxide, porous silicon dioxide, magnesium fluoride and quaternary films.

  16. Non-destructive characterization of oriental porcelain glazes and blue underglaze pigments using μ-EDXRF, μ-Raman and VP-SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, M. L.; Muralha, V. S. F.; Mirão, J.; Veiga, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The study of ancient materials with recognized cultural and economic value is a challenge to scientists and conservators, since it is usually necessary an approach through non-destructive techniques. Difficulties in establishing a correct analytical strategy are often significantly increased by the lack of knowledge on manufacture technologies and raw materials employed combined with the diversity of decay processes that may have acted during the lifetime of the cultural artefacts. A non-destructive characterization was performed on the glaze and underglaze pigments from a group of Chinese porcelain shards dated from the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) excavated at the Monastery of Santa Clara- a- Velha in Coimbra (Portugal). Chemical analysis was performed using micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-EDXRF). Mineralogical characterization was achieved by Raman microscopy (μ-Raman) and observation of small-surface crystallization dark spots with a metallic lustre in areas with high pigment concentration was done by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). Cobalt aluminate was identified as the blue underglaze pigment and a comparison of blue and dark blue pigments was performed by the ratio of Co, Mn, and Fe oxides, indicating a compositional difference between the two blue tonalities. Manganese oxide compounds were also identified as colouring agents in dark blue areas and surface migration of manganese compounds was verified.

  17. Basic design criteria for an impact test frame for safety glazing; Criterios basicos de diseno de banco de ensayos para impactos de vidrios de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postigo, S.; Pacios, A.; Huerta, C.

    2011-07-01

    The Spanish Building Code establishes the essential requirements of safety and habitability that buildings must satisfy. The Basic Document of Safety in Use and Accessibility identifies some critical areas where falling through brittle elements may cause a risk to the user. The document also establishes the minimum performance of glasses located in such areas, according to the impact procedure described in UNE-EN 12600:2003. However, this standard does not provide detailed information about the characteristics of the test equipment, but indicates a final calibration as validation test. The general criteria and conditions of this calibration are also incorporated in the UNE-EN 12600. To better achieve a successful manufacture of a pendulum complying with calibration limits, a proposal of the basic design criteria of a test frame for impacts of safety glazing is presented in this paper. Prototypes and results have been evaluated using dynamic design criteria of the impact phenomenon. Three criteria proposed and applied in the design and manufacture of a real test frame have helped to achieve the calibration required by the UNE-EN 12600:2003. The repeatability and reproducibility of the tests presented in this paper also guaranty the robustness of the set-up. (Author)

  18. Adjusting dental ceramics: An in vitro evaluation of the ability of various ceramic polishing kits to mimic glazed dental ceramic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Beier, Ulrike S; Heiss-Kisielewsky, Irene; Engelmeier, Robert; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Dhima, Matilda

    2015-06-01

    During the insertion appointment, the practitioner is often faced with the need to adjust ceramic surfaces to fit a restoration to the adjacent or opposing dentition and soft tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the ceramic surface smoothness achieved with various commercially available ceramic polishing kits on different commonly used ceramic systems. The reliability of the cost of a polishing kit as an indicator of improved surface smoothness was assessed. A total of 350 ceramic surfaces representing 5 commonly available ceramic systems (IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max Press, Cergo Kiss, Vita PM 9, Imagine PressX) were treated with 5 types of ceramic polishing systems (Cerapreshine, 94006C, Ceramiste, Optrafine, Zenostar) by following the manufacturers' guidelines. The surface roughness was measured with a profilometer (Taylor Hobson; Precision Taylor Hobson Ltd). The effects of ceramic systems and polishing kits of interest on surface roughness were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA, paired t test, and Bonferroni corrected significance level. The ceramic systems and polishing kits statistically affected surface roughness (Pceramic surface. No correlation could be established between the high cost of the polishing kit and low surface roughness. None of the commonly used ceramic polishing kits could create a surface smoother than that of glazed ceramic (Pceramic polishing kits is not recommended as a reliable indicator of better performance of ceramic polishing kits (P>.30). Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster on single-shell tanks during salt well pumping and other activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, portable exhausters for use on single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping and other activities. The reference to 'other activities' throughout this NOC means those activities described in Appendix A. The use of portable exhausters represents a cost savings feature because one portable exhauster can be moved back and forth between SSTS as schedules for salt well pumping or other activities dictate. A portable exhauster also could be used to simultaneously exhaust more than one SST during salt well pumping or during performance of other activities. The primary objective of providing active ventilation to these SSTS is to reduce the risk of postulated accidents to remain within risk guidelines. It is anticipated that salt well pumping will release gases entrapped within the waste as the liquid level is lowered, because of less hydrostatic force keeping the gases in place. Other activities also have the potential to release trapped gases by interrupting gas pockets within the waste. Hanford Site waste tanks must comply with the Tank Farms Safety Basis (OESH 1997) which requires that the flammable gas concentration be less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) safety analysis indicates that the LFL might be exceeded in some tanks during certain postulated accident scenarios. Also, the potential for electrical (pump motor, heat tracing) and mechanical (equipment installation) spark sources exist. Therefore, because of the presence of ignition sources and the potential for released flammable gases, active ventilation might be required in some SSTS to reduce the 'time at risk' while salt well pumping or performing other activities. Thirty tanks remain to be salt well pumped

  20. Air solar collectors in building use - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Andrei-Stelian; Labihi, Abdelouhab; Croitoru, Cristiana; Catalina, Tiberiu

    2018-02-01

    In the current energy and environmental context it is imperative to implement systems based on renewable energy sources in order to reduce energy consumptions worldwide. Solar collectors are studied by many years and many researchers are focusing their attention in order to increase their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Water solar collectors are often implemented for domestic hot water, heating or industrial processes and already have a place on the market. A promising system which is not yet widely known is represented by air solar collectors that could represent an efficient way to use the solar energy with a lower investment cost, a system that can be used in order to preheat the fresh air required for heating, drying, or to maintain a minimum temperature during winter. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on air solar collectors used mainly in buildings, acting as a solar wall. Air solar collectors are roughly classified into two types: glazed and opaque. The present study comprises the solar collector classification, applications and their main parameters with a special focus on opaque solar collectors.

  1. Air solar collectors in building use - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejan Andrei-Stelian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current energy and environmental context it is imperative to implement systems based on renewable energy sources in order to reduce energy consumptions worldwide. Solar collectors are studied by many years and many researchers are focusing their attention in order to increase their efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Water solar collectors are often implemented for domestic hot water, heating or industrial processes and already have a place on the market. A promising system which is not yet widely known is represented by air solar collectors that could represent an efficient way to use the solar energy with a lower investment cost, a system that can be used in order to preheat the fresh air required for heating, drying, or to maintain a minimum temperature during winter. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on air solar collectors used mainly in buildings, acting as a solar wall. Air solar collectors are roughly classified into two types: glazed and opaque. The present study comprises the solar collector classification, applications and their main parameters with a special focus on opaque solar collectors.

  2. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  3. Procedure for measuring simultaneously the solar and visible properties of glazing with complex internal or external structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, A R; Smith, G B

    2014-10-20

    Accurate solar and visual transmittances of materials in which surfaces or internal structures are complex are often not easily amenable to standard procedures with laboratory-based spectrophotometers and integrating spheres. Localized "hot spots" of intensity are common in such materials, so data on small samples is unreliable. A novel device and simple protocols have been developed and undergone validation testing. Simultaneous solar and visible transmittance and reflectance data have been acquired for skylight components and multilayer polycarbonate roof panels. The pyranometer and lux sensor setups also directly yield "light coolness" in lumens/watt. Sample areas must be large, and, although mainly in sheet form, some testing has been done on curved panels. The instrument, its operation, and the simple calculations used are described. Results on a subset of diffuse and partially diffuse materials with no hot spots have been cross checked using 150 mm integrating spheres with a spectrophotometer and the Air Mass 1.5 spectrum. Indications are that results are as good or better than with such spheres for transmittance, but reflectance techniques need refinement for some sample types.

  4. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  5. Thermotropic layers for glazing of windows, facades and solar collectors. Final report; Thermotrope Systeme fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahns, E.; Gerst, M.; Nitz, P. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Grochal, P.; Raicu, A. [Sto AG, Stuehlingen (Germany); Blessing, R.; Wilson, H.R. [INTERPANE Entwicklungs- und Beratungsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Lauenfoerde (Germany); Wittwer, V.; Fuchs, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Increased use of solar energy is needed to save heating energy. In the German climate, however, passive use of solar energy with windows and facades in summer is also accompanied by the risk of overheating the living areas. Simple, automatically regulating systems to protect against overheating are not commercially available at present. The project, `Thermotropic Layers for Glazing of Windows, Facades and Solar Collectors`, aimed to develop thermotropic shading systems for windows, facades and solar collectors. Thermotropic hydrogels and polymer blends were developed, large-area samples produced and characterised under practice-relevant conditions. Building simulations proved that with the help of the polymer systems developed, heating costs can be saved by passive use of solar energy. The knowledge gained has not yet resulted in a commercially marketable product. Processing of large-area products and lifetime testing could not be brought to completion within the project duration. The project partners have thus lodged an application for funding by BMBF (German Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology) to continue the work. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Heizkostenersparnis ist der verstaerkte Einsatz von Sonnenenergie notwendig. In unserem Klima birgt die passive Nutzung von Sonnenenergie ueber Fenster und Fassaden im Sommer aber die Gefahr der Ueberhitzung der Wohnraeume. Einfache, selbstregelnde Systeme als Ueberhitzungsschutz sind zur Zeit am Markt nicht erhaeltlich. Das Projekt `Thermotrope Schichten fuer Verglasung von Fenstern, Fassaden und Solarkollektoren` hatte die Entwicklung von thermotropen Abschattungssystemen fuer Fenster, Fassaden und Sonnenkollektoren zum Ziel. Es wurden thermotrope Hydrogele und Polymerblends entwickelt, flaechige Muster hergestellt und in anwendungsnahen Pruefungen charakterisiert. Gebaeudesimulationen erbrachten den Nachweis, dass mit den entwickelten Polymersystemen eine Heizkostenersparnis durch passive

  6. Air conditioning in a CINEMAXX cinema. Innovative solution involving a screw compressor and direct evaporation; Klimatisierung in einem CINEMAXX-Kino. Innovative Loesung mit Schraubenverdichter und Direktverdampfung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    The new CINEMAXX cinema building in the Trier city centre has fully glazed walls and a modern air conditioning system. The system was installed by local organisations. Its key components are two Comer-Dorin screw compressors. [German] Im Trierer Stadtzentrum befindet sich ein neues CINEMAXX-Kino, hinter dessen glaeserner Fassade die Klimaanlage diskret verborgen bleibt. Oertliche Firmen der Branche konnten die Ausschreibung der Klimaanlage zu ihren Gunsten entscheiden und mit Erfahrung und handwerklichem Koennen unter Verwendung zweier Comer-Dorin-Schraubenverdichter eine nachahmenswerte Loesung planen und installieren. (orig.)

  7. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  8. Enhancing indoor air quality -The air filter advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Paramesh, Haralappa; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Dalal, Alpa Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO) report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP) is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  9. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  10. Development and characterisation of a new anti-slip glaze with smooth texture and easy-cleaning for porcelain stoneware; Desarrollo y caracterizacion de un nuevo esmalte antideslizante de textura lisa y de facil limpieza para baldosas de gres porcelanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Albert, E.; Martin Nunez, J. A.; Fraga Chiva, D.; Calvet Roures, I.; Cada Castello, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    Since conventional anti-slip enamels show some disadvantages, directly related to the surface roughness which prevents the adequate surface cleaning of tile, an anti-slip enamel exhibiting glass-ceramic nature has been designed, characterized by being stain-resistant and presenting a smooth texture and touch soft. To do this, new matte frits and raw materials with similar nature have been used, refractory enough to be suitable in enamel compositions for porcelain stoneware. The glass-ceramic glaze thus prepared was characterized by various instrumental techniques (X-ray fluorescence [XRF], scanning electron microscopy [SEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD], mechanical profilometry and microhardness measurements), in order to check the nature of crystallized phases, their morphology, surface roughness and microhardness of the finished tile. In addition, the quality of the glazed piece has been evaluated by the regulations of chemical resistance, stain-resistance and slipperiness. The enamel obtained has devitrified in crystals of silicoaluminates of calcium and barium and complies with standards of anti-slip and stain-resistence, as it has a surface roughness similar to a non-slip enamel. (Author)

  11. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  12. Properties of aerogels in glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the final tests carried out on an advanced apparatus for measurement of thermal conductivity of materials at atmospheric pressure and different levels of evacuation. The apparatus was designed and constructed in the phase 1 of the project. Difficulties with the control system...... have been solved and measurements have been carried out on common polystyrene foam insulation at atmospheric pressure. The measurements have been compared with results from reference measurements and a difference of only 0.3% was found in measured thermal conductivity. Measurements on monolithic silica...... aerogel were performed at 5 different pressure levels in the range 0.2 - 1000 hPa. The measured equivalent thermal conductivity is in the range 8.9 - 16.4 mW/(m K) which corresponds very well with results obtained by institutes in Germany and France....

  13. Study by electronic microscopy of corrosion features of graphite after hot oxidation (air, 620 C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodon de Villeroche, Suzanne

    1968-01-01

    The author reports the study of corrosion features of graphite after hot oxidation in the air at 620 C. It is based on observations made by electronic microscopy. This study comes after another one dedicated to oxidation features obtained by hot corrosion of natural graphite, and aims at comparing pyrolytic graphite before and after irradiation in an atomic pile, and at performing tests on a graphite processed with ozone. After a recall of generalities about natural graphite and of some issues related to hot corrosion of natural graphite, the author presents some characteristics and features of irradiated and non-irradiated pyrolytic graphite. He reports the study of the oxidation of samples of pyrolytic graphite: production of thin lamellae, production of glaze-carbon replicates, oxidation of irradiated and of non-irradiated graphite, healing of irradiation defects, and oxidation of ozone-processed natural graphite [fr

  14. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  15. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  16. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  17. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  18. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  19. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  1. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  2. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  3. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  4. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  5. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  6. A Novel Dual Air-Bearing Fixed-χ Diffractometer for Small-Molecule Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction on Beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David . R Allan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the development of a novel dual air-bearing fixed-χ diffractometer for beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source. The diffractometer is designed to facilitate the rapid data collections possible with a Dectris Pilatus 2M pixel-array photon-counting detector, while allowing remote operation in conjunction with a robotic sample changer. The sphere-of-confusion is made as small as practicably possible, through the use of air-bearings for both the ω and φ axes. The design and construction of the new instrument is described in detail and an accompanying paper by Johnson et al. (also in this issue will provide a user perspective of its operation.

  7. STUDI OZONISASI SENYAWA ORGANIK AIR LINDI TEMPAT PEMROSESAN AKHIR SARIMUKTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Rezagama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing treatment leachate from Sarimukti Landfill doesn’t meet the quality standards of waste water.Preliminary treatment is necessary to break down persistent leachate compounds. Ozone can act directly orindirectly with organic material (Glaze 1986. Column batch reactor system use one liter volume. Ozone ispumped into the leachate in the form of fine bubbles. Variations include Ozone Pumping Flow, Ratio ofhigh/diameter (t/d, and pH. Kinetic Reaction of oxygen dissolution in the average leachate is zero order.Increased pumping air discharge and increased pH makes ozone transfer process better. Best value occurs at pH11, where the value of the reaction rate constant ozone 1.48. The average percentage of organic materialallowance 31% COD and 26% TOC. The decline TOC and COD have a tendency to be influenced by the pHoptimum 8-9. At alkaline pH makes carbonate (CO3 formed the greater, that make ozone compounds killquickly. FTIR results showed the intensity of hydroxyl groups increased after ozone oxidation where thesubstitution of functional groups of organic matter associated with electrophilic addition reaction of oxygenatoms. Existence Fulfic acid also increased the effect compounds and Humic Acid, Humad large has been cut byradicals.

  8. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  9. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  10. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  11. Air quality comparison between two European ceramic tile clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Guerra, L.; Busani, G.; Sterni, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-08-01

    The European ceramic tile industry is mostly concentrated in two clusters, one in Castelló (Spain) and another one in Modena (Italy). Industrial clusters may have problems to accomplish the EU air quality regulations because of the concentration of some specific pollutants and, hence, the feasibility of the industrial clusters can be jeopardised. The present work assesses the air quality in these ceramic clusters in 2008, when the new EU emission regulations where put into force. PM10 samples were collected at two sampling sites in the Modena ceramic cluster and one sampling site in the Castelló ceramic cluster. PM10 annual average concentrations were 12-14 μg m-3 higher in Modena than in Castelló, and were close to or exceeded the European limit. Air quality in Modena was mainly influenced by road traffic and, in a lower degree, the metalmechanical industry, as evidenced by the high concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb registered. The stagnant weather conditions from Modena hindering dispersion of pollutants also contributed to the relatively high pollution levels. In Castelló, the influence of the ceramic industry is evidenced by the high concentrations of Ti, Se, Tl and Pb, whereas this influence is not seen in Modena. The difference in the impact of the ceramic industry on the air quality in the two areas was attributed to: better abatement systems in the spray-drier facilities in Modena, higher coverage of the areas for storage and handling of dusty raw materials in Modena, presence of two open air quarries in the Castelló region, low degree of abatement systems in the ceramic tile kilns in Castelló, and abundance of ceramic frit, glaze and pigment manufacture in Castelló as opposed to scarce manufacture of these products in Modena. The necessity of additional measures to fulfil the EU air quality requirements in the Modena region is evidenced, despite the high degree of environmental measures implemented in the ceramic industry. The Principal

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  13. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  14. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  15. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... disproportionately impacted or singled out for a reduction. A section 105 recipient must submit a final financial.... The recipient must provide evidence that the air program is not being singled out for a reduction or...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DOUBLE PASS SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH MESH LAYERS AS ABSORBER PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Nowzaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The double pass solar air heater is constructed and tested for thermal efficiency at a geographic location of Cyprus in the city of Famagusta. The absorber plate was replaced by fourteen steel wire mesh layers, 0.2 × 0.2 cm in cross section opening, and they were fixed in the duct parallel to the glazing. The distance between each set of wire mesh layers is 0.5cm to reduce the pressure drop. The wire mesh layers were painted with black before installing them into the collector. The obtained results show that as the mass flow rate increases, the efficiency of the system also increases. The temperature difference (ΔT between the inlet and outlet air through the system increases as the mass flow rate decreases. The maximum ΔT (53°C is achieved at the flow rate of 0.011 kg/s. The range of the mass flow rate used in this work is between 0.011 and 0.037 kg/s. It is also found that the average efficiency obtained for the double pass air collector is 53.7% for the mass flow rate of 0.037 kg/s.

  17. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  18. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  19. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished; Utilizacao do metodo radiometrico na avaliacao in vitro do desgaste provocado ao esmalte dental humano por porcelanas dentais glazeadas e polidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese]. E-mail: katekawa@usp.br; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mitiko@curiango.ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of {sup 32}P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 {mu}g of enamel /mm{sup 2} weared surface. There was no statistical difference ({alpha}=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  20. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...

  1. Singled out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Frank

    2004-03-01

    The increasing use of single use medical devices is being driven by a growing awareness of iatrogenic (from the Greek; caused by the doctor) and nosocomial infections. Public health perceptions relating to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, specifically variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B are high on the political agenda and a matter of concern to healthcare professionals.

  2. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  3. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  4. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  5. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  6. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  7. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  8. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  9. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  11. Fresh-air cooling ceilings in an administration building; Frischluft-Kuehldecken in einem Verwaltungsgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1995-06-01

    In the construction of the new building of the Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim much importance was attached to aesthetics and functionality. If the employees are enthusiastic after one year of operation this is mainly due to the ideal climatic conditions: Glazings with insulating glass (k=1,4 W/m{sup 2}k), high-quality thermal insulation of the breasts shading system with motor-driven screen at the outside, radiators with thermostatic valves and a fresh air cooling ceiling. The article describes the course of construction of the total air-conditioning and ventilation technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beim Neubau der DIG Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim an der Ruhr legte man grossen Wert auf Aesthetik und Funktionalitaet. Wenn die Mitarbeiter nach einem Jahr Betrieb begeistert sind, so liegt dies grossenteils an idealen klimatechnischen Voraussetzungen: Verglasung mit Waermeschutzglas (K=1,4 W/m{sup 2}K), hochwertige Waermedaemmung der Bruestungen, aussenliegender Sonnenschutz mit motorbetaetigten Raffstoren, Radiatoren mit Thermostatventilen und einem Frischluft-Kuehldecken-System. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Vorgehensweise beim Bau der gesamten Klima- und Lueftungstechnik. (orig.)

  12. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  13. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  14. Radioactive air emissions 1992 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes, by radionuclide or product and by emitting facility, the Laboratory's 1992 radioactive air emissions. In 1992, the total activity of radionuclides emitted into the air from Laboratory stacks was approximately 73,500 Ci. This was an increase over the activity of the total 1991 radioactive air emissions, which was approximately 62,400 Ci. Total 1992 Laboratory emissions of each radionuclide or product are summarized by tables and graphs in the first section of this report. Compared to 1991 radioactive air emissions, total tritium activity was decreased, total plutonium activity was decreased, total uranium activity was decreased, total mixed fission product activity was increased, total 41 Ar activity was decreased, total gaseous/mixed activation product (except 41 Ar) activity was increased, total particulate/vapor activation product activity was increased, and total 32 P activity was decreased. Radioactive emissions from specific facilities are detailed in this report. Each section provides 1992 data on a single radionuclide or product and is further divided by emitting facility. For each facility from which a particular radionuclide or product was emitted, a bar chart displays the air emissions of each radionuclide or product from each facility over the 12 reporting periods of 1992, a line chart shows the trend in total emissions of that radionuclide or product from that facility for the past three years, the greatest activity during the 1990--1992 period is discussed, and unexpected or unusual results are noted

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  16. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  17. Solar Space and Water Heating for Hospital --Charlottesville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar heating system described in an 86-page report consists of 88 single-glazed selectively-coated baseplate collector modules, hot-water coils in air ducts, domestic-hot-water preheat tank, 3,000 Gallon (11,350-1) concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other components.

  18. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  19. Determinants of European air traffic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates main determinants of the strategic development as well as the key factors, which influence European air traffic dynamics. The problem of European airspace fragmentation should be solved by the comprehensive dynamic harmonization programmes, which can contribute to effective increase of airspace capacity and increase of air transport efficiency. The main objective of development strategy refers to the implementation of reformation processes of the European air traffic management system through functional ATM regionalization and adoption of Single European Sky legislation.

  20. Strategic Framework of Air Traffic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the past development of air traffic inEurope from the aspect of its economic benefits and ecologicallack of sustainability of conventional technology. The mainguidelines of the strategic development are related to the implementationof the global ecological standard and actual reformationprocesses of the air traffic management system postulatedby A TM 2000+ Strategy and the "Single European Sky"standard. The paper studies the wider aspects of integrated trafficdevelopment at the regional level and the factors influencingfurther development of the European air traffic.

  1. The advantages and disadvantages of centralized control of air power at operational level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisoy, Uǧur

    2014-05-01

    People do not want to see and hear a war. In today's world, if war is inevitable, the use of air power is seen as the preferable means of conducting operations instead of financially burdensome land battles which are more likely to cause heavy loss of life. The use of Air Power has gained importance in NATO operations in the Post-Cold War era. For example, air power has undertaken a decisive role from the beginning to the end of the operation in Libya. From this point of view, the most important issue to consider is how to direct air power more effectively at operational level. NATO's Core JFAC (Joint Force Air Command) was established in 2012 to control joint air power at operational level from a single center. US had experienced JFAC aproach in the Operation Desert Storm in 1991. UK, France, Germany, Italy and Spain are also directing their air power from their JFAC structures. Joint air power can be directed from a single center at operational level by means of JFAC. JFAC aproach provides complex planning progress of Air Power to be controled faster in a single center. An Air Power with a large number of aircrafts, long range missiles of cutting-edge technology may have difficulties in achieving results unless directed effectively. In this article, directing air power more effectively at operational level has been studied in the framework of directing air power from a single center carried out by SWOT analysis technique. "Directing Air Power at operational level from a single center similar to JFAC-like structure" is compared with "Directing Air Power at operational level from two centers similar to AC (Air Command) + CAOC (Combined Air Operations Center) structure" As a result of this study, it is assessed that directing air power at operational level from a single center would bring effectiveness to the air campaign. The study examines directing air power at operational level. Developments at political, strategic and tactical levels have been ignored.

  2. Desenvolvimento do pigmento condutor SnO2 -Sb2O3 e sua aplicação em vidrados semicondutores Development of a SnO2 -Sb2O3 conductor pigment and its applications in semiconductor glazes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aguiar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esmaltes semicondutores são utilizados no recobrimento de isoladores elétricos para evitar descargas superficiais nos isoladores, associadas a grandes diferenças de potencial, proporcionando uma melhora no desempenho sob poluição ambiental. Como os vidrados utilizados nas indústrias cerâmicas são isolantes, uma maneira de torná-los semicondutores é adicionando óxidos condutores. Misturou-se ao esmalte porcentagens variadas do pigmento condutor SnO2 dopado com 5% de Sb2O3. O esmalte foi aplicado sobre peças de porcelana a verde e queimado a 1250 ºC. Por microscopia eletrônica de varredura verificou-se que a concentração de pigmento na superfície das amostras é baixa e não influencia a condutividade elétrica. Na fratura, a porcentagem de pigmento ficou próxima de 35%. Assim, a superfície ficou com aspecto visual de ótima qualidade. A resistividade elétrica ocorreu pelo interior do vidrado, obtendo-se valores próximos de 10(4 Ohm.m.Semiconductor glazes are employed on electrical insulators to avoid surface discharge under conditions of intense electric fields, providing better performance in polluted environments. Semiconductor enamels are of great interest for electrical insulator coatings to avoid surface discharges, related to large potential differences. This enhances the performance of the insulator under polluted environments. Glazes used in ceramic industries are not conductive. The addition of conductive oxides to the glaze composition results in a semiconductor enamel. Sb2O3-doped SnO2 was mixed with the enamel in different concentrations. The resulting enamel was applied over green porcelain and fired at 1250 ºC. Scanning electron microscopy characterization was performed and it was verified that the pigment concentration on the surface is low and does not affect the electrical conductivity. The pigment concentration on the fracture surface is approximately 35%. The insulator surface presents a high quality

  3. AMCO Off-Site Air Monitoring Polygons, Oakland CA, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class was developed to support the AMCO Chemical Superfund Site air monitoring process and depicts a single polygon layer, Off-Site Air Monitors,...

  4. Carbon captured from the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO{sub 2} present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO{sub 2} from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO{sub 2} from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO{sub 2} emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO{sub 2} is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO{sub 2} that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO{sub 2} could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO{sub 2}. A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO{sub 2} on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO{sub 2} could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO{sub 2} capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology

  5. Carbon captured from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.

    2008-01-01

    This article presented an innovative way to achieve the efficient capture of atmospheric carbon. A team of scientists from the University of Calgary's Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy have shown that it is possible to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) using a simple machine that can capture the trace amount of CO 2 present in ambient air at any place on the planet. The thermodynamics of capturing the small concentrations of CO 2 from the air is only slightly more difficult than capturing much larger concentrations of CO 2 from power plants. The research is significant because it offers a way to capture CO 2 emissions from transportation sources such as vehicles and airplanes, which represent more than half of the greenhouse gases emitted on Earth. The energy efficient and cost effective air capture technology could complement other approaches for reducing emissions from the transportation sector, such as biofuels and electric vehicles. Air capture differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology used at coal-fired power plants where CO 2 is captured and pipelined for permanent storage underground. Air capture can capture the CO 2 that is present in ambient air and store it wherever it is cheapest. The team at the University of Calgary showed that CO 2 could be captured directly from the air with less than 100 kWhrs of electricity per tonne of CO 2 . A custom-built tower was able to capture the equivalent of 20 tonnes per year of CO 2 on a single square meter of scrubbing material. The team devised a way to use a chemical process from the pulp and paper industry to cut the energy cost of air capture in half. Although the technology is only in its early stage, it appears that CO 2 could be captured from the air with an energy demand comparable to that needed for CO 2 capture from conventional power plants, but costs will be higher. The simple, reliable and scalable technology offers an opportunity to build a commercial-scale plant. 1 fig

  6. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  7. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  8. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  9. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  10. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  11. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  12. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  13. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  15. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  16. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location at...

  17. Waste energy driven air conditioning system (WEDACS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, R.H.L.; Boot, M.D.; Luijten, C.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the port injected Spark Ignition (SI) engine, the single greatest part load efficiency reducing factor are energy losses over the throttle valve. The need for this throttle valve arises from the fact that engine power is controlled by the amount of air in the cylinders, since combustion occurs

  18. AIR DISTRIBUTION NOISE CONTROL IN CRITICAL AUDITORIUMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOOVER, R.M.

    THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EXTREMELY LOW AIR-CONDITIONING NOISE LEVELS REQUIRED FOR MODERN AUDITORIUMS ARE THE RESULT OF CAREFUL PLANNING AND THOROUGH DETAILING. PROBLEMS FACED AND TECHNIQUES USED IN ARRIVING AT LEVELS AS LOW AS NC-15 FOR A SINGLE SYSTEM SERVING A HALL ARE DESCRIBED. SIX CASE HISTORIES ARE EXAMINED AND THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE…

  19. Comparison of Thermal Performances between Low Porosity Perforate Plate and Flat Plate Solar Air Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hoy-Yen; Vinson, A. A.; Baljit, S. S. S.; Ruslan, M. H.

    2018-04-01

    Flat plate solar air collector is the most common collector design, which is relatively simpler to fabricate and lower cost. In the present study, perforated plate solar collector was developed to improve the system thermal performance. A glazed perforated plate of 6mm holes diameter with square geometry was designed and installed as the absorber of the collector. The influences of solar radiation intensity and mass flow rate on the thermal performance were investigated. The perforated collector was compared with the flat plate solar collector under the same operating conditions. The highest values of thermal efficiency in this study for the perforated plate (PP) and the flat plate (FP) solar collectors were 59% and 36% respectively, at solar radiation intensity of 846 Wm-2 and mass flow rate of 0.02 kgs-1. Furthermore, PP collector gave better thermal performance compared to FP collector; and compared to previous studies, the present perforated design was compatible with the flat plate with double pass designs.

  20. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  1. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  2. AIR NCO's AND AIRMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.F.C. o Proceeded to Cape Town 9:5:22. Left Cape Town for. African Protectorate 25:2:22. J Left for South West African Protectorate 25:2:22. [ Left for South West African Protectorate. 1:6:22. Colonel: Director of Air Services. Air Directorate. 6th June 1922. SOUTH AFRICAN AIR FORCE. NOMINAL ROLL OF AIR W.O.'s,.

  3. Low-temperature baseboard heaters with integrated air supply - An analytical and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskic, Adnan; Holmberg, Sture [Fluid and Climate Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH, Marinens vaeg 30, SE-13640 Handen, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The functioning of a hydronic baseboard heating system with integrated air supply was analyzed. The aim was to investigate thermal performance of the system when cold outdoor (ventilation) airflow was forced through the baseboard heater. The performance of the system was evaluated for different ventilation rates at typical outdoor temperatures during the Swedish winter season. Three different analytical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to predict the temperature rise of the airflow inside the baseboard heater. Good agreement between numerical (CFD) and analytical calculations was obtained. Calculations showed that it was fully possible to pre-heat the incoming airflow to the indoor temperature and to cover transmission losses, using 45 C supply water flow. The analytical calculations also showed that the airflow per supply opening in the baseboard heater needed to be limited to 7.0 l/s due to pressure losses inside the channel. At this ventilation rate, the integrated system with one air supply gave about 2.1 more heat output than a conventional baseboard heating system. CFD simulations also showed that the integrated system was capable of countering downdraught created by 2.0 m high glazed areas and a cold outdoor environment. Draught discomfort in the case with the conventional system was slightly above the recommended upper limit, but heat distribution across whole analyzed office space was uniform for both heating systems. It was concluded that low-temperature baseboard heating systems with integrated air supply can meet both international comfort requirements, and lead to energy savings in cold climates. (author)

  4. Feasibility of a solar-assisted winter air-conditioning system using evaporative air-coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Awad, Mohamed M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, the University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-07-01

    The paper presents a winter air-conditioning system which is suitable for regions with mildly cold but dry winters. The system modifies the evaporative air-cooler that is commonly used for summer air-conditioning in such regions by adding a heating process after the humidification process. The paper describes a theoretical model that is used to estimate the system's water and energy consumption. It is shown that a 150-LPD solar heater is adequate for air-conditioning a 500 ft3/min (14.4 m3/min) air flow rate for four hours of operation. The maximum air-flow rate that can be heated by a single solar water-heater for four hours of operation is about 900-cfm, unless a solar water heater large than a 250-LPD heater is used. For the 500 ft3/min air flow rate the paper shows that the 150, 200, 250 and 300 LPD solar water-heaters can provide air-conditioning for 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours, respectively, while consuming less energy than the equivalent refrigerated-type air-conditioner.

  5. Autonomous Integrated Receive System (AIRS) requirements definition. Volume 4: Functional specification for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The functional requirements for the performance, design, and testing for the prototype Automated Integrated Receive System (AIRS) to be demonstrated for the TDRSS S-Band Single Access Return Link are presented.

  6. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  7. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  8. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  9. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  10. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  11. Air Force Leadership Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    served as a deputy maintenance group commander. Following Air War College he will take command of the 8th Maintenance Group, Kunsan Air Base, Korea ...discrimination in terms of 3 race, religion , sex, etc.: the demographics we have all heard about for years. Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 36

  12. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  13. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  14. Air-water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Kutepov, A.I.

    1980-12-08

    The air-water screen based on inventor's certificate No. 577364 contains horizontal water and air lines with water and air nozzles. The air line is situated inside the water line eccentrically and contracts it in the area of the nozzle, whose orifices are situated along the line of contact, while the orifices of the water nozzle are situated symmetrically relative to the air orifices and are located at an acute angle to them. To raise the protective properties, on the end of the water line is a lateral nozzle water distributor is an additional nozzle, connected to this container.

  15. Compressed air noise reductions from using advanced air gun nozzles in research and development environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Kurt; Rice, Amanda; Raynor, Peter C

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate sound levels produced by compressed air guns in research and development (R&D) environments, replace conventional air gun models with advanced noise-reducing air nozzles, and measure changes in sound levels to assess the effectiveness of the advanced nozzles as engineering controls for noise. Ten different R&D manufacturing areas that used compressed air guns were identified and included in the study. A-weighted sound level and Z-weighted octave band measurements were taken simultaneously using a single instrument. In each area, three sets of measurements, each lasting for 20 sec, were taken 1 m away and perpendicular to the air stream of the conventional air gun while a worker simulated typical air gun work use. Two different advanced noise-reducing air nozzles were then installed. Sound level and octave band data were collected for each of these nozzles using the same methods as for the original air guns. Both of the advanced nozzles provided sound level reductions of about 7 dBA, on average. The highest noise reductions measured were 17.2 dBA for one model and 17.7 dBA for the other. In two areas, the advanced nozzles yielded no sound level reduction, or they produced small increases in sound level. The octave band data showed strong similarities in sound level among all air gun nozzles within the 10-1,000 Hz frequency range. However, the advanced air nozzles generally had lower noise contributions in the 1,000-20,000 Hz range. The observed decreases at these higher frequencies caused the overall sound level reductions that were measured. Installing new advanced noise-reducing air nozzles can provide large sound level reductions in comparison to existing conventional nozzles, which has direct benefit for hearing conservation efforts.

  16. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  17. Window Glazing Types | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  18. Review on electrochromic devices for automotive glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    1991-12-01

    Electrochromic materials have been intensively studied for applications of various switchable optical systems. These materials exhibit adjustable optical absorption upon reversible oxidation/reduction processes. Since a reversible oxidation/reduction phenomenon is provided by electrically-driven electrochemical reactions, these materials are known as electrochromics. There are many publications including proceedings, books, and review articles written on electrochromic (EC) materials and their applications. This paper focuses on conventional and some new electrochromic devices (ECD), their specifications, and applications.

  19. The exploitation of glaze waste slurries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoklasa, Jaroslav; Pechoč, Jiří

    10(117) (2000), s. 45-52 ISSN 1211-1929 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3046004; GA AV ČR KSK1067601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  20. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  1. Air Quality Impacts of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswarya Ragothaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society’s energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential health impacts, it is important to implement proper air quality management by understanding the link between specific pollutant sources and resulting population exposures. These industries release pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds, greenhouse gases and particulate matter, from various parts of their operations. Air quality should be monitored and controlled more meticulously in developing nations where increased energy demands, industrialization and overpopulation has led to more emissions and lower air quality. This paper presents a review of findings and highlights from various studies on air quality impacts of petroleum refining and petrochemical plants in many regions in the world.

  2. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  3. Air filtration and air cooling in dairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubzov, J A

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the maintenance of optimum temperatures and relative humidities, a continuous cleaning of the circulating air by means of suspended matter filters and regular disinfection of the spaces and equipment are required in the maturing and storage room for cheese. This contribution presents solutions to the use of suspended matter filters in air cooling plant for dairies in the U.S.S.R.

  4. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  5. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  6. Liberalisation of air cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-02

    Over a period of many years, international air cargo demand has continued to increase more rapidly than international air passenger demand. Air cargo arrangements need to be as efficient and expeditious as possible, to meet user requirements for air ...

  7. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  8. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Monitor Location Archived Maps by Region Canada Air Quality Air Quality on Google Earth Links A-Z About AirNow AirNow International Air Quality Action Days / Alerts AirCompare Air Quality Index (AQI) ...

  9. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  10. GLASS AND PERFORATED METAL DOUBLE SKIN FAÇADE PERFORMANCE IN HOT HUMID CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissa Aulia Ardiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a sustainable building in Indonesia has increased in recent years. Middle- to high-rise buildings are encouraged to enhance its performance to reduce energy demands. With maximum temperature 34°C, most of the buildings in Indonesia utilize mechanical air conditioning to achieve indoor thermal comfort. In this research, the performance of campus building with Double Skin Façade (DSF in Indonesia would be quantitatively assessed and simulated by utilizing Autodesk Revit and Green Building Studio. In respect to façade material, actual cavity width, inner and outer layer façade type, and also weather condition, these simulations are expected to produce comparison result between four DSF material configurations which are perforated metal, single glazing, double glazing, and triple glazing. From the simulation, the results show that perforated metal DSF could consume 5%-23.16% more energy for space cooling compared to building with glass DSF.

  11. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  12. Correlation between the green-like coloration and the structural and electronic properties of celadon glazes (I Correlação entre a coloração esverdeada e as propriedades estruturais e eletrônicas de esmaltes celadon (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hidaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Celadon glazes have been investigated by means of ordinary X-ray fluorescence analysis, and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectra using synchrotron radiation. The tentative glazes are prepared by mixing raw celadon materials of Masuda feldspar, limestone, quartz, and extra-added Fe2O3 of about 1wt% at thermal treatment till about 1300 °C. It is found that the glaze-colors strongly depend on the Fe2O3 amount and the high-temperature treatment under oxidizing and deoxidizing in the used kiln. Especially, the characteristic color of blue-green, white-green-brown, and white-blue-green result from complex hybridized 3d5L and 3d6L bands. The 3d6L hybridization is induced by an electronic exchange interaction between an empty 3d6 orbital of Fe ions and an occupied 2p orbital of surrounding O ions in the (SiO2 - Al2O3 - CaO basic complex ceramics of glass-state under the deoxidizing thermal treatment.Esmaltes celadon foram investigados por meio de análise de fluorescência de raios X, e difração de raios X e espectros de absorção de raios X usando radiação síncrotron. Os esmaltes foram preparados por mistura de matérias-primas de celadon de feldspato Masuda, calcita, quartzo e 1 peso% a mais de Fe2O3 com tratamento térmico até 1300 °C. Foi verificado que as cores dos esmaltes dependem fortemente do teor de Fe2O3 e do tratamento térmico a alta temperatura sob atmosfera oxidante e desoxidante. As cores características verde azulada, marron esverdeada esbranquecida resultam das bandas de hibridização complexa 3d5L and 3d6L. A hibridização 3d6L é induzida por interação de troca eletrônica entre o orbital vazio 3d6 e íons Fe e um orbital 2p ocupado com íons oxigênio vizinhos nas cerâmicas complexas básicas (SiO2 - Al2O3 - CaO no estado vítreo sob tratamento térmico desoxidante.

  13. Assement on level of indoor air quality at kindergartens in Ampang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identify the air pollutant that occurs in the kindergartens, to measure the level of indoor air quality and also to analyze the association between indoor air quality patterns with respiratory health symptoms. Three kindergartens were selected based on types of building (single house, terraced 2 floors and refurbished ...

  14. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    .... EERE-2010-BT-TP-0038] Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting... methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps designed to use... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities less...

  15. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  16. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  17. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  18. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  19. Air University Press Publications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Our publications program is designed primarily to help Air Force and other US war fighters, national leaders and policy makers, academicians, military historians, and other analysts understand...

  20. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Jaeger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added