WorldWideScience

Sample records for single european electricity

  1. The Evolution of Electricity Prices in The EU since the Single European Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Robinson

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper considers the impact of EU Directives on the evolution of electricity prices. Three empirical tests for convergence are applied to prices for ten EU countries; a simple test for β-convergence...

  2. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asraf Mansor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell’s electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA. In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell’s electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  3. Single Cell Electrical Characterization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Muhammad Asraf; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-06-04

    Electrical properties of living cells have been proven to play significant roles in understanding of various biological activities including disease progression both at the cellular and molecular levels. Since two decades ago, many researchers have developed tools to analyze the cell's electrical states especially in single cell analysis (SCA). In depth analysis and more fully described activities of cell differentiation and cancer can only be accomplished with single cell analysis. This growing interest was supported by the emergence of various microfluidic techniques to fulfill high precisions screening, reduced equipment cost and low analysis time for characterization of the single cell's electrical properties, as compared to classical bulky technique. This paper presents a historical review of single cell electrical properties analysis development from classical techniques to recent advances in microfluidic techniques. Technical details of the different microfluidic techniques are highlighted, and the advantages and limitations of various microfluidic devices are discussed.

  4. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  5. European single-hull regulation in force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The European Union (EU)has decided that from 21 October 2003 no single-hull tanker carrying heavy grades of oil will be permitted to enter or leave ports or offshore installations or anchor in areas under the jurisdiction of the EU member states. Some of the provisions of the EU regulation will not be in force until 2010. The article looks back on what has led up to to the current regulations, beginning with the Titanic disaster of 1914.

  6. European Electricity Market and EU Members'Energy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to find out what factors have the biggest influence on the price of electricity for household consumers in the European Union in the context of creating the internal electricity market in the EU. By means of the cluster analysis six EU Member States have been selected according to the following criteria: electricity consumption, electricity production, and the price of electricity. As a result of that Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Malta and Sw...

  7. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-05-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures.

  8. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  9. Description of European policies and issues related to electricity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cech, Marel; Janda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the description of institutional, technical, economic, legal and other relevant issues of electricity pricing in the European Union connected with the increasing use of renewable energy sources in electricity production and consumption. It provides background information related to the types of energy sources along with the summary of their advantages and disadvantages regarding both the environmental impact and financial costs. Furthermore, it involves fundamental gl...

  10. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  11. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  12. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  13. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Skytte, K. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  14. Single Molecule Nanoelectrochemistry in Electrical Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Richard J; Higgins, Simon J

    2016-11-15

    It is now possible to reliably measure single molecule conductance in a wide variety of environments including organic liquids, ultrahigh vacuum, water, ionic liquids, and electrolytes. The most commonly used methods deploy scanning probe microscopes, mechanically formed break junctions, or lithographically formed nanogap contacts. Molecules are generally captured between a pair of facing electrodes, and the junction current response is measured as a function of bias voltage. Gating electrodes can also be added so that the electrostatic potential at the molecular bridge can be independently controlled by this third noncontacting electrode. This can also be achieved in an electrolytic environment using a four-electrode bipotentiostatic configuration, which allows independent electrode potential control of the two contacting electrodes. This is commonly realized using an electrochemical STM and enables single molecule electrical characterization as a function of electrode potential and redox state of the molecular bridge. This has emerged as a powerful tool in modern interfacial electrochemistry and nanoelectrochemistry for studying charge transport across single molecules as a function of electrode potential and the electrolytic environments. Such measurements are possible in electrolytes ranging from aqueous buffers to nonaqueous ionic liquids. In this Account, we illustrate a number of examples of single molecule electrical measurements under electrode potential control use a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and demonstrate how these can help in the understanding of charge transport in single molecule junctions. Examples showing charge transport following phase coherent tunneling to incoherent charge hopping across redox active molecular bridges are shown. In the case of bipyridinium (or viologen) molecular wires, it is shown how electrochemical reduction leads to an increase of the single molecule conductance, which is controlled by the liquid electrochemical

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. leprae DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Watson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.. we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide.

  16. Has the European union achieved a single pharmaceutical market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Aysegul; Picone, Gabriel; DeSimone, Jeffrey

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores price differences in the European Union (EU) pharmaceutical market, the EU's fifth largest industry. With the aim of enhancing quality of life along with industry competitiveness and R&D capability, many EU directives have been adopted to achieve a single EU-wide pharmaceutical market. Using annual 1994-2003 data on prices of molecules that treat cardiovascular disease, we examine whether drug price dispersion has indeed decreased across five EU countries. Hedonic regressions show that over time, cross-country price differences between Germany and three of the four other EU sample countries, France, Italy and Spain, have declined, with relative prices in all three as well as the fourth country, UK, rising during the period. We interpret this as evidence that the EU has come closer to achieving a single pharmaceutical market in response to increasing European Commission coordination efforts.

  17. European accelerator facilities for single event effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.; Nickson, R.; Harboe-Sorensen, R. [ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hajdas, W.; Berger, G.

    1997-03-01

    Single event effects are an important hazard to spacecraft and payloads. The advances in component technology, with shrinking dimensions and increasing complexity will give even more importance to single event effects in the future. The ground test facilities are complex and expensive and the complexities of installing a facility are compounded by the requirement that maximum control is to be exercised by users largely unfamiliar with accelerator technology. The PIF and the HIF are the result of experience gained in the field of single event effects testing and represent a unique collaboration between space technology and accelerator experts. Both facilities form an essential part of the European infrastructure supporting space projects. (J.P.N.)

  18. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    OpenAIRE

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    We statistically analyze 2006–2012 high-frequency temperature and electricity load data from 35 European countries to compute climate change impacts on electricity demand until 2100. Extrapolating countries’ load responses to temperature beyond currently experienced climate, we find a future polarization of both peak load and electricity consumption in Europe. Specifically, while total European consumption remains constant under future warming, we project significant increases in the south, d...

  19. Review of existing electricity quality label systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sara; Vrolijk, Christiaan

    2003-01-01

    Green electricity quality labels have been utilised in the European Union since 1990. Of the seventeen European countries analysed here1, at the time of writing nine had no countryspecific quality label, although all electricity tariffs within Europe were able to apply for accreditation under the EUGENE labelling scheme. Germany had several quality labels, each with slightly different criteria. All of the eighteen labels identified in the report applied to electricity from renewable sources. ...

  20. Spermometer: electrical characterization of single boar sperm motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagenaar, B.; Geijs, Daan J.; de Boer, Hans L.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study single sperm boar motility using electrical impedance measurements in a microfluidic system. Design: Comparison of the optical data and electrical impedance data. Setting: Research laboratory at a university. Animal(s): Boar semen sample were used. Intervention(s): A microfluidic

  1. Electrically driven single-photon emission from an isolated single molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yu, Yun-Jie; Chen, Liu-Guo; Luo, Yang; Yang, Ben; Kong, Fan-Fang; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jin-Long; Dong, Zhen-Chao; Hou, J G

    2017-09-18

    Electrically driven molecular light emitters are considered to be one of the promising candidates as single-photon sources. However, it is yet to be demonstrated that electrically driven single-photon emission can indeed be generated from an isolated single molecule notwithstanding fluorescence quenching and technical challenges. Here, we report such electrically driven single-photon emission from a well-defined single molecule located inside a precisely controlled nanocavity in a scanning tunneling microscope. The effective quenching suppression and nanocavity plasmonic enhancement allow us to achieve intense and stable single-molecule electroluminescence. Second-order photon correlation measurements reveal an evident photon antibunching dip with the single-photon purity down to g (2) (0) = 0.09, unambiguously confirming the single-photon emission nature of the single-molecule electroluminescence. Furthermore, we demonstrate an ultrahigh-density array of identical single-photon emitters.Molecular emitters offer a promising solution for single-photon generation. Here, by exploiting electronic decoupling by an ultrathin dielectric spacer and emission enhancement by a resonant plasmonic nanocavity, the authors demonstrate electrically driven single-photon emission from a single molecule.

  2. Pan-European Management of Electricity Portfolios: Risks and Opportunities of Contract Bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Today’s European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded “structured products” or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services inside of their home markets, but in the globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen. In this paper, we analyze the problems to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of elect...

  3. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  4. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  5. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  6. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: RMadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. {yields} Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  7. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the ‘information economy’ and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of ‘Europeanization‘. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  8. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Puig

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the information economy and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of Europeanization. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  9. Electric field controlled magnetic anisotropy in a single molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyazin, Alexander S; van den Berg, Johan W G; Osorio, Edgar A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos P; Leijnse, Martin; Wegewijs, Maarten R; May, Falk; Hofstetter, Walter; Danieli, Chiara; Cornia, Andrea

    2010-09-08

    We have measured quantum transport through an individual Fe(4) single-molecule magnet embedded in a three-terminal device geometry. The characteristic zero-field splittings of adjacent charge states and their magnetic field evolution are observed in inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the molecule retains its magnetic properties and, moreover, that the magnetic anisotropy is significantly enhanced by reversible electron addition/subtraction controlled with the gate voltage. Single-molecule magnetism can thus be electrically controlled.

  10. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin Duguleana; Liliana Duguleana

    2015-01-01

    .... The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs...

  11. Electrical and mechanical effects in single-molecule junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenthuis, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    In single-molecule junctions, the behavior of a device is determined by the properties of an individual molecule. In this thesis we develop several models to describe both electrical and mechanical effects in such devices, which can be used to design molecules with a specific functionality. We show

  12. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  13. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several

  14. The level of diversity in European electricity companies based on selected economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ulatowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to show variations in the electricity sector in the context of macro and micro-economic conditions with the use of discriminatory analysis. Using the STATISTICA programe to carry out the analysis of discrimination macroeconomic data has been used on the economies of the countries in which the parent companies of the energy companiesare established and the financial and economic results of individual concerns. Power companies: power plants, distribution companies and vendors of energy in Poland have been included as a single entity. An attempt to determine the factors of macro and micro-economic and financial data, which significantly affected the distinctionbetween the concerns was investigated. The results of the discriminatory analysis allowed for the submission of the following conclusions: selected on the basis of the following micro-economic factors distinguished the companies that had the largest share of variables: revenue per employee and long-term assets to long-term capital, and clearly distinguished EdF and electricity companies in Poland. This means that the dominant European companies show a similarity in implementation adopted by the owners of the economic-financial conditions for development. According to factors and the economic contribution to the largest macroeconomic identifying similar groups had the same variables: consumption of electricity in TWh and public debt in% of GDP, which correctly classified all concerns at 100%. It follows from this that the greatest contributions in distinguishing concerns have external factors and more specifically, the national macro-economic indicators in the countries in which the handquestors of the parent companies are found.

  15. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  16. Congestion management in the European electricity market; Engpassmanagement im Europaeischen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, Birgit

    2008-11-24

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an assessment of methods of congestion management employed in Europe with respect to their effectiveness and identify possible reasons for the misallocation of cross-border transmission capacity. For this, generation structures of European countries and the resulting prices and load flows are analysed. Different power plants and bottlenecks in the transmission network currently cause structural price differences due to a low degree of integration of European electricity markets. By means of congestion management, the formation of a uniform electricity market will be created.

  17. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Yearsley, John R.; Ludwig, Fulco; Vögele, Stefan; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kabat, Pavel

    2012-09-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. ) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern United States were forced to reduce production owing to cooling-water scarcity. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the United States is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined impacts of lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures. Using a physically based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework in combination with an electricity production model, we show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme (>90%) reductions in thermoelectric power production will on average increase by a factor of three. Considering the increase in future electricity demand, there is a strong need for improved climate adaptation strategies in the thermoelectric power sector to assure futureenergy security.

  18. Transmission Needs In A Fully Renewable Pan-European Electricity System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Becker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission ca...... capacities lead to a non-linear increase of balancing needs. A good compromise turns out to be a capacity layout, which is a factor 5 larger than today’s one. On average each country will only be able to import / export 40% of its residual demand / renewable excess generation.......Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission...

  19. Classification of Single and Multiple Disturbances in Electric Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Moisés Vidal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and presents a different perspective for classifying single and multiple disturbances in electric signals, such as voltage and current ones. Basically, the principle of divide to conquer is applied to decompose the electric signals into what we call primitive signals or components from which primitive patterns can be independently recognized. A technique based on such concept is introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of such idea. This technique decomposes the electric signals into three main primitive components. In each primitive component, few high-order-statistics- (HOS- based features are extracted. Then, Bayes' theory-based techniques are applied to verify the ocurrence or not of single or multiple disturbances in the electric signals. The performance analysis carried out on a large number of data indicates that the proposed technique outperforms the performance attained by the technique introduced by He and Starzyk. Additionally, the numerical results verify that the proposed technique is capable of offering interesting results when it is applied to classify several sets of disturbances if one cycle of the main frequency is considered, at least.

  20. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  1. Efficiency of Electricity Utilisation in Households in the Context of European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of electricity in every sector of a national economy is becoming increasingly significant. Energy efficiency concerns climate and energy policy, but it is also a significant factor influencing manufacturing costs for enterprises (and thus their profits, as well as socio-economic development. Irrational energy consumption leads to excessive consumption of primary energy sources, problems attributable to environment pollution, and limited competitiveness of national companies in global markets. For an individual consumer, energy efficiency is one of the key methods of reducing the share of electricity costs in the household budget. In recent years, the European Commission has made a lot of effort aimed at reducing electricity consumption in households, by promoting energy-saving lighting, subsidising renewable microgeneration systems, enforcing labelling appliances for their energy consumption and liberalisation of the electricity market, among other things. This paper presents the results of a comparative study on electricity consumption in Polish households in reference to selected European Union member states, in the context of European energy policy.

  2. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  3. Swiss hydropower production. Optimisation potentials in European electricity trading; Die Schweizer Wasserkrafterzeugung. Optimierungspotenziale im europaeischen Stromhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Thomas; Laue, Dirk Simon [RWE Supply and Trading GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Swiss hydropower plays a central role in the formation of electricity prices in Western Europe as well as in cross-border electricity transmission. Although subject to constraints relating to hydrology as well as energy economy, its inherent flexibility makes it possible to make use of the most profitable electricity price differences relative to neighbouring European electricity markets (referred to as location spreads), especially between France and Italy. In times of favourable framework conditions it is also possible to use location spread potentials in relation to Germany. Studies in electricity statistics permit analysis of cross-border transmission schedules and spot price differences as well as identification of behavioural patterns in history and thus of optimisation potentials of Swiss hydropower production.

  4. Conversion from Single Photon to Single Electron Spin Using Electrically Controllable Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiwa, Akira; Fujita, Takafumi; Kiyama, Haruki; Allison, Giles; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    Polarization is a fundamental property of light and could provide various solutions to the development of secure optical communications with high capacity and high speed. In particular, the coherent quantum state conversion between single photons and single electron spins is a prerequisite for long-distance quantum communications and distributed quantum computation. Electrically defined quantum dots have already been proven to be suitable for scalable solid state qubits by demonstrations of single-spin coherent manipulations and two-qubit gate operations. Thus, their capacity for quantum information technologies would be considerably extended by the achievement of entanglement between an electron spin in the quantum dots and a photon. In this review paper, we show the basic technologies for trapping single electrons generated by single photons in quantum dots and for detecting their spins using the Pauli effect with sensitive charge sensors.

  5. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  6. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES, L. de M.; Houllier, M.; Tamvakis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly in-crease the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynami...

  7. Forecasting day ahead electricity spot prices: The impact of the EXAA to other European electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ziel, Florian; Steinert, Rick; Husmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we analyze the relationship between the day-ahead electricity price of the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) and other day-ahead electricity prices in Europe. We focus on markets, which settle their prices after the EXAA, which enables traders to include the EXAA price into their calculations. For each market we employ econometric models to incorporate the EXAA price and compare them with their counterparts without the price of the Austrian exchange. By employing a forecasting study...

  8. A European Glass-Steagall to preserve the single market

    OpenAIRE

    Lannoo, Karel

    2014-01-01

    In his assessment of the EU proposal on banking structural reform, unveiled on January 29th, Karel Lannoo observes that the Commission must perform a delicate balancing act between preserving the single market and at the same time accommodating existing EU measures covering resolution and trading activities.

  9. All-electric spin control in interference single electron transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarini, Andrea; Begemann, Georg; Grifoni, Milena

    2009-08-01

    Single particle interference lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The archetypal double-slit experiment(1) has been repeated with electrons in vacuum(2,3) up to the more massive C(60) molecules.(4) Mesoscopic rings threaded by a magnetic flux provide the solid-state analogues.(5,6) Intramolecular interference has been recently discussed in molecular junctions.(7-11) Here we propose to exploit interference to achieve all-electrical control of a single electron spin in quantum dots, a highly desirable property for spintronics(12-14) and spin-qubit applications.(15-19) The device consists of an interference single electron transistor,(10,11) where destructive interference between orbitally degenerate electronic states produces current blocking at specific bias voltages. We show that in the presence of parallel polarized ferromagnetic leads the interplay between interference and the exchange interaction on the system generates an effective energy renormalization yielding different blocking biases for majority and minority spins. Hence, by tuning the bias voltage full control over the spin of the trapped electron is achieved.

  10. Realization of electrically tunable single quantum dot nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Felix Florian Georg

    2009-03-15

    We investigated the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. We demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling, simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by up to {proportional_to}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode, before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots. We directly probe spontaneous emission, irreversible polariton decay and the statistics of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. The structures investigated are p-i-n photodiodes consisting of an 180nm thick free-standing GaAs membrane into which a two dimensional photonic crystal is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode volume nanocavities (V{sub mode}<1.6 ({lambda}/n){sup 3}) are realized by omitting 3 holes in a line to form L3 cavities and a single layer of InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots is embedded into the midpoint of the membrane. The nanocavities are electrically contacted via 35 nm thick p- and n-doped contact layers in the GaAs membrane. In the weak coupling regime, time resolved spectroscopy reveals a {proportional_to}7 x shortening of the spontaneous emission lifetime as the dot is tuned through the nanocavity mode, due to the Purcell effect. Upon strongly detuning the same quantum dot transition from the nanocavity mode we observe an additional {proportional_to}8 x lengthening of the spontaneous emission lifetime. These observations unequivocally highlight two regimes of dot

  11. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  12. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m-1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m-1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m-2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m-2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  13. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side—through the mitigation of greenhouse gases—and from the demand side—through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world’s third-largest electricity market—the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose–response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006–2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose–response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country’s currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today’s European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation—in line with the Paris agreement—to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼−6 to ∼−2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity. PMID:28847939

  15. North-south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-09-19

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side-through the mitigation of greenhouse gases-and from the demand side-through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world's third-largest electricity market-the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose-response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006-2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose-response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country's currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today's European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation-in line with the Paris agreement-to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼-6 to ∼-2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity.

  16. Differences between health care systems and the single European health care market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Došenovič Bonča

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper analyses the possibilities of forming a single European health care market. This aim is achieved by studying the impact of the differing organisational features of individual European health care systems on the efficiency of health care provision, by examining the relationship between the inputs used to produce health care services and the population’s health status in the analysedcountries and by exploring the link between the quantity of health care services and the health status. The authors hypothesise that the efficiency and organisation of health care systems determine the possibilities of forming an efficient single European health care market. The empirical methodology employed in this paper isdata envelopment analysis (DEA. The results show that differences between health care systems and in the ownership types of health care providers are not so large as to prevent the formation of a single European health care market. However, the formation of a single European health care market would reveal the characteristicsof health care systems in such a way that citizens would be in favour of the public sector in health care and the national health service model.

  17. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Chen; Chengcheng Xue; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Min-Hsien Wu; Junbo Wang

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance ...

  18. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  19. Towards a unified European electricity market: The contribution of data-mining to support realistic simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Pereira, Ivo F.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide electricity markets have been evolving into regional and even continental scales. The aim at an efficient use of renewable based generation in places where it exceeds the local needs is one of the main reasons. A reference case of this evolution is the European Electricity Market, where...

  20. Europe's Babylon: Towards a Single European Language? Esperanto Documents 41A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Mark

    Discussion of the establishment of a single language for Europe's many countries and cultures focuses on the debate over English versus Esperanto as the language of choice. It is argued that the notion that language has not been a major barrier to intellectual exchange is a myth. In addition, while the main European political institutions support…

  1. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather......-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years.(R2.9) These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system.(R2.10) The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door...

  2. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  3. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  4. Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Raunbak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.

  5. Future Electricity Demand of the Emerging European Countries and the CIS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the leading factors used in the evaluation of a country’s economic development is energy consumption. Because of economic growth, demand for energy is also increasing. In this study, the emerging European countries’ (the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Turkey and the CIS countries’ (Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan  electricity consumption has been forecasted for five years period (2015-2019. In the study, GM(1,1 Rolling Model, which is developed in the framework of Grey System Theory is used as a mathematical model for real-time forecasting. The results of the study show that there will not be a significant change in electricity demand in this two area during the 2015-2109 period.

  6. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  7. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  8. Single European Sky – the transformation of the aviation industry based on the dynamic capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia HARTMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year the demand of aviation services is increasing but the European airspace is still fragmented according to national borders. Delays of implementing Single European Sky are increasingly high. Consequently, each year the aviation industry loses a lot of money, among others, because of flight route extensions or higher fuel consumption. A comparison between Air Traffic Management-Related Operational Performance U.S./Europe shows how inefficient ATM is in Europe and how costly for the airspace users. This study also describes the benefits and costs of the SES full implementation.

  9. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  10. Electrochemical detection of single molecules using abiotic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria [Los Alamos, NM; Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos, NM; Olazabal, Virginia [Los Alamos, NM; Hoffbauer, Mark A [Los Alamos, NM; Akhadov, Elshan A [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-12-29

    A barrier structure for use in an electrochemical stochastic membrane sensor for single molecule detection. The sensor is based upon inorganic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions. The inorganic nanopores are formed from inorganic materials and an electrically conductive polymer. Methods of making the barrier structure and sensing single molecules using the barrier structure are also described.

  11. Electrochemical detection of single molecules using abiotic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Olazabal, Virginia; Hoffbauer, Mark A.; Akhadov, Elshan A.

    2017-07-18

    A barrier structure for use in an electrochemical stochastic membrane sensor for single molecule detection. The sensor is based upon inorganic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions. The inorganic nanopores are formed from inorganic materials and an electrically conductive polymer. Methods of making the barrier structure and sensing single molecules using the barrier structure are also described.

  12. Electrochemical detection of single molecules using abiotic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Olazabal, Virginia; Hoffbauer, Mark A.; Akhadov, Elshan A.

    2017-10-31

    A barrier structure for use in an electrochemical stochastic membrane sensor for single molecule detection. The sensor is based upon inorganic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions. The inorganic nanopores are formed from inorganic materials and an electrically conductive polymer. Methods of making the barrier structure and sensing single molecules using the barrier structure are also described.

  13. Electrochemical detection of single molecules using abiotic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansinena, Jose-Maria; Redondo, Antonio; Olazabal, Virginia; Hoffbauer, Mark A.

    2017-09-12

    A barrier structure for use in an electrochemical stochastic membrane sensor for single molecule detection. The sensor is based upon inorganic nanopores having electrically tunable dimensions. The inorganic nanopores are formed from inorganic materials and an electrically conductive polymer. Methods of making the barrier structure and sensing single molecules using the barrier structure are also described.

  14. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  15. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  16. MOSES – A modelling tool for the analysis of scenarios of the European electricity supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agert C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that a transition of the current power supply system in Europe to a system almost entirely based on fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources (RES by mid-century is possible. However, most of these scenarios require a significant amount of back-up power capacities to ensure the security of electricity supply. This would imply high additional investments and operating costs. Hence, alternative options should be investigated first. Here we present a first outlook of our simulation model MOSES which will be able to analyse different target states of the European electricity system in 2050. In this model long-term meteorological data series are used to optimise the capacity mix of RES in Europe. One of the main elements of our tool is a simplified electricity network. In addition, alternative options for reduction of additional back-up power like the expansion of the transmission grid, the use of demand-side management and/or the installation of over-capacities will be implemented. The results will be used to provide scientifically proven recommendations to policy makers for a reliable energy supply system in Europe based on Renewable Energy Sources.

  17. Comparison of domestic olivine and European magnesite for electrically charged thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, W.R.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H.; Schoenhals, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrically charged thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these devices, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored energy from the core by forced air circulation. The recent increase in use of off-peak TES units in the U.S. has led to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but underutilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two commercially available room-size TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons are made and conclusions are drawn.

  18. Single flexible nanofiber to simultaneously realize electricity-magnetism bifunctionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Lv, Nan; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Dong, Xiangting; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: wenshengyu2009@sina.com, E-mail: dongxiangting888@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun (China)

    2016-03-15

    In order to develop new-typed multifunctional composite nanofibers, PANI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PVP flexible bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous electrical conduction and magnetism have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of polyaniline (PANI) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs). The bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent electrical conductivity and magnetic properties. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10{sup -3} S·cm{sup -1}. The electrical conductivity and saturation magnetization of the composite nanofibers can be respectively tuned by adding various amounts of PANI and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs. The obtained electricity-magnetism bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as electromagnetic interference shielding, special coating, microwave absorption, molecular electronics and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construct technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional nanostructures. (author)

  19. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  20. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  1. Progress of electricity from biomass, wind and photovoltaics in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy). Renewable Energies Unit

    2004-04-01

    The world market for renewable energies is continuously growing. In particular, the wind energy and photovoltaic markets show yearly growth rates between 20 and over 30% in the last few years. Despite the fact that there are still discrepancies between the European Union and the USA how to deal with climate change, renewable energies will play an important role for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the worldwide introduction of tradable green certificates. Apart from the electricity sector, renewable energy sources for the generation of heat and the use of environmental friendly bio-fuels for the transport sector will become more and more important in the future. This article tries to give an overview about the progress of renewable energies in Europe. (author)

  2. Distributed generation in European electricity markets. Current challenges and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies the role of distributed generation in European electricity markets. It focuses primarily on the interactions of economics and policy with the aim of contributing to the understanding of how distributed generation is embedded in the present regulatory and market framework, which barriers exist, and which role it may possibly play in the future. To capture the interdisciplinarity of the topic, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is applied. Subsequent to the identification of barriers, this thesis turns to the microeconomic perspective on the interplay of vertical structure, regulation and distributed generation. This is done through the application of quantitative methods in the form of partial equilibrium models focusing on the effects induced by the vertical structure of the network operator, either a combined operator or a distribution system operator, in a market with small distributed producers. In areas where the promotion of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power has induced a substantial increase in distributed generation, new challenges in system integration arise. In particular, high levels of generation from intermittent energy sources, such as wind, add to the complexity of network operation and control, which can hardly be tackled with the present 'fit and forget' approach. The conclusion is that distributed generation has great potential to enhance competitiveness, sustainability and security of supply in European electricity markets. A prerequisite is the removal of market and regulatory barriers, taking the interdependencies of vertical structure, support mechanisms and network access into account. In the future, higher penetration levels of distributed generation necessitate changes in the power system and the adoption of new technologies, where hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis constitutes one example. (LN)

  3. The Electricity Usage Pattern for Cooker Manufacturing in Three European Countries. A Benchmarking Study of Electrolux Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord-Aagren, Elisabet

    2002-12-01

    The European electricity market became deregulated by January 1999 and it is now free to trade electricity across borders. The price of electricity varies to a great extent among the countries within the European Union. Swedish electricity will increasingly be an export product on the European electricity market, due to the lower price compared with other countries in Europe. Energy statistics and studies indicate a clear relation between electricity price and electricity use. For the industrial sector in countries with low electricity prices, electricity is a major energy source. Electricity is the dominant energy source, not only for industrial processes but also for support processes, e.g. process heating and heating of the premises. The situation is quite different for industry in countries with high electricity prices. Electricity is sparingly used and only for electricity-specific processes. This thesis presents a benchmarking study of the electricity usage pattern for Electrolux cooker manufacturing in three European cities, i.e. Fredericia in Denmark, Spennymoor in England and Motala in Sweden. The basic idea is to investigate the relation between electricity price and use for cooker manufacturing and explain the differences. The results show that a high electricity price corresponds to a low electricity use and vice versa. Motala has the highest electricity use and the lowest electricity price. Spennymoor's electricity use is half of Motala's and the electricity price is about double Motala's. Spennymoor and Fredericia have about the same electricity price. They differ mainly in which energy source is used for process heating. The total energy use per cooker at Motala is rather close to that of Fredericia. They use less energy than Spennymoor, which has a high gas use. The total energy cost for Fredericia is 45.9 SEK/unit, Motala is 23.7 SEK/unit and Spennymoor is 40.9 SEK/unit. In this study the unit process method was used. The method is a

  4. Effect of pressure on electrical resistance of WSe single crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The changes in resistance observed by Bridgman anvils up to 8.5 GPa are well- reproduced with the DAC. The sample becomes more conducting as pressure increases and around 27 GPa the electrical resistance decreases by a factor of 5. We noticed slight slope change in resistance variation with pressure beyond 20 ...

  5. Electricity Generation by Single- and Double Chamber Membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of microbes capable of producing electri-cal current. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy. Application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) may represent a ...

  6. Electrical properties of single p-hexaphenylene nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Henrichsen, H.H.; Bøggild, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of individual para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers with typical widths of a few hundred nanometers and heights of a few ten nanometers are investigated. For that purpose we transfer the narofibers onto a lithographically patterned silicon oxide electrode support...

  7. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  8. Aggregation of Single-phase Electric Vehicles for Frequency Control Provision Based on Unidirectional Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæmundsson, Valgeir Thor; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    is investigated. The investigations are performed in a Pan-European interconnected grid with varying wind power penetration and different operational scenarios. Within this grid, the paper focuses on primary frequency control provision from electric vehicles and how the system behaves as the vehicles are being......As the use of electric vehicles grows there is a greater possibility of using aggregated sets of electric vehicles as a large flexible unit to assist with the control of the power system. In this paper, the possibility of using electric vehicles as a flexible load for frequency control...... controlled within their respective areas. The investigations show that electric vehicles can be used for primary frequency control with different wind power penetration. By controlling the vehicles, the steady state frequency is improved and, since the vehicles react fast enough to the frequency changes...

  9. Electrical conductivity in single crystals of GaSe x Te1 - x solid solutions in strong electrical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagiev, B. G.; Tagiev, O. B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents some results of studying the Poole-Frenkel effect with allowance for shielding in layered GaSe and GaTe single crystals and their solid solutions in strong electrical fields of up to 105 V/cm at temperatures of 103-250 K. According to the relationship (σ/σ(0))^{1/2} logσ/σ(0) = E√{ɛ/4π n(0)kT}, there exists a linear dependence between (σ/σ(0))^{1/2} logσ/σ(0) and the electrical field E (σ is the electrical conductivity in strong electrical fields, and σ(0) is the electrical conductivity in the ohmic region). The slopes of these lines have been determined at different temperatures (103-250 K) by estimating the concentration of current carriers n(0) = 3 × 1013-5 × 1015 cm-3 in the ohmic region of the electrical conductivity of solid solutions of layered GaSe x Te1- x single crystals ( x = 1.00, 0.95, 0.90, 0.80, 0.70, 0.30, 0.20, 0.10, 0).

  10. Towards the single european EMC defence standard AECTP 250-500, and planned updates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission is supporting one European wide defence (equipment) market, and national standards are preventing such a European-wide approach. Therefore the European Standardisation organisation CEN was asked to create an organisation to rationalize standards for defence procurement.

  11. Compression and self-entanglement of single DNA molecules under uniform electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jing; Du, Ning; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally study the effects of a uniform electric field on the conformation of single DNA molecules. We demonstrate that a moderate electric field (∼200 V/cm) strongly compresses isolated DNA polymer coils into isotropic globules. Insight into the nature of these compressed states is gained by following the expansion of the molecules back to equilibrium after halting the electric field. We observe two distinct types of expansion modes: a continuous molecular expansion analogous to a c...

  12. D.C. electrical conductivity measurements on ADP single crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    exceed 10–2 so that in real cases with concentration of in- terstitials of the order of 1015–1020 cm–3, (1–f) ≈ 1 (Bunget and Popescu 1984). The electrical conduction in (NH4)H2PO4 crystals can be understood as due to proton as in the case of KH2PO4. The conduction is mainly due to the anions, viz. (H2PO4)–1.

  13. Single Flexible Nanofiber to Simultaneously Realize Electricity-Magnetism Bifunctionality

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ming; Sheng,Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Lv, Nan; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Dong,Xiangting; Liu, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    In order to develop new-typed multifunctional composite nanofibers, PANI/Fe3O4/PVP flexible bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous electrical conduction and magnetism have been successfully fabricated via a facile electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of polyaniline (PANI) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent electri...

  14. Editorial Foreword: The Internal Dynamics of the Enlarged Single European Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Wittlinger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue consists of a small selection of the wide range of papers which were delivered at the seminars. It can thus only provide a snapshot. We have, however, tried to ensure that the choice of the papers included in this volume also reflects the fact that it was academics AND practitioners who contributed to the overall success of the series. Whereas the first five contributors (Schweiger, de la Porte, Funk, Allen and Aldred, Pogátsa examine their various topics from an academic perspective, the last two papers (Galgóczi and Medhurst/Tortolano provide assessments of the impact of the Single European Market on Central and Eastern European and wider EU member state economies and societies from a trade union perspective.

  15. Nanolithography based contacting method for electrical measurements on single template synthesized nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusil, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    A reliable method enabling electrical measurements on single nanowires prepared by electrodeposition in an alumina template is described. This technique is based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of a thin insulating resist deposited on the top face of the template filled by the nanowires...

  16. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1 early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2 microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3 microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4 integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  17. Microfluidic impedance flow cytometry enabling high-throughput single-cell electrical property characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-04-29

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  18. Perspectives for imaging single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Ayyer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules & Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. Here, we propose a cost-effective proof-of-principle experiment, aiming to demonstrate the actual feasibility of a single molecule diffraction experiment at the European XFEL. To this end, we assume self-seeding capabilities at SASE1 and we suggest to make use of the baseline European XFEL accelerator complex—with the addition of a slotted-foil setup—and of the SPB/SFX instrument. As a first step towards the realization of an actual experiment, we developed a complete package of computational tools for start-to-end simulations predicting its performance. Single biomolecule imaging capabilities at the European XFEL can be reached by exploiting special modes of operation of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator. The output peak power can be increased up to more than 1.5 TW, which allows to relax the requirements on the focusing efficiency of the optics and to reach the required fluence without changing the present design of the SPB/SFX instrument. Explicit simulations are presented using the 15-nm size RNA Polymerase II molecule as a case study. Noisy diffraction patterns were generated and they were processed to generate the 3D intensity distribution. We discuss requirements to the signal-to-background ratio needed to obtain a correct pattern orientation. When these are fulfilled, our results indicate that one can achieve diffraction without destruction with about 0.1 photons per Shannon pixel per shot at 4 Å resolution with 1013 photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 0.3 μm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 1014 photons/μm2. We assume

  19. Electrical detection of single magnetic skyrmion at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Tomasello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a protocol for the electrical detection of a magnetic skyrmion via the change of the tunneling magnetoresistive (TMR signal in a three-terminal device. This approach combines alternating spin-transfer torque from both spin-filtering (due to a perpendicular polarizer and spin-Hall effect with the TMR signal. Micromagnetic simulations, used to test and verify such working principle, show that there exists a frequency region particularly suitable for this achievement. This result can be at the basis of the design of a TMR based read-out for skyrmion detection, overcoming the difficulties introduced by the thermal drift of the skyrmion once nucleated.

  20. European energy markets integration and its effects on prices and efficiency of electricity producing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Armada Ramírez, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    [eng] In this work we investigate the effect of energy (electricity) market integration in Europe and its effects on electricity prices and efficiency improvements in electricity producing firms. We first describe at detail the electricity sector, the role of electricity markets, the main characteristics of electricity as a commodity as well as the main features of this particular and strategic sector, we speak about the evolution of consumption of electricity in developed countries and parti...

  1. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, S. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Moshfegh, B. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gaevle, Sandviken and Borlaenge in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO{sub 2}. The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems. (author)

  2. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  3. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general – perhaps global – processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  4. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general perhaps global processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  5. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  6. Electric-acoustic interactions in the hearing cochlea: single fiber recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillein, J; Hartmann, R; Kral, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates interactions of simultaneous electric and acoustic stimulation in single auditory nerve fibers in normal hearing cats. First, the auditory nerve was accessed with a microelectrode and response areas of single nerve fibers were determined for acoustic stimulation. Second, response thresholds to extracochlear sinusoidal electric stimulation using ball electrodes positioned at the round window were measured. Third, interactions that occurred with combined electric-acoustic stimulation were investigated in two areas: (1) the spectral domain (frequency response areas) and (2) the temporal domain (phase-locking to each stimulus) at moderate stimulus intensities (electric: 6 dB re threshold, acoustic: 20-40 dB re threshold at the characteristic frequency, CF). For fibers responding to both modalities responses to both electric and acoustic stimulation could be clearly identified. CFs, thresholds, and bandwidth (Q10dB) of acoustic responses were not significantly affected by simultaneous electric stimulation. Phase-locking of electric responses decreased in the presence of acoustic stimulation. Indication for electric stimulation of inner hair cells with 125 and 250 Hz were observed. However, these did not disturb the acoustic receptive fields of auditory nerve fibers. There was a trade-off between these responses when the intensities of the stimulation were varied: Relatively more intense stimulation dominated less intense stimulation. The scarcity of interaction between the different stimulus modalities demonstrates the ability of electric-acoustic stimulation to transfer useful information through both stimulation channels at the same time despite cochlear electrophonic effects. Application of 30 Hz electric stimulation resulted in a strong suppression of acoustic activity in the anodic phase of the stimulus. An electric stimulation like this might thus be used to control acoustic responses. This article is part of a Special Issue

  7. Second European symposium `Solar and electric-powered vehicles`. Proceedings; Zweites Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book contains 30 scripts of the talks, which were given at the Second European symposium ``Solar and electric-powered vehicles``. For each of the 30 scripts a separate abstract has been written. The main emphasis of the symposium was on: Marginal conditions and an overview of the market; Aspects of the energy storage; Safety aspects; Comfort of solar and electric-powered vehicles. (HW) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die 30 Manuskripte der Vortraege, die anlaesslich des zweiten europaeischen Symposiums `Solar- und Elektromobile` gehalten wurden. Fuer die 30 Manuskripte wurde eine gesonderte inhaltliche Erschliessung erarbeitet. Schwerpunkte der Tagung: - Rahmenbedingungen und Marktuebersicht; - Aspekte der Energiespeichers; - Sicherheitsfragen; - Komfort von Solar- und Elektromobilen. (HW)

  8. Compression and self-entanglement of single DNA molecules under uniform electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Du, Ning; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-09-27

    We experimentally study the effects of a uniform electric field on the conformation of single DNA molecules. We demonstrate that a moderate electric field (~200 V/cm) strongly compresses isolated DNA polymer coils into isotropic globules. Insight into the nature of these compressed states is gained by following the expansion of the molecules back to equilibrium after halting the electric field. We observe two distinct types of expansion modes: a continuous molecular expansion analogous to a compressed spring expanding, and a much slower expansion characterized by two long-lived metastable states. Fluorescence microscopy and stretching experiments reveal that the metastable states are the result of intramolecular self-entanglements induced by the electric field. These results have broad importance in DNA separations and single molecule genomics, polymer rheology, and DNA-based nanofabrication.

  9. DEMOCRITOS Demonstrators for Realization of Nuclear Electric Propulsion of the European Roadmaps MEGAHIT & DiPoP

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank; Bauer, Waldemar; Masson, Frederic; RUAULT, Jean-Marc; Worms, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; Lassoudiere, Francois; Granjon, Richard; Gaia, Enrico; Tosi, Martia Cristina; Semenkin, Alexander; Tinsley, Tim; Hodson, Zara; Koppel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission Horizon 2020 funded DEMOCRITOS project (2015-2017) will be primary focused to prepare preliminary design of the ground, core and space demonstrators and their test benches for the mega-watt class nuclear electric space propulsion INPPS flagship (International Nuclear Power and Propulsion System). In addition programmatic, organizational and funding aspects for international cooperation related to INPPS realization are sketched. The new project includes partners from Eu...

  10. Single European currency and Monetary Union. Macroeconomic implications for pharmaceutical spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the potential implications of introducing a single currency among the Member States of the European Union for national pharmaceutical prices and spending. In doing so, it provides a brief account of the direct effects of introducing a single currency on pharmaceutical business. These are static in nature and include the elimination of exchange rate volatility and transaction costs, increased price transparency and limited potential for parallel trade. It subsequently analyses the potential medium and long term macroeconomic policy choices facing the Member States and their impact on pharmaceutical spending following the introduction of a single currency. These include policy directions in order to meet the Maastricht convergence criteria in the run-up to forming an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the implications of EMU on national macroeconomic policy thereafter. This article argues that the necessity for tight fiscal policies across the EU and, in particular, in those Member States facing high budget deficits and overall debt levels, will continue to exert considerable downward pressure on pharmaceutical spending.

  11. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  12. The Future of the European Electricity Grid Is Bright: Cost Minimizing Optimization Shows Solar with Storage as Dominant Technologies to Meet European Emissions Targets to 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Norwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European roadmap for the power sector dictates an 80–95% cut of existing levels of carbon dioxide emissions is needed by the year 2050 to meet climate goals. This article describes results from a linear cost optimization investment model, ELIN, coupled with a solar technology model, Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP, using published investment costs for a comprehensive suite of renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, to compare possible scenarios for the future electricity grid. The results of these model runs and sensitivity analyses indicate that: (1 solar photovoltaics (PV with battery storage will likely play a very large role in meeting European targets; (2 concentrating solar power (CSP with thermal energy storage is at a slight economic disadvantage with respect to PV to compete economically; (3 the economic potential of wind power is only comparable with solar PV if high wind penetration levels are allowed in the best wind sites in Europe; and (4 carbon capture and nuclear technologies are unlikely to compete economically with renewable technologies in creating a low-carbon future grid.

  13. Development of Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing Platform Based on Single-Molecule Electrical Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    electrical conductivity of DNA polymerase can be directly measured by conjugating the enzyme to a proT, the conductance trajectory may be useful in...incubation. The uptake of GNPs is consistent with receptor-mediated endocytosis . Nevertheless, most GNPs can enter cells efficiently, and most studies...were isolated, and the organ weights of all the mice were measured . Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) For the total element

  14. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  15. Electric field effect on (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Moghimi, Masoumeh

    2012-09-01

    Structural, electronic, and electrical responses of the H-capped (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube was studied under the parallel and transverse electric fields with strengths 0-140 × 10(-4) a.u. by using density functional calculations. Geometry optimizations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory using a locally modified version of the GAMESS electronic structure program. The dipole moments, atomic charge variations, and total energy of the (6,0) zigzag AlNNT show increases with increase in the applied external electric field strengths. The length, tip diameters, electronic spatial extent, and molecular volume of the nanotube do not significantly change with increasing electric field strength. The energy gap of the nanotube decreases with increases of the electric field strength and its reactivity is increased. Increase of the ionization potential, electron affinity, chemical potential, electrophilicity, and HOMO and LUMO in the nanotube with increase of the applied parallel electric field strengths shows that the parallel field has a much stronger interaction with the nanotube with respect to the transverse electric field strengths. Analysis of the parameters indicates that the properties of AlNNTs can be controlled by the proper external electric field.

  16. Dynamics of Single-Photon Emission from Electrically Pumped Color Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsov, Igor A.; Agio, Mario; Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power, high-speed, and bright electrically driven true single-photon sources, which are able to operate at room temperature, are vital for the practical realization of quantum-communication networks and optical quantum computations. Color centers in semiconductors are currently the best candidates; however, in spite of their intensive study in the past decade, the behavior of color centers in electrically controlled systems is poorly understood. Here we present a physical model and establish a theoretical approach to address single-photon emission dynamics of electrically pumped color centers, which interprets experimental results. We support our analysis with self-consistent numerical simulations of a single-photon emitting diode based on a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond and predict the second-order autocorrelation function and other emission characteristics. Our theoretical findings demonstrate remarkable agreement with the experimental results and pave the way to the understanding of single-electron and single-photon processes in semiconductors.

  17. The Single Supervisory Mechanism: the Building Pillar of the European Banking Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Chiarella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the lessons learned from the 2008 financial crisis is that when a bank in Europe goes into trouble the ensuing effects can reach far beyond the immediate threat to its depositors and shareholders. In particular, the crisis has revealed the extent to which irresponsible behavior in the banking sector could undermine the foundations of the financial system and threaten the real economy, turning a banking crisis into a sovereign debt crisis as occurred in the eurozone in 2011. In response to this lesson, Member States first tried to address the systemic fragility of their banking systems through national policy tools, but countries that share a common currency and are more interdependent required more integrated responses. Therefore, at the euro area summit in June 2012, the European Council agreed to break the vicious circle between banks and sovereign debt and decided to create a banking union that would allow a centralized supervision for banks in the euro area through a newly established Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM and a centralized resolution scheme. The SSM became operational in November 2014 and represents the building pillar of the banking union. The purpose of this paper is then to provide, after a brief description of the background (Par. 1, an analysis of the Single Supervisory Mechanism, illustrating its functioning (Par. 2, then focusing on the position and the powers of the ECB within it (Par. 3 and finally pointing out some remarks on the potential weaknesses of the new regime (Par. 4.

  18. Inflammable Gas Mixture Detection with a Single Catalytic Sensor Based on the Electric Field Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ziyuan; Tong, Min-Ming; Meng, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to analyze mixtures of inflammable gases with a single catalytic sensor. The analysis technology was based on a new finding that an electric field on the catalytic sensor can change the output sensitivity of the sensor. The analysis of mixed inflammable gases results from processing the output signals obtained by adjusting the electric field parameter of the catalytic sensor. For the signal process, we designed a group of equations based on the heat balance of catalytic sensor expressing the relationship between the output signals and the concentration of gases. With these equations and the outputs of different electric fields, the gas concentration in a mixture could be calculated. In experiments, a mixture of methane, butane and ethane was analyzed by this new method, and the results showed that the concentration of each gas in the mixture could be detected with a single catalytic sensor, and the maximum relative error was less than 5%. PMID:24717635

  19. Crystal structure and electrical transport properties of single layered perovskite LaSrCoO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Abdul; Shukla, D. K.; Rahman, F.; Majid, S.; Tarachand; Okram, G. S.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present here investigations on the influence of structure on electrical transport properties of polycrystalline LaSrCoO4 that is single layered perovskite with K2NiF4 type structure synthesized using solid state reaction route. Using Reitveld refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, it is found that the sample is in single phase with tetragonal structure (space group I4/mmm). Electrical resistivity performed in the temperature range 140-300K shows semiconducting character of the sample. Considerable contrasts in the Co-O bond length is associated with the intermediate spin (IS) state of Co ion that correlates the structural and transport properties. Detailed analysis indicates that the temperature dependent electrical resistivity follows the three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model in low temperature region below 225K. The high temperature (225-300K) resistivity data has been found to follow the thermally activated behaviour.

  20. An efficiency improved single-phase PFC converter for electric vehicle charger applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Dexuan; Tang, Yi; Jin, Chi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency improved single-phase power factor correction (PFC) converter with its target application to plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging systems. The proposed PFC converter features sinusoidal input current, three-level output characteristic, and wide range...

  1. A high-efficiency electrically-pumped single-photon source based on a photonics nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    An electrically-pumped single-photon source design with a predicted efficiency of 89% is proposed. The design is based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Unlike cavity-based approaches, the photonic nanowire features broadband...

  2. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Cappe Céline; Murray Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub types. Here we paired images with unique meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic single trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging...

  3. Single bubble of an electronegative gas in transformer oil in the presence of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Il'ichev, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the electric field on a single air bubble in transformer oil has been studied. It has been shown that, depending on its size, the bubble may initiate breakdown. The sizes of air and sulfur hexafluoride bubbles at which breakdown will not be observed have been estimated based on the condition for the avalanche-to-streamer transition.

  4. Electricity and energy policy: french specificities and challenges in the european framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In the today context of the electric power european market deregulation and the increase of the energy prices, the energy policy must change. The increase of the energy prices makes wonder the question of the competitiveness of the french economy: what type of supplies and which technological orientations will allow to reduce the constraints. After a presentation of the today electric power french market and the recently modifications bond to the deregulation, this note aims to describe the evolutions, since the first petroleum crisis, of the place given to the electric power in the energy policy, as the technological choices explaining the today structure he electricity production, characterized by the major part of the nuclear. Then the energy policy in matter of the electric power is discussed in the european context, to present the choices impacts facing the european objectives of energy security, environment and market liberalization. (A.L.B.)

  5. Nanoscale Electric Permittivity of Single Bacterial Cells at Gigahertz Frequencies by Scanning Microwave Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Maria Chiara; Fabregas, Rene; Gramse, Georg; Van Der Hofstadt, Marc; Juárez, Antonio; Kienberger, Ferry; Fumagalli, Laura; Gomila, Gabriel

    2016-01-26

    We quantified the electric permittivity of single bacterial cells at microwave frequencies and nanoscale spatial resolution by means of near-field scanning microwave microscopy. To this end, calibrated complex admittance images have been obtained at ∼19 GHz and analyzed with a methodology that removes the nonlocal topographic cross-talk contributions and thus provides quantifiable intrinsic dielectric images of the bacterial cells. Results for single Escherichia coli cells provide a relative electric permittivity of ∼4 in dry conditions and ∼20 in humid conditions, with no significant loss contributions. Present findings, together with the ability of microwaves to penetrate the cell membrane, open an important avenue in the microwave label-free imaging of single cells with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  6. Effects of paired transcutaneous electrical stimulation delivered at single and dual sites over lumbosacral spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayenko, Dimitry G; Atkinson, Darryn A; Floyd, Terrance C; Gorodnichev, Ruslan M; Moshonkina, Tatiana R; Harkema, Susan J; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P

    2015-11-16

    It was demonstrated previously that transcutaneous electrical stimulation of multiple sites over the spinal cord is more effective in inducing robust locomotor behavior as compared to the stimulation of single sites alone in both animal and human models. To explore the effects and mechanisms of interactions during multi-site spinal cord stimulation we delivered transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the single or dual locations over the spinal cord corresponding to approximately L2 and S1 segments. Spinally evoked motor potentials in the leg muscles were investigated using single and paired pulses of 1ms duration with conditioning-test intervals (CTIs) of 5 and 50ms. We observed considerable post-stimulation modulatory effects which depended on CTIs, as well as on whether the paired stimuli were delivered at a single or dual locations, the rostro-caudal relation between the conditioning and test stimuli, and on the muscle studied. At CTI-5, the paired stimulation delivered at single locations (L2 or S1) provided strong inhibitory effects, evidenced by the attenuation of the compound responses as compared with responses from either single site. In contrast, during L2-S1 paradigm, the compound responses were potentiated. At CTI-50, the magnitude of inhibition did not differ among paired stimulation paradigms. Our results suggest that electrical stimuli delivered to dual sites over the lumbosacral enlargement in rostral-to-caudal order, may recruit different populations of motor neurons initially through projecting sensory and intraspinal connections and then directly, resulting in potentiation of the compound spinally evoked motor potentials. The interactive and synergistic effects indicate multi-segmental convergence of descending and ascending influences on the neuronal circuitries during electrical spinal cord stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust neurite extension following exogenous electrical stimulation within single walled carbon nanotube-composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, A N; Keating, K W; McGregor, A L; Koppes, R A; Kearns, K R; Ziemba, A M; McKay, C A; Zuidema, J M; Rivet, C J; Gilbert, R J; Thompson, D M

    2016-07-15

    The use of exogenous electrical stimulation to promote nerve regeneration has achieved only limited success. Conditions impeding optimized outgrowth may arise from inadequate stimulus presentation due to differences in injury geometry or signal attenuation. Implantation of an electrically-conductive biomaterial may mitigate this attenuation and provide a more reproducible signal. In this study, a conductive nanofiller (single-walled carbon nanotubes [SWCNT]) was selected as one possible material to manipulate the bulk electrical properties of a collagen type I-10% Matrigel™ composite hydrogel. Neurite outgrowth within hydrogels (SWCNT or nanofiller-free controls) was characterized to determine if: (1) nanofillers influence neurite extension and (2) electrical stimulation of the nanofiller composite hydrogel enhances neurite outgrowth. Increased SWCNT loading (10-100-μg/mL) resulted in greater bulk conductivity (up to 1.7-fold) with no significant changes to elastic modulus. Neurite outgrowth increased 3.3-fold in 20-μg/mL SWCNT loaded biomaterials relative to the nanofiller-free control. Electrical stimulation promoted greater outgrowth (2.9-fold) within SWCNT-free control. The concurrent presentation of electrical stimulation and SWCNT-loaded biomaterials resulted in a 7.0-fold increase in outgrowth relative to the unstimulated, nanofiller-free controls. Local glia residing within the DRG likely contribute, in part, to the observed increases in outgrowth; but it is unknown which specific nanofiller properties influence neurite extension. Characterization of neuronal behavior in model systems, such as those described here, will aid the rational development of biomaterials as well as the appropriate delivery of electrical stimuli to support nerve repair. Novel biomedical devices delivering electrical stimulation are being developed to mitigate symptoms of Parkinson's, treat drug-resistant depression, control movement or enhance verve regeneration. Carbon

  8. Role of National Support Policy in the large-scale integration of DER into the European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Donkelaar, Michael; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This report concerns a study of the DER support schemes in the different EU Member States, their effectiveness and if necessary how these might be moulded to become more cost-effective in the future to integrate much larger shares of DER in the European electricity supply system. The report is part...... of a set of reports on DER integration issues and together they present a full and complete report on key issues of policy support, required changes in regulation and other issues that hamper more DER integration in supply....

  9. Green certificate trading in the Netherlands in the prospect of the European electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2002-01-01

    The support system for green electricity in the Netherlands has been one of the most complex and complicated systems across Europe. A voluntary trade of green certificates—or green labels—was one of the schemes used in the policy models of the 1990s. The liberalization of the electricity market has

  10. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  11. Electricity from biomass in the European Union - with or without biomass import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    . The ADMIRE REBUS model combines cost data for electricity producing renewable energy technologies with data on the renewable energy resources available in EU and assesses the effect of the various national support policies for green electricity in the EU countries. The major finding of the study...

  12. Single-Cell Electric Lysis on an Electroosmotic-Driven Microfluidic Chip with Arrays of Microwells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hung Chen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate analysis at the single-cell level has become a highly attractive tool for investigating cellular content. An electroosmotic-driven microfluidic chip with arrays of 30-µm-diameter microwells was developed for single-cell electric lysis in the present study. The cellular occupancy in the microwells when the applied voltage was 5 V (82.4% was slightly higher than that at an applied voltage of 10 V (81.8%. When the applied voltage was increased to 15 V, the cellular occupancy in the microwells dropped to 64.3%. More than 50% of the occupied microwells contain individual cells. The results of electric lysis experiments at the single-cell level indicate that the cells were gradually lysed as the DC voltage of 30 V was applied; the cell was fully lysed after 25 s. Single-cell electric lysis was demonstrated in the proposed microfluidic chip, which is suitable for high-throughput cell lysis.

  13. Electricity production from beer brewery wastewater using single chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Feng, Y J; Lee, H

    2008-01-01

    The performance of electricity production from beer brewery wastewater in a single chamber membrane-free microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated. Experimental results showed that the MFCs could generate electricity from full-strength wastewater (2,239 mg-COD/L, 50 mM PBS added) with the maximum power density of 483 mW/m2 (12 W/m3) at 30 degrees C and 435 mW/m2 (11 W/m3) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Temperature was found to have bigger impact on cathode potential than anode potential. Results suggested that it is feasible to generate electricity with the treatment of beer brewery wastewater. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  14. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  15. Simultaneous optical and electrical single channel recordings on a PEG glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Toru; Takeuchi, Yuko; Noji, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Kazuhito V

    2010-06-01

    Single molecule imaging of working ion-channels is much more difficult than that of water-soluble proteins because of the fragile nature of membranes and lateral diffusion of particles in the membranes, which does not allow fluorescent contamination for optical single channel recording. In this report, we reconstituted maxi-potassium channels from porcine uterine smooth muscle into artificial planar bilayers formed on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified glass and performed simultaneous optical and electrical recording of the single channels. The channels were immobilized in the membranes by anchoring to PEG molecules on the glass. The technique developed in this study should pave the way for single molecule pharmacology of ion-channels.

  16. Electrical transport in UNi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, Z. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 WrocIaw (Poland); Gofryk, K. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 WrocIaw (Poland); Plackowski, T. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 WrocIaw (Poland); Kaczorowski, D. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: D.Kaczorowski@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2005-09-01

    Single crystals of UNi{sub 0}.{sub 5}Sb{sub 2} were investigated by means of Seebeck coefficient and Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 5-300 K. The results corroborated the occurrence of two magnetic phase transitions: from para- to antiferromagnetic state at T {sub N} = 161.5 K and a spin-reorientation near T {sub t} = 64 K. The first-order character of the latter feature was proved by studying in detail the electrical resistivity and the magnetic susceptibility of single-crystalline UNi{sub 0}.{sub 5}Sb{sub 2} in the vicinity of T {sub t}.

  17. Single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in electrically active photonic crystal nanocavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Felix; Kaniber, Michael; Bichler, Max; Boehm, Gerhard; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan [Walter Schottky Institut, Am Coulombwall 3, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    We present investigations of the coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) to both extended and strongly localised optical modes in electrical contacted 2D photonic crystal (PC) nanostructures. The samples investigated consist of an 180 nm thick, free-standing GaAs membrane into which a PC is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode-volume (V (<{lambda}/n){sup 3}) and high-Q ({proportional_to}2000) cavities are introduced by single missing hole defects. Embedding the QDs into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode enables us to apply static electric fields to QDs in the cavity and control the energy detuning between the dot and cavity using the quantum confined Stark effect. The active PC nanocavities were studied using spatially resolved luminescence and photocurrent absorption spectroscopy. Quenching of the PL is observed for fields>50 kV/cm due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots that occurs over timescales faster than the radiative lifetime. By measuring the PL quenching as a function of position on the PC and nanocavity we electrically probe the local density of photonic states via a shift of the threshold voltage. Also investigations of the exciton lifetime and PL intensity of single QDs as a function of spectral detuning from the cavity mode are made.

  18. Electrical transport between single-crystal domains in graphene: bigger is not always better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Adam; Brown, Lola; Levendorf, Mark; Ghahari, Fereshte; Huang, Pinshane; Ruiz-Vargas, Carlos; Muller, David; Kim, Philip; Park, Jiwoong

    2012-02-01

    Single-layer graphene can now be produced on the centimeter or even meter scale using chemical vapor deposition. These large-scale graphene films are polycrystalline, consisting of many separate single-crystal domains, as was recently identified using transmission electron microscopy. Understanding the electrical transport across these domains is relevant not only for device applications, but has also been the focus of many fundamental studies. Here, we first examine the structure of graphenes produced under different growth conditions using dark-field transmission electron microscopy (DF-TEM). We find three classes of grain boundaries--continuous, amorphous, and overlapped. Next, we study the electrical properties of graphene devices consisting of individual grain boundaries that have been first imaged by DF-TEM. We find that the grain boundaries exhibit an additional gate-dependent resistance that is keenly sensitive to growth conditions. Surprisingly, this resistance is an order of magnitude greater for growths with larger grain size due to more poorly-connected domains. Our results show that domain size is not the single most important parameter determining electrical performance of large-scale graphene films--the quality of inter-domain connections is just as crucial.

  19. The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    TARTIU Valentina Elena

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, WEEE constitutes one of the fastest growing waste fractions generated, accounting for 8% of all municipal waste. This trend increases the environmental burdens consequently action on WEEE is an urgent need in nowadays. The paper outline the current status of the management of the WEEE across the European Union.

  20. Generating single photons at gigahertz modulation-speed using electrically controlled quantum dot microlenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Schmidt, R.; Hopfmann, C.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Gershoni, D. [The Physics Department and the Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-01-11

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulse trains at a repetition rate of up to 1 GHz. We achieve this speed by modulating the external voltage applied on an electrically contacted quantum dot microlens, which is optically excited by a continuous-wave laser. By modulating the photoluminescence of the quantum dot microlens using a square-wave voltage, single-photon emission is triggered with a response time as short as (281 ± 19) ps, being 6 times faster than the radiative lifetime of (1.75 ± 0.02) ns. This large reduction in the characteristic emission time is enabled by a rapid capacitive gating of emission from the quantum dot, which is placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n-junction biased below the onset of electroluminescence. Here, since our circuit acts as a rectifying differentiator, the rising edge of the applied voltage pulses triggers the emission of single photons from the optically excited quantum dot. The non-classical nature of the photon pulse train generated at GHz-speed is proven by intensity autocorrelation measurements with g{sup (2)}(0) = 0.3 ± 0.1. Our results combine optical excitation with fast electrical gating and thus show promise for the generation of indistinguishable single photons at rates exceeding the limitations set by the intrinsic radiative lifetime.

  1. Generating single photons at gigahertz modulation-speed using electrically controlled quantum dot microlenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A.; Schmidt, R.; Hopfmann, C.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T.; Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Gershoni, D.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulse trains at a repetition rate of up to 1 GHz. We achieve this speed by modulating the external voltage applied on an electrically contacted quantum dot microlens, which is optically excited by a continuous-wave laser. By modulating the photoluminescence of the quantum dot microlens using a square-wave voltage, single-photon emission is triggered with a response time as short as (281 ± 19) ps, being 6 times faster than the radiative lifetime of (1.75 ± 0.02) ns. This large reduction in the characteristic emission time is enabled by a rapid capacitive gating of emission from the quantum dot, which is placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n-junction biased below the onset of electroluminescence. Here, since our circuit acts as a rectifying differentiator, the rising edge of the applied voltage pulses triggers the emission of single photons from the optically excited quantum dot. The non-classical nature of the photon pulse train generated at GHz-speed is proven by intensity autocorrelation measurements with g(2)(0) = 0.3 ± 0.1. Our results combine optical excitation with fast electrical gating and thus show promise for the generation of indistinguishable single photons at rates exceeding the limitations set by the intrinsic radiative lifetime.

  2. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  3. The internationalization of the European electricity industry. The case of Vattenfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [History of Science and Technology, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This article explains how the Swedish state-owned electricity company Vattenfall managed to become the most successful foreign player on the German electricity market. It does so by providing an in-depth historical analysis of Vattenfall's transformation from a national into an international actor, a process that proved long and difficult. The article starts out by identifying the transformation pressures that Vattenfall faced in the late 1980s. It then continues with a detailed analysis of Vattenfall's response to these pressures, culminating in a seemingly sudden wave of major acquisitions in Germany in the period 1999-2002. (author)

  4. Terahertz electrical and optical properties of LiNbO3 single crystal thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Ellis, Carol; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2015-08-01

    A study of Terahertz response of single crystal LiNbO3 thin films subjected to different structural and experimental configuration has been conducted in this work. In this work z-cut and x-cut ion-sliced Lithium Niobate thin films with and without embedded electrodes have been studied employing both Transmission and Reflection mode of Terahertz Spectroscopy along with z-cut single crystal in bulk form. The measurements have been performed in room temperature to probe distinctive THz-material interactions in the frequency range of 0.1-3 THz (3.34cm-1 - 100cm-1). The information thus obtained from the experimental investigation has been used to deduce a conclusive study on the influence of different polar domains on electrical and optical properties in THz frequency regime. Single Lorentzian oscillator model has also been used to define the THz signature thus acquired.

  5. Electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar single photon source with 34% overall efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, T.; Schneider, C.; Lermer, M.; Kwon, S. H.; Braun, T.; Reitzenstein, S.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Forchel, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on triggered single photon emission from low mode volume electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar cavities at repetition rates of up to 220 MHz. Due to an optimized layout of the doped planar microcavity and an advanced lateral current injection scheme, highly efficient single photon sources are realized. While g(2)(0)-values as low as 0.13±0.05 and a Purcell factor of 4 are observed for a 2.0 μm diameter micropillar, single photon emission at a rate of (35±7) MHz and an overall efficiency of (34±7)% are demonstrated for a 3.0 μm device.

  6. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail

  7. Impact of electricity prices on foreign direct investment: Evidence from the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartekova, E.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the course of recent years growing concerns over increasing energy prices have emerged in the context of maintaining Europe’s international competitiveness. In particular, rising electricity price differentials adversely affect firms’ total production costs and ultimately impact their investment

  8. Effect of Saline Solution on the Electrical Response of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes-Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Younes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of saline solution on the electrical resistance of single wall carbon nanotubes-epoxy nanocomposites have been investigated experimentally. Ultrasonic assisted fabricated 1.0% and 0.5 W/W% SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites are integrated into a Kelvin structure by smear cast the nanocomposites on a glass wafer. Four metal pads are deposited on the nanocomposites using the beam evaporator and wires are tethered using soldering. The effect of saline solution on the electrical resistance of the nanocomposites is studied by adding drop of saline solution to the surface of the fabricated nanocomposites and measuring electrical resistance. Moreover, the nanocomposites are soaked completely into 3 wt.% saline solution and real-time measurement of the electrical resistance is conducted. It is found that a drop of saline solution on the surface of the nanocomposites film increases the resistance by 50%. Furthermore, the real-time measurement reveals a 40% increase in the resistance of the nanocomposites film. More importantly, the nanocomposites are successfully reset by soaking in DI water for four hours. This study may open the door for using SWCNTs epoxy nanocomposites as scale sensors in oil and gas industry.

  9. European renewable energy policy at crossroads-Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: fouquet@kuhbier.com; Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred.

  10. European renewable energy policy at crossroads. Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium); Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred. (author)

  11. Synthesis and electrical transport of single-crystal NH4V3O8 nanobelts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, L Q; Lao, C S; Hu, B; Zhou, J; Qi, Y Y; Chen, W; Gu, E D; Wang, Z L

    2006-09-21

    Monoclinic NH(4)V(3)O(8) single-crystalline nanobelts with widths of 80-180 nm, thicknesses of 50-100 nm, and lengths up to tens of micrometers have been synthesized at large scale in an ammonium metavanadate solution by a templates/catalysts-free route. Such nanobelts grow along the direction of [010]. The individual NH(4)V(3)O(8) nanobelt exhibits nonlinear, symmetric current/voltage (I/V) characteristics, with a conductivity of 0.1-1 S/cm at room temperature and a dielectric constant of approximately 130. The dominant conduction mechanism is based on small polaron hopping due to ohmic mechanism at low electric field below 249 V/cm due to Schottky emission at medium electric field between 249 and 600 V/cm and due to the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism at high field above 600 V/cm.

  12. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda García-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  13. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  14. On-Chip Magnetic Platform for Single-Particle Manipulation with Integrated Electrical Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, Marco; Torti, Andrea; Cantoni, Matteo; Petti, Daniela; Albisetti, Edoardo; Manzin, Alessandra; Guerriero, Erica; Sordan, Roman; Gervasoni, Giacomo; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Bertacco, Riccardo

    2016-02-17

    Methods for the manipulation of single magnetic particles have become very interesting, in particular for in vitro biological studies. Most of these studies require an external microscope to provide the operator with feedback for controlling the particle motion, thus preventing the use of magnetic particles in high-throughput experiments. In this paper, a simple and compact system with integrated electrical feedback is presented, implementing in the very same device both the manipulation and detection of the transit of single particles. The proposed platform is based on zig-zag shaped magnetic nanostructures, where transverse magnetic domain walls are pinned at the corners and attract magnetic particles in suspension. By applying suitable external magnetic fields, the domain walls move to the nearest corner, thus causing the step by step displacement of the particles along the nanostructure. The very same structure is also employed for detecting the bead transit. Indeed, the presence of the magnetic particle in suspension over the domain wall affects the depinning field required for its displacement. This characteristic field can be monitored through anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements, thus implementing an integrated electrical feedback of the bead transit. In particular, the individual manipulation and detection of single 1-μm sized beads is demonstrated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  16. COMPARING EUROPEAN MEMBER STATE ELECTRIC VEHICLE UPTAKE INCENTIVES AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

    OpenAIRE

    HARRISON GILLIAN; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2015-01-01

    A complex system dynamics model of the EU light duty vehicle sector has been employed to assess policy options for electric (e) - mobility. The focus in this research is on passenger cars, and investigating the implications for individual member states, who are currently tasked with designing national uptake incentives and policy frameworks for alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The model encompasses the market agents of User, Automobile Manufacturer, Infrastructure Provider and Auth...

  17. The occurrence of single and multiple organ dysfunction in pediatric electrical versus other thermal burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Wurzer, Paul; Forbes, Abigail A; Voigt, Charles D; Collins, Vanessa N; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Branski, Ludwik K

    2017-05-01

    Multiple organ failure (MOF) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in burned children. While various complications induced by electrical injuries have been described, the incidence and severity of single organ failure (SOF) and MOF associated with this type of injury are unknown. The study was undertaken to compare the incidence and severity of SOF and MOF as well as other complications between electrically and thermally burned children. Between 2001 and 2016, 288 pediatric patients with electrical burns (EB; n = 96) or thermal burns (CTR; n = 192) were analyzed in this study. Demographic data; length of hospitalization; and number and type of operations, amputations, and complications were statistically analyzed. Incidence of SOF and MOF was assessed using the DENVER2 classification in an additive mixed model over time. Compound scores and organ-specific scores for lung, heart, kidney, and liver were analyzed. Serum cytokine expression profiles of both groups were also compared over time. Significance was accepted at p burned (CTR, 33% ± 25%, vs EB, 32 ± 25%), and length of hospitalization (CTR, 18 ± 26 days, vs EB, 18 ± 21 days). The percentage of high-voltage injury in the EB group was 64%. The incidence of MOF was lower in the EB group (2 of 96 [2.1%]) than the CTR group (20 of 192 [10.4%]; p pediatric patients, electrical injury is associated with a lower incidence of MOF than other thermal burns. Early and radical debridement of nonviable tissue is crucial to improve outcomes in the electrical burn patient population. Retrospective chart review, level III.

  18. Single-molecule electrical contacts on silicon electrodes under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonès, Albert C.; Darwish, Nadim; Ciampi, Simone; Sanz, Fausto; Gooding, J. Justin; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2017-04-01

    The ultimate goal in molecular electronics is to use individual molecules as the active electronic component of a real-world sturdy device. For this concept to become reality, it will require the field of single-molecule electronics to shift towards the semiconducting platform of the current microelectronics industry. Here, we report silicon-based single-molecule contacts that are mechanically and electrically stable under ambient conditions. The single-molecule contacts are prepared on silicon electrodes using the scanning tunnelling microscopy break-junction approach using a top metallic probe. The molecular wires show remarkable current-voltage reproducibility, as compared to an open silicon/nano-gap/metal junction, with current rectification ratios exceeding 4,000 when a low-doped silicon is used. The extension of the single-molecule junction approach to a silicon substrate contributes to the next level of miniaturization of electronic components and it is anticipated it will pave the way to a new class of robust single-molecule circuits.

  19. In-line single-mode fiber variable optical attenuator based on electrically addressable microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duduś, A.; Blue, R.; Zagnoni, M.; Stewart, G.; Uttamchandani, D.

    2014-07-01

    We report an in-line, fiber optic, broadband variable optical attenuator employing a side-polished, single-mode optical fiber integrated on a digital microfluidics platform. The system is designed to electrically translate a liquid droplet along the polished surface of an optical fiber using electrowetting forces. This fiber optic device has the advantage of no moving mechanical parts and lends itself to miniaturization. A maximum attenuation of 25 dB has been obtained in the wavelength range between 1520 nm and 1560 nm.

  20. Electrically tunable single-dot nanocavities in the weak and strong coupling regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, Arne; Hofbauer, Felix; Angele, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    was varied by changing the lattice temperature [2,3], or by the adsorption of inert-gases at low temperatures [4], we demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling, simply by varying a gate voltage [1]. Our results show...... of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 2g...

  1. Designs for high-efficiency electrically pumped photonic nanowire single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We propose and analyze three electrically-pumped nanowire single-photon source structures, which achieve output efficiencies of more than 80%. These structures are based on a quantum dot embedded in a photonic nanowire with carefully tailored ends and optimized contact electrodes. Contrary...... to conventional cavity-based sources, this non-resonant approach provides broadband spontaneous emission control and features an improved fabrication tolerance towards surface roughness and imperfections. Using an element-splitting approach, we analyze the various building blocks of the designs with respect...

  2. Electrical manipulation of spin states in a single electrostatically gated transition-metal complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, Edgar A; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an electrically controlled high-spin (S = 5/2) to low-spin (S = 1/2) transition in a three-terminal device incorporating a single Mn(2+) ion coordinated by two terpyridine ligands. By adjusting the gate-voltage we reduce the terpyridine moiety and thereby strengthen the ligand-fiel...... a strongly gate-dependent singlet-triplet splitting on the low-spin side. The measured bias-spectroscopy is shown to be consistent with an exact diagonalization of the Mn-complex, and an interpretation of the data is given in terms of a simplified effective model....

  3. Electrical energy conversion system design with single-phase inverter and H5 transformerless topology

    OpenAIRE

    Colina Morles, Eliézer

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an electrical energy conversion system (EECS) for the use of solar energy and its conditioning for injection of energy to the commercial power grid. A single-phase full-bridge inverter with transformerless H5 topology coupled to a LCL filter is used. The system is identified using an averaged small-signal state space model; while the used cascade control scheme is tuned by pole placement and includes a maximum power disturb-observe tracking type algorithm of ...

  4. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  5. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  6. A single European pharmaceutical market: Does maximum harmonization enhance medicinal product innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2013-01-01

    – Innovation Union’ – market fragmentation to be one of the major causes of the lack of innovation. In order to establish if maximum harmonization benefits innovation, two distinct legal regimes in the pharmaceutical sector will be compared. The general rules for medicinal products are weighed against......The pharmaceutical sector in the European Union is innovative, but not innovative enough to compete on the world market. This article addresses this issue from the perspective of market harmonization, since the European Commission perceives – according to the ‘European 2020 Flagship Initiative...... the orphan medicinal products scheme. The latter is subject to uniform Union rules specifically introduced to stimulate research and development and has led to the development of a number of new products. The article shows that the most radical positive integration depends to a large extent on the prospect...

  7. Chemical Principles and Interference in the Electrical Conductance of Single Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Anders Christian

    The electrical conductance of single molecules are routinely reported in the scientific literature and off-resonant coherent tunneling is believed to be the mechanism for transport in some of these experiments. In these experiments it is observed that, in spite of similar molecular structures......, the conductance of molecules can vary orders of magnitude and the concept of interference is believed to play a major role in this. This thesis investigates the links between single molecule conductance, chemistry and interference effects in short organic molecules. It is investigated to which extent...... the conductance can be understood in terms of separate contributions and when the effects of interference are important. Links between chemical principles and constructive- and destructive interference effects are demonstrated using a combination of simple models, atomistic calculations and Scanning...

  8. Meeting and mating across borders: union formation in the European union single market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Díez Medrano, J.

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across

  9. Crystallographic, Magnetic, Thermal, and Electric Transport Properties in UPtIn Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Haga, Yoshinori; Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Fisk, Zachary

    2018-02-01

    We have studied the crystallographic, magnetic, thermal, and electric transport properties in UPtIn, one of the UTX (T = transition metal, X = Al, Ga, In) families with the hexagonal ZrNiAl structure. A single crystal of UPtIn was prepared by the flux method for the first time. Crystallographic parameters are determined. UPtIn has strong Ising character, the magnetic easy axis being the c-axis. These results determined magnetic properties are consistent with the magnetic structure obtained by neutron scattering measurements. The residual resistivity of our single crystal is 27.9 µΩ cm which is one-third times smaller than that of polycrystalline sample. Specific heat (C) measurements show that the phase transition at 10.5 K, although the antiferromagnetic order takes place at 22 K prepared by arc melt and at 15 K prepared by solid reaction, indicating that the physical properties of UPtIn are dependent on the sample preparation. C/T deviates from T-linear behavior below 1.4 K, indicating that the electronic specific heat coefficient γ is much smaller than that of previous study. The resistivity is almost independent to the temperature below 3.7 K and A coefficient of the quadratic temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is small, indicating that the mass enhancement is small. These results indicate that UPtIn is not a heavy-fermion system.

  10. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  11. Structurally nanocrystalline-electrically single crystalline ZnO-reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Woo Hyun; Kim, Bo Bae; Seo, Seul Gi; Lim, Young Soo; Kim, Jong-Young; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Won Kook; Park, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2014-09-10

    ZnO, a wide bandgap semiconductor, has attracted much attention due to its multifunctionality, such as transparent conducting oxide, light-emitting diode, photocatalyst, and so on. To improve its performances in the versatile applications, numerous hybrid strategies of ZnO with graphene have been attempted, and various synergistic effects have been achieved in the ZnO-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Here we report extraordinary charge transport behavior in Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. Although the most challenging issue in semiconductor nanocomposites is their low mobilities, the AZO-RGO nanocomposites exhibit single crystal-like Hall mobility despite the large quantity of nanograin boundaries, which hinder the electron transport by the scattering with trapped charges. Because of the significantly weakened grain boundary barrier and the proper band alignment between the AZO and RGO, freely conducting electrons across the nanograin boundaries can be realized in the nanocomposites. This discovery of the structurally nanocrystalline-electrically single crystalline composite demonstrates a new route for enhancing the electrical properties in nanocomposites based on the hybrid strategy.

  12. The impact of German CO{sub 2}-reduction targets on the European electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The topic ''CO{sub 2}-reduction within the electric power system'' should actually be preceded by a more general remark on the efficiency of energy policy from a macroeconomic perspective. An efficient and effective energy policy necessitates that the primary targets of such an energy policy, namely safeguarding a sustainable energy supply as well as considering environmental and climate objectives, are attained at the lowest possible costs. This corresponds to the general economic principle according to which given goals are to be achieved with relatively little effort and/or investments. That is beyond doubt because it means nothing else than to avoid any unnecessary waste of resources in order to reach such objectives.

  13. Climate change and the vulnerability of electricity generation to water stress in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Nanninga, Tijmen; Walsh, Brid; Rodrigues, João F. D.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generation requires large amounts of water for cooling. Recent warm periods have led to curtailments in generation, highlighting concerns about security of supply. Here we assess EU-wide climate impacts for 1,326 individual thermoelectric plants and 818 water basins in 2020 and 2030. We show that, despite policy goals and a decrease in electricity-related water withdrawal, the number of regions experiencing some reduction in power availability due to water stress rises from 47 basins to 54 basins between 2014 and 2030, with further plants planned for construction in stressed basins. We examine the reasons for these pressures by including water demand for other uses. The majority of vulnerable basins lie in the Mediterranean region, with further basins in France, Germany and Poland. We investigate four adaptations, finding that increased future seawater cooling eases some pressures. This highlights the need for an integrated, basin-level approach in energy and water policy.

  14. The Acoustoelectric and Electric Characterization of Single Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Edwin Sabas

    The acoustoelectric effect in single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is studied in a hybrid setup. Such effects, which rely on the transfer of momentum from surface acoustic waves (SAWs), are generated on the surface of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) to the carriers in MoS2 and WSe2, resulting in an attenuation and velocity shift of the wave and giving rise to an acoustoelectric current. This dissertation examines the feasibility of integrating high-quality, single-layer MoS2 and WSe2 onto LiNbO3 to ultimately fabricate and characterize a hybrid chip that combines the functionality of a field-effect transistor (FET) and SAW device. MoS2 and WSe2 were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly onto a chemically-reduced LiNbO3 substrate. LiNbO3 is a ferroelectric material that offers a unique blend of piezoelectric and birefringent properties, yet it lacks both optical activity and semiconductor transport. The prototypical device exhibits electrical characteristics that are competitive with MoS2 and WSe2 devices on silicon. These results demonstrate both a sound-driven battery and an acoustic photodetector, and ultimately open directions to non-invasive investigation of electrical properties of single-layer films. The experiments reveal close agreement between transport measurements utilizing conventional contacts and SAW spectroscopy. This approach will set forth the possibility of contact-free transport characterization of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) films, avoiding such concerns as the role of charge transfer at contacts as an artifact of such measurements.

  15. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  16. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topor Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control. The proposed topologies, the circuit model, controlled dynamics simulation and preliminary 3D FEM torque production on a case study constitute the core of the paper. The proposed dual mechanical port system should be instrumental in parallel (with planetary gears or series hybrid electric vehicles (HEV aiming at a more compact and efficient electric propulsion system solution.

  17. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  18. Volatility transmission and volatility impulse response functions in European electricity forward markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pen, Yannick [Institut d' Economie et de Management de Nantes - IAE, Universite de Nantes, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, BP 52231, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Sevi, Benoit [Universite d' Angers (GRANEM), Faculte de Droit, Economie et Gestion, Universite d' Angers, 13 allee Francois Mitterrand, BP 13633, 49036 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Using daily data from March 2001 to June 2005, we estimate a VAR-BEKK model and find evidence of return and volatility spillovers between the German, the Dutch and the British forward electricity markets. We apply Hafner and Herwartz [2006, Journal of International Money and Finance 25, 719-740] Volatility Impulse Response Function (VIRF) to quantify the impact of shock on expected conditional volatility. We observe that a shock has a high positive impact only if its size is large compared to the current level of volatility. The impact of shocks are usually not persistent, which may be a consequence of the non-storability of power. Finally, we estimate the density of the VIRF at different forecast horizons. These fitted distributions are asymmetric and show that large increases in expected conditional volatilities are possible even if their probability is low. These results have interesting implications for market participants whose risk management policy depends on option prices which themselves depend on the characteristics of volatility. (author)

  19. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Montanari

    Full Text Available We have used new generation sequencing (NGS technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L. cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey' and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd. and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  20. Novel techniques for optical sensor using single core multi-layer structures for electric field detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir R.; Kamel, Mohamed A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies the effect of the electrostriction force on the single optical dielectric core coated with multi-layers based on whispering gallery mode (WGM). The sensing element is a dielectric core made of polymeric material coated with multi-layers having different dielectric and mechanical properties. The external electric field deforming the sensing element causing shifts in its WGM spectrum. The multi-layer structures will enhance the body and the pressure forces acting on the core of the sensing element. Due to the gradient on the dielectric permittivity; pressure forces at the interface between every two layers will be created. Also, the gradient on Young's modulus will affect the overall stiffness of the optical sensor. In turn the sensitivity of the optical sensor to the electric field will be increased when the materials of each layer selected properly. A mathematical model is used to test the effect for that multi-layer structures. Two layering techniques are considered to increase the sensor's sensitivity; (i) Pressure force enhancement technique; and (ii) Young's modulus reduction technique. In the first technique, Young's modulus is kept constant for all layers, while the dielectric permittivity is varying. In this technique the results will be affected by the value dielectric permittivity of the outer medium surrounding the cavity. If the medium's dielectric permittivity is greater than that of the cavity, then the ascending ordered layers of the cavity will yield the highest sensitivity (the core will have the smallest dielectric permittivity) to the applied electric field and vice versa. In the second technique, Young's modulus is varying along the layers, while the dielectric permittivity has a certain constant value per layer. On the other hand, the descending order will enhance the sensitivity in the second technique. Overall, results show the multi-layer cavity based on these techniques will enhance the sensitivity compared to the typical

  1. Electrically injected GaAsBi/GaAs single quantum well laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juanjuan; Pan, Wenwu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Li, Yaoyao; Chen, Xiren; Zhang, Yanchao; Wang, Lijuan; Yan, Jinyi; Zhang, Dongliang; Song, Yuxin; Shao, Jun; Wang, Shumin

    2017-11-01

    We present electrically injected GaAs/GaAsBi single quantum well laser diodes (LDs) emitting at a record long wavelength of 1141 nm at room temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The LDs have excellent device performances with internal quantum efficiency of 86%, internal loss of 10 cm-1 and transparency current density of 196 A/cm2. The LDs can operate under continuous-wave mode up to 273 K. The characteristic temperature are extracted to be 125 K in the temperature range of 77˜150 K, and reduced to 90 K in the range of 150˜273 K. The temperature coefficient of 0.3 nm/K is extracted in the temperature range of 77˜273 K.

  2. Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Hyojeong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, optical and electrical properties of Cl-doped CdTe crystals grown by the low pressure Bridgman (LPB method were investigated for four different doping concentrations (unintentionally doped, 4.97 × 1019 cm−3, 9.94 × 1019 cm−3 and 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 and three different locations within the ingots (namely, samples from top, middle and bottom positions in the order of the distance from the tip of the ingot. It was shown that Cl dopant suppressed the unwanted secondary (5 1 1 crystalline orientation. Also, the average size and surface coverage of Te inclusions decreased with an increase in Cl doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical quality of the Cl-doped CdTe single crystals was enhanced. The resistivity of the CdTe sample doped with Cl at the 1.99 × 1020 cm−3 was above 1010 Ω.cm.

  3. Transverse electric field–induced deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ningyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deformation of armchair single-walled carbon nanotube under transverse electric field has been investigated using density functional theory. The results show that the circular cross-sections of the nanotubes are deformed to elliptic ones, in which the tube diameter along the field direction is increased, whereas the diameter perpendicular to the field direction is reduced. The electronic structures of the deformed nanotubes were also studied. The ratio of the major diameter to the minor diameter of the elliptic cross-section was used to estimate the degree of the deformation. It is found that this ratio depends on the field strength and the tube diameter. However, the field direction has little role in the deformation. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9617-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file

  4. Chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms from single metal oxide nanowire measurements: response time constant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Insight into chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place at the surface of a single metal oxide nanowire is reported due to its outstanding importance for determining the characteristics of resistive solid state gas sensors. The surface chemical reaction kinetics is discussed considering competitiveness phenomena among different active sites and gas species on the nanowire taken as a metal oxide monocrystal at the nanoscale level. Experimental results for different representative gas molecules are shown to determine and understand sensor selectivity. The reported gas species are carbon monoxide and water vapour as general reference molecules, and ethanol and ammonia species as special references for gas-solid interactions, respectively, on acid and basic sites. Kinetic properties are proposed as particular signatures for each of the possible surface chemical reactions, allowing their identification and distinction. Likewise, features such as thermal inertia limitation and effects of the molecular and monoatomic absorbed oxygen are also estimated considering operation working modes based on nanowire self-heating. Furthermore, the applicability of a surface electrical field on a one-dimensional metal oxide nanostructure to enhance the surface ionization of the absorbed molecules is also reviewed as a new type of metal oxide based nanosensor for achieving improved selectivity.

  5. Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, A; Hofbauer, F; Hauke, N; Angele, J; Kaniber, M; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P [DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Building 345V, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)], E-mail: finley@wsi.tum.de

    2009-02-15

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light-matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by {approx}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes ({approx}100 {mu}eV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors {>=}7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zero-dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q{>=}12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to {approx}120 {mu}eV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ({gamma}{<=}40 {mu}eV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.

  6. Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucht, A; Hofbauer, F; Hauke, N; Angele, J; Stobbe, S; Kaniber, M; Böhm, G; Lodahl, P; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J

    2009-02-01

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light-matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot-cavity spectral detuning was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by ~4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape. This range is much larger than the typical linewidth of the high-Q cavity modes (~100 μeV) allowing us to explore and contrast regimes where the dots couple to the cavity or decay by spontaneous emission into the two-dimensional photonic bandgap. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the dot spontaneous emission rate can be tuned using a gate voltage, with Purcell factors >=7. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime, and electrical control of zero-dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q>=12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to ~120 μeV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton (γ<=40 μeV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components.

  7. Elaborating European Pharmacopoeia monographs for biotherapeutic proteins using substances from a single source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, M; Wicks, S; Charton, E

    2016-01-01

    For more than twenty years, the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monographs for biotherapeutic proteins have been elaborated using the multisource approach (Procedure 1), which has led to robust quality standards for many of the first-generation biotherapeutics. In 2008, the Ph. Eur. opened up the way towards an alternative mechanism for the elaboration of monographs (Procedure 4-BIO pilot phase), which is applied to substances still under patent protection, based on a close collaboration with the Innovator company, to ensure a harmonised global standard and strengthen the quality of the upcoming products. This article describes the lessons learned during the P4-BIO pilot phase and addresses the current thinking on monograph elaboration in the field of biotherapeutics. Case studies are described to illustrate the standardisation challenges associated with the complexity of biotherapeutics and of analytical procedures, as well as the approaches that help ensure expectations are met when setting monograph specifications and allow for compatibility with the development of biosimilars. Emphasis is put on monograph flexibility, notably by including tests that measure process-dependent microheterogeneity (e.g. glycosylation) in the Production section of the monograph. The European Pharmacopoeia successfully concluded the pilot phase of the P4-BIO during its 156 th session on 22-23 November 2016.

  8. Transmission grid extensions during the build-up of a fully renewable pan-European electricity supply

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal generation patterns for wind and solar photovoltaic power in Europe are used to investigate the future rise in transmission needs with an increasing penetration of these variable renewable energy sources (VRES) on the pan-European electricity system. VRES growth predictions according to the official National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the EU countries are used and extrapolated logistically up to a fully VRES-supplied power system. We find that keeping today's international net transfer capacities (NTCs) fixed over the next forty years reduces the final need for backup energy by 13% when compared to the situation with no NTCs. An overall doubling of today's NTCs will lead to a 26% reduction, and an overall quadrupling to a 33% reduction. The remaining need for backup energy is due to correlations in the generation patterns, and cannot be further reduced by transmission. The main investments in transmission lines are due during the ramp-up of VRES from 15% (as planned for 2020) to 80%. Add...

  9. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  10. Comparing a single institution's experience with electrical injuries to the data recorded in the National Burn Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Sarah E; Shupp, Jeffery W; Carter, Elizabeth A; Shaw, Jesse D; Jordan, Marion H

    2012-01-01

    Electrical injuries usually represent a small proportion of a burn center's admissions. Although burn size may be small, internal tissue damage is sometimes extensive. This study reviews a single institution's experience with electrical injuries and compares it to the multi-institutional data of the National Burn Repository (NBR). The 2009 NBR and the records of a large urban burn center (single institution) were queried for adult electrical injuries over an 8-year period. Data examined included demographics, %TBSA burn, length of stay (LOS), injury circumstance, and disposition. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine factors related to LOS. One hundred ninety-one single-institution patients and 2837 multi-institution patients met the criteria. Both cohorts were mostly white males approximately 30 years of age and injuries where often work-related. Single-institution patients had a mean injury size of 4% TBSA, while multi-institution patients had 7%. The most common exposure source was domestic wiring for single-institution patients and electrical power plants/lines for multi-institution patients. Single-institution data showed that females had a shorter LOS than males (P institution data showed that independent risk factors for an increased LOS were infection, amputation, fasciotomy, and being Hispanic. Independent risk factors for multi-institution patients were being Hispanic and large %TBSA burn. There was no difference in mortality, gender, age, LOS, or intensive care unit LOS between the cohorts. In this analysis, there was no statistical difference between outcomes in the single- or multi-institutional groups. However, injuries reported in the NBR were slightly larger. In both cohorts, an increase in LOS was associated with %TBSA, as expected. Interestingly, Hispanic ethnicity correlated with an increased LOS. Future work will be aimed at understanding this correlation to determine whether it is specific to electrical injury or burns in

  11. Hydrogen self-diffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, Davide; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Weber, Peter K; Tyburczy, James A; Ryerson, Frederick J; Du Frane, Wyatt L

    2017-07-13

    Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth's surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H 2 O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved water in the Earth's interior. Even at these low concentrations, H 2 O greatly affects the physico-chemical properties of mantle materials, governing planetary dynamics and evolution. The diffusion of hydrogen (H) controls the transport of H 2 O in the Earth's upper mantle, but is not fully understood for olivine ((Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 ) the most abundant mineral in this region. Here we present new hydrogen self-diffusion coefficients in natural olivine single crystals that were determined at upper mantle conditions (2 GPa and 750-900 °C). Hydrogen self-diffusion is highly anisotropic, with values at 900 °C of 10 -10.9 , 10 -12.8 and 10 -11.9 m 2 /s along [100], [010] and [001] directions, respectively. Combined with the Nernst-Einstein relation, these diffusion results constrain the contribution of H to the electrical conductivity of olivine to be σ H  = 10 2.12 S/m·C H2O ·exp -187kJ/mol/(RT) . Comparisons between the model presented in this study and magnetotelluric measurements suggest that plausible H 2 O concentrations in the upper mantle (≤250 ppm wt) can account for high electrical conductivity values (10 -2 -10 -1  S/m) observed in the asthenosphere.

  12. THE E-GOVERNMENT AND THE NEW CHALLENGES OF THE EUROPEAN SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Gama de Oliveira Pinto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivating enterprises by provision of e-government services in Europe acts as a powerful incentive for enterprises, in particular for small and medium sized enterprises, to adopt electronic ways of working in their dealings with public administration. A leading example is e-procurement, which facilitates the integration of public administration requirements into the work processes of enterprises and so contributes to building of the European business environment that encourages and supports entrepreneurs and competitiveness. New needs arise for e-government services in support of this type of cross-border users. The introduction of electronic invoicing systems in public administrations would generate savings both for the public bodies as well as the suppliers interacting with it. These activities covered by the IDABC work programme since 2005 produce guidelines for the implementation of e-procurement systems. The objective is to contribute to the use of electronic invoices in the public sector according to the i2010 e-government action plan and the e-procurement action plan.

  13. Calculation of Residual Electricity Mixes when Accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System — the Need for a Harmonised System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Jørgen Hanssen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe.

  14. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold...... a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL...

  15. Performance of single wire earth return transformers with amorphous alloy core in a rural electric energy distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some considerations about the performance of single wire earth return amorphous alloy core transformers in comparison with conventional silicon steel sheets cores transformers used in rural electric energy distribution network. It has been recognized that amorphous metal core transformers improve electrical power distribution efficiency by reducing transformer core losses. This reduction is due to some electromagnetic properties of the amorphous alloys such as: high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, and low coercivity. Experimental results obtained with some single-phase, 60 Hz, 5 kVA amorphous core transformers installed in a rural area electric distribution system in Northern Brazil have been confirming their superior performance in comparison to identical nominal rated transformers built with conventional silicon steel cores, particularly with regard to the excitation power and to the no-load losses.

  16. Electrically modulated SQUID with a single Josephson junction coupled by a time reversal breaking Weyl semimetal thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhongshui; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Usually, the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) consists of two Josephson junctions, and the interference therein is modulated by a magnetic flux. In this paper, we propose an electrically modulated SQUID consisting of a single Josephson junction coupled by a time reversal breaking Weyl semimetal thin film. For a low Fermi energy, the Josephson current is only mediated by Fermi arc surface states and has an arbitrary ground-state phase difference φ0 which is directly proportional to the product of the transverse electric field and the cross section area of the junction. For a suitable Fermi energy, the bulk states make comparable contributions to the Josephson current with the current-phase relation of a 0 junction. The interference between the surface channel and the bulk channel results in an electrically modulated SQUID with single Josephson junction, which provides an experimental proposal to identify magnetic Weyl semimetals and may have potential applications in superconducting quantum computation.

  17. Single walled carbon nanotube-based electrical biosensor for the label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, S. M.; Baek, Y. K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize...

  18. The Electrical and Structural analysis of degraded Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osayemwenre, Gilbert; Energy efficiency Team

    2015-03-01

    This paper outline a systematic approach used in evaluating the quality, performance and reliability of single junction amorphous silicon solar modules (a-Si:H). The analytical techniques include an electrical and structural analysis. These techniques were used to obtain a holistic view of the state of affairs of these readily available PV modules for small stand-alone systems. Specifically, current-voltage (I-V) characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) will be presented as diagnostic tools in this article. The SEM (JEOL, JED-2300) was used to study the surface morphology of the affected region, results show structural damage in the affected regions. The experiment shows that the energy output of the modules varies a degradation variation of 2.5% to 25.7%, was observed. The detailed results will be presented in the final paper. In conclusion, this research established the degradation which occurs and correlate it to the morphological damage. The module with the worst case scenario has an efficiency of 59% decrease, this could be unacceptable in a device where stability is of priority. We sincerely thank GMDRC and Eskom for financing this project.

  19. Electricity generation from fermented primary sludge using single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were used to generate electricity from fermented primary sludge. Fermentation (30°C, 9days) decreased total suspended solids (26.1-16.5g/L), volatile suspended solids (24.1-15.3g/L) and pH (5.7-4.5), and increased conductivity (2.4-4.7mS/cm), soluble COD (2.66-15.5g/L), and volatile fatty acids (1.9-10.1g/L). To lower the COD and increase pH, fermentation supernatant was diluted with primary effluent before being used in the MFCs. The maximum power density was 0.32±0.01W/m2, compared to 0.24±0.03W/m2 with only primary effluent. Power densities were higher with phosphate buffer added to the supernatant (1.03±0.06W/m2) or the solution (0.87±0.05W/m2). Coulombic efficiencies ranged from 18% to 57%, and sCOD removals from 84% to 94%. These results demonstrated that sludge can effectively be used for power generation when fermented and then diluted with only primary effluent. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  1. Electrical Transport and Magnetoresistance in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly KSENEVICH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical transport properties and magnetoresistance of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT films were investigated within temperature range (2 – 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 8 T. A crossover between metallic (dR/dT > 0 and non-metallic (dR/dT < 0 temperature dependence of the resistance as well as low-temperature saturation of the resistance in high bias regime indicated on the diminishing of role of the contact barriers between individual nanotubes essential for the charge transport in SWCNT arrays. The magnetoresistance (MR data demonstrated influence of weak localization and electron-electron interactions on charge transport properties in SWCNT films. The low-field negative MR with positive upturn was observed at low temperatures. At T > 10 K only negative MR was observed in the whole range of available magnetic fields. The negative MR can be approximated using 1D weak localization (WL model. The low temperature positive MR is induced by contribution from electron-electron interactions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.6311

  2. Optical and electrical studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for infrared sensing and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Mones A.

    Carbon nanotubes are emerging as highly promising opto-electro-mechanical device components essential for the development of a variety of hybrid opto-electronic, electro-mechanical and bio-medical technologies on the nanoscale and have been a subject of continued research. In particular, single-walled carbon nanotubes are predicted to exhibit strong light absorption induced by photon-assisted electronic transitions, free carrier and plasmonic-based absorption. Single-walled carbon nanotubes have been confirmed to exhibit a strong photoconduction response in the infrared range, which can provide many new opportunities in engineering nano-photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. At the same time, the use of strong chemical reagents has been long considered as one of the key processing steps for the separation and purification of single-walled carbon nanotube post-synthesis. In this work, optically-induced voltage in carbon nanotube bundles and thin-films configured as two-terminal resistive elements and operating as junctionless photo-cells in the infrared range as well as the time-dependent wet-processing of HiPCo nanotubes in phosphoric acid and its effect on the structural, transport, infrared light absorption, and photoconduction characteristics were studied. As the photo-voltage generated is found to appear only for asymmetric and off-contact illuminations, the effect is explained based on a photo-generated heat flow model. The engineered cell prototypes were found to yield electrical powers of ˜ 30 pW while demonstrating improved conversion efficiency under high-flux illumination. The cell is also shown to act as an uncooled infrared sensor, with its dark-to-photocurrent ratio improving as temperature increases. The wet-processing of HiPCo nanotubes was done for a nominal time intervals of 1, 2 and 3 hours. The treatment was found to be a two-step process that initially results in the removal and partial replacement of most pre-existing C-O, O-H and CHx groups

  3. Marginal Effects of a Gross Income Increase for a Single Parent Family in Six European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Marie

    High marginal tax rates constitute an issue in several countries because they are supposed to create barriers for increased labour supply. It is, however, often the case that relatively low income families with children face substantially higher combined marginal rates than even the highest...... marginal tax rates. High combined marginal rates are generated by increasing payment for care for children in childcare institutions and tapering of housing benefits in addition to taxation, when income rises. These effects are often simultaneous and add to the marginal tax rate. This paper explores...... the contributions to the combined marginal rate, the marginal effective tax rate, METR, using the OECD term, from taxation, payment for childcare, tapering of housing benefits and sometimes child benefits, when the income varies from a low level to a high level for a single parent family. Six countries are included...

  4. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  5. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    - and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two...... for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast......, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm...

  6. Structural and electrical properties of single crystal indium doped ZnO films synthesized by low temperature solution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Le Hong; Swee Kuan, Lim; Kia Liang, Gregory Goh

    2010-01-01

    The indium doping effects on single crystal ZnO film using low temperature hydrothermal synthesis were investigated. Indium was incorporated into the film by adding indium chloride into the growth solution. From the Hall measurement results, indium dopants significantly increase the electron concentration, making the film heavily n type. However, with higher indium doping content, the crystallinity and surface roughness of the films degraded and the carrier mobility decreased due to the formation of smaller grain size. From the structural and electrical measurement results, the best electrical properties have been obtained for 2 at% indium doped ZnO film. This single-crystal film with high crystal quality exhibits the electron concentration of 3×10 19 cm -3 and mobility of 8 cm 2V -1 s -1. These n type single crystal ZnO films can be considered for light emitting diode applications.

  7. Electrical neuroimaging of memory discrimination based on single-trial multisensory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Cappe, Céline; Murray, Micah M

    2012-09-01

    Multisensory experiences influence subsequent memory performance and brain responses. Studies have thus far concentrated on semantically congruent pairings, leaving unresolved the influence of stimulus pairing and memory sub-types. Here, we paired images with unique, meaningless sounds during a continuous recognition task to determine if purely episodic, single-trial multisensory experiences can incidentally impact subsequent visual object discrimination. Psychophysics and electrical neuroimaging analyses of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) compared responses to repeated images either paired or not with a meaningless sound during initial encounters. Recognition accuracy was significantly impaired for images initially presented as multisensory pairs and could not be explained in terms of differential attention or transfer of effects from encoding to retrieval. VEP modulations occurred at 100-130 ms and 270-310 ms and stemmed from topographic differences indicative of network configuration changes within the brain. Distributed source estimations localized the earlier effect to regions of the right posterior temporal gyrus (STG) and the later effect to regions of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Responses in these regions were stronger for images previously encountered as multisensory pairs. Only the later effect correlated with performance such that greater MTG activity in response to repeated visual stimuli was linked with greater performance decrements. The present findings suggest that brain networks involved in this discrimination may critically depend on whether multisensory events facilitate or impair later visual memory performance. More generally, the data support models whereby effects of multisensory interactions persist to incidentally affect subsequent behavior as well as visual processing during its initial stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraoperative dorsal language network mapping by using single-pulse electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamao, Yukihiro; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Usami, Kiyohide; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Akio; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-09-01

    The preservation of language function during brain surgery still poses a challenge. No intraoperative methods have been established to monitor the language network reliably. We aimed to establish intraoperative language network monitoring by means of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). Subjects were six patients with tumors located close to the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the language-dominant left hemisphere. Under general anesthesia, the anterior perisylvian language area (AL) was first defined by the CCEP connectivity patterns between the ventrolateral frontal and temporoparietal area, and also by presurgical neuroimaging findings. We then monitored the integrity of the language network by stimulating AL and by recording CCEPs from the posterior perisylvian language area (PL) consecutively during both general anesthesia and awake condition. High-frequency electrical stimulation (ES) performed during awake craniotomy confirmed language function at AL in all six patients. Despite an amplitude decline (≤32%) in two patients, CCEP monitoring successfully prevented persistent language impairment. After tumor removal, single-pulse ES was applied to the white matter tract beneath the floor of the removal cavity in five patients, in order to trace its connections into the language cortices. In three patients in whom high-frequency ES of the white matter produced naming impairment, this "eloquent" subcortical site directly connected AL and PL, judging from the latencies and distributions of cortico- and subcortico-cortical evoked potentials. In conclusion, this study provided the direct evidence that AL, PL, and AF constitute the dorsal language network. Intraoperative CCEP monitoring is clinically useful for evaluating the integrity of the language network. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  10. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation: Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Cossent@iit.upcomillas.es; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics.

  11. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation. Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics. (author)

  12. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Jonas D; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke S; Booth, Timothy J; Nielsen, Peter F; Hansen, Ole; Hilke, Michael; Whiteway, Eric; Jepsen, Peter U; Bøggild, Peter; Petersen, Dirch H

    2014-11-12

    The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two noninvasive conductance characterization methods: ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four-point probe, which probe the electrical properties of the graphene film on different length scales, 100 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Ultrabroadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast, the graphene grown on commercial copper foil shows a distinctly non-Drude conductance spectrum that is better described by the Drude-Smith model, which incorporates the effect of preferential carrier backscattering associated with extended, electronic barriers with a typical separation on the order of 100 nm. Micro four-point probe resistance values measured on graphene grown on single crystalline copper in two different voltage-current configurations show close agreement with the expected distributions for a continuous 2D conductor, in contrast with previous observations on graphene grown on commercial copper foil. The terahertz and micro four-point probe conductance values of the graphene grown on single crystalline copper shows a close to unity correlation, in

  13. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  14. Electrical behavior of Langmuir-Blodgett networks of sorted metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Mark K; Rosamond, Mark C; Pearson, Christopher; Zeze, Dagou A; Petty, Michael C

    2012-10-30

    Langmuir-Blodgett deposition has been used to form thin film networks of both metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. These have been investigated to understand their physical, optical, and morphological properties. The electrical conductivities over the temperature range 80-350 K and across electrode gaps of 220 nm and 2 mm have been explored. In the case of semiconducting tubes, the results suggest that Poole-Frenkel conduction is the dominant electrical process at temperatures below 150 K and electric fields of greater than 1 MV m(-1). Metallic nanotube networks exhibit a decrease in resistance with a reduction in temperature. This can be approximated by a linear relationship, giving a temperature coefficient of resistance of 10(-3) K(-1).

  15. Simultaneous processes of electricity generation and ceftriaxone sodium degradation in an air-cathode single chamber microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qing; Kong, Fanying; Zheng, Hongtao; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Ren, Yueming; Wang, Guiling

    2011-03-01

    A single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an air-cathode is successfully demonstrated using glucose-ceftriaxone sodium mixtures or ceftriaxone sodium as fuel. Results show that the ceftriaxone sodium can be biodegraded and produce electricity simultaneously. Interestingly, these ceftriaxone sodium-glucose mixtures play an active role in production of electricity. The maximum power density is increased in comparison to 1000 mg L-1 glucose (19 W m-3) by 495% for 50 mg L-1 ceftriaxone sodium + 1000 mg L-1 glucose (113 W m-3), while the maximum power density is 11 W m-3 using 50 mg L-1 ceftriaxone sodium as the sole fuel. Moreover, ceftriaxone sodium biodegradation rate reaches 91% within 24 h using the MFC in comparison with 51% using the traditional anaerobic reactor. These results indicate that some toxic and bio-refractory organics such as antibiotic wastewater might be suitable resources for electricity generation using the MFC technology.

  16. Towards a pan-European burnt scar mapping methodology based on single date medium resolution optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Miguel, Jesús San; Strobl, Peter; Vogt, Peter

    2013-02-01

    A two stage approach for burnt scar detection from single date multispectral medium spatial resolution optical remote sensing data (AWIFS) has been developed. The approach includes first an identification of burnt scar seeds based on a learning algorithm followed by a region growing process. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a Classification tree (CT) were tested as learning algorithms. Both learning algorithms were coupled with a bootstrap aggregation. Training data for the classifiers were obtained from MODIS-based polygons generated by the Rapid Damage Assessment (RDA) module of the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), to which different levels of filtering were applied. The outcomes were validated against datasets generated from visual interpretation of ETM+ scenes. The method was tested in two locations of Portugal and Greece. Both ANN and CT alternatives produced similar results, with kappa coefficients close to 0.80 in the Greek location and higher than 0.70 in the Portuguese location. In test sites, more than 80% and 90% of burnt areas larger than 10 ha and 50 ha respectively were detected. The results show that filtering the training dataset reduces the overestimation of burnt areas and produce higher accuracies.

  17. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kollengode Ramanathan; Hend Mohammed; Peter Hopkins; Amanda Corley; Lawrence Caruana; Kimble Dunster; Adrian G. Barnett; Fraser, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impe...

  19. Single flexible nanofiber to achieve simultaneous photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Lv, Nan; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia

    2015-02-01

    In order to develop new-type multifunctional composite nanofibers, Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous photoluminescence and electrical conductivity have been successfully fabricated via electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and polyaniline (PANI). X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and a Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the morphology and properties of the composite nanofibers. The results indicate that the bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. Fluorescence emission peaks of Eu(3+) ions are observed in the Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10(-3)  S/cm. The luminescent intensity and electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers can be tuned by adjusting the amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and PANI. The obtained photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as microwave absorption, molecular electronics, biomedicine and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construction technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional naonomaterials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Electrical detection of the spin resonance of a single electron in a silicon field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M.; Martin, I.; Yablonovitch, E.; Jiang, H. W.

    2004-07-01

    The ability to manipulate and monitor a single-electron spin using electron spin resonance is a long-sought goal. Such control would be invaluable for nanoscopic spin electronics, quantum information processing using individual electron spin qubits and magnetic resonance imaging of single molecules. There have been several examples of magnetic resonance detection of a single-electron spin in solids. Spin resonance of a nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond has been detected optically, and spin precession of a localized electron spin on a surface was detected using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Spins in semiconductors are particularly attractive for study because of their very long decoherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical sensing of the magnetic resonance spin-flips of a single electron paramagnetic spin centre, formed by a defect in the gate oxide of a standard silicon transistor. The spin orientation is converted to electric charge, which we measure as a change in the source/drain channel current. Our set-up may facilitate the direct study of the physics of spin decoherence, and has the practical advantage of being composed of test transistors in a conventional, commercial, silicon integrated circuit. It is well known from the rich literature of magnetic resonance studies that there sometimes exist structural paramagnetic defects near the Si/SiO2 interface. For a small transistor, there might be only one isolated trap state that is within a tunnelling distance of the channel, and that has a charging energy close to the Fermi level.

  1. European symposium 'Solar- and electric-powered vehicles'. Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile; Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Considerable impulses in the field of battery- and light-weight construction technology as well as the legislation of important foreign markets brought about the idea of an OTTI-technology meeting regarding the subject of solar- and electric-powered vehicles. The 26 articles cover the following subjects: How to use electric-powered vehicles, market overview, practical experience in different user areas, technical problems and their solutions as well as security issues of light-weight and electric-powered vehicles. All articles are available as separate records in this database. (BWI)

  2. Optical spectroscopy of single Si nanocylinders with magnetic and electric resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Eriksen, R. L.; Cheng, W.

    2014-01-01

    . Multipole analysis of the experimental scattering spectra, based on the decomposed discrete dipole approximation, confirms resonant excitation of electric and magnetic dipole modes in the Si nanocylinders. Influences of light polarization and incident angle on the scattering properties of the nanocylinders...... are studied. It is shown that the dependence of resonant excitation of the electric and magnetic modes in the nanocylinders on incident angle and polarization of light allows controlling and manipulating the scattered light in this system. The demonstrated properties of Si nanocylinders can be used...

  3. All-electrical coherent control of the exciton states in a single quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer de La Giroday, A.; Bennett, A. J.; Pooley, M. A.; Stevenson, R. M.; Sköld, N.; Patel, R. B.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity reversible transfer of quantum information from the polarization of photons into the spin state of an electron-hole pair in a semiconductor quantum dot. Moreover, spins are electrically manipulated on a subnanosecond time scale, allowing us to coherently control their evolution. By varying the area of the electrical pulse, we demonstrate phase-shift and spin-flip gate operations with near-unity fidelities. Our system constitutes a controllable quantum interface between flying and stationary qubits, an enabling technology for quantum logic in the solid state.

  4. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  5. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  6. Effect of Pb doped on thermal stability and electrical transport properties of single crystalline β-Zn4Sb3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuping; Chen, Zhong; Li, Decong; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Yu; Shen, Lanxian; Deng, Shukang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report the effect of Pb doping on both thermal stability and electrical transport properties of the single crystalline β-Zn4Sb3,prepared based on the initial stoichiometric ratios of Zn4-xSb3PbxSn3 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8). All samples possess a metallic luster surface and hardly defects and pores. The TG-DSC results show that the Pb doping samples exhibit an excellent thermal stability. Electrical transport properties of the samples were optimized by Pb doping. Among all samples exhibit p-type conduction with carrier concentrations varying from 4.88 × 1019 to 14.29 × 1019 cm-3, as carrier mobility changes from 31.1 to 66.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. With the increase of Pb initial content, Seebeck coefficient increases and electrical conductivity decreases. The sample with Pb initial content x = 0.6 exhibits an excellent electrical properties, and obtains maximum power factor of 1.69 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 390 K.

  7. Amplification of surface plasmon polariton wave in single-walled carbon nanotube using electric current pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Sergey; Dadoenkova, Yuliya; Kadochkin, Aleksey; Zolotovskii, Igor

    2017-10-01

    We propose a surface plasmon polariton amplification technique based on direct energy transfer from a dc electric current flowing in a carbon nanotube. It is shown that when the synchronization conditions are satisfied, when the surface plasmon polariton wave velocity is close to the drift velocity of the charge carriers in the nanotube, the surface wave is significantly enhanced.

  8. Surface-roughness fractality effects in electrical conductivity of single metallic and semiconducting films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Barnaś, J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface-roughness effects in electrical conductivity of thin metallic and semiconducting films with self-affine fractal surfaces are considered in the framework of the Born approximation. The surface roughness is described by the k-correlation model, and is characterized by the roughness exponent H

  9. Amplification of surface plasmon polariton wave in single-walled carbon nanotube using electric current pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a surface plasmon polariton amplification technique based on direct energy transfer from a dc electric current flowing in a carbon nanotube. It is shown that when the synchronization conditions are satisfied, when the surface plasmon polariton wave velocity is close to the drift velocity of the charge carriers in the nanotube, the surface wave is significantly enhanced.

  10. Electrical Control, Read-out and Initialization of Single Electron Spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafiei, M.

    2013-01-01

    An electron, in addition to its electric charge, possesses a small magnetic moment, called spin. The spin of an electron can point parallel (spin-up) or antiparallel (spin-down) to the magnetic field. These two states are analogous to zero and one of the logical bit in current digital electronic

  11. Direct transition of potential of water droplets to electric energy using aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Zheng, Kai-Hong; Liu, Zheng; Hu, Li-Jun; Sun, Lian-Feng

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we report that an electromotive force (EMF) can be induced in a rope of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) when water droplets fall on this rope. The magnitude of this EMF depends sensitively on the slant angle of the SWNTs. Most interestingly, both the magnitude and the direction of the induced EFM can be modulated by applying a current to the SWNTs. The concepts of electrical slip and no-slip are proposed and can be quantitatively described by “electrical slip resistance". This kind of generator does not need any magnet, rotor, etc and shows quite a different operating mechanism and design compared with a conventional large scale hydroelectric power generator.

  12. Employment of single-diode model to elucidate the variations in photovoltaic parameters under different electrical and thermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Fahmi F; Yahya, Mohd Y; Hameed, Shilan S; Aziz, Fakhra; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Rasheed, Mariwan A; Ahmad, Zubair

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, numerical simulations are performed to correlate the photovoltaic parameters with various internal and external factors influencing the performance of solar cells. Single-diode modeling approach is utilized for this purpose and theoretical investigations are compared with the reported experimental evidences for organic and inorganic solar cells at various electrical and thermal conditions. Electrical parameters include parasitic resistances (Rs and Rp) and ideality factor (n), while thermal parameters can be defined by the cells temperature (T). A comprehensive analysis concerning broad spectral variations in the short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) is presented and discussed. It was generally concluded that there exists a good agreement between the simulated results and experimental findings. Nevertheless, the controversial consequence of temperature impact on the performance of organic solar cells necessitates the development of a complementary model which is capable of well simulating the temperature impact on these devices performance.

  13. A systematic investigation into the electrical properties of single HeLa cells via impedance measurements and COMSOL simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Haw; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2009-05-15

    The electrical properties of single cells provide fundamental insights into their pathological condition and are therefore of immense interest to medical practitioners. Accordingly, this study captures single HeLa cells using a microfluidic device and then measures their impedance properties using a commercial impedance spectroscopy system. The experimental system is modeled by an equivalent electrical circuit and COMSOL simulations are then performed to establish the conductivity, permittivity and impedance of single HeLa cells under various operational frequencies and voltages. At an operational voltage of 0.2 V, the maximum deviation between the experimental and simulation results for the magnitude and phase of the HeLa cell impedance is found to be 9.5% and 4.2%, respectively. In general, both sets of results show that the conductivity and permittivity of single HeLa cells increase with an increasing operational voltage. Moreover, an increasing frequency is found to increase the conductivity of HeLa cells at all values of the operational voltage, but to reduce the permittivity for operational voltages in the range 0.6-1.0 V. Based upon the simulation and experimental results, empirical equations are constructed to predict the conductivity and permittivity of single HeLa cells under specified values of the operational voltage and frequency, respectively. The maximum discrepancy between the predicted results and the simulation results for the permittivity and conductivity of the HeLa cells at an operational voltage of 0.2 V is found to be just 0.5% and 4.5%, respectively.

  14. From regulation through integration to? Three scenarios for the future of electricity in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.R. [Department of Management, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-04-01

    A major change is underway in the European Union electricity sector, where the electricity market will be partly opened for competition. There is a required minimum opening of the generation market, although countries may exceed it. However, given the very different structures, technological mixes and national cultures, will a single market be possible? This paper outlines three different scenarios of how the European electricity market might evolve. (au)

  15. Luminescence and electrical properties of single ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Comedi, David [Laboratorio de Física del Sólido, Dep. de Física, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Bern, Francis; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Esquinazi, Pablo, E-mail: esquin@physik.uni-leipzig.de [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Tirado, Mónica [Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Dep. de Física, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán (Argentina)

    2014-03-10

    To neutralise the influence of the surface of ZnO nanowires for photonics and optoelectronic applications, we have covered them with insulating MgO film and individually contacted them for electrical characterisation. We show that such a metal-insulator-semiconductor-type nanodevice exhibits a high diode ideality factor of 3.4 below 1 V. MgO shell passivates ZnO surface states and provides confining barriers to electrons and holes within the ZnO core, favouring excitonic ultraviolet radiative recombination, while suppressing defect-related luminescence in the visible and improving electrical conductivity. The results indicate the potential use of ZnO/MgO nanowires as a convenient building block for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  16. The performance simulation of single cylinder electric power confined piston engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yanan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of power plant. i.e, Electric Power Confined Piston Engine, is invented by combining the free piston engine and the crank connecting rod mechanism of the traditional internal combustion engine. Directly using the reciprocating movement of the piston, this new engine converts the heat energy produced by fuel to electrical energy and output it. The paper expounds the working mechanism of ECPE and establishes the kinematics and dynamics equations. Furthermore, by using the analytic method, the ECPE electromagnetic force is solved at load cases. Finally, in the simulation environment of MARLAB, the universal characteristic curve is obtained in the condition of rotational speed n between 1000 r/min and 2400 r/min, throttle opening α between 30% and 100%.

  17. Electrical and Physical Property Characterization of Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Ink for Flexible Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    20 2.3.8.3 Bio-Organic FETs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3.9 Feasibility of Printed Radio Frequency Identification (RFID...Integration RFID Radio Frequency Identification TCF Transparent Conductive Film TFT thin film transistor USAF United States Air Force xvi ELECTRICAL AND...Enhanced Thermal Transport at Covalently Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Array Interfaces” [17] and in this paper in Sections 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.2.2

  18. Single-photon emission from electrically driven InP quantum dots epitaxially grown on CMOS-compatible Si(001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, M; Schulz, W-M; Kessler, C; Reischle, M; Metzner, S; Bertram, F; Christen, J; Roßbach, R; Jetter, M; Michler, P

    2012-08-24

    The heteroepitaxy of III-V semiconductors on silicon is a promising approach for making silicon a photonic platform. Mismatches in material properties, however, present a major challenge, leading to high defect densities in the epitaxial layers and adversely affecting radiative recombination processes. However, nanostructures, such as quantum dots, have been found to grow defect-free even in a suboptimal environment. Here we present the first realization of indium phosphide quantum dots on exactly oriented Si(001), grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. We report electrically driven single-photon emission in the red spectral region, meeting the wavelength range of silicon avalanche photodiodes' highest detection efficiency.

  19. Te inclusion-induced electrical field perturbation in CdZnTe single crystals revealed by Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Li, Linglong; Xu, Yadong; Yang, Yaodong; Ren, Jie; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Lingyan; He, Yihui; Xi, Shouzhi

    2016-09-01

    To understand the effects of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the device performance of CdZnTe radiation detectors, the perturbation of the electrical field in and around Te inclusions was studied in CdZnTe single crystals via Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Te inclusions were proved to act as lower potential centers with respect to surrounding CdZnTe matrix. Based on the KPFM results, the energy band diagram at the Te/CdZnTe interface was established, and the bias-dependent effects of Te inclusion on carrier transportation is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrical transport properties of single-crystal CaB6,SrB6 , and BaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Rosa, Priscila F. S.; Schlottmann, Pedro; Fisk, Zachary

    2016-09-01

    The electrical resistivity and Hall effect of alkaline-earth-metal hexaboride single crystals are measured as a function of temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and magnetic field. The transport properties vary weakly with the external parameters and are modeled in terms of intrinsic variable-valence defects. These defects can stay either in (1) delocalized shallow levels or in (2) localized levels resonant with the conduction band, which can be neutral or negatively charged. Satisfactory agreement is obtained for electronic transport properties in a broad temperature and pressure range, although fitting the magnetoresistance is less straightforward and a combination of various mechanisms is needed to explain the field and temperature dependences.

  1. Charge Dependence and Electric Quadrupole Effects on Single-Nucleon Removal in Relativistic and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Single nucleon removal in relativistic and intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied using a generalization of Weizsacker-Williams theory that treats each electromagnetic multipole separately. Calculations are presented for electric dipole and quadrupole excitations and incorporate a realistic minimum impact parameter, Coulomb recoil corrections, and the uncertainties in the input photonuclear data. Discrepancies are discussed. The maximum quadrupole effect to be observed in future experiments is estimated and also an analysis of the charge dependence of the electromagnetic cross sections down to energies as low as 100 MeV/nucleon is made.

  2. The capacity of smes with export-import activity from Bihor county to face the challenge of integration on the european single market in euro-regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premises that the competitive capacity of the SMEs is determined by their nature: some of them having rapidly growing capacity, others being totally dependent on local or regional markets, the present paper aims to investigate the capacity of SMEs from Bihor county, which carry out export and import activity, to face the challenges of integration in the European Single Market, with the purpose to guide them towards that initiatives and measures that correspond to their nature, by exploiting the possibilities offered by structural funds. The paper presents the general situation of the SMEs from Bihor county focused on those which are part of intra-communitary trade, and, on the base of a questionnaire applied to a number of 50 of them, their perceptions regarding the threats and opportunities of the European Single Market, in order to increase the absorption of structural funds and to design a Euroregional strategy for the SME sector with direct benefits for the economic agents and communities from Romania and Hungary. The paper is based on the preliminary research results of the project called “The encouragement of SMEs which carry out import-export activity from Bihor county regarding the integration in the European Single Market through the development of cross-border business services”, financed by the PHARE CBC 2005 Programme. The data used have been offered for the mentioned project by Local SMEs Council, Oradea.

  3. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Investment Decisions: Chapter 19 (An Integrated Appraisal of Combined Cycle Versus Single Cycle Electricity Generations Technologies)

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo; Arnold C. Harberger

    2011-01-01

    This study undertakes an integrated financial, economic and distributive appraisal of an Independent Power Producer (IPP) project to generate electricity. The critical issue is that the private sponsors of the IPP have proposed to build a single cycle electricity generation plant that is expected to start operating with an 80 percent load factor. A comparative analysis is undertaken a single cycle oil fuel plant to compared to a combined cycle oil fuel plant that would produce the same amount...

  4. The impact of national interests and European coordination on securing investment in trans-national electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the transition to a renewable energy supply in Europe requires further integration of national electricity systems. To support the large-scale integration of variable renewable energy sources, different regions in Europe will increasingly come to rely on each other to meet demand during

  5. Highly polarized electrically driven single-photon emission from a non-polar InGaN quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, C. C.; Puchtler, T. J.; Jarman, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Wang, T.; Nuttall, L.; Oliver, R. A.; Taylor, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Nitride quantum dots are well suited for the deterministic generation of single photons at high temperatures. However, this material system faces the challenge of large in-built fields, decreasing the oscillator strength and possible emission rates considerably. One solution is to grow quantum dots on a non-polar plane; this gives the additional advantage of strongly polarized emission along one crystal direction. This is highly desirable for future device applications, as is electrical excitation. Here, we report on electroluminescence from non-polar InGaN quantum dots. The emission from one of these quantum dots is studied in detail and found to be highly polarized with a degree of polarization of 0.94. Single-photon emission is achieved under excitation with a constant current giving a g(2 )(0 ) correlation value of 0.18. The quantum dot electroluminescence persists up to temperatures as high as 130 K.

  6. Electrical properties of lead-free Fe-doped niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2013-12-01

    Lead-free, 0.025 wt% Fe-doped niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate Fe: K0.95Li0.05Ta1-xNbxO3 single crystals have been grown by the top-seeded melt growth method. All the transition temperatures have been determined by the dielectric constant and loss-dependent temperature. The spontaneous polarizations computed by the integration of pyroelectric coefficients over all the temperatures are consistent with the results of the P-E hysteresis loops. The piezoelectric constants and electromechanical coupling factors are attractive among lead-free piezoelectric materials. With suitable Fe-doping, the electrical properties of KLTN single crystals have been improved overall and can be compared to those of the current important lead-based piezoelectric materials.

  7. Single-Electrical-Port Control of Cascaded Doubly-Fed Induction Machine for EV/HEV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Peng; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    A single-electrical-port control scheme, for four-quadrant operation of cascaded doubly-fed induction machine (CDFIM), which has long been conceived as a motor or generator only suitable for limited two-quadrant operation, is proposed and theoretically demonstrated. The drive system is configured...... as a master/slave architecture, that is, the power winding is supplied with a constant-voltage constant-frequency inverter, termed as the master inverter, in an open-loop way, while the control winding is fed by a closed-loop field-oriented-controlled (FOC) variable-voltage variable-frequency inverter, termed...... as slave inverter. With this configuration, the control emphasis is placed on the slave inverter, yielding reduced control complexity and cost, and the inaccuracy of flux estimation in conventional FOC for singly-fed induction machines is avoided at very low or even zero speed. It is found that the doubly...

  8. Variation in geometry and electrical conductance properties of asymmetric track-etched single nanopores: How uniform are they?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejniczak, K., E-mail: kziel@jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina Str. 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Orelovich, O.L. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Apel, P.Y. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna International University, Universitetskaya Str. 19, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the transport property uniformity of single asymmetric pores in polyethylene terephthalate membranes was investigated. Two types of films, Hostaphan RN and Hostaphan RNK, were used. The foils were irradiated with either single or multiple (∼10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}) Au and Xe ions. Samples were UV-treated and etched in surfactant-doped 5 mol/L NaOH at 60 °C for 6 min and 30 s in order to obtain nanopores with bullet-shaped tips. The geometry of the nanopores was determined from SEM images of multi-pore membrane cross sections. The reproducibility of the electrical characteristics of individual nanopores with bullet-like tips in two different types of polyethylene terephthalate foils was studied. The relationship between electro-conductive properties of the asymmetric nanopores and the polymer morphology is discussed.

  9. Effects of single application of a moisturizer: evaporation of emulsion water, skin surface temperature, electrical conductance, electrical capacitance, and skin surface (emulsion) lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichmann, C W; Serup, J; Winther, A

    1989-01-01

    Effects of single application of an oil in water emulsion were studied on the forearm skin of 12 healthy volunteers. Five different non-invasive methods were used. Values were followed for 360 min after application of the emulsion, with the contralateral forearm as untreated control. The evaporation of emulsion water from the skin surface immediately rose to high values, but within 15 min returned to the original level. A parallel initial increase in conductance was observed; however, this was followed by a slightly increased level throughout the 360 min study. Electrical capacitance was also slightly increased throughout the study. Skin surface lipids, dominated by emulsion lipids, were increased, with high values for at least 120 min, followed by a gradual decline toward normal. Single application of emulsion is characterized by an initial evaporation phase, with evaporation of emulsion water, which lasts less than 15 min, followed by a lipidization phase, which lasts at least 360 min, dominated by the oil-constituent of the emulsion undergoing epidermal absorption. During the lipidization phase, epidermal hydration parameters are slightly but consistently improved.

  10. Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.

    2009-01-01

    was varied by changing the lattice temperature, or by the adsorption of inert gases at low temperatures, we demonstrate that the quantum-confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot–cavity coupling simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions...... coupling regime, and electrical control of zerodimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the highest-Q cavities (Q > 12 000). Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 120μeV are observed, larger than the linewidths of either the decoupled exciton ( 6 40μeV) or cavity mode. These observations represent a voltage...

  11. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles Employing an Innovative Virtual Inertia Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Pertl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    to limit the rate of change of frequency of power systems, thus, improving frequency dynamics. Electric vehicles (EVs) can represent a reliable solution to enhance frequency stability due to their fast response and capability to provide a large amount of aggregated power. On one hand, EVs are capable...... of adjusting the battery charging process (i.e., power flow) according to pre-defined algorithms. On the other hand, in case of islanded operation (i.e., low inertia), some of the EV's technical constraints might cause oscillations. This study presents two control algorithms which show that the EVs are capable...

  12. Responses of retinal ganglion cells to extracellular electrical stimulation, from single cell to population: model-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tsai

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, which survive in large numbers following neurodegenerative diseases, could be stimulated with extracellular electric pulses to elicit artificial percepts. How do the RGCs respond to electrical stimulation at the sub-cellular level under different stimulus configurations, and how does this influence the whole-cell response? At the population level, why have experiments yielded conflicting evidence regarding the extent of passing axon activation? We addressed these questions through simulations of morphologically and biophysically detailed computational RGC models on high performance computing clusters. We conducted the analyses on both large-field RGCs and small-field midget RGCs. The latter neurons are unique to primates. We found that at the single cell level the electric potential gradient in conjunction with neuronal element excitability, rather than the electrode center location per se, determined the response threshold and latency. In addition, stimulus positioning strongly influenced the location of RGC response initiation and subsequent activity propagation through the cellular structure. These findings were robust with respect to inhomogeneous tissue resistivity perpendicular to the electrode plane. At the population level, RGC cellular structures gave rise to low threshold hotspots, which limited axonal and multi-cell activation with threshold stimuli. Finally, due to variations in neuronal element excitability over space, following supra-threshold stimulation some locations favored localized activation of multiple cells, while others favored axonal activation of cells over extended space.

  13. Development of a single cell spherical shell model for an investigation of electrical properties with a computing program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlamp, M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A spherical double shell model (SDM for a single cell has been developed, using Laplace’s equation in spherical coordinates and boundary conditions. Electric field intensities and dielectric constants of each region inside and outside of the cell have been estimated. The dielectrophoretic spectrum of the real part of a complex function (Re[f ( ω] were computed using Visual Foxpro Version 6, which gave calculated values pertaining to electrical properties of the cell model as compared with experimental values. The process was repeated until the error percentile was in an acceptable range. The calculated parameters were the dielectric constants and the conductivities of the inner cytoplasm ( εic, σic, the outer cytoplasm ( εoc, σoc, the inner membrane ( εim, σim, the outer membrane ( εom, σom, the suspending solution( εs, σs and the thickness of each layer (dom, doc, dim, respectively. This computer program provides estimated values of cell electrical properties with high accuracy and required minimal computational time.

  14. Secretion of Catecholamines from Adrenal Gland by a Single Electrical Shock: Electrotonic Depolarization of Medullary Cell Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakade, Arun R.; Wakade, Taruna D.

    1982-05-01

    Transmural stimulation of the isolated adrenal gland of the rat and guinea pig results in secretion of catecholamines. The secretion is due to activation of cholinergic receptors of the adrenal medulla by acetylcholine released from splanchnic nerve terminals after transmural stimulation. Our aim was to see whether the same experimental technique could be used to directly excite the adrenal medullary cell membrane by electrical stimulation and whether such stimulation would result in secretion of catecholamines. We demonstrate here that a single electrical shock to the perfused adrenal gland of the rat results in massive secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. The secretion is directly related to the strength and duration of the applied stimulus over a wide range. Catecholamine secretion is unaffected by tetrodotoxin or hexamethonium/atropine but is abolished by Ca2+ lack or 3 mM Mn2+. We suggest that the adrenal medullary membrane undergoes nonpropagated electrotonic depolarization on electrical stimulation and thereby voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are opened to initiate secretion.

  15. Electric Field Simulation and Effect of Different Solvent Ratios on the Performance of Single Electrospun PVDF/PEI Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-gang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the finite element calculation theory of electric field, the electric field distribution in a representative electrospinning device is computed. The electric field structure of a needle-plate type electrospinning device was simulated by means of ANSYS software. And the vector distribution of the nozzle on the spinneret pipe was got. For the purpose of the analysis on the influence of different solvent ratios on the performance of a single electrospun PVDF/PEI composite film, polyvinylidene fluoride and polyetherimide with a mass ratio of 8/2 were dissolved in a mixed solvent. The mixed solvent is composed of N,N-dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran, added in different proportions. Through the electrostatic spinning technology, PVDF/PEI composite fiber membranes were prepared. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and mechanical properties testing, the effects of tetrahydrofuran on the composite microstructure, crystallinity, and mechanical properties of the PVDF/PEI composite fiber membranes are discussed.

  16. A single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves spasticity and balance in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-young; In, Tae Sung; Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Chang Ho

    2013-03-01

    Spasticity management is pivotal for achieving functional recovery of stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated into the TENS (n = 22) or the placebo-TENS (n = 20) group. TENS stimulation was applied to the gastrocnemius for 60 min at 100 Hz, 200 µs with 2 to 3 times the sensory threshold (the minimal threshold in detecting electrical stimulation for subjects) after received physical therapy for 30 min. In the placebo-TENS group, electrodes were placed but no electrical stimulation was administered. For measuring spasticity, the resistance encountered during passive muscle stretching of ankle joint was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Hand held dynamometer was used to assess the resistive force caused by spasticity. Balance ability was measured using a force platform that measures postural sway generated by postural imbalance. The TENS group showed a significantly greater reduction in spasticity of the gastrocnemius, compared to the placebo-TENS group (p spasticity and of improving balance in chronic stroke patients. The present data may be useful to establish the standard parameters for TENS application in the clinical setting of stroke.

  17. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  18. Quantifying pulsed electric field-induced membrane nanoporation in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Erick K; Ibey, Bennett L; Beier, Hope T; Armani, Andrea M

    2016-11-01

    Plasma membrane disruption can trigger a host of cellular activities. One commonly observed type of disruption is pore formation. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of simplified lipid membrane structures predict that controllably disrupting the membrane via nano-scale poration may be possible with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). Until recently, researchers hoping to verify this hypothesis experimentally have been limited to measuring the relatively slow process of fluorescent markers diffusing across the membrane, which is indirect evidence of nanoporation that could be channel-mediated. Leveraging recent advances in nonlinear optical microscopy, we elucidate the role of pulse parameters in nsPEF-induced membrane permeabilization in live cells. Unlike previous techniques, it is able to directly observe loss of membrane order at the onset of the pulse. We also develop a complementary theoretical model that relates increasing membrane permeabilization to membrane pore density. Due to the significantly improved spatial and temporal resolution possible with our imaging method, we are able to directly compare our experimental and theoretical results. Their agreement provides substantial evidence that nanoporation does occur and that its development is dictated by the electric field distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Precise Patterning of Organic Single Crystals via Capillary-Assisted Alternating-Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yedong; Jie, Jiansheng; Sun, Yuning; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dai, Gaole; Lee, Cheol Jin; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the extraordinary properties, organic micro/nanocrystals are important building blocks for future low-cost and high-performance organic electronic devices. However, integrated device application of the organic micro/nanocrystals is hampered by the difficulty in high-throughput, high-precision patterning of the micro/nanocrystals. In this study, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, a facile capillary-assisted alternating-electric field method for the large-scale assembling and patterning of both 0D and 1D organic crystals. These crystals can be precisely patterned at the photolithography defined holes/channels at the substrate with the yield up to 95% in 1 mm2 . The mechanism of assembly kinetics is systematically studied by the electric field distribution simulation and experimental investigations. By using the strategy, various organic micro/nanocrystal patterns are obtained by simply altering the geometries of the photoresist patterns on substrates. Moreover, ultraviolet photodetectors based on the patterned Alq3 micro/nanocrystals exhibit visible-blind photoresponse with high sensitivity as well as excellent stability and reproducibility. This work paves the way toward high-integration, high-performance organic electronic, and optoelectronic devices from the organic micro/nanocrystals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  1. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  2. Analytical Expression for the Electric Field of the Single Mode Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1], similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have ...

  3. Single pulse and pulse train modulation of cutaneous electrical stimulation: a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, E.M.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Marani, Enrico; Rutten, Wim

    Changing the amplitude of single rectangular pulse stimuli (SP) has the disadvantage of recruiting tactile and nociceptive fibers in a changing, unknown proportion. Keeping the amplitude constant, but applying a varying number of pulses in a train is another way of stimulus variation, keeping the

  4. Optical and electrical properties of ZrSe3 single crystals grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Single crystals of the lamellar compound, ZrSe3, were grown by chemical vapour transport tech- nique using iodine as a transporting agent. The grown crystals were characterized with the help of energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX), which gave confirmation about the stoichiometry. The optical band gap.

  5. Technical and Economic Evaluation of «Electric House» Project: Investigation of Possibility to Use Electric Power as Single Energy Carrier in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Oleshkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers special features of the «Electric House» project where the building is provided with electric power, cold water and sewerage system. The «Electric House» is characterized by ecological cleanness, high reliability in power supply and low capital costs. While running the «Electric House» an annual expenditure of equivalent fuel is increased due to low efficiency of electric power generation at power plants. The profit obtained due to «Electric House» construction is depleted within some period of time. Term of profit depletion is rather high and it is not less than 15 years.

  6. Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of ultrashort THz waveforms using temporal electric-field cross correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    A new single-shot technique based on linear spectral interferometry between a temporally short reader pulse and a temporally long probe pulse is demonstrated for measuring the spatiotemporal phase and amplitude of an optical probe for use as an ultrafast diagnostic. The probe spatiotemporal field information is recovered, with a resolution set by the duration of the reader pulse, by applying a single Fourier transform operation to the interferogram image, without need of any reference data. The technique was used in conjunction with electro-optic sampling to measure waveforms of coherent, ultrashort THz pulses emitted by electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator with sub-50fs resolution. The presence of strong spatiotemporal coupling in the THz waveforms and of complex temporal electron-bunch structure was determined.

  7. Electrical and thermal characterization of single and multi-finger InP DHBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midili, Virginio; Nodjiadjim, V.; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of single and multi-finger Indium Phosphide Double Heterojunction Bipolar transistors (InP DHBTs). It is used as the starting point for technology optimization. Safe Operating Area (SOA) and small signal AC parameters are investigated along with thermal...... characteristics. The results are presented comparing different device dimensions and number of fingers. This work gives directions towards further optimization of geometrical parameters and reduction of thermal effects....

  8. The Mandatory Introduction of IFRS as a Single Accounting Standard in the European Union and the Effect on Earnings Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.W. Lippens (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary In this study, it was investigated whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS from 1 January 2005 by all listed companies in the European Union led to significantly lower levels of earnings management. I found that, despite the stricter character of IFRS compared to

  9. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  10. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  11. Electrical characterization of single cells using polysilicon wire ion sensor in an isolation window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Lin; Hsu, Po-Yen; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Jing-Jenn

    2011-10-01

    A polysilicon wire (PSW) sensor can detect the H(+) ion density (pH value) of the medium coated on its surface, and different cells produce different extracellular acidification and hence different H(+) ion densities. Based on this, we used a PSW sensor in combination with a mold-cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) isolation window to detect the adhesion, apoptosis and extracellular acidification of single normal cells and single cancer cells. Single living human normal cells WI38, MRC5, and BEAS-2B as well as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells A549, H1299, and CH27 were cultivated separately inside the isolation window. The current flowing through the PSW channel was measured. From the PSW channel current change as a function of time, we determined the cell adhesion time by observing the time required for the current change to saturate, since a stable extracellular ion density was established after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. The apoptosis of cells can also be determined when the channel current change drops to zero. We found that all the NSCLC cells had a higher channel current change and hence a lower pH value than the normal cells anytime after they were seeded. The corresponding average pH values were 5.86 for A549, 6.00 for H1299, 6.20 for CH27, 6.90 for BEAS-2B, 6.96for MRC5, and 7.02 for WI38, respectively, after the cells were completely adhered to the PSW surface. Our results show that NSCLC cells have a stronger cell-substrate adhesion and a higher extracellular acidification rate than normal cells.

  12. Time-lapse electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the cell cycle of single immobilized S. pombe cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Frey, Olivier; Haandbaek, Niels; Franke, Felix; Rudolf, Fabian; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    As a complement and alternative to optical methods, wide-band electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables multi-parameter, label-free and real-time detection of cellular and subcellular features. We report on a microfluidics-based system designed to reliably capture single rod-shaped Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by applying suction through orifices in a channel wall. The system enables subsequent culturing of immobilized cells in an upright position, while dynamic changes in cell-cycle state and morphology were continuously monitored through EIS over a broad frequency range. Besides measuring cell growth, clear impedance signals for nuclear division have been obtained. The EIS system has been characterized with respect to sensitivity and detection limits. The spatial resolution in measuring cell length was 0.25 μm, which corresponds to approximately a 5-min interval of cell growth under standard conditions. The comprehensive impedance data sets were also used to determine the occurrence of nuclear division and cytokinesis. The obtained results have been validated through concurrent confocal imaging and plausibilized through comparison with finite-element modeling data. The possibility to monitor cellular and intracellular features of single S. pombe cells during the cell cycle at high spatiotemporal resolution renders the presented microfluidics-based EIS system a suitable tool for dynamic single-cell investigations.

  13. Microbial diversity structure in acetate single chamber microbial fuel cell for electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Z. Khater

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the performance of acetate feed membrane less single chamber microbial fuel cell and physical characterization of the bio film present on the anode surface using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and 16S rRNA analyzer. The performance has been investigated using Teflon treated carbon paper with 0.3 mg/cm2 Pt/C loaded as a cathode and carbon paper as an anode. The maximum open circuit potential is noticed as 791 mV, the system successfully revealed a maximum power density of 86.1 mW m−2 at stable current density of 354 mA m−2 with high coulombic efficiency of 65% at maximum degradation rate of 96%. SEM showed the dense adherence of microorganisms on the anode. 16S rRNA sequencing results indicates phylogenetic mixture in the communities of anodic biofilm and there is no single dominant bacterial species. The dominant phyla are Firmicutes, Gamma Proteobacteria, Alpha Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, with ten dominant microbial strains: Bacillus firmus, Shewanella profunda, Bacillus isronensis, Brevundimonas bullata, Pseudomonas putida, Planococcus citreus, Micrococcus endophyticus, Acinetobacter tandoii, Bacillus safensis and Shewanella xiamenensis.

  14. Yield of chest X-ray tuberculosis screening of immigrants during the European refugee crisis of 2015: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Sauer, Markus; Henes, Frank Oliver; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Diel, Roland [University Medical Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), Institute for Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Meywald-Walter, Karen [Public Health Department Hamburg Central, Hamburg (Germany); Schoen, Gerhard [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), the number needed to screen (NNS), and the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray (CXR) screening to detect active pulmonary TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis. We evaluated data of all refugees who underwent CXR screening in a single-centre of one German metropolitan area in 2015. We determined the prevalence of TB, NNS, and accuracy of CXR to detect active pulmonary TB. Reference method for active TB was the database of all definite TB cases registered at the Department of Public Health. A total of 17,487 immigrants underwent single-centre CXR screening in 2015; prevalence of definite pulmonary TB was 0.103%. The NNS for detecting one case of active pulmonary TB was 1749. CXR had a sensitivity of 55.6% 95% confidence interval (CI 30.8-78.5%) and a specificity 98.3% (CI 98.1-98.5%) to reveal one case of active TB. Our single-centre study indicates that chest X-ray screening for TB during the 2015 European refugee crisis was of low yield due the low prevalence of TB and high number needed to screen, thus implicating the need for improved screening algorithms adapted to the overwhelming number of refugees. (orig.)

  15. Electrical contacts to nanorod networks at different length scales: From macroscale ensembles to single nanorod chains

    KAUST Repository

    Lavieville, Romain

    2013-11-01

    The nature of metal-semiconductor interfaces at the nanoscale is an important issue in micro- and nanoelectronic engineering. The study of charge transport through chains of CdSe semiconductor nanorods linked by Au particles represents an ideal model system for this matter, because the metal semiconductor interface is an intrinsic feature of the nanosystem. Here we show the controlled fabrication of all-inorganic hybrid metal-semiconductor networks with different size, in which the semiconductor nanorods are linked by Au domains at their tips. We demonstrate different approaches to selectively contact the networks and single nanorod chains with planar electrodes, and we investigate their charge transport at room temperature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural and electrical properties of single crystalline SrZrO 3 epitaxially grown on Ge (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Z. H.; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Grimley, E. D.; Du, Y.; Bowden, M.; Moghadam, R.; LeBeau, J. M.; Chambers, S. A.; Ngai, J. H.

    2017-08-28

    We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrO3 that has been epitaxially grown on Ge(001) by oxide molecular beam epitaxy. Single crystalline SrZrO3 can be nucleated on Ge via deposition at low temperatures followed by annealing at 550 ºC in ultra-high vacuum. Photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal that SrZrO3 exhibits a type-I band arrangement with respect to Ge, with conduction and valence band offsets of 1.4 eV and 3.65 eV, respectively. As a standalone film, SrZrO3 exhibits several characteristics that are ideal for applications as a gate dielectric on Ge. We find that 4 nm thick films exhibit low leakage current densities, and a dielectric constant of κ ~ 25 that corresponds to an equivalent oxide thickness of 0.70 nm.

  17. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  18. Development of a computer program to investigate electrical properties of Phuket pineapple leaf single cells by using dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonlamp, M.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a computer program to calculate electrical properties of a cell from a spherical single shell model. The program compared the results between the theoretical values (Re[f(ω]TDS and the experimental values (Re[f(ω]EDS. The latter was computed from a cell velocity obtained from dielectrophoresis. The calculation was repeated until the error percentile was in a proper range. The program was applied to process the electrical properties of Phuket pineapple protoplasts [Ananas comosus (L. Merr.C.V. Phuket]. It was found that the thickness of the cell membrane was 10 nm, the dielectric constants of suspending solution, cytoplasm and cell membrane were 80ε0, 58-60ε0 and 10-14ε0 respectively (ε0 is the dielectric constant of the vacuum = 8.85×10-12 F m-1. The conductivity of cytoplasm and cell membrane were 0.09 S m-1 and 10-5 - 10-4 S m-1 respectively.

  19. Electrical transport properties of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes aligned on ST-cut quartz substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tohru; Sadki, El-Hadi S; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    A method is introduced to isolate and measure the electrical transport properties of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) aligned on an ST-cut quartz, from room temperature down to 2 K. The diameter and chirality of the measured SWNTs are accurately defined from Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A significant up-shift in the G-band of the resonance Raman spectra of the SWNTs is observed, which increases with increasing SWNTs diameter, and indicates a strong interaction with the quartz substrate. A semiconducting SWNT, with diameter 0.84 nm, shows Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and Coulomb blockade behaviors at low temperatures. Another semiconducting SWNT, with a thinner diameter of 0.68 nm, exhibits a transition from the semiconducting state to an insulating state at low temperatures. These results elucidate some of the electrical properties of SWNTs in this unique configuration and help pave the way towards prospective device applications.

  20. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that the seamless mode switching can be achieved. Different to the existing model predictive control (MPC methods, only one model predictive controller is needed and the clutch torque is taken as an optimized variable rather than a known parameter. Furthermore, the successful idea of model reference control (MRC is also used for reference to generate the set-point signal required by MPC. The parameter sensitivity is studied for better performance of the proposed model predictive controller. The simulation results validate that the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy has less vehicle jerk, less torque interruption, and smaller clutch frictional losses, compared with the baseline method. In addition, the sensitivity and adaptiveness of the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy are evaluated.

  1. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  2. Studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical, mechanical and electrical applications using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiji, Roya Roientan

    The promise of carbon nanotubes to provide high-strength composites implies that carbon nanotubes might find widespread use throughout the world, implying that humans everywhere will be exposed to carbon nanotube-containing materials. In order to study what effects if any carbon nanotubes might have on the function of living cells, we have studied the association of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a first step toward understanding the interaction of SWCNTs with living matter. Studies have been performed on both as-received and chemically oxidized SWCNTs to better understand the preferential association of ssDNA with SWCNTs. Samples of T30 ssDNA:SWCNT were examined under ambient conditions using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)) techniques. AFM images of well-dispersed, as-received SWCNTs revealed isolated features on the SWCNT that are 1.4 to 2.8 nm higher than the bare SWCNT itself. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed these features to be T30 ssDNA in nature. Chemically oxidizing SWCNTs before dispersion by sonication is found to be an effective way to increase the number of T30 ssDNA features. A series of experiments showed that free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid and trolox can effectively prevent the conjugation of ssDNA to SWCNTs, suggesting a significant role of free radicals in this association. Also hybridization of the complimentary ssDNA sequences showed the covalent nature of this association. These results are important to understanding the precise mechanism of ssDNA:SWCNT association and provide valuable information for future use in electronics, biosensors and as a possible drug carrier into individual cells. If SWCNTs are used in biosensor or circuit design applications then it is important to note how much energy can be stored in a SWCNT based on its shape and configuration before a permanent damage is introduced to it. Therefore a study has been done on bending SWCNTs into

  3. A quantum circuit rule for interference effects in single-molecule electrical junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, David Zsolt; Huang, Cancan; Baghernejad, Masoud; Zhao, Xiaotao; Al-Owaedi, Oday A; Sadeghi, Hatef; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Hong, Wenjing; Gulcur, Murat; Wandlowski, Thomas; Bryce, Martin R; Lambert, Colin J

    2015-03-03

    A quantum circuit rule for combining quantum interference effects in the conductive properties of oligo(phenyleneethynylene) (OPE)-type molecules possessing three aromatic rings was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Molecules were of the type X-Y-X, where X represents pyridyl anchors with para (p), meta (m) or ortho (o) connectivities and Y represents a phenyl ring with p and m connectivities. The conductances GXmX (GXpX) of molecules of the form X-m-X (X-p-X), with meta (para) connections in the central ring, were predominantly lower (higher), irrespective of the meta, para or ortho nature of the anchor groups X, demonstrating that conductance is dominated by the nature of quantum interference in the central ring Y. The single-molecule conductances were found to satisfy the quantum circuit rule Gppp/Gpmp=Gmpm/Gmmm. This demonstrates that the contribution to the conductance from the central ring is independent of the para versus meta nature of the anchor groups.

  4. Temperature dependent electrical transport in single Ge nanowires near insulator-metal transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar; Seth, Shaili; Das, Kaustuv

    We report low temperature (4K Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and established their crystalline quality. A single nanowire dispersed on a Si/SiO2 substrate was connected by Cr/Au contacts made by electron beam lithography in 2-probe / 4-probe configurations. The undoped nanowires have a room temperature resistivity (ρ) of 2 ohm.cm or more (estimated carrier concentration ~1015/cm3) and below the 25K (where it shows carrier freeze out) the ρ rises to high value of 35 ohm.cm. For nanowires with ρ <= .01 ohm.cm at 300K , low temperature ρ becomes finite, signaling transition to a metallic state with negative temperature co-efficient of ρ. The critical composition for the insulator-metal transition is more than an order higher than that observed in the bulk. At low T (<25K) resistivity data in this regime can be fitted to weak-localization form ρ =ρ0 - aTp/2 with ρ0 the NW's ~ 0.5-3.5 mohm.cm, with the exponent p ~ 3-4 as expected from theoretical predictions. Acknowldge Financial Support from Department od Science and Technology, Government of India for Sponsored Project.

  5. Computational Modeling of Single Neuron Extracellular Electric Potentials and Network Local Field Potentials using LFPsim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Harilal; Nair, Bipin; D'Angelo, Egidio; Hines, Michael; Naldi, Giovanni; Diwakar, Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Local Field Potentials (LFPs) are population signals generated by complex spatiotemporal interaction of current sources and dipoles. Mathematical computations of LFPs allow the study of circuit functions and dysfunctions via simulations. This paper introduces LFPsim, a NEURON-based tool for computing population LFP activity and single neuron extracellular potentials. LFPsim was developed to be used on existing cable compartmental neuron and network models. Point source, line source, and RC based filter approximations can be used to compute extracellular activity. As a demonstration of efficient implementation, we showcase LFPs from mathematical models of electrotonically compact cerebellum granule neurons and morphologically complex neurons of the neocortical column. LFPsim reproduced neocortical LFP at 8, 32, and 56 Hz via current injection, in vitro post-synaptic N2a, N2b waves and in vivo T-C waves in cerebellum granular layer. LFPsim also includes a simulation of multi-electrode array of LFPs in network populations to aid computational inference between biophysical activity in neural networks and corresponding multi-unit activity resulting in extracellular and evoked LFP signals.

  6. Energy in Europe: the case of electricity or 'how to be european?'; L'entreprise energetique europeenne. Le cas des entreprises electriques, ou 'comment peut-on etre europeen?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoeur, B.; Verger, E. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-08-15

    After a long period of benign neglect, concern has been re-aroused for questions related to energy. European Union has succeeded in opening its gas and electricity markets to free competition. This deregulation process began between 10 and 20 years ago. It was at a time of low electricity prices because Europe was facing a power overproduction due to the important investment made in this sector. Low price policy has made companies to re-organize themselves and the sector in order to stay profitable. Now we are entering a new period in which energy prices keep increasing following the strong energy demand. Europe needs to augment its production of electricity, and firms are now drafting strategies on a continental scale. A major piece of the energy puzzle is still missing: the yet to be designed European energy policy.

  7. Energy and environment policy in the Czech Republic. Vol. 3: Liberalisation of the energy market for electricity and gas in the European Union. A survey and possible implications for the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    This study is organised in four parts. The first part deals with the political context of the EU: its widening and deepening and the evolution of its energy policy. The second part focuses on the liberalisation of the European market for electricity with a review of the structure of the electricity markets in Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain and of the three electricity networks, an assessment of EU liberalisation policy and its implementation in these four countries. The third part deals with the liberalisation of the European market for natural gas by offering an overview of EU liberalisation policy before the gas directive enters into force in August 2000. Finally part four discusses possible implications of energy liberalisation for the Czech Republic. The study concludes with a review of efforts by the Commission to resolve the conflict between liberalisation of energy markets and the climate policy driven sustainability goals. (orig.)

  8. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  9. Point defects and electric compensation in gallium arsenide single crystals; Punktdefekte und elektrische Kompensation in Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzer, Ulrich

    2007-12-10

    In the present thesis the point-defect budget of gallium arsenide single crystals with different dopings is studied. It is shown, in which way the concentration of the single point defects depende on the concentration of the dopants, the stoichiometry deviation, and the position of the Fermi level. For this serve the results of the measurement-technical characterization of a large number of samples, in the fabrication of which these parameters were directedly varied. The main topic of this thesis lies in the development of models, which allow a quantitative description of the experimentally studied electrical and optical properties of gallium arsenide single crystals starting from the point-defect concentrations. Because from point defects charge carriers can be set free, their concentration determines essentially the charge-carrier concentration in the bands. In the ionized state point defects act as scattering centers for free charge carriers and influence by this the drift mobility of the charge carriers. A thermodynamic modeling of the point-defect formation yields statements on the equilibrium concentrations of the point defects in dependence on dopant concentration and stoichiometry deviation. It is show that the electrical properties of the crystals observed at room temperature result from the kinetic suppression of processes, via which the adjustment of a thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects is mediated. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Punktdefekthaushalt von Galliumarsenid-Einkristallen mit unterschiedlichen Dotierungen untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise die Konzentration der einzelnen Punktdefekte von der Konzentration der Dotierstoffe, der Stoechiometrieabweichung und der Lage des Ferminiveaus abhaengen. Dazu dienen die Ergebnisse der messtechnischen Charakterisierung einer grossen Anzahl von Proben, bei deren Herstellung diese Parameter gezielt variiert wurden. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Entwicklung

  10. Enhanced Electricity Generation by Using Cheese Whey Wastewater in A Single-chamber Membrane Less Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A.Z. Al-Fetlawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are biochemical-catalyzed systems in which electricity is produced by oxidizing  biodegradable organic matters in presence of  bacteria. Many places suffer from lack of electricity infrastructure or even existence" ,"but in the same area  there is wastewater that can be used to generate clean energy". "A batch system single chamber  and  membrane-less microbial fuel cell is designed with wastewater as inoculum and fuel in the same time(before adding cheese whey at pH =7±0.4 and an operating temperature of 30 0C ". Wastewater samples are collected from the Al-Delmaj marsh site at an initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of 862 mg/l and pH of 7.8 (reduced to 7±0.4 in all experiments by adding HCL acid. Rectangular sheets of graphite and smooth surface carbon fiber of 42 cm2 surface area used for anode and cathode electrodes. The obtained results indicated that the cell performance for the cell using graphite for anode and cathode electrodes is better than that using the carbon fiber of smooth surface .the obtained  open circuit voltage and power per unit surface area (for graphite  were" 190 mV and 5.95 mW/m2 respectively ."Cheese whey as substrate was used to enhance the performance of cell to  439 mV OCV and 121.9mW/m2  maximum power density" .

  11. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  12. First clinical evaluation of a new single-use flexible ureteroscope (LithoVue™): a European prospective multicentric feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doizi, Steeve; Kamphuis, Guido; Giusti, Guido; Andreassen, Kim Hovgaard; Knoll, Thomas; Osther, Palle Jörn; Scoffone, Cesare; Pérez-Fentes, Daniel; Proietti, Silvia; Wiseman, Oliver; de la Rosette, Jean; Traxer, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a new digital single-use flexible ureteroscope, LithoVue™ with respect to deflection, image quality and maneuverability. A prospective cohort study was conducted in eight tertiary reference centers in Europe in December 2015 and January 2016. All consecutive patients included underwent

  13. The European Union and the Kosovan Youth – A Wide Range of Solutions to a Single Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szolucha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which the European Union fosters the development of civil society in Kosovo. In particular, it focuses on how the EU shapes the role of students and young people as well as the extent to which it contributes to their position in the “bottom-up” capacity building processes in this country. The Union has mainly concentrated its efforts on encouraging student mobility, acknowledging the value of students’ experiences gained abroad that could be translated into genuine reform, and enhancing diverse institutional capacities of Kosovan administrations. At the same time, however, it has continuously reaffirmed a broader objective of the European involvement in Kosovo, namely that education of young people ought to help foster social cohesion and aspire to a genuine reflection of the diversity of Kosovan population in the student body (EUA’s Contribution to the Bologna Ministerial Meeting, 2007. The rationale behind this article is to account for the current role that the EU plays in fostering the development of civil society in the context of the failure of Kosovo’s authorities to produce any satisfying results approaching the achievement of this broader objective.
    This article identifies opportunities that the Union provides in the area of youth education and empowerment in the context of civil society development. Significantly, it assesses the relevance of these opportunities for current situation and needs of civil society development in Kosovo. The analysis also highlights the most important barriers that are hindering student involvement at various levels of the decision-making process.
    The broadest question this project addresses is the EU’s practical ability to foster the “bottom-up” capacity building in self-government and civil society developments. The reason why the role and the position of students and young people in civil society development is absolutely crucial is that they

  14. Can subject-specific single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem response data be predicted from a model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Tiaan K; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-07-01

    This article investigates whether prediction of subject-specific physiological data is viable through an individualised computational model of a cochlear implant. Subject-specific predictions could be particularly useful to assess and quantify the peripheral factors that cause inter-subject variations in perception. The results of such model predictions could potentially be translated to clinical application through optimisation of mapping parameters for individual users, since parameters that affect perception would be reflected in the model structure and parameters. A method to create a subject-specific computational model of a guinea pig with a cochlear implant is presented. The objectives of the study are to develop a method to construct subject-specific models considering translation of the method to in vivo human models and to assess the effectiveness of subject-specific models to predict peripheral neural excitation on subject level. Neural excitation patterns predicted by the model are compared with single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses obtained from the inferior colliculus in the same animal. Results indicate that the model can predict threshold frequency location, spatial spread of bipolar and tripolar stimulation and electrode thresholds relative to one another where electrodes are located in different cochlear structures. Absolute thresholds and spatial spread using monopolar stimulation are not predicted accurately. Improvements to the model should address this. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollengode Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT, yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  16. Single-Lung Transplant Results in Position Dependent Changes in Regional Ventilation: An Observational Case Series Using Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Kollengode; Mohammed, Hend; Hopkins, Peter; Corley, Amanda; Caruana, Lawrence; Dunster, Kimble; Barnett, Adrian G; Fraser, John F

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lung transplantation is the optimal treatment for end stage lung disease. Donor shortage necessitates single-lung transplants (SLT), yet minimal data exists regarding regional ventilation in diseased versus transplanted lung measured by Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). Method. We aimed to determine regional ventilation in six SLT outpatients using EIT. We assessed end expiratory volume and tidal volumes. End expiratory lung impedance (EELI) and Global Tidal Variation of Impedance were assessed in supine, right lateral, left lateral, sitting, and standing positions in transplanted and diseased lungs. A mixed model with random intercept per subject was used for statistical analysis. Results. EELI was significantly altered between diseased and transplanted lungs whilst lying on right and left side. One patient demonstrated pendelluft between lungs and was therefore excluded for further comparison of tidal variation. Tidal variation was significantly higher in the transplanted lung for the remaining five patients in all positions, except when lying on the right side. Conclusion. Ventilation to transplanted lung is better than diseased lung, especially in lateral positions. Positioning in patients with active unilateral lung pathologies will be implicated. This is the first study demonstrating changes in regional ventilation, associated with changes of position between transplanted and diseased lung.

  17. Magnetic and electric coherence in forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single dielectric subwavelength sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffrin, J M; García-Cámara, B; Gómez-Medina, R; Albella, P; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Eyraud, C; Litman, A; Vaillon, R; González, F; Nieto-Vesperinas, M; Sáenz, J J; Moreno, F

    2012-01-01

    Magnetodielectric small spheres present unusual electromagnetic scattering features, theoretically predicted a few decades ago. However, achieving such behaviour has remained elusive, due to the non-magnetic character of natural optical materials or the difficulty in obtaining low-loss highly permeable magnetic materials in the gigahertz regime. Here we present unambiguous experimental evidence that a single low-loss dielectric subwavelength sphere of moderate refractive index (n=4 like some semiconductors at near-infrared) radiates fields identical to those from equal amplitude crossed electric and magnetic dipoles, and indistinguishable from those of ideal magnetodielectric spheres. The measured scattering radiation patterns and degree of linear polarization (3-9 GHz/33-100 mm range) show that, by appropriately tuning the a/λ ratio, zero-backward ('Huygens' source) or almost zero-forward ('Huygens' reflector) radiated power can be obtained. These Kerker scattering conditions only depend on a/λ. Our results open new technological challenges from nano- and micro-photonics to science and engineering of antennas, metamaterials and electromagnetic devices.

  18. Van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of 2D Metallic Vanadium Diselenide Single Crystals and their Extra-High Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhepeng; Niu, Jingjing; Yang, Pengfei; Gong, Yue; Ji, Qingqing; Shi, Jianping; Fang, Qiyi; Jiang, Shaolong; Li, He; Zhou, Xiebo; Gu, Lin; Wu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2017-10-01

    2D metallic transition-metal dichalcogenides (MTMDs) have recently emerged as a new class of materials for the engineering of novel electronic phases, 2D superconductors, magnets, as well as novel electronic applications. However, the mechanical exfoliation route is predominantly used to obtain such metallic 2D flakes, but the batch production remains challenging. Herein, the van der Waals epitaxial growth of monocrystalline, 1T-phase, few-layer metallic VSe 2 nanosheets on an atomically flat mica substrate via a "one-step" chemical vapor deposition method is reported. The thickness of the VSe 2 nanosheets is precisely tuned from several nanometers to several tenths of nanometers. More significantly, the 2D VSe 2 single crystals are found to present an excellent metallic feature, as evidenced by the extra-high electrical conductivity of up to 10 6 S m -1 , 1-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of various conductive 2D materials. The thickness-dependent charge-density-wave phase transitions are also examined through low-temperature transport measurements, which reveal that the synthesized 2D metallic 1T-VSe 2 nanosheets should serve as good research platforms for the detecting novel many-body states. These results open a new path for the synthesis and property investigations of nanoscale-thickness 2D MTMDs crystals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. High frequency spectral changes induced by single-pulse electric stimulation: Comparison between physiologic and pathologic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mălîia, Mihai Dragos; Donos, Cristian; Barborica, Andrei; Mindruta, Ioana; Popa, Irina; Ene, Mirela; Beniczky, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    To investigate functional coupling between brain networks using spectral changes induced by single-pulse electric stimulation (SPES). We analyzed 20 patients with focal epilepsy, implanted with depth electrodes. SPES was applied to each pair of adjacent contacts, and responses were recorded from all other contacts. The mean response amplitude value was quantified in three time-periods after stimulation (10-60, 60-255, 255-500ms) for three frequency-ranges (Gamma, Ripples, Fast-Ripples), and compared to baseline. A total of 30,755 responses were analyzed, taking into consideration three dichotomous pairs: stimulating in primary sensory areas (S1-V1) vs. outside them, to test the interaction in physiologic networks; stimulating in seizure onset zone (SOZ) vs. non-SOZ, to test pathologic interactions; recording in default mode network (DMN) vs. non-DMN. Overall, we observed an early excitation (10-60ms) and a delayed inhibition (60-500ms). More specifically, in the delayed period, stimulation in S1-V1 produced a higher gamma-inhibition in the DMN, while stimulation in the SOZ induced a higher inhibition in the epilepsy-related higher frequencies (Ripples and Fast-Ripples). Physiologic and pathologic interactions can be assessed using spectral changes induced by SPES. This is a promising method for connectivity studies in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phasic REM Transiently Approaches Wakefulness in the Human Cortex-A Single-Pulse Electrical Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Kiyohide; Matsumoto, Riki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Hitomi, Takefumi; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the changes in cortical neural responses induced by external inputs during phasic rapid eye movement (p-REM) sleep. Single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) was directly applied to the human cortex during REM sleep through subdural electrodes, in seven patients who underwent invasive presurgical evaluation for intractable partial epilepsy. SPES was applied to parts of the cortex through the subdural electrodes, and induced cortical responses were recorded from adjacent and remote cortical areas. Phase-locked corticocortical-evoked potentials (CCEPs) and nonphase-locked or induced CCEP-related high gamma activity (CCEP-HGA, 100-200 Hz), which are considered proxies for cortical connectivity and cortical excitability, respectively, were compared among wakefulness, p-REM (within ±2 seconds of significant bursts of REM), and tonic REM (t-REM) (periphasic REM) periods. During REM sleep, SPES elicited a transient increase in CCEP-HGA, followed by a subsequent decrease or suppression. The HGA suppression during both p-REM and t-REM was stronger than during wakefulness. However, its suppression during p-REM was weaker than during t-REM. On the other hand, the CCEP waveform did not show any significant difference between the two REM periods. Cortical excitability to exogenous input was different between p-REM and t-REM. The change of the cortical excitability in p-REM was directed toward wakefulness, which may produce incomplete short bursts of consciousness, leading to dreams.

  1. The development of biophysical models of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve: Single-node and cable models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gabrielle E; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, biophysical models have emerged as a prominent tool in the study and improvement of cochlear implants, a neural prosthetic that restores a degree of sound perception to the profoundly deaf. Owing to the spatial phenomena associated with extracellular stimulation, these models have evolved to a relatively high degree of morphological and physiological detail: single-node models in the tradition of Hodgkin-Huxley are paired with cable descriptions of the auditory nerve fiber. No singular model has emerged as a frontrunner to the field; rather, parameter sets deriving from the channel kinetics and morphologies of numerous organisms (mammalian and otherwise) are combined and tuned to foster strong agreement with response properties observed in vivo, such as refractoriness, summation, and strength-duration relationships. Recently, biophysical models of the electrically stimulated auditory nerve have begun to incorporate adaptation and stochastic mechanisms, in order to better realize the goal of predicting realistic neural responses to a wide array of stimuli.

  2. Evolving African attitudes to European education: Resistance, pervert effects of the single system paradox, and the ubuntu framework for renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assié-Lumumba, N'Dri Thérèse

    2016-02-01

    This paper is a reflection that critically examines the dynamics of education and the struggle by African people for freedom, control of the mind, self-definition and the right to determine their own destiny from the start of colonial rule to the present. The primary methodological approach is historical structuralism, which stipulates that social reality and facts are determined and created by social agents within structural and historical contingencies. It addresses some of the most powerful challenges and contradictions that explain the ineffectiveness of numerous post-independence reforms, and presents the arguments for relevance and use of African languages, for instance, that have been made since the 1960s. The first section of the paper deals with the colonial imperatives for setting new education systems in the colonised societies of Africa and the initial attitudes of the Africans towards colonial education. The second section critically examines the evolving meanings of Western education in Europeanising African societies, the articulation of their rationale and the mechanism for resistance. It analyses the turning point when Africans began to embrace European education and demand it in the colonial and post-independence era. The third section addresses the roots of the inadequacies of received post-colonial education and the imperative of deconstruction and re-appropriation of African education using an ubuntu framework for an African renewal.

  3. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Auction of electricity trading capacity at State frontiers. An offence against the European legal free movement of goods and the duty prohibition?; Versteigerung von Stromdurchleitungskapazitaeten an Staatsgrenzen. Ein Verstoss gegen die europarechtliche Warenverkehrsfreiheit und das Zollverbot?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtmann, Ulrich [Anwaltskanzlei Eimer Heuschmid Mehle, Bonn (Germany); Kaluza, Anna-Lena [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    At the borders of most Member States the capacity for the power transfer across the border clearly is undersized. With its guidelines on electricity regulation in the year 2003, the European Commission has established an auction procedure for a bottleneck management at border interconnectors. Cross-border current flows are more expensive. A cross-border trade of electricity thus is prevented. Instead of today's illegal auction procedure, it is obvious to proceed by competition or other cost-neutral distribution processes. Then, each applicant would have the same chance to receive the contract for a limited capacity without the expensive cross-border traffic.

  5. Enumeration of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes by single-platform, HLA tetramer-based flow cytometry: a European multicenter evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijnen, Ingmar A F M; Barnett, David; Arroz, Maria J; Barry, Simon M; Bonneville, Marc; Brando, Bruno; D'hautcourt, Jean-Luc; Kern, Florian; Tötterman, Thomas H; Marijt, Erik W A; Bossy, David; Preijers, Frank W M B; Rothe, Gregor; Gratama, Jan W

    2004-11-01

    HLA class I peptide tetramers represent powerful diagnostic tools for detection and monitoring of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. The impetus for the current multicenter study is the critical need to standardize tetramer flow cytometry if it is to be implemented as a routine diagnostic assay. Hence, the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis set out to develop and evaluate a single-platform tetramer-based method that used cytomegalovirus (CMV) as the antigenic model. Absolute numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells were obtained by combining the percentage of tetramer-binding cells with the absolute CD8(+) T-cell count. Six send-outs of stabilized blood from healthy individuals or CMV-carrying donors with CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell counts of 3 to 10 cells/microl were distributed to 7 to 16 clinical sites. These sites were requested to enumerate CD8(+) T cells and, in the case of CMV-positive donors, CMV-specific subsets on three separate occasions using the standard method. Between-site coefficients of variation of less than 10% (absolute CD8(+) T-cell counts) and approximately 30% (percentage and absolute numbers of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells) were achieved. Within-site coefficients of variation were approximately 5% (absolute CD8(+) T-cell counts), approximately 9% (percentage CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells), and approximately 17% (absolute CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell counts). The degree of variation tended to correlate inversely with the proportion of CMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell subsets. The single-platform MHC tetramer-based method for antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell counting has been evaluated by a European group of laboratories and can be considered a reproducible assay for routine enumeration of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Single Stator Dual PM Rotor Synchronous Machine with two-frequency single-inverter control, for the propulsion of hybrid electric vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Topor Marcel; Marignetti Fabrizio; Deaconu Sorin Ioan; Tutelea Lucian Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel brushless, single winding and single stator, dual PM rotor axial-air-gap machine capable to deliver independently torque at the two rotors by adequate dual vector control...

  7. A hypothesis for explaining single outbreaks (like the Black Death in European cities) of vector-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, M N; Coutinho, F A B; Massad, E

    2009-07-01

    We propose a mechanism by which single outbreaks of vector-borne infections can happen even when the value of the basic reproduction number, R(0), of the infection is below one. With this hypothesis we have shown that dynamical models simulations demonstrate that the arrival of a relatively small (with respect to the host population) number of infected vectors can trigger a short-lived epidemic but with a huge number of cases. These episodes are characterized by a sudden outbreak in a previously virgin area that last from weeks to a few months, and then disappear without leaving vestiges. The hypothesis proposed in this paper to explain those single outbreaks of vector-borne infections, even when total basic reproduction number, R(0), is less than one (which explain the fact that those infections fail to establish themselves at endemic levels), is that the vector-to-host component of R(0) is greater than one and that a sufficient amount of infected vectors are imported to the vulnerable area, triggering the outbreak. We tested the hypothesis by performing numerical simulations that reproduce the observed outbreaks of chikungunya in Italy in 2007 and the plague in Florence in 1348. The theory proposed provides an explanation for isolated outbreaks of vector-borne infections, ways to calculate the size of those outbreaks from the number of infected vectors arriving in the affected areas. Given the ever-increasing worldwide transportation network, providing a high degree of mobility from endemic to virgin areas, the proposed mechanism may have important implications for public health planning.

  8. Performance Improvement of a Portable Electric Generator Using an Optimized Bio-Fuel Ratio in a Single Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Hiroaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an electrical generator using bio-fuel and gasoline blends of different composition as fuel in a single cylinder engine is presented. The effect of an optimized blend ratio of bio-fuel with gasoline on engine performance improvement and thereby on the electrical generator output is studied. Bio-fuels such as ethanol, butanol and methanol are blended with gasoline in different proportions and evaluated for performance. The effects of different bio-fuel/gasoline blending ratios are compared experimentally with that of the gasoline alone using the output power developed by the electric generator as the evaluation parameter. With a composition of 10% ethanol–gasoline, the engine performance is increased up to 6% and with a blending ratio of 20% butanol–gasoline the performance is increased up to 8% compared to the use of 100% gasoline. The investigations are performed on a portable generator used in palm tree harvesting applications.

  9. Simplification of physics-based electrochemical model for lithium ion battery on electric vehicle. Part I: Diffusion simplification and single particle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuebing; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Now the lithium ion batteries are widely used in electrical vehicles (EV). The battery modeling and state estimation is of great significance. The rigorous physic based electrochemical model is too complicated for on-line simulation in vehicle. In this work, the simplification of physics-based model lithium ion battery for application in battery management system (BMS) on real electrical vehicle is proposed. Approximate method for solving the solid phase diffusion and electrolyte concentration distribution problems is introduced. The approximate result is very close to the rigorous model but fewer computations are needed. An extended single particle model is founded based on these approximated results and the on-line state of charge (SOC) estimation algorithm using the extended Kalman filter with this single particle model is discussed. This SOC estimation algorithm could be used in the BMS in real vehicle.

  10. Electrical transport, electrothermal transport, and effective electron mass in single-crystalline In2O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Natalie; Bierwagen, Oliver; Ramu, Ashok T.; Speck, James S.

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive study of the room-temperature electrical and electrothermal transport of single-crystalline indium oxide (In2O3) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films over a wide range of electron concentrations is reported. We measured the room-temperature Hall mobility μH and Seebeck coefficient S of unintentionally doped and Sn-doped high-quality, plasma-assisted molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown In2O3 for volume Hall electron concentrations nH from 7×1016 cm-3 (unintentionally doped) to 1×1021 cm-3 (highly Sn-doped, ITO). The resulting empirical S(nH) relation can be directly used in other In2O3 samples to estimate the volume electron concentration from simple Seebeck coefficient measurements. The mobility and Seebeck coefficient were modeled by a numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. Ionized impurity scattering and polar optical phonon scattering were found to be the dominant scattering mechanisms. Acoustic phonon scattering was found to be negligible. Fitting the temperature-dependent mobility above room temperature of an In2O3 film with high mobility allowed us to find the effective Debye temperature (ΘD=700 K) and number of phonon modes (NOPML=1.33) that best describe the polar optical phonon scattering. The modeling also yielded the Hall scattering factor rH as a function of electron concentration, which is not negligible (rH≈1.4) at nondegenerate electron concentrations. Fitting the Hall-scattering-factor corrected concentration-dependent Seebeck coefficient S(n) for nondegenerate samples to the numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and to widely used, simplified equations allowed us to extract an effective electron mass of m*=(0.30±0.03)me (with free electron mass me). The modeled mobility and Seebeck coefficient based on polar optical phonon and ionized impurity scattering describes the experimental results very accurately up to electron concentrations of 1019 cm-3, and qualitatively explains a mobility plateau or local

  11. Single dose cabergoline versus bromocriptine in inhibition of puerperal lactation: randomised, double blind, multicentre study. European Multicentre Study Group for Cabergoline in Lactation Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of a single dose of 1 mg of cabergoline with that of bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 14 days in the inhibition of puerperal lactation. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, double blind, parallel group, multicentre study. SETTING--University of hospital departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in different European countries. SUBJECTS--272 puerperal women not wishing to lactate (136 randomised to each drug). INTERVENTIONS--Women randomised to cabergoline received two 0.5 mg tablets of cabergoline and one placebo tablet within 27 hours after delivery and then placebo twice daily for 14 days. Those randomised to bromocriptine received 2.5 mg of bromocriptine and two placebo tablets within 27 hours and then 2.5 mg of bromocriptine twice daily for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Success of treatment (complete or partial) according to milk secretion, breast engorgement, and breast pain; rebound symptomatology; serum prolactin concentrations; and number of adverse events. RESULTS--Complete success was achieved in 106 of 136 women randomised to cabergoline and in 94 of 136 randomised to bromocriptine and partial success in 21 and 33 women respectively. Rebound breast symptomatology occurred respectively in five and 23 women with complete success up to day 15 (p less than 0.0001). Serum prolactin concentrations dropped considerably with both drugs from day 2 to day 15; a prolactin secretion rebound effect was observed in women treated with bromocriptine. cabergoline and 36 receiving bromocriptine (p = 0.054), occurring most during the first treatment day. CONCLUSION--A single 1 mg dose of cabergoline is at least as effective as bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 14 days in preventing puerperal lactation. Because of the considerably lower rate of rebound breast activity and adverse events and the simpler administration schedule cabergoline should be the drug of choice for lactation inhibition. PMID:1676318

  12. Africa: a Future Energy Supplier for Europe? Africa as a Member of Trans-European Transfer Networks and a Partner to EU on the Field of Electricity Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waisová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The EU member states rank among the most developed countries in the world which also makes them signifi cant electricity consumers. Electricity consumption in the EU member states has been increasing steadily over several decades and this tendency should be expected to continue in the future Majority of the EU member states are not self -suffi cient as to electricity production and have to cover greater or smaller part of their consumption by import from third countries. The present text deal...

  13. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dc due to intrinsic defect formation in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal implanted with Mg ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardío, M., E-mail: mtardio@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Egaña, A.; Ramírez, R.; Muñoz-Santiuste, J.E. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad Carlos III, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Madrid) (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela (Portugal)

    2016-07-15

    The electrical conductivity in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals implanted with Mg ions in two different crystalline orientations, parallel and perpendicular to c axis, was investigated. The samples were implanted at room temperature with energies of 50 and 100 keV and fluences of 1 × 10{sup 15}, 5 × 10{sup 15} and 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. Optical characterization reveals slight differences in the absorption bands at 6.0 and 4.2 eV, attributed to F type centers and Mie scattering from Mg precipitates, respectively. DC electrical measurements using the four and two-point probe methods, between 295 and 490 K, were used to characterize the electrical conductivity of the implanted area (Meshakim and Tanabe, 2001). Measurements in this temperature range indicate that: (1) the electrical conductivity is thermally activated independently of crystallographic orientation, (2) resistance values in the implanted region decrease with fluence levels, and (3) the I–V characteristic of electrical contacts in samples with perpendicular c axis orientation is clearly ohmic, whereas contacts are blocking in samples with parallel c axis. When thin layers are sequentially removed from the implanted region by immersing the sample in a hot solution of nitric and fluorhydric acids the electrical resistance increases until reaching the values of non-implanted crystal (Jheeta et al., 2006). We conclude that the enhancement in conductivity observed in the implanted regions is related to the intrinsic defects created by the implantation rather than to the implanted Mg ions (da Silva et al., 2002; Tardío et al., 2001; Tardío et al., 2008).

  14. Control of the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet with an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wu, Ruqian

    2013-03-01

    Through systematic density functional calculations, the mechanism of the substrate induced spin reorientation transition in FePc/O-Cu(110) is explained in terms of charge transfer and rearrangement of Fe-3d orbitals. Moreover, we find giant magnetoelectric effects in this system, manifested by the sensitive dependence of its magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy energy on an external electric field. In particular, the direction of magnetization of FePc/O-Cu(110) is switchable between in-plane and perpendicular axes, simply by applying an external electric field of 0.5 eV/Å along the surface normal.

  15. Performance testing of the Ford/GE Second Generation Single-Shaft Electric Propulsion (ETX-II) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1993-06-01

    System-level-operational testing of the ETX-II test-bed electric vehicle is described and the results discussed. Because the traction battery is a major factor in the performance of an electric vehicle, previously reported work on the sodium-sulfur battery designed for use with the ETX-II is reviewed in detail. Chassis dynamometer performance of the test-bed vehicle met or exceeded design goals and compared reasonably well with SIMPLEV computer modeling results. Areas are identified wherein further work is needed to establish a firmer basis for comparison of the simulation and the observed results.

  16. Grid Frequency Support by Single-Phase Electric Vehicles: Fast Primary Control Enhanced by a Stabilizer Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles are growing in popularity as a zero emission and efficient mode of transport against traditional internal combustion engine-based vehicles. Considerable as flexible distributed energy storage systems, by adjusting the battery charging process they can potentially provide different...... ancillary services for supporting the power grid. This paper presents modeling and analysis of the benefits of primary frequency regulation by electric vehicles in a microgrid. An innovative control logic algorithm is introduced, with the purpose of curtailing the number of current set-point variations...

  17. Phase Balancing by Means of Electric Vehicles Single-Phase Connection Shifting in a Low Voltage Danish Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lico, Pasqualino; Marinelli, Mattia; Knezovic, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    In Denmark, household consumers are supplied with three phase with neutral cable. In addition, the distribution service operator cannot decide to which phase electrical appliance are connected. The technician who realizes the installation connects the loads according to his technical expertise....... This may results in heavy imbalances. This paper uses a real Danish distribution system with household consumers, photovoltaic installation and electrical vehicles (EV). In this paper the possibility to use EVs’ charging spots in order to reduce grid’s imbalances will be investigated. Usually, charging...

  18. Single-Phase Boost Inverter-Based Electric Vehicle Charger With Integrated Vehicle to Grid Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav

    2018-01-01

    Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...

  19. Analysis and Comparison of Voltage Dependent Charging Strategies for Single-Phase Electric Vehicles in an Unbalanced Danish Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, Jorge Nájera; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies four voltage dependent solutions for modulating the charging of multiple Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a real Danish network. Uncontrolled EV charging, especially in grid with high EV penetration, can result in overloaded lines and transformers, low-voltages and other performance ...

  20. A single laboratory setup for investigating the anisotropy of both seismic and electrical properties in core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Christian; Robion, Philippe; Louis, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    A fully automated versatile device is presented for analysing the anisotropy of both seismic and electrical properties on cylindrical rock samples. Initially devoted to the study of P-wave velocity anisotropy (APV), the system has been upgraded to allow the measurement of electrical conductivity anisotropy (AEC) as well. The improved setup allows for the estimation of the APV and AEC, from measurements across multiple diameters with an angular spacing selected by the operator. In order to determine the APV simplified tensor and the true AEC tensor, at least three mutually orthogonal samples are required. Switching from velocity to electrical measurements only requires replacing the pair of ultrasonic transducers by a pair of electrodes. Whereas the procedure is quite straightforward for the P-wave velocity analysis, different calibration steps and approximations are required in the processing of the electrical data. As an example the methodology was applied to a set of two rocks, the Leopard and the Castlegate sandstones, for which the APV and AEC are compared in a unified scheme. Good agreement was found between the orientation of the symmetry axes for both properties, suggesting that in the studied rocks pore space anisotropy accounts for both velocity and electrical anisotropy. This methodology can also be incorporated into a core analysis workflow to obtain a first-hand assessment of the rock fabric orientation and anisotropy with respect to seismic and transport properties. The information thus obtained can be used as a screening step for sampling and stress testing as well as for direct core to log integration and cross-property correlations.

  1. Magnetic and electrical properties of single crystalline Sr{sub 3-x}Ca{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, K. [Faculty of Science, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)], E-mail: iwata@hp.phy.saitama-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Y. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Kosaka, M.; Katano, S. [Faculty of Science, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2008-04-01

    We have successfully grown single crystalline Sr{sub 3-x}Ca{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7} with the range of 2.0{<=}x{<=}3.0 using the floating-zone method. All compounds show orthorhombic symmetry in this substitution range, but the difference between lattice constants a and b decreases with increasing Sr concentration and becomes almost zero at x=2.0. Characteristic temperatures, which correspond to antiferromagnetic ordering and structural transition, decrease with increasing Sr concentration. The value of the magnetic susceptibility below 30 K increases with increasing Sr concentration. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity revealed that Sr substitution significantly suppresses the highly anisotropic electric structure of Ca{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  2. The transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange, investigated for the example of the European Energy Exchange; Die Transparenz im boerslichen Stromgrosshandel am Beispiel der European Energy Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, Viola v.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to make a well-founded contribution to the debate on the transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange in Germany, while providing decision makers with a scientific basis for their actions. It was the author's intent that among whatever insights were gained on the need for transparency rules for wholesale electricity trading on the German stock exchange the study should be restricted to those that would foreseeably also apply to electricity exchanges yet to come in Germany. The EEX was used as a case example for the one reason that it was the only one in existence in Germany at the time of writing. In line with this, the study also includes suggestions for the German spot market, despite its relocation to Paris following a merger with the French trading platform operator Powernext. The study sets out with a description of the stock exchange and electricity exchange trading in general n order to familiarise the reader with the subject. This is followed by a chapter on the concept of transparency, including a discussion of the function of transparency and its role in economic theories. The study goes on to describe other commodities exchanges and elaborates a comparison with Scandinavian electricity exchanges. The last chapter identifies and discusses needs for change.

  3. Pilot scale single chamber up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment and electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Wei-Eng; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur

    2017-04-01

    Pilot scale up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UFML-MFC) was constructed to study feasibility of the bioreactor for simultaneous degradation of organic substance and electricity generation. The performance of the UFML-MFC was evaluated with different anode electrode (cube carbon felt and stacked carbon felt) in terms of voltage output, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Coulombic efficiency (CE). Carbon flake were used as cathode in the UFML-MFC. UFML-MFC was operated in three stages where included batch-fed, end of batch fed and semi-continuous. The Cube carbon felt as anode have the better performance in terms of voltage output and electricity generation in all 3 stages. Maximum voltage output was 0.311 ± 0.004 V at 75% of COD reduction and thus CE was 0.15%. The result shows the operational mode is the key to improve the voltage output and also COD reduction.

  4. Optimizing the e-beam profile of a single carbon nanotube field emission device for electric propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fujioka Mologni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies on field emission (FE arrays comprised of carbon nanotubes (CNT as an electron source for electric propulsion system show remarkably promising results. Design parameters for a carbon nanotube (CNT field-emission device operating on triode configuration were numerically simulated and optimized in order to enhance the e-beam focusing quality. An additional focus gate (FG was integrated to the device to control the profile of the emitted e-beam. An axisymmetric finite element model was developed to calculate the electric field distribution on the vacuum region and a modified Fowler-Nordheim (FN equation was used to evaluate the current density emission and the effective emitter area. Afterward, a FE simulation was employed in order to calculate the trajectory of the emitted electrons and define the electron-optical properties of the e-beam. The integration of the FG was fully investigated via computational intelligence techniques. The best performance device according to our simulations presents a collimated e-beam profile that suits well for field emission displays, magnetic field detection and electron microscopy. The automated computational design tool presented in this study strongly benefits the robust design of integrated electron-optical systems for vacuum field emission applications, including electrodynamic tethering and electric propulsion systems.

  5. Electrical conduction at high fields in single-injection, solid-state diodes with traps lying above the Fermi level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y. K.

    1982-02-01

    The approximate solutions for the current-voltage characteristic have been given for the single-injection current at high fields in solid-state diodes with a single set of traps lying above the thermal-equilibrium Fermi level. It is shown that there is a large change in current occurring over a restricted change in voltage and pure space-charge regime follows 3/2 power law dependence of the current on voltage.

  6. A single implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock unmasking an electrical storm of 389 ventricular tachycardia episodes triggering device therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Miguel A; Valverde, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Castellanos, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Sánchez, Ana M; Alvarez-Temiño, María; Palomino, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented the first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock approximately 5 months after implantation. Device interrogation surprisingly revealed the occurrence of 389 ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes terminated by asymptomatic antitachycardia pacing (ATP) except for the episode requiring shock. The present case of electrical storm highlights how contemporary tiered ATP schemes constitute a valuable but underused form of termination for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD patients, reducing the number of painful shocks and their adverse consequences.

  7. Explore various co-substrates for simultaneous electricity generation and Congo red degradation in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunqing; Hu, Yongyou; Sun, Jian; Hou, Bin

    2010-08-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) holds a great promise to harvest electricity directly from a wide range of ready degradable organic matters and enhance degradation of some recalcitrant contaminants. Glucose, acetate sodium and ethanol were separately examined as co-substrates for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and Congo red degradation in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) air-cathode single-chamber MFC. The batch test results showed that more than 98% decolorization at the dye concentration of 300 mg/L were achieved within 36 h for all tested co-substrates during electricity generation. The decolorization rate was different with the co-substrates used. The fastest decolorization rate was achieved with glucose followed by ethanol and sodium acetate. Accumulated intermediates were observed during Congo red degradation which was demonstrated by UV-Visible spectra and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electricity generation was sustained and not significantly affected by the Congo red degradation. Glucose, acetate sodium and ethanol produced maximum power densities of 103 mW/m(2), 85.9 mW/m(2) and 63.2 mW/m(2), respectively, and the maximum voltage output decreased by only 7% to 15%. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of using various co-substrates for simultaneous decolorization of Congo red and bioelectricity generation in the MFC and showed that glucose was the preferred co-substrate. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient removal of nitrobenzene and concomitant electricity production by single-chamber microbial fuel cells with activated carbon air-cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enren; Wang, Feng; Zhai, Wenjing; Scott, Keith; Wang, Xu; Diao, Guowang

    2017-04-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) with bio-anodes and activated carbon (AC) air-cathodes showed high nitrobenzene (NB) tolerance and NB removal with concomitant electricity production. The maximum power over 25Wm -3 could be obtained when S-MFCs were operated in the NB loading range of 1.2-6.2molm -3 d -1 , and stable electricity production over 13.7Wm -3 could be produced in a NB loading range of 1.2-14.7molm -3 d -1 . The present S-MFCs exhibited high NB removal performance with NB removal efficiency over 97% even when the NB loading rate was increased to 17.2molm -3 d -1 . The potential NB reduced product (i.e. aniline) could also be effectively removed from influents. The findings in this study means that single-chamber MFCs assembled with pre-enriched bio-anodes and AC air-cathodes could be developed as effective bio-electrochemical systems to remove NB from wastewaters and to harvest energy instead of consuming energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coherent multiphoton photoelectron emission from single au nanorods: the critical role of plasmonic electric near-field enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubisic, Andrej; Schweikhard, Volker; Baker, Thomas A; Nesbitt, David J

    2013-01-22

    Electron emission from individual Au nanorods deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) following excitation with femtosecond laser pulses near the rod longitudinal plasmon resonance is studied via scanning photoionization microscopy. The measured electron signal is observed to strongly depend on the excitation laser polarization and wavelength. Correlated secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and dark-field microscopy (DFM) studies of the same nanorods unambiguously confirm that maximum electron emission results from (i) laser polarization aligned with the rod long axis and (ii) laser wavelength resonant with the localized surface plasmon resonance. The experimental results are in good agreement with quantitative predictions for a coherent multiphoton photoelectric effect, which is identified as the predominant electron emission mechanism for metal nanoparticles under employed excitation conditions. According to this mechanism, the multiphoton photoemission rate is increased by over 10 orders of magnitude in the vicinity of a localized surface plasmon resonance, due to enhancement of the incident electromagnetic field in the particle near-field. These findings identify multiphoton photoemission as an extremely sensitive metric of local electric fields (i.e., "hot spots") in plasmonic nanoparticles/structures that can potentially be exploited for direct quantitation of local electric field enhancement factors.

  10. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  11. Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Chung, Hui-Fang; Lin, Yong-Han; Kai, Ji-Jung; Chen, Fu-Rong; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2009-03-01

    Single-crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) were grown by the standard thermal evaporation method. The as-grown NWs were typically 100-300 nm in diameter and a few µm long. Four-probe submicron Ti/Au electrodes on individual NWs were fabricated by the electron-beam lithography technique. The resistivities of several single NWs have been measured from 300 down to 1.5 K. The results indicate that the as-grown ITO NWs are metallic, but disordered. The overall temperature behavior of resistivity can be described by the Bloch-Grüneisen law plus a low-temperature correction due to the scattering of electrons off dynamic point defects. This observation suggests the existence of numerous dynamic point defects in as-grown ITO NWs.

  12. The fabrication and characterization of adjustable nanogaps between gold electrodes on chip for electrical measurement of single molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Yang Yang; Liu Bo; Wu Deyin; Tian Zhongqun [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Schoellhorn, Bernd; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Muns, Anna Serra; Chen Yong; Amatore, Christian [UMR CNRS 8640 ' PASTEUR' and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Tao, Nong-Jian, E-mail: zqtian@xmu.edu.cn, E-mail: christian.amatore@ens.fr [Ira A Fulton School of Engineering and Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6206 (United States)

    2010-07-09

    This work reports on a new method to fabricate mechanically controllable break junctions (MCBJ) with finely adjustable nanogaps between two gold electrodes on solid state chips for characterizing electron transport properties of single molecules. The simple, low cost, robust and reproducible fabrication method combines conventional photolithography, chemical etching and electrodeposition to produce suspended electrodes separated with nanogaps. The MCBJ devices fabricated by the method can undergo many cycles in which the nanogap width can be precisely and repeatedly varied from zero to several nanometers. The method improves the success rate of the MCBJ experiments. Using these devices the electron transport properties of a typical molecular system, commercially available benzene-1,4-dithiol (BDT), have been studied. The I-V and G-V characteristic curves of BDT and the conductance value for a single BDT molecule established the excellent device suitability for molecular electronics research.

  13. Analysis of non-ohmic electrical current-voltage characteristic of membranes carrying a single track-etched conical pore

    CERN Document Server

    Woermann, D

    2002-01-01

    The model of the membrane with narrow pores is used to rationalise the existence of a non-ohmic current-voltage characteristic of membranes carrying a single narrow conical pore. The observation of this characteristic was reported recently by Apel et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 184 (2001) 366]. The membranes used in that study were produced by an advanced track etch technique.

  14. Electrical Detection of C-Reactive Protein Using a Single Free-Standing, Thermally Controlled Piezoresistive Microcantilever for Highly Reproducible and Accurate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Sun Huang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel method for electrical detection of C-reactive protein (CRP as a means of identifying an infection in the body, or as a cardiovascular disease risk assay. The method uses a single free-standing, thermally controlled piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor. In a commonly used sensing arrangement of conventional dual cantilevers in the Wheatstone bridge circuit, reference and gold-coated sensing cantilevers that inherently have heterogeneous surface materials and different multilayer structures may yield independent responses to the liquid environmental changes of chemical substances, flow field and temperature, leading to unwanted signal disturbance for biosensing targets. In this study, the single free-standing microcantilever for biosensing applications is employed to resolve the dual-beam problem of individual responses in chemical solutions and, in a thermally controlled system, to maintain its sensor performance due to the sensitive temperature effect. With this type of single temperature-controlled microcantilever sensor, the electrical detection of various CRP concentrations from 1 µg/mL to 200 µg/mL was performed, which covers the clinically relevant range. Induced surface stresses were measured at between 0.25 N/m and 3.4 N/m with high reproducibility. Moreover, the binding affinity (KD of CRP and anti-CRP interaction was found to be 18.83 ± 2.99 µg/mL, which agreed with results in previous reported studies. This biosensing technique thus proves valuable in detecting inflammation, and in cardiovascular disease risk assays.

  15. Growth of NBT-BT single crystals by flux method and their structural, morphological and electrical characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuru, Sreenadha Rao; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.; Kumar, Binay

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, one of the important, eco-friendly polycrystalline material, (1-x)(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT) - xBaTiO3 (BT) of different compositions (x=0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 wt%) around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were synthesized by solid state reaction technique. And the single crystals with 13×7×7 mm3, 12×12×7 mm3 and 10×7×4 mm3 dimensions were grown by self flux method. The morphology, crystal structure and unit-cell parameters have been studied and the monoclinic phase has been identified for 0.07 wt% of BT. Higher BT concentration changes the crystal habit and the mechanism has been studied clearly. Raman spectroscopy at room-temperature confirms the presence of functional groups. The quality of the as grown single crystals was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis. The dielectric properties of the as grown crystals were investigated in the frequency range of 20 Hz-2 MHz from room temperature to 450 °C. The broad dielectric peak and frequency dispersion demonstrates the relaxor behavior of grown crystals. The dielectric constant (εr), transition temperature (Tm), and depolarization temperature (Td) of the grown crystals are found to be comparatively good. The diffusive factor (γ) from Curie-Weiss law confirms the as grown NBT-BT single crystals are relaxor in nature.

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Structural and Electrical Properties of Single Crystalline Ga-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Zou, Wen-Qin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Zhang, Feng-Ming; Du, You-Wei

    2009-11-01

    High-quality Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) single crystalline films with various Ga concentrations are grown on a-plane sapphire substrates using molecular-beam epitaxy. The site configuration of doped Ga atoms is studied by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is found that nearly all Ga can substitute into ZnO lattice as electrically active donors, a generating high density of free carriers with about one electron per Ga dopant when the Ga concentration is no more than 2%. However, further increasing the Ga doping concentration leads to a decrease of the conductivity due to partial segregation of Ga atoms to the minor phase of the spinel ZnGa2O4 or other intermediate phase. It seems that the maximum solubility of Ga in the ZnO single crystalline film is about 2 at.% and the lowest resistivity can reach 1.92 × 10-4 Ω·cm at room temperature, close to the best value reported. In contrast to ZnO:Ga thin film with 1% or 2% Ga doping, the film with 4% Ga doping exhibits a metal semiconductor transition at 80 K. The scattering mechanism of conducting electrons in single crystalline ZnO:Ga thin film is discussed.

  17. Investigation and description of European buildings that may be representative for “nearly-zero” energy single family houses in 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Svendsen, Svend; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2013-01-01

    As part of European energy politics and strategies for reduction of fossil fuels all new buildings should have a “nearly zero” energy consumption in 2020. This creates a strong need for research in cost-effective technologies and solutions that will contribute to the fulfilment of the ambitious e...

  18. RANDOMIZED EUROPEAN MULTICENTER TRIAL OF SURFACTANT REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR SEVERE NEONATAL RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME - SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE DOSES OF CUROSURF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPEER, CP; ROBERTSON, B; CURSTEDT, T; HALLIDAY, HL; COMPAGNONE, D; GEFELLER, O; HARMS, K; HERTING, E; MCCLURE, G; REID, M; TUBMAN, R; HERIN, P; NOACK, G; KOK, J; KOPPE, J; VANSONDEREN, L; LAUFKOTTER, E; KOHLER, W; BOENISCH, H; ALBRECHT, K; HANSSLER, L; HAIM, M; OETOMO, SB; Okken, Albert; ALTFELD, PC; GRONECK, P; KACHEL, W; RELIER, JP; WALTI, H

    There is now convincing evidence that the severity of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome can be reduced by surfactant replacement therapy; however, the optimal therapeutic regimen has not been defined. This randomized European multicenter trial was designed to determine whether the beneficial

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of copper antimony sulfide thin films grown by a citrate-assisted single chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Diliegros-Godines, C. J.; Silva González, R.; Pal, Mou

    2018-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide (CAS) has been proposed as low toxicity and earth abundant absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics due to their suitable optical band gap, high absorption coefficient and p-type electrical conductivity. The present work reports the formation of copper antimony sulfide by chemical bath deposition using sodium citrate as a complexing agent. We show that by tuning the annealing condition, one can obtain either chalcostibite or tetrahedrite phase. However, the main challenge was co-deposition of copper and antimony as ternary sulfides from a single chemical bath due to the distinct chemical behavior of these metals. The as-deposited films were subjected to several trials of thermal treatment using different temperatures and time to find the optimized annealing condition. The films were characterized by different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurements. The results show that the formation of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite phases is highly sensitive to annealing conditions. The electrical properties obtained for the chalcostibite films varied as the annealing temperature increases from 280 to 350 °C: hole concentration (n) = 1017-1018 cm-3, resistivity (ρ) = 1.74-2.14 Ωcm and carrier mobility (μ) = 4.7-9.26 cm2/Vseg. While for the tetrahedrite films, the electrical properties were n = 5 × 1019 cm-3, μ = 18.24 cm2/Vseg, and ρ = 5.8 × 10-3 Ωcm. A possible mechanism for the formation of ternary copper antimony sulfide has also been proposed.

  20. Thermal Stability and Electrical Transport Properties of Single-Crystalline β-Zn4Sb3 Co-doped by Ga/Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuping; Tang, Yu; Li, Decong; Liu, Hongxia; Chen, Zhong; Shen, Lanxian; Deng, Shukang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, Ga/Sn co-doped single-crystal β-Zn4Sb3 were prepared by a Sn-flux method based on stoichiometric ratios of Zn4- x Sb3Ga x Sn3 ( x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.75). The effect of Ga/Sn co-doping on the thermal stability and electrical transport properties of the obtained samples were investigated. All the prepared samples exhibit p-type conduction, and carrier concentration varies from 4.71 × 1019 cm-3 to 10.44 × 1019 cm-3, while carrier mobility changes from 34.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 68.9 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. Structure analysis indicates that all samples are β-Zn4Sb3 with space group R\\bar{3}c. Thermal analysis results show that the Ga/Sn co-doped samples possess an excellent thermal stability. The results of crystal compositions indicate that both Ga and Sn atoms tend to replace Zn atoms, and the electrical transport properties of the samples were optimized by co-doping Ga and Sn. Meanwhile, the calculated values of the carrier effective mass, band gap and relaxation time agree with the result obtained from a band structure calculation. Consequently, the sample with Ga initial content x = 0.5 possesses excellent electrical properties, which obtains a maximal power factor of 1.56 × 10-3 W m-1 K-2 at 450 K.

  1. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE ELECTRIC FIELD OF THE SINGLE MODE LASER HOMOGENEOUS BROADENING IN THE PULSE REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ayadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1],  similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. ¶This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude  when this last  undergoes a  periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.

  2. Ferromagnetic phase transition and single-gap type electrical conductivity of epitaxial LaMnO3/LaAlO3 superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haoming; Yang, Chang; Barzola-Quiquia, Jose Luis; Welke, Martin; Denecke, Reinhard; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas; Esquinazi, Pablo; Grundmann, Marius; Lorenz, Michael

    2017-11-01

    High-quality epitaxial LaMnO3/LaAlO3 superlattices (SLs) with (0 0 1), (0 1 1), and (1 1 1) out-of-plane orientation were grown by pulsed laser deposition. This SL material was predicted theoretically as a Chern insulator for realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect. In our investigations, a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition is found with decreasing temperature around 100 K, indicating a controllable ferroic order at low temperatures. Electrical transport measurements reveal a thermally activated single-gap behavior with a fitted band gap of 436 meV for the (1 1 1)-oriented SL. With that, the results prove the predictions of a ferromagnetic background in the SLs, and of a gapped band structure.

  3. The most intense electrical currents in the solar wind: Comparisons between single-spacecraft measurements and plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional hybrid simulations of solar wind turbulence near the orbit of the Earth are used to investigate the plasma current density over the range of scales from 0.5 proton inertial lengths to hundreds of proton inertial lengths. The data are analyzed along a simulated spacecraft trajectory in order to directly compare the results against single-spacecraft measurements. The most intense current densities are identified using an amplitude threshold technique and the properties of 5σ events identified in the true current density are compared to the properties of 5σ events identified using a proxy for the current density designed for studies of single-spacecraft solar wind measurements. The proxy is proportional to the magnitude of the directional derivative of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory. The results from the simulation show that the average properties of 5σ events observed in the proxy are quantitatively similar to those observed in the true current density, properties such as the spatial size of the events, the nearest neighbor distance, and the peak current density of the events. This provides some justification for the use of the proxy for the statistical analysis of solar wind data even though the simulation indicates that the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the proxy are not always a reliable indicator of the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the true current density. The physical properties of 5σ events in simulated spacecraft data show remarkable quantitative agreement with the properties of 5σ events observed in solar wind data.

  4. Effects of organic loading rates on the continuous electricity generation from fermented wastewater using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Novel coupling of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with granular activated carbon anodes were constructed, and their ability to produce electricity from fermented wastewater operating in continuous mode was investigated. MFCs treating real fermented wastewater can generate a power density of approximately 1884 mW/m(3), which is equivalent to approximately 51.5% of that obtained from the MFCs (3664 mW/m(3)) using acetate at the same organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.92 g/Ld. As the OLR was increased in a stepwise fashion, power density increased to 2981 mW/m(3) at an OLR of 3.84 g/Ld. The corresponding energy production was 268 kJ/m(3)d. The decrease in the power density was mainly due to the higher internal resistance resulted from complex substrate. Based on the electrode characteristics, it was verified that colloidal particulates and complex organics in the real fermented wastewater not only lowered power density but also played a role as rate-limiting factors in the continuous generation of electricity.

  5. Signatures of correlation between magnetic and electrical properties of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the dielectric, impedance and transport studies of non-charge-ordered magnetic glass, Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystals. The temperature- and frequency-dependent real (ε') and imaginary (ε'' or tanδ) parts of the dielectric constant display large frequency dispersion. The colossal dielectric constant observed (≈ 3000) above 100 K is considered extrinsic. The activation energy of thermally activated relaxation is calculated using the Arrhenius law. Interestingly, two relaxation regions, each with different activation energies (E a ) are clearly evident, one occurring above and the other below the glassy magnetic transition temperature (Tg = 44 \\text{K}) . E a relates to the electron hopping between Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions and the origin of dielectric dispersion. E a in the glassy region is lower than that in paramagnetic region due to a lower energy spent in hopping between frozen spins. Bulk capacitance and resistivity derived from impedance measurements reveal anomalies around T g . Electrical transport data between 60 and 300 K shows insulating behavior and the calculated E a is in good agreement with the value obtained from dielectric measurements. Although, these results cannot be interpreted in terms of magneto-electric coupling, the correlation observed between magnetic and electronic states of the system is significant.

  6. The Effects of High-Frequency Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Dental Professionals with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Single-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Suh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal symptom disorders (WMSDs have a significant issue for dental professionals. This study investigated the effects of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS on work-related pain, fatigue, and the active range of motion in dental professionals. Among recruited 47 dental professionals with WMSDs, 24 subjects received high-frequency TENS (the TENS group, while 23 subjects received placebo stimulation (the placebo group. TENS was applied to the muscle trigger points of the levator scapulae and upper trapezius, while placebo-TENS was administered without electrical stimulation during 60 min. Pain and fatigue at rest and during movement were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS, pain pressure threshold (PPT, and active range of motion (AROM of horizontal head rotation at six time points: prelabor, postlabor, post-TENS, and at 1 h, 3 h, and 1 day after TENS application. Both groups showed significantly increased pain and fatigue and decreased PPT and AROM after completing a work task. The TENS group showed significantly greater improvements in VAS score, fatigue, PPT, and AROM at post-TENS and at 1 h and 3 h after application (all P < 0.05 as compared to the placebo group. A single session high-frequency TENS may immediately reduce symptoms related to WMSDs in dental professionals.

  7. Combining the single-walled carbon nanotubes with low voltage electrical stimulation to improve accumulation of nanomedicines in tumor for effective cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chi; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2016-03-10

    Effective delivery of biomolecules or functional nanoparticles into target sites has always been the primary objective for cancer therapy. We demonstrated that by combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with low-voltage (LV) electrical stimulation, biomolecule delivery can be effectively enhanced through reversible electroporation (EP). Clear pore formation in the cell membrane is observed due to LV (50V) pulse electrical stimulation amplified by SWNTs. The cell morphology remains intact and high cell viability is retained. This modality of SWNT + LV pulses can effectively transfer both small molecules and macromolecules into cells through reversible EP. The results of animal studies also suggest that treatment with LV pulses alone cannot increase vascular permeability in tumors unless after the injection of SWNTs. The nanoparticles can cross the permeable vasculature, which enhances their accumulation in the tumor tissue. Therefore, in cancer treatment, both SWNT + LV pulse treatment followed by the injection of LIPO-DOX® and SWNT/DOX + LV pulse treatment can increase tumor inhibition and delay tumor growth. This novel treatment modality applied in a human cancer xenograft model can provide a safe and effective therapy using various nanomedicines in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Phase Energy Determined from Stress and Electric-Field-Induced Phase Transformations in [011]C Cut 0.24PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorinamaria Carka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of composition and temperature on the large field behavior of [011]C cut and poled (d32-mode rhombohedral relaxor ferroelectric 0.24PIN-(1−xPMN-xPT single crystals was characterized under electromechanical loading and the relative phase energy determined. The electric field and stress induced polarization and strain response and field dependent material properties are reported for two concentrations of lead titanate (PT, with one PT concentration closer to the morphotropic phase boundary, at low and high temperature. A thermodynamic analysis to determine the relative energy levels of the rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases is based on the path integration of the measured data to determine external work done to drive the phase transition. The effect of heat generated by irreversible strain and electric displacement increments (hysteresis in the phase transformation was removed from the work done during the loading cycle and the relative Helmholtz free energy density levels of the phases was determined.

  9. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  10. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on cytokines in peripheral blood for healthy participants: a prospective, single-blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Alexander D; Kho, Michelle E; Brower, Roy G; Feldman, Dorianne R; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Needham, Dale M

    2017-05-01

    The effect of exercise on cytokines may improve muscle strength. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a muscle-preserving therapy that benefits patients unable to participate in active exercise. How NMES alters cytokines is unclear. The aim of this study was to study the effects of 1 NMES session on cytokines associated with protein metabolism during exercise. We evaluated the effects of NMES on IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in peripheral blood. Participants received NMES to bilateral lower extremity muscles (quadriceps, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius) for 30 min. Blood samples immediately pre- and post-NMES were drawn at 15-min intervals to 2-h follow-up, and the mean values of pre-NMES levels were compared to peak and trough post-NMES levels. For cytokines with significant changes, we conducted a repeated-measures linear regression analysis. We also measured post-NMES lactate and creatine kinase levels. We enrolled nine eligible participants. There was a significant increase in peak IL-6 from the mean pre-NMES value [0·65 (0·89) to 1·04 (0·89) pg ml -1 , P = 0·001] and a significant decrease in trough IL-1 [0·08 (0·07) to 0·02 (0·02) pg ml -1 , P = 0·041] and TNF-α [2·42 (0·54) to 2·16 (0·59) pg ml -1 , P = 0·021]. In repeated-measures regression analysis, we identified significantly higher mean IL-6 values throughout the full 120 min post-NMES period, and a significantly higher mean IL-1 value at 30 min post-NMES. There were no significant differences in peak IL-10, trough IL-6, lactate, or creatine kinase values. In nine healthy humans, 30 min of NMES was temporally associated with changes in cytokines similar to the effects of active exercise and may mediate NMES' observed effects on reducing muscle weakness. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  12. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  14. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  15. Whole body oxygen uptake and evoked torque during subtetanic isometric electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles in a single 30-minute session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Conor M; Caulfield, Brian M; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the time course of fatigue in torque output and oxygen uptake during isometric subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to facilitate the design of NMES-based rehabilitation protocols that can accumulate a defined aerobic exercise volume within a given time period. Single-arm intervention study with within-subject comparisons. University research laboratory. Volunteer sample of healthy men (N=11; mean age, 34.2 ± 11.5 y; range, 19-53 y; body mass, 79.1 ± 11.7 kg; range, 58-100 kg). A single 30-minute session of continuous bilateral isometric quadriceps NMES at 4 Hz evoking a mean twitch amplitude of 12% of the maximum voluntary contraction. Whole body oxygen consumption rate (V˙o2), and evoked torque were measured simultaneously throughout. Mean increment in V˙o2 was 596 ± 238 mL/min, and average exercise intensity during the session was 3 ±.47 metabolic equivalents. The V˙o2 and torque declined slowly at a rate of -.54%±.31% and -.47%±.57% per minute, respectively. Despite having a higher incremental V˙o2, the observed fatigue rate was considerably less than that previously reported during intermittent isometric tetanic stimulation, suggesting that subtetanic isometric NMES is more sustainable for exercise interventions aimed at accumulating a therapeutic aerobic exercise volume. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Using olive mill wastewater to improve performance in producing electricity from domestic wastewater by using single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Tenca, Alberto; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Mecheri, Barbara; Merlino, Giuseppe; Barbato, Marta; Borin, Sara; Licoccia, Silvia; Garavaglia, Virgilio; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-11-01

    Improving electricity generation from wastewater (DW) by using olive mill wastewater (OMW) was evaluated using single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFC). Doing so single-chambers air cathode MFCs with platinum anode were fed with domestic wastewater (DW) alone and mixed with OMW at the ratio of 14:1 (w/w). MFCs fed with DW+OMW gave 0.38 V at 1 kΩ, while power density from polarization curve was of 124.6 mW m(-2). The process allowed a total reduction of TCOD and BOD5 of 60% and 69%, respectively, recovering the 29% of the coulombic efficiency. The maximum voltage obtained from MFC fed with DW+OMW was 2.9 times higher than that of cell fed with DW. DNA-fingerprinting showed high bacterial diversity for both experiments and the presence on anodes of exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Geobacter spp. Electrodes selected peculiar consortia and, in particular, anodes of both experiments showed a similar specialization of microbial communities independently by feeding used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  19. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  20. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C.; Healy, William M.; Ullah, Tania

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning. PMID:27990058

  1. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C; Healy, William M; Ullah, Tania

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning.

  2. Improved Gate Dielectric Deposition and Enhanced Electrical Stability for Single-Layer MoS2 MOSFET with an AlN Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Li, Baikui; Hua, Mengyuan; Zhang, Zhaofu; Lan, Feifei; Xu, Yongkuan; Yan, Ruyue; Chen, Kevin J

    2016-06-09

    Transistors based on MoS2 and other TMDs have been widely studied. The dangling-bond free surface of MoS2 has made the deposition of high-quality high-k dielectrics on MoS2 a challenge. The resulted transistors often suffer from the threshold voltage instability induced by the high density traps near MoS2/dielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric, which is detrimental for the practical applications of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). In this work, by using AlN deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as an interfacial layer, top-gate dielectrics as thin as 6 nm for single-layer MoS2 transistors are demonstrated. The AlN interfacial layer not only promotes the conformal deposition of high-quality Al2O3 on the dangling-bond free MoS2, but also greatly enhances the electrical stability of the MoS2 transistors. Very small hysteresis (ΔVth) is observed even at large gate biases and high temperatures. The transistor also exhibits a low level of flicker noise, which clearly originates from the Hooge mobility fluctuation instead of the carrier number fluctuation. The observed superior electrical stability of MoS2 transistor is attributed to the low border trap density of the AlN interfacial layer, as well as the small gate leakage and high dielectric strength of AlN/Al2O3 dielectric stack.

  3. Electrically Assisted Cycling around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Van den Bossche, Peter; Timmermans, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report about Brussels’s contribution to the European E-Tour (Electric Two wheelers On Urban Roads) project. This project aimed to prove the viability of electric two-wheelers in different (urban) areas, by providing European cities with a clean, efficient and reliable alternative for the car. Based on a technical identification of different electric bicycles that are available on the European market and an extended questionnaire filled in by their users, we tried to get an ...

  4. Extension of self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator to lower energy <5 keV as a way to generate multi-TW scale pulses at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We propose a use of the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator to produce high power, fully-coherent pulses for applications at a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL in the photon energy range between 3.5 keV and 5 keV. We exploit the C(111) Bragg reflection ({pi}-polarization) in diamond crystals with a thickness of 0.1 mm, and we show that, by tapering the 40 cells of the SASE3 type undulator the FEL power can reach up to 2 TW in the entire photon energy range. The present design assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge 0.1 nC at nominal electron beam energy 17.5 GeV. The main application of the scheme proposed in this work is for single shot imaging of individual protein molecules. (orig.)

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis and influence of later heat treatment on the structural evolution, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured α-MoO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, A. M.; El-Anssary, E. H.; Elshaikh, H. A.; Afify, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    In the current study, α-MoO3 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized from ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate using a simple hydrothermal route. The influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties was systematically investigated for the MoO3 powder products. The XRD results were analyzed for these powders, revealing the formation of a mixed phase (β- and α-MoO3) at calcination temperatures ranging from 350 °C–450 °C, and hence a residual monoclinic phase still exists in the samples at the calcination temperature of 450 °C. Subsequently, the mixed phase was completely converted to a pure single phase of α-MoO3 at a calcination temperature of 500 °C. The optical properties of the MoO3 powders were investigated using the transformed diffuse reflectance technique according to Kubelka–Munk theory. For such a powder product, the results of the optical measurements demonstrated the realization of indirect and direct allowed transitions at the spectral ranges 3.31–3.91 eV and 3.66–4.27 eV, respectively. The indirect- and direct-allowed band-gaps of the MoO3 products were found to increase from 2.69–3.12 eV and from 3.43–3.64 eV, respectively, by increasing the calcination temperature from 350 °C–600 °C. The MoO3 powders calcined at different temperatures were converted into five dense tablets for performing the electrical measurements. These measurements were carried out at different working temperatures using a system operating under high vacuum conditions. The results revealed that the dc-conductivity of such a tablet typically increases by more than five orders of magnitude with an increase in the working temperature from 77–300 K. These results also demonstrated a high dependence of dc-conductivity on the calcination temperature for the MoO3 products. The dc-conductivity as a function of the operating temperature revealed the presence of at least three different electrical conduction

  6. The state of the North-European electricity market. Attempt to a problem-oriented analysis; Laeget paa den Nordeuropeiska elmarknaden. Ett foersoek till en problemorienterad analys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, U.

    2001-11-01

    This analysis covers the period 2000-2005, plus a few longer prognoses. Most analyses that preceded the deregulation of the electricity market in Europe, held the opinion that the market, due to the important over capacity, would be characterized by a severe price competition and lead to a market restructuration with only a few large producers surviving. The need for new investments was considered to be limited. Even a growing demand for electricity would not disturb the price reductions. The development followed this scheme to a certain extent. The restructuring is taking place. The utilities EdF (France), ENI (Italy), E.On, RWE (both Germany) and Vattenfall (Sweden) are obtaining dominant positions on their largely extended markets. But the prices have been stabilized on a level above the marginal production costs, and the power surplus has been halved compared to 1998. Northern Europe is approaching a state with increasing prices and threatening power shortages. The producers have adapted to the new situation by exploiting the differences in production- and demand-structure in the different countries and the associated price differences. Producers in Germany have instead of competing with the price chosen to close down a number of plants with large investment needs and high operating costs. The energy policy of all countries in the region gives highest priority to investment in renewable energy sources, which can not replace all the capacity lost by closing fossil and nuclear power plants. The ambition of the power producers to regain control of the market and the political inclination to prioritize CO{sub 2}-free power production has, in combination, led to a strengthening of the existing producers and denying market access for new larger actors. New base load production capacity will be needed in the long run, and investment decisions are needed in the near future, if risks for power shortages are to be avoided. Increasing prices will stimulate commercial

  7. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations' engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a 'regional' European polity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model's deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations' (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative 'extreme case study' research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a 'regional' European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the 'pathologies' associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies.

  8. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations’ engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a ‘regional’ European polity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model’s deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations’ (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative ‘extreme case study’ research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a ‘regional’ European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the ‘pathologies’ associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies. PMID:28596639

  9. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  10. Respiratory monitoring with electrical impedance tomography for lung protective ventilation and alveolar recruitment maneuver in a patient with a single lung transplant and early graft dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Alonso, B; Latorre, I; García, J

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented on a patient who underwent left single lung transplantation for emphysema type COPD. There was early graft dysfunction gradeiii during the immediate postoperative period, which required the implantation of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Respirator ventilatory parameters were adjusted to avoid lung distension, low tidal volume (Vc) (280ml), high respiratory rates (20rpm), and a positive pressure at end expiration (PEEP) level of 8cmH2O. On monitoring the pulmonary tidal volume distribution by bedside electrical impedance tomography (EIT), it was noted that most of the tidal volume was distributed in the native lung emphysema. An alveolar recruitment manoeuvre was performed, under control of the EIT, that enabled the current volume and distribution and the pressures required to ventilate the transplanted lung to be observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of the device combining high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and thermotherapy for relieving primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Banghyun; Hong, Seung Hwa; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Wee Chang; No, Jae Hong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Yang, Eun Joo; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Yong Beom

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of the combined therapy with high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (hf-TENS) and thermotherapy in relieving primary dysmenorrheal pain. In this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study, 115 women with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea were assigned to the study or control group at a ratio of 1:1. Subjects in the study group used an integrated hf-TENS/thermotherapy device, whereas control subjects used a sham device. A visual analog scale was used to measure pain intensity. Variables related to pain relief, including reduction rate of dysmenorrheal score, were compared between the groups. The dysmenorrheal score was significantly reduced in the study group compared to the control group following the use of the devices. The duration of pain relief was significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in the brief pain inventory scores, numbers of ibuprofen tablets taken orally, and World Health Organization quality of life-BREF scores. No adverse events were observed related to the use of the study device. The combination of hf-TENS and thermotherapy was effective in relieving acute pain in women with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gate-dielectrics on the electrical characteristics of solution-processed single-wall-carbon-nanotube thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2017-07-01

    High performance of solution-processed, single-wall-carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is investigated through the use in the different gatedielectrics of silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (SiNx), the bilayers of SiO2 and SiNx, and hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) thin films. The different interfacial characteristics affect the electrical characteristics of the SWCNT-TFTs including key device metrics. Significantly, the hysteresis window that is normally observed in drop-casted SWCNT-TFTs was majorly suppressed by the employment of a thin lower dielectric-constant material on a higher dielectricconstant material. Sub-2V operating SWCNT-TFTs with solution-processed h-BN gate dielectrics with good above- and sub-threshold characteristics are also investigated on the basis of interfacial characteristics underlying the device physics. Such performance can be realized by the suppressed interfacial impurity scattering through the chemically clean interface combined with optimized solution-process below 100 °C.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Simultaneous Congo red decolorization and electricity generation in air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cell with different microfiltration, ultrafiltration and proton exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bin; Sun, Jian; Hu, Yong-you

    2011-03-01

    Different microfiltration membrane (MFM), proton exchange membrane (PEM) and ultrafiltration membranes (UFMs) with different molecular cutoff weights of 1K (UFM-1K), 5K (UFM-5K) and 10K (UFM-10K) were incorporated into air-cathode single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) which were explored for simultaneous azo dye decolorization and electricity generation to investigate the effect of membrane on the performance of the MFC. Batch test results showed that the MFC with an UFM-1K produced the highest power density of 324 mW/m(2) coupled with an enhanced coulombic efficiency compared to MFM. The MFC with UMF-10K achieved the fastest decolorization rate (4.77 mg/L h), followed by MFM (3.61 mg/L h), UFM-5K (2.38 mg/L h), UFM-1K (2.02 mg/Lh) and PEM (1.72 mg/Lh). These results demonstrated the possibility of using various membranes in the system described here, and showed that UFM-1K was the best one based on the consideration of both cost and performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of Joule heating and its role in nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-12-01

    Highly non-linear I-V characteristics and apparent colossal electro-resistance were observed in non-charge ordered manganite Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal in low temperature transport measurements. Significant changes were noticed in top surface temperature of the sample as compared to its base while passing current at low temperature. By analyzing these variations, we realize that the change in surface temperature (ΔTsur) is too small to have caused by the strong negative differential resistance. A more accurate estimation of change in the sample temperature was made by back-calculating the sample temperature from the temperature variation of resistance (R-T) data (ΔTcal), which was found to be higher than ΔTsur. This result indicates that there are large thermal gradients across the sample. The experimentally derived ΔTcal is validated with the help of a simple theoretical model and estimation of Joule heating. Pulse measurements realize substantial reduction in Joule heating. With decrease in sample thickness, Joule heating effect is found to be reduced. Our studies reveal that Joule heating plays a major role in the nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3. By careful management of the duty cycle and pulse current I-V measurements, Joule heating can be mitigated to a large extent.

  15. Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-12

    Microplastics and mercury are environmental pollutants of great concern. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of these pollutants, both individually and in binary mixtures, on the swimming performance of juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Microplastics alone, mercury alone and all the mixtures caused significant reduction of the swimming velocity and resistance time of fish. Moreover, changes in behavioural responses including lethargic and erratic swimming behaviour were observed. These results highlight that fish behavioural responses can be used as sensitive endpoint to establish the effects of contamination by microplastics and also emphasizes the need to assess the combined effects of microplastics and other environmental contaminants, with special attention to the effects on behavioural responses in fish and other aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Flexibilization of labour in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, O.; van der Pijl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Labour market flexibilization has been at the heart of the ‘extended relaunch’ of European integration (the completion of the Single Market and the introduction of the euro in 2002) from the start in the 1980s. Yet the parallel Europeanization of labour market policies, via the European Employment

  17. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  18. A single electrical pulse within the protective zone of each cardiac cycle prevented reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Rivers, Joshua P; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2018-01-01

    Early pioneering investigators discovered, in anesthetized dogs, a protective period within the cardiac cycle. The protective period was a time within the cardiac cycle when a precisely timed stimulus prevented the initiation of ventricular fibrillation caused by an earlier stimulus. Thus, in addition to the susceptible period of repolarization discussed by Wiggers and Wegria (Am. J. Physiol. 131:296, 1940; Am. J. Physiol. 128:500, 1940), there is also a nearby protective period. This report describes a protective period within the cardiac cycle of conscious mice when a precisely timed stimulus prevented the initiation of ventricular tachycardia caused by an earlier stimulus. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that this precisely timed pulse within the protective period prevents reperfusion-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conscious mice. Mice (n = 6) were prepared to record arterial blood pressure and the electrocardiogram. In addition, a vascular occluder was placed around the left main coronary artery, and stimulating electrodes were secured onto the left ventricle. A single precisely timed electrical pulse (5 msec pulse width and 2.5 V) to the left ventricle arriving 13.9 ± 1.1 msec after the R-wave, caused ventricular tachycardia occurring 24.9 ± 0.9 msec after the R-wave. Importantly, a second precisely timed electrical pulse arriving 18.8 ± 0.5 msec after the first stimulus blocked the induction of ventricular tachycardia caused by the earlier stimulus. On an alternate day, the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia produced by 3.5 min of occlusion and reperfusion of the coronary artery was determined in conscious mice by use of the vascular occluder. Reperfusion resulted in ventricular tachycardia in all six mice. A precisely timed pulse within the protective period prevented ventricular tachycardia in all mice. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The

  19. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  20. Optical design of the single-detector planetary stereo camera for the BepiColombo European Space Agency mission to Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele; Calamai, Luciano

    2010-05-20

    We present the catadioptric optical design solution for the stereo channel of the imaging system SIMBIOSYS for the BepiColombo European Space Agency mission to Mercury. The main scientific objectives of the instrument are the three-dimensional global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury in the panchromatic band and imaging of selected areas in four broad colored bands; both tasks have to be accomplished with a scale factor of 50?m per pixel at periherm. The system consists of an original compact layout in which the two stereo subchannels share a common detector; also, the optical components are common to the two subchannels, with the exception of the first element, which is a rhomboid prism. The field of view of each subchannel is about 5 degrees x5 degrees with a scale factor of 23 arcsec/pixel. The ray-tracing simulation of the system shows that the design guarantees optimal aberration balancing over the entire field of view and the entire wavelength range covered by the instrument, with ensquared energy of the order of 80% in one pixel.

  1. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  2. Electrical characterization of single molecule and Langmuir–Blodgett monomolecular films of a pyridine-terminated oligo(phenylene-ethynylene derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrry M. Osorio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolayer Langmuir–Blodgett (LB films of 1,4-bis(pyridin-4-ylethynylbenzene (1 together with the “STM touch-to-contact” method have been used to study the nature of metal–monolayer–metal junctions in which the pyridyl group provides the contact at both molecule–surface interfaces. Surface pressure vs area per molecule isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy images indicate that 1 forms true monolayers at the air–water interface. LB films of 1 were fabricated by deposition of the Langmuir films onto solid supports resulting in monolayers with surface coverage of 0.98 × 10−9 mol·cm−2. The morphology of the LB films that incorporate compound 1 was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM images indicate the formation of homogeneous, monomolecular films at a surface pressure of transference of 16 mN·m−1. The UV–vis spectra of the Langmuir and LB films reveal that 1 forms two dimensional J-aggregates. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, in particular the “STM touch-to-contact” method, was used to determine the electrical properties of LB films of 1. From these STM studies symmetrical I–V curves were obtained. A junction conductance of 5.17 × 10−5 G0 results from the analysis of the pseudolinear (ohmic region of the I–V curves. This value is higher than that of the conductance values of LB films of phenylene-ethynylene derivatives contacted by amines, thiols, carboxylate, trimethylsilylethynyl or acetylide groups. In addition, the single molecule I–V curve of 1 determined using the I(s method is in good agreement with the I–V curve obtained for the LB film, and both curves fit well with the Simmons model. Together, these results not only indicate that the mechanism of transport through these metal–molecule–metal junctions is non-resonant tunneling, but that lateral interactions between molecules within the LB film do not strongly influence the molecule conductance. The results presented here

  3. Quality of Power Supply in European View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparisons of situation in quality of power supply regulation in some of European countries, which are interested in CEER (Council of European Energy Regulators. Especially we focused our analysis on reliability indices, relationship between supplier and consumer and electric power supply aftereffects. There are discussed differences in each countries and comparison with situation in Czech Republic.

  4. The European race of Gremmeniella abietina hosts a single species of Gammapartitivirus showing a global distribution and possible recombinant events in its history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Leticia; Tuomivirta, Tero T; Hantula, Jarkko; Diez, Julio J; Jankovsky, Libor

    2015-03-01

    The population genetics of the family Partitiviridae was studied within the European race of the conifer pathogen Gremmeniella abietina. One hundred sixty-two isolates were collected from different countries, including Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States. A unique species of G. abietina RNA virus-MS1 (GaRV-MS1) appears to occur indistinctly in G. abietina biotypes A and B, without a particular geographical distribution pattern. Forty-six isolates were shown to host GaRV-MS1 according to direct specific RT-PCR screening, and the virus was more common in biotype A than B. Phylogenetic analysis based on 46 partial coat protein (CP) cDNA sequences divided the GaRV-MS1 population into two closely related clades, while RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences revealed only one clade. The evolution of the virus appears to mainly occur through purifying selection but also through recombination. Recombination events were detected within alignments of the three complete CP and RdRp sequences of GaRV-MS1. This is the first time that recombination events have been directly identified in fungal partitiviruses and in G. abietina in particular. The results suggest that the population dynamics of GaRV-MS1 do not have a direct impact on the genetic structure of its host, G. abietina, though they might have had an innocuous ancestral relationship. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposal for a scheme to generate 10 TW-Level femtosecond X-ray pulses for imaging single protein molecules at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksander [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Single biomolecular imaging using XFEL radiation is an emerging method for protein structure determination using the ''diffraction before destruction'' method at near atomic resolution. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging experiments are photon energy range, peak power, pulse duration, and transverse coherence. The largest diffraction signals are achieved at the longest wavelength that supports a given resolution, which should be better than 0.3 nm. We propose a configuration which combines self-seeding and undulator tapering techniques with the emittance-spoiler method in order to increase the XFEL output peak power and to shorten the pulse duration up to a level sufficient for performing bio-imaging of single protein molecules at the optimal photon energy range, i.e. around 4 keV. Experiments at the LCLS confirmed the feasibility of these three new techniques. Based on start-to-end simulations we demonstrate that self-seeding, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in peak-power. A slotted foil in the last bunch compressor is added for X-ray pulse duration control. Simulations indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 50 mJ (corresponding to 10{sup 14} photons) per 10 fs pulse at 3.5 keV photon energy in a 100 nm focus. This result is exemplified using the photosystem I membrane protein as a case study.

  6. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  7. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  8. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot (United Kingdom); Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano (Italy); Binda, F.; Eriksson, J. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sharapov, S. [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: (EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  9. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  10. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  11. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele...

  12. Regionalization strategies of European Union electric utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lindeque, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the debate about globalization and regionalization, this paper adds a perspective that has so far remained underexposed, that of (formerly state-owned) firms in (previously) regulated industries, in order to better understand the (changing) role of the home country/region in

  13. Distributed Generation in European Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steadystate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibr...

  14. Danish and European plans for wind energy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Hjuler; Knudsen, Søren; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we outline European policies directed towards the ambitious target of large-scale use of wind energy in the European electricity supply system, and the scenarios that foresee up to 34% of Europe’s electricity coming from wind by 2030. First, however, we address Danish energy policy...

  15. Electrical manipulation of the light emission of single CdSe/CdS nanorods; Elektrische Manipulation der Lichtemission von einzelnen CdSe/CdS Nanostaebchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.

    2005-09-14

    In the center of the present thesis lies the study and manipulation of the light emission of novel rod-shaped cadmium-selenide/cadmium-sulfide (CdSe/CdS) nanocrystals. These nanocrystals consist of a spherical CdSe nucleus, on which a CdS nanorod is grown monocrystallinely. By this grow spatially asymmetric semiconductor nanorods with an aspect ratio between 1.6 and 4.0. By the measurement of the radiation rate in this thesis it could be shown that the electron is delocalized over the whole nanorod, while the hole is localized in the CdSe nucleus. Therefore by the length of the cadmium-sulfide rod the wave-function overlap can be directly manipulated. The wave functions and by this the emission energies can be beside the geometry especially also controlled by external fields. Because the magnitude of the so-called ''Stark effect in quantum-bounded structures'' increases with the spatial extension of the nanostructure, in the nanorods an in comparison with spherical nanocrystals distinctly increased field effect could be observed. Experiments on single CdSe/CdS nanorods exhibit however not only a shift of the emission energy by the 50-fold of the line width, but simultaneously a field-induced decreasement of the emission intensity by one order of magnitude. The experimental results can be excellently compared with a theoretical model. For this the effective-mass model was supplemented by the Coulomb interaction and extended by a finite-element method for asymmetric geometries. By this it is possible to predict both the radiation rate, the Stark shift of the emission energy, and the intensity modulation by electric fields qualitatively and quantitatively and to describe the Stark effect in colloidal nanocrystal by a quantum-mechanical model. The emission characteristics is not only influenced by external fields, but also by fluctuations of local fields, which arise by diffunding surface charges. These local field changes induce also a Stark shift

  16. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSUMPTION AND CONSUMERS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina LEOVARIDIS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are considered, within the European vision, the “life force” of the economy. Although the technological means are increasingly available, both European SMEs and consumers are still suspicious of conducting cross-border trade. Single European market has the potential to become the largest market in the world. Currently, it remains largely fragmented along national borders, forming 27 mini-markets. The European Commission’s aim is to achieve a more integrated internal market such that consumers from each Member State have an equally high level of confidence in products, traders, selling methods, as well as consumer protection – no matter where they decide to make their purchases within the EU. The paper presents a secondary analysis of data regarding the many differences in terms of Europeans’ consumption patterns for different product categories (as a percentage of total expenditures. For example, the share of household budget used to purchase food is highest in our country and lowest in Luxembourg.. Also, the largest proportion of family budget allocated for utilities (water, electricity, gas we find in Bulgaria, and for cultural activities – in Austria.

  17. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  18. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current in...

  19. Exclusion of exotic top-like quarks with -4/3 electric charge using jet-charge tagging in single-lepton tt¯ events at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucà, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-08-01

    We report on a measurement of the top-quark electric charge in tt¯ events in which one W boson originating from the top-quark pair decays into leptons and the other into hadrons. The event sample was collected by the CDF II detector in s=1.96TeV proton-antiproton collisions and corresponds to 5.6fb-1. We find the data to be consistent with the standard model and exclude the existence of an exotic quark with -4/3 electric charge and mass of the conventional top quark at the 99% confidence level.

  20. Exclusion of exotic top-like quarks with -4/3 electric charge using jet-charge tagging in single-lepton ttbar events at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernandez Ramos, J.P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S.R.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Luca, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martinez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S.Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernandez, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W.C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-08-05

    We report on a measurement of the top-quark electric charge in ttbar events in which one W boson originating from the top-quark pair decays into leptons and the other into hadrons. The event sample was collected by the CDF II detector in sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions and corresponds to 5.6 fb^(-1). We find the data to be consistent with the standard model and exclude the existence of an exotic quark with -4/3 electric charge and mass of the conventional top quark at the 99% confidence level.

  1. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation: Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M.I. Niesten (Eva)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity

  2. Electrical and optical measurements on a single InAs quantum dot using ion-implanted micro-LEDs; Elektrische und optische Untersuchungen an einem einzelnen InAs-Quantenpunkt mit Hilfe ionenstrahlimplantierter Mikro-LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.F.

    2006-10-19

    The goal of this present thesis was to electrically and optically address a single InAs quantum dot. Therefore micro-structured quantum-dot-LEDs with an emission area smaller than 1 {mu}m{sup 2} were developed. One major part of this work was contributed to optimizing several steps of the micro-LED fabrication process. To be able to compare the electrical conductivity obtained from Hall-measurements to the expected values, the implantation profile was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. As the thermal annealing step had to be performed in the growth chamber of the MBE-system several annealing parameters had to be modified to achieve optimum electrical conductivity and quantum dot growth. For one of the Be-implanted pin-samples the principle of the single-quantum-dot-LEDs could be proved. The smallest device of this sample, with nominal stripe widths of 150 nm (FIB-stripe) and 400 nm (top-stripe), showed typical features of a single quantum dot. In the high-resolution EL-spectra of this device three extremely sharp emission lines were observed which clearly could be assigned to the electron-hole recombination from a single quantum dot. To further identify the origin of these lines their optical intensities were plotted against the injection current. From this plot it could be deduced, that the first evolving line clearly belongs to the simple exciton 1X. The following lines could be assigned to the decay of the biexciton 2X and the triexciton 3X{sub s}, respectively. With increasing bias all three lines show a pronounced red-shift due to the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). To identify the charge state of the observed excitonic lines, additional high-resolution IV curves were taken. (orig.)

  3. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in the management of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighteen subjects were randomly selected to recieve pelvic floor exercises (n=31, ES (n=30, vaginal cones (n=27, or no treatment (untreated control (n=30. Women were evaluated before and after completion of six months of treatment by the pad test, quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL, urodynamic test, voiding diary, and subjective response. RESULTS: In the objective evaluation, we observed a statistically significant reduction in the pad test (p=0.003, in the number of stress urinary episodes (p<0.001, and a significant improvement in the quality of life (p<0.001 in subjects who used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones compared to the control group. No significant difference was found between groups in the urodynamic parameters. In the subjective evaluation, 58%, 55%, and 54% of women who had used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones, respectively, reported being satisfied after treatment. In the control group, only 21% patients were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones are equally effective treatments and are far superior to no treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence.

  4. Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Tomas

    Louis Néel pointed out in his Nobel lecture that while abundant and interesting from theoretical viewpoint, antiferromagnets did not seem to have any applications. Indeed, the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization make antiferromagnets hard to control by tools common in ferromagnets. Strong coupling would be achieved if the externally generated field had a sign alternating on the scale of a lattice constant at which moments alternate in AFMs. However, generating such a field has been regarded unfeasible, hindering the research and applications of these abundant magnetic materials. We have recently predicted that relativistic quantum mechanics may offer staggered current induced fields with the sign alternating within the magnetic unit cell which can facilitate a reversible switching of an antiferromagnet by applying electrical currents with comparable efficiency to ferromagnets. Among suitable materials is a high Néel temperature antiferromagnet, tetragonal-phase CuMnAs, which we have recently synthesized in the form of single-crystal epilayers structurally compatible with common semiconductors. We demonstrate electrical writing and read-out, combined with the insensitivity to magnetic field perturbations, in a proof-of-concept antiferromagnetic memory device. We acknowledge support from European Research Council Advanced Grant No. 268066.

  5. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tronin, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Gupta, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Worcester, D. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Biology Division, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lauter, V. [Spallation Neutron Source, Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Strzalka, J.; Kuzmenko, I. [Advanced Photon Source, X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Blasie, J.K., E-mail: jkblasie@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Time-resolved (or transient) neutron/X-ray reflectivity. ► Neutron/X-ray reflectivity enhanced by interferometric techniques. ► Electric potential induced changes in a hybrid lipid bilayer membrane. ► Electric potential induced changes in a voltage-sensor protein membrane. - Abstract: The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100 mV potential with respect to 0 mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100 mV potentials with respect to 0 mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films.

  6. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  7. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  8. Multivariate long memory processes: applications to the EDF producer problematic in the context of the european electricity market liberalization; Modelisation longue memoire multivariee: applications aux problematiques du producteur d'EDF dans le cadre de la liberalisation du marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diongue, A.K

    2005-10-15

    Certain crucial financial time series, such as the interconnected european electricity market spot prices, exhibit long memory, in the sense of slowly decaying correlations combined with heteroskedasticity and periodic or none cycles. In modeling such behavior, we consider on one hand, the k factor GIGARCH process and additionally propose two methods to address the related parameter estimation problem. In each method, we explore the asymptotic theory for estimation. Moreover, the asymptotic properties are validated and compared via Monte Carlo simulations. On the other hand, we introduce a new multivariate long memory generalized model (k-factor MVGARMA) in order to model interconnected european electricity market spot prices. We suggest a practical framework to address the parameter estimation problem. We investigate the analytical expressions of the least squares predictors for the two proposed models and their confidence intervals. To finish, we apply the two proposed models to the french and german electricity market spot prices and a comparison is made between their forecasting abilities. (author)

  9. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  10. Single nucleotide variants in metastasis-related genes are associated with breast cancer risk, by lymph node involvement and estrogen receptor status, in women with European and African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michelle R; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Zirpoli, Gary R; Higgins, Michael; Freudenheim, Jo L; Bandera, Elisa V; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yao, Song

    2017-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pathways influencing lymph node (LN) metastasis and estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast cancer may partially explain inter-patient variability in prognosis. We examined 154 SNPs in 12 metastasis-related genes for associations with breast cancer risk, stratified by LN and ER status, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women. Two-thousand six hundred and seventy-one women enrolled in the Women's Circle of Health Study were genotyped. Pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method, with p ARTP  ≤ 0.10 as significant. Multi-allelic risk scores were created for the ARTP-significant gene(s). Single-SNP and risk score associations were modeled using logistic regression, with false discovery rate (FDR) P-value adjustment. Although single-SNP associations were not significant at p FDR  women, significant ARTP gene-level associations included CDH1 with LN+ (p ARTP  = 0.10; multi-allelic OR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.07-1.19, p FDR  = 0.0003) and SIPA1 with ER- breast cancer (p ARTP  = 0.10; multi-allelic OR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.02-1.31, p FDR  = 0.03). In EA women, MTA2 was associated with overall breast cancer risk (p ARTP  = 0.004), regardless of ER status, and with LN- disease (p ARTP  = 0.01). Also significant were SATB1 in ER- (p ARTP  = 0.03; multi-allelic OR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.05-1.20, p FDR  = 0.003) and KISS1 in LN- (p ARTP  = 0.10; multi-allelic OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.08-1.29, p FDR  = 0.002) analyses. Among LN+ cases, significant ARTP associations were observed for SNAI1, CD82, NME1, and CTNNB1 (multi-allelic OR = 1.09, 95%CI 1.04-1.14, p FDR  = 0.001). Our findings suggest that variants in several metastasis genes may affect breast cancer risk by LN or ER status, although verification in larger studies is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Concept of a utility scale dispatch able solar thermal electricity plant with an indirect particle receiver in a single tower layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karl; Haider, Markus; Haemmerle, Martin; Steiner, Peter; Obermaier, Michael-Dario

    2016-05-01

    Flexible dispatch able solar thermal electricity plants applying state of the art power cycles have the potential of playing a vital role in modern electricity systems and even participating in the ancillary market. By replacing molten salt via particles, operation temperatures can be increased and plant efficiencies of over 45 % can be reached. In this work the concept for a utility scale plant using corundum as storage/heat transfer material is thermodynamically modeled and its key performance data are cited. A novel indirect fluidized bed particle receiver concept is presented, profiting from a near black body behavior being able to heat up large particle flows by realizing temperature cycles over 500°C. Specialized fluidized bed steam-generators are applied with negligible auxiliary power demand. The performance of the key components is discussed and a rough sketch of the plant is provided.

  12. Spontaneous mechanical and electrical activities of human calf musculature at rest assessed by repetitive single-shot diffusion-weighted MRI and simultaneous surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Martin; Steidle, Günter; Martirosian, Petros; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Preißl, Hubert; Stemmer, Alto; Yang, Bin; Schick, Fritz

    2018-05-01

    Assessment of temporal and spatial relations between spontaneous mechanical activities in musculature (SMAM) at rest as revealed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and electrical muscular activities in surface EMG (sEMG). Potential influences of static and radiofrequency magnetic fields on muscular activity on sEMG measurements at rest were examined systematically. Series of diffusion-weighted stimulated echo planar imaging were recorded with concurrent sEMG measurements. Electrical activities in sEMG were analyzed by non-parametric Friedman and two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Direct correlation of both modalities was investigated by temporal mapping of electrical activity in sEMG to DWI repetition interval. Electrical activities in sEMG and number of visible SMAMs in DWI showed a strong correlation (ρ = 0.9718). High accordance between sEMG activities and visible SMAMs in DWI in a near-surface region around sEMG electrodes was achieved. Characteristics of sEMG activities were almost similar under varying magnetic field conditions. Visible SMAMs in DWI have shown a close and direct relation to concurrent signals recorded by sEMG. MR-related magnetic fields had no significant effects on findings in sEMG. Hence, appearance of SMAMs in DWI should not be considered as imaging artifact or as effects originating from the special conditions of MR examinations. Spatial and temporal distributions of SMAMs indicate characteristics of spontaneous (microscopic) mechanical muscular action at rest. Therefore, DWI techniques should be considered as non-invasive tools for studying physiology and pathophysiology of spontaneous activities in resting muscle. Magn Reson Med 79:2784-2794, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronin, A; Chen, C-H; Gupta, S; Worcester, D; Lauter, V; Strzalka, J; Kuzmenko, I; Blasie, J K

    2013-08-30

    The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100mV potential with respect to 0mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid's hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer's profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100mV potentials with respect to 0mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films.

  14. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  15. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  16. Influence of a single lightning discharge on the intensity of an air electric field and acoustic emission of near-surface rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Smirnov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was observed as a sharp fall of the electric potential gradient from +80 V m−1 down to –21 V m−1. After that the field returned to its normal level according to the formula of the capacitor discharge with 17 s characteristic time. Simultaneously, the response of the acoustic emission of surface rocks in the range of frequencies between 6.5 kHz and 11 kHz was evaluated.

  17. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  18. Comparison of circadian, weekly, and seasonal variations of electrical storms and single events of ventricular fibrillation in patients with Brugada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyasu Aizawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Brugada syndrome (BS, VF occurred predominantly during the nocturnal period. Some patients also developed ESs. In addition to the circadian rhythm, patients showed weekly and seasonal patterns. The patients with ESs had peak episodes of VF on Saturday and in the winter and spring, while episodes of VF in patients with single VF events occurred most often on Monday with smaller seasonal variation. Except for age, there was no difference in the clinical or ECG characteristics between the patients with ESs and those with single VF episodes.

  19. The impact of transcutaneous electrical stimulation therapy on appendicostomy operation rates for children with chronic constipation--a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yik, Yee Ian; Leong, L C Y; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2012-07-01

    Appendicostomy for antegrade continence enema is a minimally invasive surgical intervention that has helped many children with chronic constipation. At our institution, since 2006, transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) has been trialed to treat slow-transit constipation (STC) in children. This retrospective audit aimed to determine if TES use affected appendicostomy-formation rates and to monitor changes in practice. We hypothesized that appendicostomy rates have decreased for STC but not for other indications. Appendicostomy-formation rate was determined for the 5 years before and after 2006. Children were identified as STC or non-STC from nuclear transit scintigraphy and patient records. Since 1999, 317 children were diagnosed with STC using nuclear transit scintigraphy with 121 during 2001 to 2005 (24.2/year) and 147 during 2006 to 2010 (29.4/year). Seventy-four children had appendicostomy formation. For 2001 to 2005, appendicostomy-formation rates for STC and non-STC children were similar: 5.4 per year (n = 27) and 4.8 per year (n = 24), respectively. For 2006 to 2010, appendicostomy-formation rates were 1.2 per year (n = 6) for STC and 3.2 per year (n = 16) for non-STC (χ(2), P = .04). Since 2006, appendicostomy-formation rates have significantly reduced in STC but not in non-STC children at our institute, coinciding with the introduction of TES as an alternative treatment for STC. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation has not been tested on non-STC children in this period. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relation between electrical properties and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7 - x thin films deposited by single-target off-axis sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerheim, A. C.; Anderson, Alfredo C.; Oates, D. E.; Basu, S. N.; Bhatt, D.; Cima, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the deposition conditions and the structural and electrical properties of in situ superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films deposited by off-axis magnetron sputtering has been investigated. High-quality films have been produced with a transition temperature TC (R=0) of 92 K, a critical current density JC (zero field) of 3.3×107 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and 4.8×106 A/cm2 at 77 K, and a microwave surface resistance RS of 2.6×10-6 Ω at 1.5 GHz and 4.2 K which rises to 8.3×10-6 Ω at 77 K. Among the deposition conditions explored, substrate temperature was identified as the most influential in producing these high-quality films. A quantitative relationship was established between substrate temperature and TC, normal-state resistivity ρ, JC, orientation distribution, x-ray-diffraction peak broadening, lattice expansion, RS, and penetration depth λ. Increasing substrate temperature results in an increase in TC, a decrease in ρ, an increase in JC, an increase in grain size, an increase in the ratio of c-axis- to a-axis-oriented grains, and a decrease in λ. The deposition conditions of high substrate temperature and oxygen pressure, used to form films of the highest electrical and structural quality, also promote the formation of CuO precipitates of about 1 μm in dimension, resulting from a slightly copper-rich stoichiometry.

  1. Frequency measurement of the 2S(1/2)-2D(3/2) electric quadrupole transition in a single 171Yb+ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Stephen; Godun, Rachel; King, Steven; Huang, Guilong; Walton, Barney; Tsatourian, Veronika; Margolis, Helen; Lea, Stephen; Gill, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    We report on precision laser spectroscopy of the 2S(1/2)(F = 0)-2D(3/2) (F = 2, m(F) = 0) clock transition in a single ion of 171Yb+. The absolute value of the transition frequency, determined using an optical frequency comb referenced to a hydrogen maser, is 688358979309310 +/- 9 Hz. This corresponds to a fractional frequency uncertainty of 1.3 x 10(-14).

  2. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Luis R.

    2013-01-01

    System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in g...

  3. Magnetic susceptibilities and crystalline electric field effects in single crystals of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumaran, N. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Physics; Sarkar, T. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Physics; Rangarajan, G. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Physics; Chen Changkang [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Hodby, J.W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Spears, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.; Wanklyn, B.M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.

    1996-07-01

    We report the directional magnetic susceptibilities on single crystals of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}. Crystal field (CF) analysis considering orthorhombic symmetry at the Nd{sup 3+} site has been performed and a best set of CF parameters have been obtained. The energy levels obtained from the present fit are in good agreement with the inelastic neutron scattering spectra. (orig.).

  4. Electrical and structural characterization of plasma polymerized polyaniline/TiO2 heterostructure diode: a comparative study of single and bilayer TiO2 thin film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Kimi, Young Soon; Yang, O-Bong; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2011-04-01

    A heterostructure was fabricated using p-type plasma polymerized polyaniline (PANI) and n-type (single and bilayer) titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film on FTO glass. The deposition of single and bilayer TiO2 thin film on FTO substrate was achieved through doctor blade followed by dip coating technique before subjected to plasma enhanced polymerization. To fabricate p-n heterostructure, a plasma polymerization of aniline was conducted using RF plasma at 13.5 MHz and at the power of 120 W on the single and bilayer TiO2 thin film electrodes. The morphological, optical and the structural characterizations revealed the formation of p-n heterostructures between PANI and TiO2 thin film. The PANI/bilayer TiO2 heterostructure showed the improved current-voltage (I-V) characteristics due to the substantial deposition of PANI molecules into the bilayer TiO2 thin film which provided good conducting pathway and reduced the degree of excitons recombination. The change of linear I-V behavior of PANI/TiO2 heterostructure to non linear behavior with top Pt contact layer confirmed the formation of Schottky contact at the interfaces of Pt layer and PANI/TiO2 thin film layers.

  5. Americium Oxide Surrogates for European Radioisotope Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, E. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Williams, H. R.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2014-07-01

    The European space nuclear power programme comprises two main research areas: fuel source development and the development of conversion technologies, which are thermoelectric or dynamic, for electricity production. This abstract addresses the former.

  6. Magnetic, electric and electron magnetic resonance properties of orthorhombic self-doped La sub 1 sub - sub x MnO sub 3 single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, V; Shames, A I; Puzniak, R; Rozenberg, E; Yuzhelevski, Y; Mogilyansky, D; Wisniewski, A; Mukovskii, Y M; Gorodetsky, G

    2003-01-01

    The effect of lanthanum deficiency on structural, magnetic, transport, and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) properties has been studied in a series of La sub 1 sub - sub x MnO sub 3 (x = 0.01, 0.05, 0.11, 0.13) single crystals. The x-ray diffraction study results for the crystals were found to be compatible with a single phase of orthorhombic symmetry. The magnetization curves exhibit weak ferromagnetism for all samples below 138 K. It was found that both the spontaneous magnetization and the coercive field increase linearly with x. The pressure coefficient dT sub N /dP decreases linearly with self-doping, from a value of 0.68 K kbar sup - sup 1 for La sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 MnO sub 3 to 0.33 K kbar sup - sup 1 for La sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 7 MnO sub 3. The resistivity of low-doped La sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 MnO sub 3 crystal is of semiconducting character, while that of La sub 0 sub . sub 8 sub 7 MnO sub 3 depends weakly on temperature between 180 and 210 K. It was found that the magnetic and transport prop...

  7. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  8. Investigation on optical, electrical and etching properties of 2-aminopyridinium 4-aminobenzoate: A phase matchable organic single crystal for optoelectronic device applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available NLO active 2-aminopyridinium 4-aminobenzoate (APAB single crystals were successfully grown by the standard slow evaporation technique. The crystallinity of the grown crystals was analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic studies were also performed for the identification of different modes present in the compound. The UV-Vis absorption and transmittance spectra were recorded for the grown crystal and the optical band gap was calculated. Birefringence and etching studies were also carried out. The dielectric study showed that the dielectric constant decreased with an increase in frequency. The photoconductivity study revealed its positive photoconducting nature. Theoretical HOMO LUMO investigations were also made for the crystal. The relative SHG efficiency of the material was investigated by the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. The phase matching property of the crystal was studied through the SHG dependence of average particle sizes.

  9. A novel concept of electrical drives based on two five-phases PMSM connected in parallel and supplied by a single inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, K.; Djahbar, A.; Zegaoui, A.; Boutoubat, M.; Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Allouache, H.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the vector control of a parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) drive supplied by a single current-controlled voltage source inverter is presented. This system consists of a two five-phase PMSMs; the stators windings of both machines are connected in parallel in appropriate manner by using of the phase transposition property, which allows a decoupled control of the two machines. Based on the mathematical model of the multi-machine drive system, the decoupled dynamic of each machine from the group is obtained using the vector control algorithm. The independent control is ensured by controlling the stator currents and the speed of each machine under vector control consideration. Selected simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method under various dynamic operating conditions.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of X-ray diffraction and ferroelectric polarization data as a function of applied electric field and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Jenny; Ryding, Steph; Brown, Simon; Burnett, Tim L; Cain, Markys G; Cernik, Robert; Hino, Ricardo; Stewart, Mark; Thompson, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of a new ferroelectric measurement system at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility are presented. The electric-field-induced phase transitions of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) are determined via in situ measurements of electric polarization within the synchrotron diffraction beamline. Real-time data collection methods on single-crystal samples are employed as a function of frequency to determine the microstructural origin of piezoelectric effects within these materials, probing the dynamic ferroelectric response.

  11. Schottky barrier diode based on β-Ga2O3 (100) single crystal substrate and its temperature-dependent electrical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiming; Mu, Wenxiang; Dong, Hang; Long, Shibing; Jia, Zhitai; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Tang, Minghua; Tao, Xutang; Liu, Ming

    2017-02-01

    The Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diode and its temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics were investigated for power device application. The edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique was utilized to grow the (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3 single crystal substrate that shows good crystal quality characterized by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscope. Ohmic and Schottky electrodes were fabricated by depositing Ti and Pt metals on the two surfaces, respectively. Through the current-voltage (I-V) measurement under different temperature and the thermionic emission modeling, the fabricated Pt/β-Ga2O3 Schottky diode was found to show good performances at room temperature, including rectification ratio of 1010, ideality factor (n) of 1.1, Schottky barrier height (ΦB) of 1.39 eV, threshold voltage (Vbi) of 1.07 V, ON-resistance (RON) of 12.5 mΩ.cm2, forward current density at 2 V (J@2V) of 56 A/cm2, and saturation current density (J0) of 2 × 10-16 A/cm2. The effective donor concentration Nd - Na was calculated to be about 2.3 × 1014 cm3. Good temperature dependent performance was also found in the device. The Schottky barrier height was estimated to be about 1.3 eV-1.39 eV at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. With increasing temperature, parameters such as RON and J@2V become better, proving that the diode can work well at high temperature. The EFG grown β-Ga2O3 single crystal is a promising material to be used in the power devices.

  12. Influence of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate on the structural, optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical behavior of a KDP single crystal for NLO applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasal, Y. B.; Shaikh, R. N.; Shirsat, M. D.; Kalainathan, S.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    A single crystal of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate (BTNN) doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) has been grown from solution at room temperature by a slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined using single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The improved optical parameters of the grown crystal have been evaluated in the range of 200-900 nm using UV-visible spectral analysis. The grown crystal was transparent in the entire visible region and the band gap value was found to be 4.96 eV. The influence of BTNN on the third order nonlinear optical properties of KDP crystal has been investigated by means of the Z-scan technique. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal measured using a Nd-YAG laser is 1.98 times higher than that of pure KDP. The third order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ 3) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) of BTNN doped KDP crystal is found to be 1.77  ×  10-5 esu and 5.57  ×  10-6 cm W-1 respectively. The laser damage threshold (LDT) energy for the grown crystal has been measured by using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source. The bis-thiourea nickel nitrate shows authoritative impact on the dielectric properties of doped crystal. The influence of bis-thiourea nickel nitrate on the mechanical behavior of KDP crystal has been investigated using Vickers microhardness intender. The thermal behavior of BTNN doped KDP crystal has been analyzed by TGA/DTA analysis.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) and AuCl3-doped reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube films for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ryong; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2014-12-01

    We report the effects of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and gold chloride (AuCl) co-doping on the electrical and optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films fabricated by dipcoating methods. The RGO/SWNT films were doped with both AuCl3 dissolved in nitromethane and PSS hole injection layers by spin coating to improve their electrical properties by increasing the work function of the RGO/SWNT films, thereby reducing the Schottky barrier height between the RGO/SWNT and p-GaN films. As a result, we obtained a reduced sheet resistance of 851.9 Ω/Ω and a contact resistance of 1.97 x 10(-1) Ω x cm2, together with a high transmittance of 84.1% at 380 nm. The contact resistance of these films should be further reduced to fully utilize the feature of the electrode scheme proposed in this work, but the current result suggests its potential use as a transparent conductive electrode for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  14. Mirror Therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Management of Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees - A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Merlyn; Isaac, Serin Anna; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Vasanthan, Lenny Thinagaran; Subbaiah, Rajalakshmi Sankaran; Babu, Andrew; Bhide, Rohit; Tharion, George

    2016-06-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) can be disabling for nearly two thirds of amputees. Hence, there is a need to find an effective and inexpensive treatment that can be self administered. Among the non-pharmacological treatment for PLP, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied to the contralateral extremity and mirror therapy are two promising options. However, there are no studies to compare the two treatments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare mirror therapy and TENS in the management of PLP in subjects with amputation. The study was an assessor blinded randomized controlled trial conducted at Physiotherapy Gymnasium of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Christian Medical College, Vellore. Twenty-six subjects with PLP consented to participate. An initial assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) and universal pain score (UPS) was performed by a therapist blinded to the treatment given. Random allocation into Group I-mirror therapy and Group II-TENS was carried out. After 4 days of treatment, pain was re-assessed by the same therapist. The mean difference in Pre and Post values were compared among the groups. The change in pre-post score was analyzed using the paired t test. Participants of Group I had significant decrease in pain [VAS ( p = 0.003) and UPS ( p = 0.001)]. Group II also showed a significant reduction in pain [VAS ( p = 0.003) and UPS ( p = 0.002)]. However, no difference was observed between the two groups [VAS ( p = 0.223 and UPS ( p = 0.956)]. Both Mirror Therapy and TENS were found to be effective in pain reduction on a short-term basis. However, no difference between the two groups was found. Substantiation with long-term follow-up is essential to find its long-term effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Electricity generation from real industrial wastewater using a single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cell with an activated carbon anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hend Omar; Obaid, M; Sayed, Enas Taha; Liu, Yang; Lee, Jinpyo; Park, Mira; Barakat, Nasser A M; Kim, Hak Yong

    2017-08-01

    This study introduces activated carbon (AC) as an effective anode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using real industrial wastewater without treatment or addition of external microorganism mediators. Inexpensive activated carbon is introduced as a proper electrode alternative to carbon cloth and carbon paper materials, which are considered too expensive for the large-scale application of MFCs. AC has a porous interconnected structure with a high bio-available surface area. The large surface area, in addition to the high macro porosity, facilitates the high performance by reducing electron transfer resistance. Extensive characterization, including surface morphology, material chemistry, surface area, mechanical strength and biofilm adhesion, was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the AC material as an anode in MFCs. The electrochemical performance of AC was also compared to other anodes, i.e., Teflon-treated carbon cloth (CCT), Teflon-treated carbon paper (CPT), untreated carbon cloth (CC) and untreated carbon paper (CP). Initial tests of a single air-cathode MFC display a current density of 1792 mAm -2 , which is approximately four times greater than the maximum value of the other anode materials. COD analyses and Coulombic efficiency (CE) measurements for AC-MFC show the greatest removal of organic compounds and the highest CE efficiency (60 and 71%, respectively). Overall, this study shows a new economical technique for power generation from real industrial wastewater with no treatment and using inexpensive electrode materials.

  16. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  17. Optical and electrical characterizations of a single step ion beam milling mesa devices of chloride passivated PbS colloidal quantum dots based film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechster, Elad, E-mail: elad.hechster@gmail.com; Sarusi, Gabby [Electro-Optics Engineering Unit and Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 84100 Israel (Israel); Shapiro, Arthur; Lifshitz, Efrat [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Solid State Institute, Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-07-15

    Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQDs) are of increasing interest, thanks to their quantum size effect that gives rise to their usage in various applications, such as biological tagging, solar cells and as the sensitizing layer of night vision devices. Here, we analyze the optical absorbance of chloride passivated PbS CQDs as well as revealing a correlation between their photoluminescence and sizes distribution, using theoretical models and experimental results from the literature. Next, we calculate the CQDs resistivity as a film. Although resistivity can be calculated from sheet resistance measurement using four point probes, such measurement is usually carried-out on the layer’s surface that in most cases has dangling bonds and surface states, which might affect the charges flow and modify the resistivity. Therefore; our approach, which was applied in this work, is to extract the actual resistivity from measurements that are performed along the film’s thickness (z-direction). For this intent, we fabricated gold capped PbS mesas devices using a single step Ion Beam Milling (IBM) process where we milled the gold and the PbS film continually, and then measured the vertical resistance. Knowing the mesas’ dimensions, we calculate the resistivity. To the best of our knowledge, no previous work has extracted, vertically, the resistivity of chloride passivated PbS CQDs using the above method.

  18. Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15

    Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 MΩ/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10 kΩ/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ∼1.2 × 10{sup 7 }A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1 × 2.5 μm{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

  19. Cortical perfusion response to an electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in profoundly deaf patients: Study with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scao, Y.; Robier, A.; Beuter, P. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology); Baulieu, J.L.; Pourcelot, L. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 37 - Tours (France). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    Brain activation procedures associated with single photon emission tomography (SPET) have recently been developed in healthy controls and diseased patients in order to help in their diagnosis and treatment. We investigated the effects of a promontory test (PT) on the cerebral distribution of technetium-99m hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) in 7 profoundly deaf patients, 6 PT+ and PT-. The count variation in the temporal lobe was calculated on 6 coronal slices using the ratio (R{sub stimulation}-R{sub deprivation})/R{sub deprivation} where R=counts in the temporal lobe was observed in all patients and was higher in all patients with PT+ than in the patient with PT-. The problems of head positioning and resolution of the system were taken into account, and we considered that the maximal count increment was related to the auditory cortex response to the stimulus. Further clinical investigations with high-resolution systems have to be performed in order to validate this presurgery test in cochlear implant assessment. (orig.).

  20. Study on electrical conductivity and phase transition in singly doped BIPBVOX (Bi2V1-xPbxO5.5-x/2) solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Saba; Naqvi, Faria K.; Al-Areqi, Niyazi A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Samples of bismuth lead vanadium oxide (BIPBVOX) (Bi2V1-xPbxO5.5-x/2) singly substituted system in the composition range 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 were prepared by sol-gel synthesis route. Structural investigations were carried out by using a combination of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDXA) of doped samples was carried out to predict the sample purity and doping concentration. Transitions, α↔β, β↔γ and γ‧↔γ were detected by XRD, DTA and variation in the Arrhenius plots of conductivity. The ionic conductivity was measured by AC impedance spectroscopy. The solid solutions with composition x ≤ 0.07 undergo α↔β phase transition, at 329 °C and β↔γ phase transition at 419 °C. The highly conducting γ‧-phase was effectively stabilized at room temperature for compositions with x ≥ 0.17 whose thermal stability increases with Pb content. At 300 °C, the highest value of conductivity 6.234 × 10-5 S cm-1 was obtained for composition x = 0.15 and at 600 °C the highest value of conductivity 0.65 S cm-1 is observed for x = 0.17. AC impedance plots reveal that the conductivity is mainly due to the grain contribution to oxide ion conductivity.

  1. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  2. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  3. Temperature-dependent Raman spectra and electrical properties of 0.69Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.31PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Bijun [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Liu, Xing [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Inorganic Function Material and Device, Shanghai (China); Ding, Jianning [Changzhou University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou (China); Jiangsu University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Zhenjiang (China)

    2016-09-15

    The temperature-dependent Raman spectra and electrical properties of the 0.69Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.31PbTiO{sub 3} (0.69PMN-0.31PT) single crystals were investigated. Based on the group theory, the poled 0.69PMN-0.31PT single crystals belong to the monoclinic crystal system, which was confirmed by the room-temperature Raman spectra. The 0.69PMN-0.31PT single crystals experience successive structural phase transitions, i.e., a monoclinic-tetragonal (FE{sub M}-FE{sub T}) phase transition at T{sub M-T} and a tetragonal-cubic (FE{sub T}-P{sub C}) phase transition at T{sub m} determined by the dielectric measurement. Due to the enhancement of long-range order, their FE{sub M}-FE{sub T} phase transition becomes more obvious after the poling process. The wavenumbers and line widths of the 271, 502, 575, 795 cm{sup -1} Raman modes, and the intensity ratios of I{sub 271cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}}/I{sub 795cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}} and I{sub 502cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}}/I{sub 575cm}{sup {sub -}{sub 1}} exhibit obvious anomalies around T{sub M-T} and T{sub m}, which are closely related to the FE{sub M}-FE{sub T} and FE{sub T}-P{sub C} phase transitions. The temperature and electric field (E)-induced phase transitions are observed in the unipolar strain-E (S-E) curves. The converse piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}), maximum strain value (S{sub max}%) and longitudinal electrostrictive coefficient (Q) increase considerably around the ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub M-T}. (orig.)

  4. Draft for an European Parliament and Council directive to foster domestic market of electricity produced from renewable energy resources; Proposition de Directive du Parlement Europeen et du Conseil relative a la promotion de l'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelables sur le marche interieur de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-06

    This document contains two parts, an exposition of motives and the proposal. The draft of directive has as objective the creation of an EU frame for boosting on a medium term the electricity production from renewable energy resources (RER). It presents a number of important measures to implement the commitment of reducing the greenhouse gas releases accepted by EU in Kyoto, particularly to increase twice, i.e., from 6% to 12%, the net domestic energy consumption, as established by the White Book on renewable energies and approved by the European Council in May 1998. RER include: Wind Power, Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Wave Power, Tidal Power, Hydroelectric Power (of capacity lower than 10 MW) and Biomass The exposition of motives contains six sections: - 1. Introduction; - 2. Detailed outlook of the proposal;- 3. Expertise panel; - 4. Impact on enterprises; - 5. Consulting during drafting the proposal; - 6. Conclusions. The second part displays the proposal in the following six chapters: - 1. Domain of application and definitions; -2. National objectives of the consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy resources; -3. Access of electricity produced from renewable energy resources to the interior domestic energy market; -4. Management procedures; -5. Questions concerning the distribution grid; -6. Final directions. An Appendix is given presenting the indicative figures as objectives of the Member States. So, the RER fraction in the total electricity consumption in the Member States in 2010 as percentage/TWh should looks like: Austria, 78.1/55.3; Belgium, 6.0/6.3; Denmark, 29.0/12.9; Finland, 35.0/33.7; France, 21.0/112.9; Germany, 12.5/76.4; Greece, 20.1/14.5; Ireland, 13.2/4.5; Italy, 25.0/89.6; Luxemburg, 5.7/0.5; Netherlands, 12.0/15.9; Portugal, 45.6/28.3; Spain, 29.4/76.6; Sweden, 60.0/97.5; United Kingdom, 10.0/50.0. Thus, the global figures for the European Union would be 22.1/674.9.

  5. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  6. Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status; Stilllegung und Rueckbau in der Europaeischen Union. Aktueller Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohm-Hieber, Ute [European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Nuclear Energy, Waste Management and Transport

    2009-02-15

    The European Commission pursues the environmental and energy policy goals of limiting global warming to a maximum of 2 C and, therefore, reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by at least 20%. Nuclear power, with its present 30% contribution to the Community's electricity supply and the low CO{sub 2} emissions of the entire fuel cycle, makes an important contribution to an energy mix matching the 3 factors of competitiveness, security of supply, and sustainability. The decision to use nuclear power plants in their respective countries for electricity production is left to each member state. As of mid-2008, 146 nuclear power plants were in operation in the European Union, while 74 had been shut down permanently. Two nuclear power plants had been demolished completely, showing that the European Community is just at the beginning of the learning curve in this field. The importance of nuclear power plant decommissioning and demolition will increase in the future as replacement capacity in nuclear power generation will become necessary. The European Commission's activities in decommissioning and demolition date from the 1990s: The provisions about environmental impact assessment and the recommendations to apply Article 37 (potential impacts on water, soil and air) of the Euratom Treaty demand a description of decommissioning and demolition of nuclear power plants. In a ruling of 2002, the European Court of Justice assigns to the Community the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

  7. The Impact of Wind Power on European Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Due to its clean burning properties, low investment costs and flexibility in production, natural gas is often put forward as the ideal partner fuel for wind power and other renewable sources of electricity generation with strongly variable output. This working paper examines three vital questions associated with this premise: 1) Is natural gas indeed the best partner fuel for wind power? 2) If so, to what extent will an increasing market share of wind power in European electricity generation affect demand for natural gas in the power sector? and 3) Considering the existing European natural gas markets, is natural gas capable of fulfilling this role of partner for renewable sources of electricity?.

  8. Design and construction of the prototype of a digital meter of single phase electric energy based in a microcontroller; Diseno y construccion del prototipo de un medidor digital de energia electrica monofasico basado en un microcontrolador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, Ruben

    2003-10-15

    This research work presents the design and construction of a single-phase microcontroller-based digital electric energy meter. The digital instrument displays the energy demand (kw-h) based on up-to-date tariff provided by the Mexican national utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The meter digitally processes voltage and current line waveform samples taken at its input, displaying, in real time, the number of electrical parameters calculated. For a better instrument performance a PIC16F874 microcontroller from microchip has been used as computational core. The parameters of interest are visualized in a liquid crystal display of 2 X 16 characters. The user interface includes a menu where some of the parameters can be selected by the operator. In the event of an electric power supply disruption the meter keeps to the energy consumption in memory. The voltage and current measured levels ranges from 1 to 255 Vrms and 0.1 to 25.5 Arms, respectively. The power is displayed in 5 digits ranging from 0 to 6502.5 watts and the energy is displayed with 5 whole digits and 5 decimals ranging, from 0 kWh up to 99999.99999 kWh. These values are refreshed every one second together with the actual electrical consumption cost which ranges from 0 up to 9999.9 pesos. The digital measuring instrument has been built based on four main inter-connected modules named, data acquisition; signal conditioning; signal processing; and display. A set of efficient assembly code routines has been developed in order to calculate the number of electrical parameter previously described. After a debugging process, the optimised code has been assembled for the PIC16F874. [Spanish] El trabajo presenta el diseno y construccion de un medidor digital de energia electrica basado en un microcontrolador, el cual visualiza la demanda por el consumo de kWh, basandose en una tarifa escalonada de tipo domestico de CFE. Tambien el aparato visualiza voltaje, corriente, potencia y el tiempo de medicion

  9. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  10. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  11. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  12. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  13. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  14. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  15. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO, and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52% exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%. Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating.

  16. Comparison of oxygen uptake during cycle ergometry with and without functional electrical stimulation in patients with COPD: protocol for a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrinal, Clément; Prieur, Guillaume; Debeaumont, David; Robledo Quesada, Aurora; Combret, Yann; Quieffin, Jean; Contal, Olivier; Lamia, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has systemic repercussions that can lead to peripheral muscle dysfunction. Muscle atrophy reduces aerobic capacity, greatly limiting activities of daily living and quality of life. Pulmonary rehabilitation is the gold standard treatment for these patients, however, patients may not be able to reach sufficient training intensities for benefits to occur. Technologies such as functional electrical stimulation (FES) are currently being adapted and tested to enhance exercise training. We hypothesise that FES coupled with cycling (FES-cycling) will improve maximal uptake of oxygen (VO2) and aerobic capacity more than endurance training with placebo stimulation. A randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial will be carried out to evaluate the effects of FES-cycling on VO2 during endurance exercise on a cycle ergometer in patients with COPD. 25 patients with COPD will carry out two 30 min sessions at a constant load; one session with active and one with placebo FES. The primary outcome is oxygen uptake recorded with a metabolic measurement system. Secondary outcomes include ventilation equivalent for oxygen, ventilation equivalent for carbon dioxide, cardiac output, lactate values, perceived dyspnoea and perceived muscle fatigue. Approval has been granted by our Institutional Review Board (Comité de Protection des Personnes Nord-Ouest 3). The results of the trial will be presented at national and international meetings and published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02594722.

  17. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  18. 'Power Plants' 2012 VGB congress. European mix of electricity. High demands on flexibility and storage; VGB-Kongress 'Kraftwerke 2012'. Europaeischer Erzeugungsmix. Hohe Anforderungen an Flexibilitaet und Speicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gerd [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We live in times both interesting and challenging. The present fear of another financial and economic crisis is causing uncertainty worldwide. Of course, these developments are highly relevant also to the power industry. Meeting climate protection goals depends decisively also on the way in which Europe will master the crisis as, in the long run, only economically stable economies are able to achieve ambitious goals sustainably. This demands a lot of the power industry in Europe, even in the absence of current developments, causing it to undergo a revolutionary change. European and national demands in energy policy require increasingly more, preferably also faster, measures for carbon reduction and for the expansion of renewable energies. In view of the multitude of unsolved problems, it is absolutely necessary to proceed on the basis of facts because, otherwise, most of the reporting, discussions and, consequently, also decisionmaking will take place on the often irrational level of emotions. This is particularly true of nuclear power in Germany, although the safety review of German nuclear power plants performed at short notice had shown no need for any shutdown. The plants were attested a high level of safety and extensive safety margins in the area beyond the design basis. Nevertheless, plant life of the facilities continuing operation were reduced markedly in addition to the plants decommissioned. In this way, facts were created on the level of national energy economy the impact of which affects all of Europe. (orig.)

  19. European energy law in Germany; Europaeisiertes Energierecht in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwardt, C.

    2006-07-01

    The book focuses on deregulation and unbundling of the European electricity market. The structure of the European power supply industry is described, with the focus on Germany. European and German boundary conditions are outlined, and the German Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (Renewables Act) and its amendments is discussed in detail. The author discusses if the mechanism claimed in this Act for funding of renewable energy sources is compatible with European law, especially as regards competition and free trading as well as financial aids. It is found that there should be no doubts on a European level as any obstacles set by the Act are justified by European environmental policy. The case is different on a national scale as the mechanism concerning exceptions form the rule is incompatible with the equality principle laid down in the German constitution. (orig.)

  20. From National Identity to European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CINPOES

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the Maastricht Treaty in 1992, and especially in the past few years, the European Union has been going through a mixed process of expansion and consolidation. In the last ten years alone there were two new waves of accession, the EU launched the single currency and failed attempts have been made to introduce a constitution. With all these transformations taking place, attention is more and more centred on the question whether a European identity is emerging. This article investigates this issue examining comparativelythe patterns of national identity and of European identity formation and focusing on whether the relationship between the two is a zero-sum type. The aim is to show that although national identity is not necessarily an obstacle for the development of European identity, nationalism is.

  1. Absence of a market in the Dutch balancing mechanism: European rules versus specific investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.; Jolink, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directives for the electricity industry prescribe the creation of a market for balancing electricity supply and demand. In this paper, we demonstrate that a market for balancing has not emerged in the Dutch electricity industry, and that, instead, the balancing transactions are

  2. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  3. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  4. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on copyright in the Digital Single Market) and soft law initiatives (the EU Internet Forum against Terrorism and the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online) seriously put at risk the consistency and integrity of the EU acquis related...

  5. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    these major positions obviously provide interesting insights, none of them manage to make international law intelligible in a broader sense. Instead, it argues for a European New Legal Realist approach to international law accommodating the so-called external and internal dimensions of law in a single more...... and combines them with insights originating from Bourdieusian sociology of law....

  6. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields...

  7. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e.......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  8. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  9. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  11. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  12. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  13. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  14. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  15. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  16. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  17. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  18. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  19. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  20. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  1. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Østergaard, Jane N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway is central in adipogenesis, it remains unknown whether it influences change in body weight (BW) and whether dietary fat has a modifying effect on the association. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether 27 single...

  2. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  3. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  4. Aspects concerning counterfeiting and piracy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global problem of counterfeiting and piracy has increased in European Union though there are special laws defending Intellectual Properties Rights. The aim of this paper is to point out the aspects on the topic of counterfeiting and piracy inside the European Union Single Market. Analysing the information gathered, we can conclude that there are evident facts of growing and increasingly dangerous phenomena in the European Union, with significant impact on the economic and social sectors. European Commission is the one that identifies strategies and effective practices to help rightful owners protect their Intellectual Property Rights.

  5. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-03-07

    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field.

  6. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  7. The Nordic financial electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    NordREG is a cooperation of the Nordic energy regulators. The mission is to actively promote legal and institutional framework and conditions necessary for developing the Nordic and European electricity markets. The financial market is an important market for market participants to mitigate their risks. By providing tools for risk management, the financial market contributes to the efficient functioning of both wholesale and end-user markets. NordREG decided during 2009 to undertake a study on the Nordic financial electricity market. The aim of the report is to consider whether any improvements can be made to further increase the efficiency of the Nordic financial electricity market in order to secure an optimal price setting in the wholesale and the end-user markets

  8. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  9. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  10. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  11. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1990-06-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 90-05 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 90-05, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Atmospheric Electricity, Computer Science, Electronics, and Physics. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aerospace Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardination Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  12. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  13. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  14. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  15. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  16. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  17. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  18. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  19. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  20. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/