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Sample records for single energy quantitative

  1. Longitudinal interfacility precision in single-energy quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, R.L.; Gray, J.E.; Wahner, H.W.; Weekes, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the precision of single-energy quantitative CT measurements between two facilities over 3 months. An anthropomorphic phantom with calcium hydroxyapatite inserts (60,100, and 160 mg/cc) was used with the Cann-Gennant method to measure bone mineral density. The same model CT scanner, anthropomorphic phantom, quantitative CT standard and analysis package were utilized at each facility. Acquisition and analysis techniques were identical to those used in patient studies. At one facility, 28 measurements yielded an average precision of 6.1% (5.0%-8.5%). The average precision for 39 measurements at the other facility was 4.3% (3.2%-8.1%). Successive scans with phantom repositioning between scanning yielded an average precision of about 3% (1%-4% without repositioning). Despite differences in personnel, scanners, standards, and phantoms, the variation between facilities was about 2%, which was within the intrafacility variation of about 5% at each location

  2. Single- versus dual-energy quantitative computed tomography for spinal densitometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, R.F.J.M.; Erning, L.J.Th.O. van; Lemmens, J.A.M.; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Ruijs, S.H.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van

    1992-01-01

    Lumbar bone mineral density was measured by both single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography in 109 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The results were corrected for the age-related increase in vertebral fat content by converting them to percentages of expected densities, using sex and energy-level specific regression equations obtained in a normal reference population. The percentages of expected density are approximately 10% lower in the single- than in the dual-energy mode, both in the patients with and without prednisone therapy. This difference is statistically highly significant, and is positively correlated with the duration of the disease and with the degree of radiological joint destruction. The data suggest that the vertebral fat content may be increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a consequence of disease-dependent mechanisms. (Author)

  3. [Quantitative image of bone mineral content--dual energy subtraction in a single exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, T

    1990-09-25

    A dual energy subtraction system was constructed on an experimental basis for the quantitative image of bone mineral content. The system consists of a radiography system and an image processor. Two radiograms were taken with dual x-ray energy in a single exposure using an x-ray beam dichromized by a tin filter. In this system, a film cassette was used where a low speed film-screen system, a copper filter and a high speed film-screen system were layered on top of each other. The images were read by a microdensitometer and processed by a personal computer. The image processing included the corrections of the film characteristics and heterogeneity in the x-ray field, and the dual energy subtraction in which the effect of the high energy component of the dichromized beam on the tube side image was corrected. In order to determine the accuracy of the system, experiments using wedge phantoms made of mixtures of epoxy resin and bone mineral-equivalent materials in various fractions were performed for various tube potentials and film processing conditions. The results indicated that the relative precision of the system was within +/- 4% and that the propagation of the film noise was within +/- 11 mg/cm2 for the 0.2 mm pixels. The results also indicated that the system response was independent of the tube potential and the film processing condition. The bone mineral weight in each phalanx of the freshly dissected hand of a rhesus monkey was measured by this system and compared with the ash weight. The results showed an error of +/- 10%, slightly larger than that of phantom experiments, which is probably due to the effect of fat and the variation of focus-object distance. The air kerma in free air at the object was approximately 0.5 mGy for one exposure. The results indicate that this system is applicable to clinical use and provides useful information for evaluating a time-course of localized bone disease.

  4. Single- and dual-energy quantitative CT adjacent to acetabular prosthetic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    and to compare BMD measurements in single and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT). Methods and Materials: 10 male patients with uncemented hip prosthetics were scanned and rescanned using 120 kVp SECT and DECT with virtual monochromatic images reconstructed at 130 keV. Hemispherical ROIs were defined slice...... that the intraobserver agreement of the scan modes is equal. BMD cannot be measured interchangeably with SECT and DECT....

  5. Studies on the reference values of bone mineral content in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, S.; Semova, R.; Lichev, A.; Delov, I.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative CT assessment of bone mineral content (BMC) is widely used in clinical practice. The results obtained from the examination of every single patient are compared with the reference values for the corresponding age and sex. It is known that BMC shows well recognized genetic, racial, ethnic and other differences. On the other hand, the introduction of different techniques, calibration phantoms, algorithms for choosing the region of interest, statistical models etc. leads to some differences in reference values. The authors present their own studies on the reference values of BMC in Bulgarian women using single energy quantitative computed tomography and a liquid K 2 HPO 4 calibration phantom. Different statistical models for data processing are proposed. The results are compared to the studies of recognized foreign authors. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs. (author)

  6. Energy Education: The Quantitative Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Richard

    2010-02-01

    A serious study of energy use and its consequences has to be quantitative. It makes little sense to push your favorite renewable energy source if it can't provide enough energy to make a dent in humankind's prodigious energy consumption. Conversely, it makes no sense to dismiss alternatives---solar in particular---that supply Earth with energy at some 10,000 times our human energy consumption rate. But being quantitative---especially with nonscience students or the general public---is a delicate business. This talk draws on the speaker's experience presenting energy issues to diverse audiences through single lectures, entire courses, and a textbook. The emphasis is on developing a quick, ``back-of-the-envelope'' approach to quantitative understanding of energy issues. )

  7. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine

  8. The relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value : comparison by single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kun Il; Song, Keun Sung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between developmental lumbar spinal stenosis and its BMD value by using the single energy quantitative CT(SEQCT). Eighty normal volunteers(20-60years) were selected as a control group and 28 patients with developmental lumbar spinal stenosis were selected as a disease group. The two groups were divided into a younger (20-39 years) and an older subgroup (40-60 years), and were further divided into male and female subgroups. All the cases showed no evidence of metabolic disease, fracture, herniated nucleus pulposus, degererative spondylosis, infectious disease, tumors or had no history of absolute immobilization of more than two weeks. All underwent lumbar spine CT and SEQCT. we measured bone mineral density(BMD) at the cancellous bone of L1, 2, 3 and obtained the mean and its one standard deviation, and compared the data between each sub-group of the control and the disease group using ANOVA. There was a significant low BMD value in the younger male patient subgroup compared with the control subgroup(p<0.005). Developmental lumbar spinal stenosis in a young male may be a factor of decreasing BMD of the body of the spine.

  9. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C.; Thomsen, Felix; Campbell, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm 3 corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  10. Bone-marrow densitometry: Assessment of marrow space of human vertebrae by single energy high resolution-quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Jaime A.; Damm, Timo; Bastgen, Jan; Barkmann, Reinhard; Glüer, Claus C., E-mail: glueer@rad.uni-kiel.de [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118 (Germany); Thomsen, Felix [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca 8000 (Argentina); Campbell, Graeme M. [Sektion Biomedizinische Bildgebung, Klinik für Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24118, Germany and Institut für Biomechanik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), Hamburg 21073 (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive assessment of vertebral bone marrow fat fraction is important for diagnostic assessment of a variety of disorders and therapies known to affect marrow composition. Moreover, it provides a means to correct fat-induced bias of single energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. The authors developed new segmentation and calibration methods to obtain quantitative surrogate measures of marrow-fat density in the axial skeleton. Methods: The authors developed and tested two high resolution-QCT (HR-QCT) based methods which permit segmentation of bone voids in between trabeculae hypothesizing that they are representative of bone marrow space. The methods permit calculation of marrow content in units of mineral equivalent marrow density (MeMD). The first method is based on global thresholding and peeling (GTP) to define a volume of interest away from the transition between trabecular bone and marrow. The second method, morphological filtering (MF), uses spherical elements of different radii (0.1–1.2 mm) and automatically places them in between trabeculae to identify regions with large trabecular interspace, the bone-void space. To determine their performance, data were compared ex vivo to high-resolution peripheral CT (HR-pQCT) images as the gold-standard. The performance of the methods was tested on a set of excised human vertebrae with intact bone marrow tissue representative of an elderly population with low BMD. Results: 86% (GTP) and 87% (MF) of the voxels identified as true marrow space on HR-pQCT images were correctly identified on HR-QCT images and thus these volumes of interest can be considered to be representative of true marrow space. Within this volume, MeMD was estimated with residual errors of 4.8 mg/cm{sup 3} corresponding to accuracy errors in fat fraction on the order of 5% both for GTP and MF methods. Conclusions: The GTP and MF methods on HR-QCT images permit noninvasive

  11. Assessment of lumbar trabecular bone density by means of single energy quantitative CT in hospital control children and bone metabolic disorders, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akie; Imai, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Yumiko; Hayashi, Kitami; Mitsuishi, Yoichi; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi; Shigeta, Teiko

    1990-01-01

    We studied the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone mineral density in 59 cross-sectional pictures of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with CaCO 3 phantom for 28 hospital control children and 30 cases of suspected bone metabolic disorders. The QCT value of bone mineral density of control children showed neither age dependency nor sexual difference before puberty: for males was 221.8±30.2 mg CaCO 3 /cm 3 (Mean±SD) under 4 years, 218.1±39.7 at 5∼9 years and 217.2±30.9 at 10∼15 years; and for females 220.9±18.3 under 4 years and 240.0±29.4 at 5∼9 years. The QCT values of bone mineral density in bed-ridden patients, children receiving glucocorticoids, and children receiving anticonvulsants were significantly lower than that in control children (p<0.005). The QCT value of bone mineral density of bed-ridden patients was significantly lower than that of children receiving glucocorticoids and of children receiving anticonvulsants (p<0.05, p<0.005 respectively). Our study confirmed that single energy quantitative CT was very useful in pediatric clinical application. (author)

  12. Assessment of lumbar trabecular bone density by means of single energy quantitative CT in hospital control children and bone metabolic disorders, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akie; Imai, Kaoru; Mochizuki, Yumiko; Hayashi, Kitami; Mitsuishi, Yoichi; Fukuyama, Yukio; Kohno, Atsushi; Shigeta, Teiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    We studied the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone mineral density in 59 cross-sectional pictures of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with CaCO{sub 3} phantom for 28 hospital control children and 30 cases of suspected bone metabolic disorders. The QCT value of bone mineral density of control children showed neither age dependency nor sexual difference before puberty: for males was 221.8{plus minus}30.2 mg CaCO{sub 3}/cm{sup 3} (Mean{plus minus}SD) under 4 years, 218.1{plus minus}39.7 at 5{approx}9 years and 217.2{plus minus}30.9 at 10{approx}15 years; and for females 220.9{plus minus}18.3 under 4 years and 240.0{plus minus}29.4 at 5{approx}9 years. The QCT values of bone mineral density in bed-ridden patients, children receiving glucocorticoids, and children receiving anticonvulsants were significantly lower than that in control children (p<0.005). The QCT value of bone mineral density of bed-ridden patients was significantly lower than that of children receiving glucocorticoids and of children receiving anticonvulsants (p<0.05, p<0.005 respectively). Our study confirmed that single energy quantitative CT was very useful in pediatric clinical application. (author).

  13. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  14. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  15. A novel dual energy method for enhanced quantitative computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A.; Ghadiri, H.; Rahmim, A.; Ay, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) is critically important in clinical practice, and conveniently enabled via quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Meanwhile, dual-energy QCT (DEQCT) enables enhanced detection of small changes in BMD relative to single-energy QCT (SEQCT). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of QCT methods, with particular emphasis on a new dual-energy approach, in comparison to single-energy and conventional dual-energy techniques. We used a sinogram-based analytical CT simulator to model the complete chain of CT data acquisitions, and assessed performance of SEQCT and different DEQCT techniques in quantification of BMD. We demonstrate a 120% reduction in error when using a proposed dual-energy Simultaneous Equation by Constrained Least-squares method, enabling more accurate bone mineral measurements.

  16. Quantitative occupational risk model: Single hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Aneziris, O.N.; Bellamy, L.J.; Ale, B.J.M.; Oh, J.

    2017-01-01

    A model for the quantification of occupational risk of a worker exposed to a single hazard is presented. The model connects the working conditions and worker behaviour to the probability of an accident resulting into one of three types of consequence: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. Working conditions and safety barriers in place to reduce the likelihood of an accident are included. Logical connections are modelled through an influence diagram. Quantification of the model is based on two sources of information: a) number of accidents observed over a period of time and b) assessment of exposure data of activities and working conditions over the same period of time and the same working population. Effectiveness of risk reducing measures affecting the working conditions, worker behaviour and/or safety barriers can be quantified through the effect of these measures on occupational risk. - Highlights: • Quantification of occupational risk from a single hazard. • Influence diagram connects working conditions, worker behaviour and safety barriers. • Necessary data include the number of accidents and the total exposure of worker • Effectiveness of risk reducing measures is quantified through the impact on the risk • An example illustrates the methodology.

  17. A study on the mineral density of the lumbar vertebral bone in children of metabolic disorders and control using single energy quantitative CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi

    1991-01-01

    A cross sectional study on the mineral density of the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone was carried out in 123 children less than 15 years old, comprising 44 controls, and 79 patients affected with conditions which are at risk for developing metabolic derangement of skeletal bone (34 patients taking antiepileptic drugs (AED), 29 undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and 16 bedridden patients), by using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with a CaCO 3 phantom. Serum Ca and alkaline-phosphatase (Alp) levels were measured at the time of QCT examinations in all. The results obtained were as follows: The QCT values in the control children showed neither age dependency nor a sexual difference before puberty. The QCT values in each group showed significant difference with one another; the control group>the AED group>the GC group>the bedridden group (p<0.05∼0.005). The serum Ca levels in each pathology group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05∼0.005). The serum Alp levels in the AED group were significantly higher (p<0.005) and those in the GC and bedridden groups significantly lower (p<0.01 and p<0.005 respectively) than those in the control group. The only GC group was significant (p<0.01) in the study of the relationships between the QCT value and the serum Alp level of each group. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decreased bone mineral density with AED and GC therapy and immobility are different from one another. Especially in the GC group abnormality of the Alp activity may be closely related to the decrease of trabecular bone mineral density. (author)

  18. A study on the mineral density of the lumbar vertebral bone in children of metabolic disorders and control using single energy quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Kazutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1991-06-01

    A cross sectional study on the mineral density of the 3rd lumbar vertebral trabecular bone was carried out in 123 children less than 15 years old, comprising 44 controls, and 79 patients affected with conditions which are at risk for developing metabolic derangement of skeletal bone (34 patients taking antiepileptic drugs (AED), 29 undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and 16 bedridden patients), by using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) with a CaCO{sub 3} phantom. Serum Ca and alkaline-phosphatase (Alp) levels were measured at the time of QCT examinations in all. The results obtained were as follows: The QCT values in the control children showed neither age dependency nor a sexual difference before puberty. The QCT values in each group showed significant difference with one another; the control group>the AED group>the GC group>the bedridden group (p<0.05{approx}0.005). The serum Ca levels in each pathology group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05{approx}0.005). The serum Alp levels in the AED group were significantly higher (p<0.005) and those in the GC and bedridden groups significantly lower (p<0.01 and p<0.005 respectively) than those in the control group. The only GC group was significant (p<0.01) in the study of the relationships between the QCT value and the serum Alp level of each group. These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the decreased bone mineral density with AED and GC therapy and immobility are different from one another. Especially in the GC group abnormality of the Alp activity may be closely related to the decrease of trabecular bone mineral density. (author).

  19. Quantitative mass imaging of single biological macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gavin; Hundt, Nikolas; Cole, Daniel; Fineberg, Adam; Andrecka, Joanna; Tyler, Andrew; Olerinyova, Anna; Ansari, Ayla; Marklund, Erik G; Collier, Miranda P; Chandler, Shane A; Tkachenko, Olga; Allen, Joel; Crispin, Max; Billington, Neil; Takagi, Yasuharu; Sellers, James R; Eichmann, Cédric; Selenko, Philipp; Frey, Lukas; Riek, Roland; Galpin, Martin R; Struwe, Weston B; Benesch, Justin L P; Kukura, Philipp

    2018-04-27

    The cellular processes underpinning life are orchestrated by proteins and their interactions. The associated structural and dynamic heterogeneity, despite being key to function, poses a fundamental challenge to existing analytical and structural methodologies. We used interferometric scattering microscopy to quantify the mass of single biomolecules in solution with 2% sequence mass accuracy, up to 19-kilodalton resolution, and 1-kilodalton precision. We resolved oligomeric distributions at high dynamic range, detected small-molecule binding, and mass-imaged proteins with associated lipids and sugars. These capabilities enabled us to characterize the molecular dynamics of processes as diverse as glycoprotein cross-linking, amyloidogenic protein aggregation, and actin polymerization. Interferometric scattering mass spectrometry allows spatiotemporally resolved measurement of a broad range of biomolecular interactions, one molecule at a time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. Quantitative reconstruction from a single diffraction-enhanced image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganin, D.M.; Lewis, R.A.; Kitchen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We develop an algorithm for using a single diffraction-enhanced image (DEI) to obtain a quantitative reconstruction of the projected thickness of a single-material sample which is embedded within a substrate of approximately constant thickness. This algorithm is used to quantitatively map inclusions in a breast phantom, from a single synchrotron DEI image. In particular, the reconstructed images quantitatively represent the projected thickness in the bulk of the sample, in contrast to DEI images which greatly emphasise sharp edges (high spatial frequencies). In the context of an ultimate aim of improved methods for breast cancer detection, the reconstructions are potentially of greater diagnostic value compared to the DEI data. Lastly, we point out that the methods of analysis presented here are also applicable to the quantitative analysis of differential interference contrast (DIC) images

  1. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Juliane; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Kemming, Dirk; Alpers, Iris; Joosse, Simon A; Pospisil, Heike; Kurtz, Stefan; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus; Brandt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  2. Quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hannemann

    Full Text Available During cancer progression, specific genomic aberrations arise that can determine the scope of the disease and can be used as predictive or prognostic markers. The detection of specific gene amplifications or deletions in single blood-borne or disseminated tumour cells that may give rise to the development of metastases is of great clinical interest but technically challenging. In this study, we present a method for quantitative high-resolution genomic analysis of single cells. Cells were isolated under permanent microscopic control followed by high-fidelity whole genome amplification and subsequent analyses by fine tiling array-CGH and qPCR. The assay was applied to single breast cancer cells to analyze the chromosomal region centred by the therapeutical relevant EGFR gene. This method allows precise quantitative analysis of copy number variations in single cell diagnostics.

  3. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  4. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  5. Quantitative analysis of Josephson-quasiparticle current in superconducting single-electron transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Chen, C.D.; Tsai, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated Josephson-quasiparticle (JQP) current in superconducting single-electron transistors in which charging energy E C was larger than superconducting gap energy Δ and junction resistances were much larger than R Q ≡h/4e 2 . We found that not only the shapes of the JQP peaks but also their absolute height were reproduced quantitatively with a theory by Averin and Aleshkin using a Josephson energy of Ambegaokar-Baratoff close-quote s value. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Quantitative PIXE at low proton energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Alicia

    1994-01-01

    The energy of the proton beam plays an important role in the type of analysis that is intended. The need to take into account energy loss of the particles beam inside the specimen, the energy variation of the ionisation cross section for K and L lines, secondary fluorescence, and the surface topography draws the line between thin and thick target analysis. We present here the difficulties, calibrations and calculations for the ionisation cross sections needed to quantify at proton energies below one MeV. As conclusion we show with an example the necessity of reliable standards. (author)

  7. Single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bräuchle, Christoph; Michaelis, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Closing a gap in the literature, this handbook gathers all the information on single particle tracking and single molecule energy transfer. It covers all aspects of this hot and modern topic, from detecting virus entry to membrane diffusion, and from protein folding using spFRET to coupled dye systems, as well recent achievements in the field. Throughout, the first-class editors and top international authors present content of the highest quality, making this a must-have for physical chemists, spectroscopists, molecular physicists and biochemists.

  8. Energy challenges of the Single Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Single Market Initiatives promise to reshape many areas of western Europe's energy markets. They will entail a number of changes for the Continent's oil, gas, electricity, and coal businesses. Some of those changes promise to improve market efficiency, others threaten to restrict it. Current negotiations could have a particularly far-reaching impact on western Europe's gas markets, which according to some reports, do not require any alternations. While western Europe's energy industry makes ready for the single market, eastern Europe's energy sector awaits the European Energy Charger, a multilateral agreement that could completely renovate the rules of this region's energy game. The rule changes could prove to be especially important for businesses from the United States. This paper examines this reshaping of Europe. It considers the ways in which old arrangements might be transformed into a new, but not necessarily improved, European order

  9. Single-case synthesis tools II: Comparing quantitative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Pustejovsky, James E; Ledford, Jennifer R; Barton, Erin E; Severini, Katherine E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-07

    Varying methods for evaluating the outcomes of single case research designs (SCD) are currently used in reviews and meta-analyses of interventions. Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes-overlap measures (percentage non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and Tau) and parametric within-case effect sizes (standardized mean difference and log response ratio [increasing and decreasing])-were compared to determine if choice of synthesis method within and across classes impacts conclusions regarding effectiveness. The effectiveness of sensory-based interventions (SBI), a commonly used class of treatments for young children, was evaluated. Separately from evaluations of rigor and quality, authors evaluated behavior change between baseline and SBI conditions. SBI were unlikely to result in positive behavior change across all measures except IRD. However, subgroup analyses resulted in variable conclusions, indicating that the choice of measures for SCD meta-analyses can impact conclusions. Suggestions for using the log response ratio in SCD meta-analyses and considerations for understanding variability in SCD meta-analysis conclusions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique us- ing an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle. EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such ...

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Distributed Energy Resource Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.

    2003-05-22

    Distributed energy resources (DER) offer many benefits, some of which are readily quantified. Other benefits, however, are less easily quantifiable because they may require site-specific information about the DER project or analysis of the electrical system to which the DER is connected. The purpose of this study is to provide analytical insight into several of the more difficult calculations, using the PJM power pool as an example. This power pool contains most of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. The techniques used here could be applied elsewhere, and the insights from this work may encourage various stakeholders to more actively pursue DER markets or to reduce obstacles that prevent the full realization of its benefits. This report describes methodologies used to quantify each of the benefits listed in Table ES-1. These methodologies include bulk power pool analyses, regional and national marginal cost evaluations, as well as a more traditional cost-benefit approach for DER owners. The methodologies cannot however determine which stakeholder will receive the benefits; that must be determined by regulators and legislators, and can vary from one location to another.

  12. Creating energy security indexes with decision matrices and quantitative criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Shupe, Darren

    2010-09-15

    Energy security is becoming an important policy issue in a growing number of jurisdictions because of volatile energy markets and production challenges faced by many producers. As a result, policymakers and politicians are looking for tools or methods that can create an energy security index with results that are justifiable, understandable, and reproducible. This paper describes a method which employs a decision matrix to produce an energy security index using quantitative criteria and metrics. The method allows a range of indexes to be produced, thereby offering further insight into the state of a jurisdiction's energy security.

  13. Energy potential of region and its quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Kovalenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the development of the concept of the energy potential of the region (EPR, the analysis of the existing structure of relationships for the EPR elements in Ukraine and improvement of a quantitative assessment of energy potential of the region (country. The methods of an assessment of the existing condition of energy potential of the territory are the subject matter of the research. As a result of the analysis of concept’s definitions of energy potential of the region, it has further development and included the consumer potential of energy resources and capacity of management. The structure of relationships between elements of energy potential is developed for the Ukraine region. The new economic indicator — the realized energy potential is offered for an EPR assessment. By means of this indicator, the assessment of energy potential for the different countries of the world and a number of Ukraine areas of is performed.

  14. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  15. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A; Bradford, William D; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S; Li, Rong

    2015-03-30

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein-based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Zhu et al.

  16. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  17. 77 FR 19008 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    .... The development of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Office of Energy...

  18. Quantitative imaging of single upconversion nanoparticles in biological tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Nadort

    Full Text Available The unique luminescent properties of new-generation synthetic nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, enabled high-contrast optical biomedical imaging by suppressing the crowded background of biological tissue autofluorescence and evading high tissue absorption. This raised high expectations on the UCNP utilities for intracellular and deep tissue imaging, such as whole animal imaging. At the same time, the critical nonlinear dependence of the UCNP luminescence on the excitation intensity results in dramatic signal reduction at (∼1 cm depth in biological tissue. Here, we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of this trade-off aiming at the identification of optimal application niches of UCNPs e.g. biological liquids and subsurface tissue layers. As an example of such applications, we report on single UCNP imaging through a layer of hemolyzed blood. To extend this result towards in vivo applications, we quantified the optical properties of single UCNPs and theoretically analyzed the prospects of single-particle detectability in live scattering and absorbing bio-tissue using a human skin model. The model predicts that a single 70-nm UCNP would be detectable at skin depths up to 400 µm, unlike a hardly detectable single fluorescent (fluorescein dye molecule. UCNP-assisted imaging in the ballistic regime thus allows for excellent applications niches, where high sensitivity is the key requirement.

  19. Revised energy levels of singly ionized lanthanum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzelçimen, Feyza; Tonka, Mehdi; Uddin, Zaheer; Bhatti, Naveed Anjum; Windholz, Laurentius; Kröger, Sophie; Başar, Gönül

    2018-05-01

    Based on the experimental wavenumbers of 344 spectral lines from calibrated Fourier transform (FT) spectra as well as wavenumbers of 81 lines from the wavelength tables from literature, the energy of 115 fine structure levels of singly ionized lanthanum has been revised by weighted global fits. The classifications of the lines are provided by numerous previous investigations of lanthanum by different spectroscopic methods and authors. For the high accurate determination of the center of gravity wavenumbers from the experimental spectrum, the hyperfine constants of the involved levels have been taken into account, if possible. For the 94 levels with known hyperfine constants the accuracy of energy values is better than 0.01 cm-1. For 34 levels the magnetic dipole hyperfine constants A have been determined from FT spectra as part of this work. For four of these 34 levels even electric quadrupole hyperfine constants B could be estimated. For levels, which have experimentally unknown hyperfine constants and which are connected only by lines not found in the FT spectra but taken from literature, the uncertainties of energy values are about a factor of 10 higher. A list of all revised level energies together with a compilation of hyperfine structure data is given as well as a list of all lines used.

  20. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  1. Quantitative analysis with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Kapoor, S.S.; Lal, M.; Rao, B.V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of samples using radioisotope excited energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system is described. The complete set-up is built around a locally made Si(Li) detector x-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 220 eV at 5.94 KeV. The photopeaks observed in the x-ray fluorescence spectra are fitted with a Gaussian function and the intensities of the characteristic x-ray lines are extracted, which in turn are used for calculating the elemental concentrations. The results for a few typical cases are presented. (author)

  2. Quantitative model of New Zealand's energy supply industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. R. [Victoria Univ., Wellington, (New Zealand); Lucas, P. D. [Ministry of Energy Resources (New Zealand)

    1977-10-15

    A mathematical model is presented to assist in an analysis of energy policy options available. The model is based on an engineering orientated description of New Zealand's energy supply and distribution system. The system is cast as a linear program, in which energy demand is satisfied at least cost. The capacities and operating modes of process plant (such as power stations, oil refinery units, and LP-gas extraction plants) are determined by the model, as well as the optimal mix of fuels supplied to the final consumers. Policy analysis with the model enables a wide ranging assessment of the alternatives and uncertainties within a consistent quantitative framework. It is intended that the model be used as a tool to investigate the relative effects of various policy options, rather than to present a definitive plan for satisfying the nation's energy requirements.

  3. Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Levy, Matthew C; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Wing, Matthew; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefie...

  4. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  5. Evaluation of bone mineral density with dual energy quantitative computed tomography (DEQCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masako; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Yamada, Naoyuki.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the precision and accuracy of dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and to investigate age-related changes of bone marrow density (BMD) in patients without metabolic disorders. Rapid kilovolt peak switching system, with which SOMATOM DR-H CT is equipped, allows dual energy scanning. KV-separated images and material-separated images were calculated from dual energy scan data. KV-separated data was regarded as single energy QCT. In phantom studies, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate solution, water, and ethanol were used to simulate bone mineral, lean soft tissue, and fat, respectively. Values of BMD obtained by dual energy scanning method had an error of 5.5% per 10% increase of fat, as compared with 12% for BMD values obtained by single energy scanning method. However, single energy scanning method had a higher precision than dual energy scanning method in determining BMD. The selection of CT section is considered most important in the clinical determination of BMD. In a study of age-related changes of BMD in the vertebral trabecular and cortical bones in 161 patients, BMD was found to have two peaks for women in their twenties and thirties, and one peak for men in their twenties. Bone marrow density rapidly declined among women aged 50 years or more. These results suggest that the content of fat in the trabecular bone may increase progressively after the age of 40, regardless of sex. (N.K.)

  6. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described. The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods. It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan. When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  7. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-10-07

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  8. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT. (note)

  9. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-01-01

    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s −1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is c p = 0.15. The v 3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively. (paper)

  10. 77 FR 23238 - Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...: Comments on the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single Family Energy Upgrades AGENCY: Office of Energy...

  11. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation.

  12. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H.; Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation

  13. Microscopic calculations of λ single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Q. N.

    1998-01-01

    Λ binding energy data for total baryon number A ≤ 208 and for Λ angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 3 are analyzed in terms of phenomenological (but generally consistent with meson-exchange) ΛN and ΛNN potentials. The Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique is used to calculate the expectation values for the Λ binding to nuclear matter. Accurate effective ΛN and ΛNN potentials are obtained which are folded with the core nucleus nucleon densities to calculate the Λ single particle potential U Λ (r). We use a dispersive ΛNN potential but also include an explicit ρ dependence to allow for reduced repulsion in the surface, and the best fits have a large ρ dependence giving consistency with the variational Monte Carlo calculations for Λ 5 He. The exchange fraction of the ΛN space-exchange potential is found to be 0.2-0.3 corresponding to m Λ * ≅ (0.74-0.82)m Λ . Charge symmetry breaking is found to be significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess, with a strength consistent with that obtained from the A = 4 hypernuclei

  14. Electrons, Photons, and Force: Quantitative Single-Molecule Measurements from Physics to Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule measurement techniques have illuminated unprecedented details of chemical behavior, including observations of the motion of a single molecule on a surface, and even the vibration of a single bond within a molecule. Such measurements are critical to our understanding of entities ranging from single atoms to the most complex protein assemblies. We provide an overview of the strikingly diverse classes of measurements that can be used to quantify single-molecule properties, including those of single macromolecules and single molecular assemblies, and discuss the quantitative insights they provide. Examples are drawn from across the single-molecule literature, ranging from ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy studies of adsorbate diffusion on surfaces to fluorescence studies of protein conformational changes in solution. PMID:21338175

  15. Energy security in ASEAN: A quantitative approach for sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongsopit, Sopitsuda; Kittner, Noah; Chang, Youngho; Aksornkij, Apinya; Wangjiraniran, Weerin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate energy security of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) under the 4-A’s framework. The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) agreement launched in 2015 renewed a regional focus on energy security and sustainability. We employ an analytic framework to quantitatively assess progress in different categories including availability, acceptability, affordability, and applicability. Key metrics include the documentation of CO_2 emissions, energy access measures, and energy supply reserves from 2005–2010. We identify relevant energy indicators using high quality historical data from the IEA and World Bank. We find that ASEAN made little progress toward establishing energy security in the previous five-year planning period (2005–2010) as it regressed in most categories except applicability. Therefore, we suggest that increased development of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies would move ASEAN in a positive direction toward achieving energy security and sustainable energy policy goals. - Highlights: • We investigate energy security in ASEAN across four dimensions. • Energy security in ASEAN has mostly regressed from 2005–2010. • Future cooperative agreements will help ASEAN improve energy security.

  16. Ultrastructural evaluation of multiple pass low energy versus single pass high energy radio-frequency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, David; Burns, A Jay; Sanner, Roth; Counters, Jeff; Zelickson, Brian

    2006-02-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) device is a system capable of volumetric heating of the mid to deep dermis and selective heating of the fibrous septa strands and fascia layer. Clinically, these effects promote dermal collagen production, and tightening of these deep subcutaneous structures. A new technique of using multiple low energy passes has been described which results in lower patient discomfort and fewer side effects. This technique has also been anecdotally described as giving more reproducible and reliable clinical results of tissue tightening and contouring. This study will compare ultrastructural changes in collagen between a single pass high energy versus up to five passes of a multiple pass lower energy treatment. Three subjects were consented and treated in the preauricular region with the RF device using single or multiple passes (three or five) in the same 1.5 cm(2) treatment area with a slight delay between passes to allow tissue cooling. Biopsies from each treatment region and a control biopsy were taken immediately, 24 hours or 6 months post treatment for electron microscopic examination of the 0-1 mm and 1-2 mm levels. Sections of tissue 1 mm x 1 mm x 80 nm were examined with an RCA EMU-4 Transmission Electron Microscope. Twenty sections from 6 blocks from each 1 mm depth were examined by 2 blinded observers. The morphology and degree of collagen change in relation to area examined was compared to the control tissue, and estimated using a quantitative scale. Ultrastructural examination of tissue showed that an increased amount of collagen fibril changes with increasing passes at energies of 97 J (three passes) and 122 J (five passes), respectively. The changes seen after five multiple passes were similar to those detected after much more painful single pass high-energy treatments. This ultrastructural study shows changes in collagen fibril morphology with an increased effect demonstrated at greater depths of the skin with multiple low-fluence passes

  17. Implanted strontium titanate single crystals for energy storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeber, Max; Cherkouk, Charaf; Walter, Juliane; Strohmeyer, Ralph; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk Carl [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Schelter, Matthias; Zosel, Jens [Kurt Schwabe Institute, Meinsberg (Germany); Prucnal, Slawomir [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A rapid increase of the demand on efficient energy storage solutions requires new approaches beyond the Li-ion technology. In particular, metal-air batteries as well as solid-state fuel cells offer a great potential for high-energy-density storage devices. Since the efficiency of such devices is significantly limited by the activation of both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the ionic and electronic conductivities, an adequate porosity as well as a controlled doping are required. The ion implantation is a key technology to achieve this goal. In this work, p- and n-doped strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) single crystals were used as oxidic materials. The oxygen exchange kinetics as well as the structural changes of the SrTiO{sub 3} crystal surface induced by the ion implantation were investigated. On one hand, the depth profile of dopant concentration and dopant valence state were determined using sputtered X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On the other hand, the overall oxygen exchange kinetic of the implanted SrTiO{sub 3} crystal was quantitatively described by means of coulometric titration using Zirox system (ZIROX GmbH, Germany). Furthermore, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  18. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical

  19. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, The Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McCullough, William P. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mecca, Patricia [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash {sup registered} CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality by

  20. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa; McCullough, William P.; Mecca, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash "r"e"g"i"s"t"e"r"e"d CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI_v_o_l) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality

  1. Preparing Europe for a single market in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    By the end of 1992 a ''single market'' in the European Community should be in place. While the energy sector was not included in the ''White Paper'' which planned the single market, it soon became obvious that it could not be excluded. The single market in energy is intended to integrate energy supply in the member states and remove barriers to trade. It has been calculated that these barriers cost the Community 20-30 billion ecus ($15-20 billion) every year. Removing the barriers will result in much greater competition within the energy market. The Commission published a working document, the internal energy market, in May 1988. This report described the real and potential obstacles to the single energy market for each of the principal energy sources and suggested priorities which should be addressed. The strategy suggested in the report is outlined here, and recent developments briefly reviewed. (author)

  2. Energy Harvesting Research: The Road from Single Source to Multisource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Jantunen, Heli; Juuti, Jari

    2018-06-07

    Energy harvesting technology may be considered an ultimate solution to replace batteries and provide a long-term power supply for wireless sensor networks. Looking back into its research history, individual energy harvesters for the conversion of single energy sources into electricity are developed first, followed by hybrid counterparts designed for use with multiple energy sources. Very recently, the concept of a truly multisource energy harvester built from only a single piece of material as the energy conversion component is proposed. This review, from the aspect of materials and device configurations, explains in detail a wide scope to give an overview of energy harvesting research. It covers single-source devices including solar, thermal, kinetic and other types of energy harvesters, hybrid energy harvesting configurations for both single and multiple energy sources and single material, and multisource energy harvesters. It also includes the energy conversion principles of photovoltaic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, triboelectric, electrostatic, electrostrictive, thermoelectric, pyroelectric, magnetostrictive, and dielectric devices. This is one of the most comprehensive reviews conducted to date, focusing on the entire energy harvesting research scene and providing a guide to seeking deeper and more specific research references and resources from every corner of the scientific community. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A quantitative phase field model for hydride precipitation in zirconium alloys: Part I. Development of quantitative free energy functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, San-Qiang; Xiao, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A temperature dependent, quantitative free energy functional was developed for the modeling of hydride precipitation in zirconium alloys within a phase field scheme. The model takes into account crystallographic variants of hydrides, interfacial energy between hydride and matrix, interfacial energy between hydrides, elastoplastic hydride precipitation and interaction with externally applied stress. The model is fully quantitative in real time and real length scale, and simulation results were compared with limited experimental data available in the literature with a reasonable agreement. The work calls for experimental and/or theoretical investigations of some of the key material properties that are not yet available in the literature

  4. Single-Family Energy Auditor Job Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Heather R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-02

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is contracted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) to develop and maintain the resources under the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals (GHEP) project. As part of the GHEP strategy to increase the quality of work conducted for single-family, residential energy-efficiency retrofits, the Home Energy Professionals Job Task Analysis are used as the foundation for quality training programs and trainers.

  5. Quantitative data study on energy innovation; Kwantitatief data onderzoek Energie-innovaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clocquet, R. [DHV, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    NL Agency desires, on the basis of the study 'State of the Land energy innovation of the built environment', to gain insight in the market, in particular where it concerns the process approach towards innovation. The study consists of a quantitative and a qualitative part [Dutch] Agentschap NL wil aan de hand van het onderzoek Stand van het Land energie-innovaties gebouwde omgeving een beeld geven waar de markt staat op het gebied van met name de procesaanpak ten behoeve van innovatie. Het onderzoek bestaat uit een kwantitatief en een kwalitatief deel.

  6. Quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live single cells using a microfluidic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live cells is a promising approach for genetic manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA because single mitochondrion transfer to a mtDNA-less (ρ0 cell potentially leads to homoplasmy of mtDNA. In this paper, we describe a method for quantitative control of mitochondria transfer between live single cells. For this purpose, we fabricated novel microfluidic devices having cell paring structures with a 4.1, 5.6 or 10.0 μm-length microtunnel. When cells were fused through a microtunnel using the Sendai virus envelope-based method, a strictured cytoplasmic connection was achieved with a length corresponding to that of the microtunnel. Elongation of the cytoplasmic connection led to a decrease in mitochondria transfer to the fusion partner. Moreover, some cell pairs that fused through a 10.0 μm-length microtunnel showed single mitochondrion transfer. Fused cells were spontaneously disconnected from each other when they were recovered in a normal culture medium. These results suggest that our cell fusion method can perform quantitative control of mitochondria transfer that includes a single mitochondrion transfer.

  7. 27-Level DC–AC inverter with single energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper reports a novel 27-level DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source. ► The efficiency of the inverter is very high. The output waveform is almost sinusoidal. ► The cost is low as the number of power switches required is only 12. - Abstract: A novel design of multilevel DC–AC inverter using only single renewable energy source is presented in this paper. The proposed approach enables multilevel output to be realised by a few cascaded H-bridges and a single energy source. As an illustration, a 27-level inverter has been implemented based on three cascaded H-bridges with a single energy source and two capacitors. Using the proposed novel switching strategy, 27 levels can be realized and the two virtual energy sources can be well regulated. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed inverter.

  8. Improvement of the Energy Stability of the Single Ion Microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Furu; Qi Xuehong; Xu Mingliang; Chen Lianyun; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Energy instability strongly affects the state and the beam size of the single ion microbeam. A facility based on the Generating Voltmeter was developed to improve the energy stability of the CAS-LIBB (Chinese Academy of Sciences, key laboratory of ion beam bioengineering) single ion microbeam. This paper presents the analysis of the energy instability of the single ion microbeam. A simplified theoretical model is set up to calculate the relationship between the energy instability and the beam spot size. By using this technique, the energy instability is adjusted to about 1%. Stable run-time is over 6 hours. The radius of the single ion beam is reduced by 10% compared to the previous one.

  9. How far could energy transport within a single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Che, Yanke; Zhao, Jincai; Steve, Granick

    Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distance is a vital process in light-harvesting systems and molecular electronics. The energy transfer distance is largely restricted by the probability decay of the exciton when hopping within a single crystal. Here, we fabricated an organic single crystal within which the energy could transfer more than 100 μm, a distance only limited by its crystal size. Our system could be regarded as a ``Sprint relay game'' performing on different surface of tracks. Photoinduced ``athletes'' (excitons) triggered intermolecular ``domino'' reaction to propagate energy for a long distance. In addition, athletes with the same ability runs much farther on smooth ideal track (single crystal assembled from merely van der Waals interaction) than bumpy mud track (crystal assembled from combination of pi-stacking, hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions). Our finding presents new physics on enhancing energy transfer length within a single crystal. Current Affiliation: Institute for Basic Science, South Korea.

  10. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  11. Quantitative single-photon emission tomography for cerebral flow and receptor distribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in single-photon emission tomography for two major reasons. First, correction methods have been devised for attenuation compensation, nonuniform resolution, and scattered radiation. Second, new radiopharmaceuticals with 1-5% uptake in the brain provide adequate statistics for quantitative imaging of flow using properly designed single-photon tomographic instruments. The lack of commercially available instruments designed specifically to optimize sensitivity for a resolution finer than 15 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) seems now to be the major deterrent to the widespread use of single-photon emission tomography. But it appears now that some development in this respect also might lead to a widespread renewed interest in single-photon tomography of the brain. Major activities of the past few years can be placed in three distinct categories of instrumentation and methodology

  12. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary F Phillips

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC, is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC, which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  13. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of main components in linderae reflexae radix with one single marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Yun-Bin; Sun, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Sui-Qing

    2016-05-08

    Establish a quantitative analysis of multi-components by the single marker (QAMS) method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by the simultaneous quantitative assay of four main components in Linderae Reflexae Radix. Four main components of pinostrobin, pinosylvin, pinocembrin, and 3,5-dihydroxy-2-(1- p -mentheneyl)- trans -stilbene were selected as analytes to evaluate the quality by RP-HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. The method was evaluated by a comparison of the quantitative results between the external standard method and QAMS with a different HPLC system. The results showed that no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of the four contents of Linderae Reflexae Radix determined by the external standard method and QAMS (RSD <3%). The contents of four analytes (pinosylvin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, and Reflexanbene I) in Linderae Reflexae Radix were determined by the single marker of pinosylvin. This fingerprint was the spectra determined by Shimadzu LC-20AT and Waters e2695 HPLC that were equipped with three different columns.

  14. A simple optical fiber device for quantitative fluorescence microscopy of single living cells

    OpenAIRE

    van Graft, M.; van Graft, Marja; Oosterhuis, B.; Oosterhuis, Bernard; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    simple and relatively inexpensive system is described for obtaining quantitative fluorescence measurements on single living cells loaded with a fluorescent probe to study cell physiological processes. The light emitted from the fluorescent cells is captured by and transported through an optical fiber. After passage through appropriate filters the light is measured using a photomultiplier tube. The optical fiber is mounted in one of the microscope outlets. Signals derived from the photomultipl...

  15. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing: a method for simultaneously monitoring numerous known allelic variants in single DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duborjal Hervé

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and especially viruses, are highly variable even within an individual host, intensifying the difficulty of distinguishing and accurately quantifying numerous allelic variants co-existing in a single nucleic acid sample. The majority of currently available techniques are based on real-time PCR or primer extension and often require multiplexing adjustments that impose a practical limitation of the number of alleles that can be monitored simultaneously at a single locus. Results Here, we describe a novel method that allows the simultaneous quantification of numerous allelic variants in a single reaction tube and without multiplexing. Quantitative Single-letter Sequencing (QSS begins with a single PCR amplification step using a pair of primers flanking the polymorphic region of interest. Next, PCR products are submitted to single-letter sequencing with a fluorescently-labelled primer located upstream of the polymorphic region. The resulting monochromatic electropherogram shows numerous specific diagnostic peaks, attributable to specific variants, signifying their presence/absence in the DNA sample. Moreover, peak fluorescence can be quantified and used to estimate the frequency of the corresponding variant in the DNA population. Using engineered allelic markers in the genome of Cauliflower mosaic virus, we reliably monitored six different viral genotypes in DNA extracted from infected plants. Evaluation of the intrinsic variance of this method, as applied to both artificial plasmid DNA mixes and viral genome populations, demonstrates that QSS is a robust and reliable method of detection and quantification for variants with a relative frequency of between 0.05 and 1. Conclusion This simple method is easily transferable to many other biological systems and questions, including those involving high throughput analysis, and can be performed in any laboratory since it does not require specialized

  16. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  17. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  18. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R.; Zan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  19. The potential for quantitative sociological research on residential energy consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2013-01-01

    sociological analysis into energy consumption, enabling researchers in Denmark to use information on energy consumption derived from the energy-supply companies. Furthermore, I present a preliminary research design that employs both a quantitative sociological perspective and the newly available data on actual...... energy consumption. The research design contains a descriptive analysis of how energy demand differs between different types of households. In my conclusion, I claim that quantitative sociological research on energy consumption has great potential for obtaining more knowledge on energy consumption......In this paper, I begin with a description of how a sociological perspective can be employed to understand energy consumption while taking into account that energy consumption is embedded in everyday social practices. Next, I describe how newly available data enhances the potential of quantitative...

  20. [A new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yang, Shi-Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to establish a new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS), using Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as the research object. Establishing relative correction factors with reference chlorogenic acid to other 11 active components (neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, cafferic acid, forsythoside A, scutellarin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin and phillyrin wogonoside) in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid by 3 correction methods (multipoint correction, slope correction and quantitative factor correction). At the same time chromatographic peak was positioned by linear regression method. Only one standard uas used to determine the content of 12 components in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, in stead of needing too many reference substance in quality control. The results showed that within the linear ranges, no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of 12 active constituents in 3 batches of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid determined by 3 correction methods and external standard method (ESM) or standard curve method (SCM). And this method is simpler and quicker than literature methods. The results were accurate and reliable, and had good reproducibility. While the positioning chromatographic peaks by linear regression method was more accurate than relative retention time in literature. The slope and the quantitative factor correction controlling the quality of Chinese traditional medicine is feasible and accurate.

  1. Quantitative SIMS analysis of SiGe composition with low energy O2+ beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Z.X.; Kim, K.; Lerma, J.; Corbett, A.; Sieloff, D.; Kottke, M.; Gregory, R.; Schauer, S.

    2006-01-01

    This work explored quantitative analyses of SiGe films on either Si bulk or SOI wafers with low energy SIMS by assuming a constant ratio between the secondary ion yields of Si + and Ge + inside SiGe films. SiGe samples with Ge contents ranging from 15 to 65% have been analyzed with a 1 keV O 2 + beam at normal incidence. For comparison, the samples were also analyzed with RBS and/or AES. The Ge content as measured with SIMS, based on a single SiGe/Si or SiGe/SOI standard, exhibited good agreement with the corresponding RBS and AES data. It was concluded that SIMS was capable of providing accurate characterization of the SiGe composition with the Ge content up to 65%

  2. The technique of obtaining single-energy γ-rays in calibrating energy response of detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rurong; Peng Taiping; Hu Mengchun; Li Zhongbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of transforming γ-rays from 60 Co into a series of single-energy γ-rays and stresses the technique of shielding radiation-interfere and reducing energy-dispersion. The Single-energy γ-rays of any energy in the range of 0.36-1.02 MeV may be obtained by means of this technique. (authors)

  3. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  4. Economy Controls Energy Retrofits of Danish Single-family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    A great energy saving potential is found in the 440,000 Danish single-family houses erected between 1960 and 1979, but the potential is not exploited. To utilize this potential homeowners must be motivated to conduct energy saving retrofits. This paper presents results from a survey from 2012 where...... 883 Danish single-family house owners completed a questionnaire about energy retrofit. The objective of this paper is, based on the survey results, to determine how Danish homeowners can be motivated to conduct energy retrofits. The conclusion is that the financial aspect of an energy retrofit...... about the potential improvements within these parameters is found among the homeowners and therefore there is a vital need for more information about this. A combination of this knowledge of the non-economic improvements, a sensible investment size and information and education about the current...

  5. Tau-U: A Quantitative Approach for Analysis of Single-Case Experimental Data in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime B; Cherney, Leora R

    2018-03-01

    Tau-U is a quantitative approach for analyzing single-case experimental design (SCED) data. It combines nonoverlap between phases with intervention phase trend and can correct for a baseline trend (Parker, Vannest, & Davis, 2011). We demonstrate the utility of Tau-U by comparing it with the standardized mean difference approach (Busk & Serlin, 1992) that is widely reported within the aphasia SCED literature. Repeated writing measures from 3 participants with chronic aphasia who received computer-based writing treatment are analyzed visually and quantitatively using both Tau-U and the standardized mean difference approach. Visual analysis alone was insufficient for determining an effect between the intervention and writing improvement. The standardized mean difference yielded effect sizes ranging from 4.18 to 26.72 for trained items and 1.25 to 3.20 for untrained items. Tau-U yielded significant (p data from 2 of 3 participants. Tau-U has the unique advantage of allowing for the correction of an undesirable baseline trend. Although further study is needed, Tau-U shows promise as a quantitative approach to augment visual analysis of SCED data in aphasia.

  6. Stochasticity in the enterococcal sex pheromone response revealed by quantitative analysis of transcription in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.

  7. Quantitative and Isolated Measurement of Far-Field Light Scattering by a Single Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeong; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Jinhyung; Ee, Ho-Seok; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Seo, Min-Kyo

    2017-11-01

    Light scattering by nanostructures has facilitated research on various optical phenomena and applications by interfacing the near fields and free-propagating radiation. However, direct quantitative measurement of far-field scattering by a single nanostructure on the wavelength scale or less is highly challenging. Conventional back-focal-plane imaging covers only a limited solid angle determined by the numerical aperture of the objectives and suffers from optical aberration and distortion. Here, we present a quantitative measurement of the differential far-field scattering cross section of a single nanostructure over the full hemisphere. In goniometer-based far-field scanning with a high signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 27.4 dB, weak scattering signals are efficiently isolated and detected under total-internal-reflection illumination. Systematic measurements reveal that the total and differential scattering cross sections of a Au nanorod are determined by the plasmonic Fabry-Perot resonances and the phase-matching conditions to the free-propagating radiation, respectively. We believe that our angle-resolved far-field measurement scheme provides a way to investigate and evaluate the physical properties and performance of nano-optical materials and phenomena.

  8. Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated

  9. Single- and double-charge exchange at low pion energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of pion single- and double-charge exchange reactions at incident energies of 25 to 65 MeV leading to isobaric analog states, and in the case of double-charge exchange leading to the ground state of the residual nucleus. The crucial role of the higher nuclear transparency at low pion energies for the analysis of the data in terms of single and double scattering is demonstrated. The large effects on double-charge exchange produced by the spatial correlations in nuclear wave functions are evident. The data on 1f 7/2 nuclei at 35 MeV are used to establish the general validity of a shell-model-based two-amplitude model for these transitions. Recent measurements of the energy dependence between 25 and 65 MeV of double-charge exchange cross sections at forward angles are presented and discussed. 33 refs., 19 figs

  10. The Titan haze revisted: Magnetospheric energy sorces quantitative tholin yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Mcdonald, Gene D.; Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    We present laboratory measurements of the radiation yields of complex organic solids produced from N2/CH4 gas mixtures containing 10 or 0.1% CH4. These tholins are thought to resemble organic aerosols produced in the atmospheres of Titan, Pluto, and Triton. The tholin yields are large compared to the total yield of gaseous products: nominally, 13 (C + N)/100 eV for Titan tholin and 2.1 (C + N)/100 eV for Triton tholin. High-energy magnetospheric electrons responsible for tholin production represents a class distinct from the plasma electrons considered in models of Titan's aiglow. Electrons with E greater than 20 keV provide an energy flux approximately 1 x 10(exp -2) erg/cm/sec, implying from our measured tholin yields a mass flux of 0.5 to 4.0 x 10(exp -14) g/sq cm/sec of tholin. (The corresponding thickness of the tholin sedimentary column accumulated over 4 Gyr on Titan's surface is 4 to 30 m). This figure is in agreement with required mass fluxes computed from recent radiative transfer and sedimentation models. If, however, theses results, derived from experiments at approximately 2 mb, are applied to lower pressure levels toward peak auroral electron energy deposition and scaled with pressure as the gas-phase organic yields, the derived tholin mass flux is at least an order of magnitude less. We attrribute this difference to the fact that tholin synthesis occurs well below the level of maximum electron energy depositon and to possible contributions to tholis from UV-derived C2-hydrocarbons. We conclude that Tita tholin, produced by magnetospheric electrons, is alone sufficient to supply at least a significant fraction of Titan's haze-a result consistent with the fact that the optical properties of Titan tholin, among all proposed material, are best at reproducing Titan's geometric albedo spectrum from near UV to mid-IR in light-scattering models.

  11. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  12. Quantitative X-ray dark-field and phase tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-21

    X-ray dark-field contrast tomography can provide important supplementary information inside a sample to the conventional absorption tomography. Recently, the X-ray speckle based technique has been proposed to provide qualitative two-dimensional dark-field imaging with a simple experimental arrangement. In this letter, we deduce a relationship between the second moment of scattering angle distribution and cross-correlation degradation of speckle and establish a quantitative basis of X-ray dark-field tomography using single directional speckle scanning technique. In addition, the phase contrast images can be simultaneously retrieved permitting tomographic reconstruction, which yields enhanced contrast in weakly absorbing materials. Such complementary tomography technique can allow systematic investigation of complex samples containing both soft and hard materials.

  13. Quantitative study of bundle size effect on thermal conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Inoue, Taiki; An, Hua; Xiang, Rong; Chiashi, Shohei; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    Compared with isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), thermal conductivity is greatly impeded in SWNT bundles; however, the measurement of the bundle size effect is difficult. In this study, the number of SWNTs in a bundle was determined based on the transferred horizontally aligned SWNTs on a suspended micro-thermometer to quantitatively study the effect of the bundle size on thermal conductivity. Increasing the bundle size significantly degraded the thermal conductivity. For isolated SWNTs, thermal conductivity was approximately 5000 ± 1000 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature, three times larger than that of the four-SWNT bundle. The logarithmical deterioration of thermal conductivity resulting from the increased bundle size can be attributed to the increased scattering rate with neighboring SWNTs based on the kinetic theory.

  14. Quantitative analysis of swelling on annealing of hydrogen ion implanted diamond single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Local swelling observed upon high-temperature annealing of natural diamond single crystals implanted by 350-keV hydrogen ions with a dose of 12 10 16 cm 2 is studied. Based on room-temperature measurements, Griffith cracking criterion in combination with gas law, model quantitative calculations of the swelling size and the amount of hydrogen molecules in a swelling have been carried out for the first time. At room temperature, T 1 293 K, the amount of local elastic stresses in the upper layer of the diamond is counterbalanced by inner hydrogen pressure. Behavior of the gas bubbles with the annealing temperature increase up to 1693 K and repeated annealing at a temperature of 1743 K has been calculated [ru

  15. Quantitative radiocardiography by single-probe counting using sup(99m)technetium albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man in 't Veld, A.J.; Wenting, G.J.; Verhoeven, R.P.; Schalekamp, M.A.D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative radiocardiography with sup(99m)Technetium albumin, using a single probe for percordial counting of radioactivity is a non-invasive technique to measure cardiac output. sup(99m)Technetium pertechnetate is bound to albumin by electrolytic complexation. Preparations of sup(99m)Technetium albumin showed small percentages of free radioactivity. In-vivo stability of the complex was confirmed by comparison with distribution volumes of 131 Iodine albumin and sup(113m)Indium transferrin. The isotope dilution cardiac output technique was validated by comparison with a classical indocyanine green dilution method. Results obtained by peripheral intravenous injection of the isotope were not different from those after intracardiac injection. Exact localization of the collimator over the heart was not critical. Duplicate measurements showed good reproducibility. Examples of serial measurements in patients with hyperthyroidism, primary aldosteronism and essential hypertinsion are given. The method is reliable, accurate and safe and causes no discomfort to the patient. (C.F.)

  16. Highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging in single dendritic spines using improved non-radiative YFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hideji; Lee, Seok-Jin; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPFLIM) enables the quantitative measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in small subcellular compartments in light scattering tissue. We evaluated and optimized the FRET pair of mEGFP (monomeric EGFP with the A206K mutation) and REACh (non-radiative YFP variants) for TPFLIM. We characterized several mutants of REACh in terms of their "darkness," and their ability to act as a FRET acceptor for mEGFP in HeLa cells and hippocampal neurons. Since the commonly used monomeric mutation A206K increases the brightness of REACh, we introduced a different monomeric mutation (F223R) which does not affect the brightness. Also, we found that the folding efficiency of original REACh, as measured by the fluorescence lifetime of a mEGFP-REACh tandem dimer, was low and variable from cell to cell. Introducing two folding mutations (F46L, Q69M) into REACh increased the folding efficiency by approximately 50%, and reduced the variability of FRET signal. Pairing mEGFP with the new REACh (super-REACh, or sREACh) improved the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the mEGFP-mRFP or mEGFP-original REACh pair by approximately 50%. Using this new pair, we demonstrated that the fraction of actin monomers in filamentous and globular forms in single dendritic spines can be quantitatively measured with high sensitivity. Thus, the mEGFP-sREACh pair is suited for quantitative FRET measurement by TPFLIM, and enables us to measure protein-protein interactions in individual dendritic spines in brain slices with high sensitivity.

  17. Understanding metal homeostasis in primary cultured neurons. Studies using single neuron subcellular and quantitative metallomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Robert A; Lai, Barry; Holmes, William R; Lee, Daewoo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how single cell quantitative and subcellular metallomics inform us about both the spatial distribution and cellular mechanisms of metal buffering and homeostasis in primary cultured neurons from embryonic rat brain, which are often used as models of human disease involving metal dyshomeostasis. The present studies utilized synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and focused primarily on zinc and iron, two abundant metals in neurons that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Total single cell contents for calcium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and nickel were determined. Resting steady state zinc showed a diffuse distribution in both soma and processes, best defined by the mass profile of the neuron with an enrichment in the nucleus compared with the cytoplasm. Zinc buffering and homeostasis was studied using two modes of cellular zinc loading - transporter and ionophore (pyrithione) mediated. Single neuron zinc contents were shown to statistically significantly increase by either loading method - ionophore: 160 million to 7 billion; transporter 160 million to 280 million atoms per neuronal soma. The newly acquired and buffered zinc still showed a diffuse distribution. Soma and processes have about equal abilities to take up zinc via transporter mediated pathways. Copper levels are distributed diffusely as well, but are relatively higher in the processes relative to zinc levels. Prior studies have observed iron puncta in certain cell types, but others have not. In the present study, iron puncta were characterized in several primary neuronal types. The results show that iron puncta could be found in all neuronal types studied and can account for up to 50% of the total steady state content of iron in neuronal soma. Although other metals can be present in iron puncta, they are predominantly iron containing and do not appear to be

  18. Micro-PIXE for the quantitative imaging of chemical elements in single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the intracellular distribution of biological relevant metals is important to understand their mechanisms of action in cells, either for physiological, toxicological or pathological processes. However, the direct detection of trace metals in single cells is a challenging task that requires sophisticated analytical developments. The aim of this seminar will be to present the recent achievements in this field using micro-PIXE analysis. The combination of micro-PIXE with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and STIM (Scanning Transmission lon Microscopy) allows the quantitative determination of trace metal content within sub-cellular compartments. The application of STlM analysis will be more specifically highlighted as it provides high spatial resolution imaging (<200 nm) and excellent mass sensitivity (<0.1 ng). Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. This combination of STIM-PIXE-RBS provides fully quantitative determination of trace element content, expressed in μg/g, which is a quite unique capability for micro-PIXE compared to other micro-analytical methods such as the electron and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence or the techniques based on mass spectrometry. Examples of micro-PIXE studies for subcellular imaging of trace elements in the various fields of interest will be presented such as metal-based toxicology, pharmacology, and neuro degeneration [1] R. Ortega, G. Devés, A. Carmona. J. R. Soc. Interface, 6, (2009) S649-S658. (author)

  19. Single/Dual-Polarized Infrared Rectenna for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zainud-Deen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Single and dual linearly-polarized receiving mode nanoantennas are designed for solar energy harvesting at 28.3 THz. The infrared rectennas are used to harvest the solar energy and converting it to electrical energy.  The proposed infrared rectenna is a thin dipole made of gold and printed on a silicon dioxide substrate. Different shapes of the dipole arms have been investigated for maximum collected energy. The two poles of the dipole have been determined in a rectangular, circular and rhombus shapes. The rectenna dipole is used to concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a small localized area at the inner tips of the gap between the dipole arms. The dimensions of the different dipole shapes are optimized for maximum near electric field intensity at a frequency of 28.3 THz. A Metal Insulator Metal (MIM diode is incorporated with the nanoantenna dipole to rectify the received energy. The receiving efficiency of the solar energy collector with integrated MIM diode has been investigated. A dual-polarized, four arms, rhombus shaped nanoantenna dipole for solar energy harvesting has been designed and optimized for 28.3 THz applications.

  20. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    . The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase......The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations...... of these houses and on defining motivation factors for the homeowners. The barriers are many and variating in influence and studies show that both professionals and homeowners are affected. The barriers range from lack of interest and knowledge to uncertainties about among others economy and technical solutions...

  1. The place of quantitative energy models in a prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverdet-Popiolek, N.

    2009-01-01

    Futurology above all depends on having the right mind set. Gaston Berger summarizes the prospective approach in 5 five main thrusts: prepare for the distant future, be open-minded (have a systems and multidisciplinary approach), carry out in-depth analyzes (draw out actors which are really determinant or the future, as well as established shed trends), take risks (imagine risky but flexible projects) and finally think about humanity, futurology being a technique at the service of man to help him build a desirable future. On the other hand, forecasting is based on quantified models so as to deduce 'conclusions' about the future. In the field of energy, models are used to draw up scenarios which allow, for instance, measuring medium or long term effects of energy policies on greenhouse gas emissions or global welfare. Scenarios are shaped by the model's inputs (parameters, sets of assumptions) and outputs. Resorting to a model or projecting by scenario is useful in a prospective approach as it ensures coherence for most of the variables that have been identified through systems analysis and that the mind on its own has difficulty to grasp. Interpretation of each scenario must be carried out in the light o the underlying framework of assumptions (the backdrop), developed during the prospective stage. When the horizon is far away (very long-term), the worlds imagined by the futurologist contain breaks (technological, behavioural and organizational) which are hard to integrate into the models. It is here that the main limit for the use of models in futurology is located. (author)

  2. Quantitation of postexercise lung thallium-201 uptake during single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.K.; Carry, M.M.; McGhie, I.; Pippin, J.J.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that analysis of lung thallium uptake measured during single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) yields supplementary clinical information as reported for planar imaging, quantitative analysis of lung thallium uptake following maximal exercise was performed in 40 clinically normal subjects (Group 1) and 15 angiographically normal subjects (Group 2). Lung thallium uptake was measured from anterior projection images using a ratio of heart-to-lung activities. Seventy subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group 3) determined by angiography (greater than or equal to 70% luminal stenosis) underwent thallium perfusion SPECT. Thirty-nine percent of these subjects had multivessel and 61% had single vessel CAD. Lung thallium uptake was elevated in 47 of 70 (67%) Group 3 subjects. Group 3 subjects with elevated lung thallium uptake did not differ from Group 3 subjects with normal lung thallium uptake with respect to extent or distribution of coronary artery disease, left ventricular function, or severity of myocardial ischemia as determined by exercise and redistribution thallium SPECT. Thus, the measurement of thallium lung uptake from anterior projection images obtained during SPECT frequently identifies patients with CAD, but it may not provide supplementary information regarding the extent of myocardial ischemia or ventricular dysfunction

  3. Quantitative analysis of circadian single cell oscillations in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ute; Schlichting, Julia Katharina; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-01-01

    Body temperature rhythms synchronize circadian oscillations in different tissues, depending on the degree of cellular coupling: the responsiveness to temperature is higher when single circadian oscillators are uncoupled. So far, the role of coupling in temperature responsiveness has only been studied in organotypic tissue slices of the central circadian pacemaker, because it has been assumed that peripheral target organs behave like uncoupled multicellular oscillators. Since recent studies indicate that some peripheral tissues may exhibit cellular coupling as well, we asked whether peripheral network dynamics also influence temperature responsiveness. Using a novel technique for long-term, high-resolution bioluminescence imaging of primary cultured cells, exposed to repeated temperature cycles, we were able to quantitatively measure period, phase, and amplitude of central (suprachiasmatic nuclei neuron dispersals) and peripheral (mouse ear fibroblasts) single cell oscillations in response to temperature. Employing temperature cycles of different lengths, and different cell densities, we found that some circadian characteristics appear cell-autonomous, e.g. period responses, while others seem to depend on the quality/degree of cellular communication, e.g. phase relationships, robustness of the oscillation, and amplitude. Overall, our findings indicate a strong dependence on the cell's ability for intercellular communication, which is not only true for neuronal pacemakers, but, importantly, also for cells in peripheral tissues. Hence, they stress the importance of comparative studies that evaluate the degree of coupling in a given tissue, before it may be used effectively as a target for meaningful circadian manipulation.

  4. Improving quantitative dosimetry in (177)Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nijs, Robin; Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: (177)Lu SPECT images of a phantom...... technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. CONCLUSION: For quantitative (177)Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated...

  5. Methods of quantitative analysis of nuclear energy hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Caldarola, L.; Helm, F.; Jansen, P.; McGrath, P.; Weber, G.

    1975-03-01

    Risk can be defined as the sum of all possible damage types weighted with their associated cumulative probability distributions of occurrence. Risk defined in this manner is not very suitable for comparison purposes. In order to be able to synthetically express the risk by means of a single parameter, two problems must be solved: 1) For each damage type an average value must be calculated which accounts not only for the occurence probability distribution but also for the degree and importance of the damage to human society. 2) The total average value (the risk) must be calculated by weighting each average damage type with a corresponding second importance function which represents the importance and acceptability of the particular damage type to human society. Here it must be pointed out that the above mentioned problems are directly connected to the problem of 'risk acceptance', which will be as well discussed as the risk associated with the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Finally, recommendations for further research work are given in section V which are thought to be needed in order to render these methods in the near future more generally applicable and accepted than they are today. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Han, Shuang; Wang, Chao; Li, Jianping; Xu, Guobao

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented. PMID:28347092

  7. Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the global economy and population, the demand for energy is increasing sharply. The development of environmentally a benign and reliable energy supply is very important and urgent. Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs, which have a horn-shaped tip at the top of single-walled nanotube, have emerged as exceptionally promising nanomaterials due to their unique physical and chemical properties since 1999. The high purity and thermal stability, combined with microporosity and mesoporosity, high surface area, internal pore accessibility, and multiform functionalization make SWCNHs promising candidates in many applications, such as environment restoration, gas storage, catalyst support or catalyst, electrochemical biosensors, drug carrier systems, magnetic resonance analysis and so on. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of SWCNHs in energy applications, including energy conversion and storage. The commonly adopted method to access SWCNHs, their structural modifications, and their basic properties are included, and the emphasis is on their application in different devices such as fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, Li-S batteries, hydrogen storage, biofuel cells and so forth. Finally, a perspective on SWCNHs’ application in energy is presented.

  8. Third single energy market package of the EU Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    In adopting the so-called Third Single Energy Market Package on September 9, 2007, the European Commission has initiated a comprehensive reform of the single energy market. The main item of the package is the separation of generation and supply from the transmission grids and transport networks in the electricity and gas sectors (ownership unbundling), an approach favored by the Commission. On the other hand, the Commission wants to advance protection of the European market in case firms from third countries, to the extent in which they do not comply with the EU unbundling requirements, would want to assume control over an EU grid or network. The key points of the package are presented. The legal and entrepreneurial ramifications are discussed, for instance, under the aspect of protection of ownership, and concrete as well as potential concerns about ownership unbundling are voiced. (orig.)

  9. Single-Family Houses That Meet The Future Energy Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    ). Before any further tightening of the regulations are introduced, however, it is necessary to illustrate the consequences of such actions with regard to finance, building technology, indoor climate and comfort. Therefore a series of investigations and experimental projects are being launched, in order...... to examine these consequences thoroughly. The department is presently contributing to this end by participating in quite a few investigative projects, where single-family houses are designed to meet the proposed future energy demands. This paper describes the results obtained from one such project where...... the department, in co-operation with a major building entrepreneur, has developed a single-family house that shows that there are no evident problems in meeting the future energy demands....

  10. Optimized Free Energies from Bidirectional Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, David D. L.; Adib, Artur B.

    2008-05-01

    An optimized method for estimating path-ensemble averages using data from processes driven in opposite directions is presented. Based on this estimator, bidirectional expressions for reconstructing free energies and potentials of mean force from single-molecule force spectroscopy—valid for biasing potentials of arbitrary stiffness—are developed. Numerical simulations on a model potential indicate that these methods perform better than unidirectional strategies.

  11. Binding energy and single-particle energies in the 16O Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiase, J.O.; Sharma, L.K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the binding energy of 16 O together with single-particle energies in the oxygen region by folding together a Hamiltonian in the rest-frame of the nucleus with two-body correlation functions based on the Nijmegen potential. We have found that the binding energies are very sensitive to the core radius rc and that the effects of tensor correlations are non-negligible.Our calculated binding energy, E B = - 127.8 MeV with r c = 0.241 fm compares well with the experimental binding energy, E B = - 127.6 MeV

  12. The impact of white matter fiber orientation in single-acquisition quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancione, Marta; Tosetti, Michela; Donatelli, Graziella; Cosottini, Mirco; Costagli, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the impact of tissue structural orientation on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reliability, and to provide a criterion to identify voxels in which measures of magnetic susceptibility (χ) are most affected by spatial orientation effects. Four healthy volunteers underwent 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multi-echo, gradient-echo sequences were used to obtain quantitative maps of frequency shift (FS) and χ. Information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between tissue orientation and FS measures and QSM. After sorting voxels on the basis of their fractional anisotropy (FA), the variations in FS and χ values over tissue orientation were measured. Using a K-means clustering algorithm, voxels were separated into two groups depending on the variability of measures within each FA interval. The consistency of FS and QSM values, observed at low FA, was disrupted for FA > 0.6. The standard deviation of χ measured at high FA (0.0103 ppm) was nearly five times that at low FA (0.0022 ppm). This result was consistent through data across different head positions and for different brain regions considered separately, which confirmed that such behavior does not depend on structures with different bulk susceptibility oriented along particular angles. The reliability of single-orientation QSM anticorrelates with local FA. QSM provides replicable values with little variability in brain regions with FA < 0.6, but QSM should be interpreted cautiously in major and coherent fiber bundles, which are strongly affected by structural anisotropy and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantitative schemes in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence implemented in AXIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchantchane, A.; Benamar, M.A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1995-01-01

    E.D.X.R.F (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) has long been used for quantitative analysis of many types of samples including environment samples. the software package AXIL (Analysis of x-ray spectra by iterative least quares) is extensively used for the spectra analysis and the quantification of x-ray spectra. It includes several methods of quantitative schemes for evaluating element concentrations. We present the general theory behind each scheme implemented into the software package. The spectra of the performance of each of these quantitative schemes. We have also investigated their performance relative to the uncertainties in the experimental parameters and sample description

  14. Proportion quantitative analysis and etching of {110} planes on tungsten single crystal coating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Rende, E-mail: dallasbiam@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Corrosion and Protection for Aviation Material, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Tan, Chengwen; Yu, Xiaodong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Tungsten single crystal and poly crystal were treated by electrolytic etching in a 3% by weight solution of NaOH in distilled water. The method for determining the proportion of {110} planes and characteristic morphology on the coating surface after electrolytic etching were investigated using EBSD and auto-focusing microscope. Then the optimization of process parameters for electrolytic etching is achieved. In order to compare the effect of process parameters, three process parameters were selected for the tungsten single crystal electrolytic etching. Through analyzing the change of {110} planes' proportion, we found that when the coatings are etched with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min, {110} planes can be exposed in the greatest degree that can reach 61.4% on tubular surfaces. The proposed approach greatly improves the proportion of {110} planes relative to the original surface. - Highlights: • Tungsten single/poly crystals treated by electrolytic etching in solution of NaOH. • The {110} planes have the lower surface free energy than {112}. • Some {112} planes etched firstly, the {110} planes exposed at last during etching. • {110} planes exposed to the greatest extent with 1.4 amp/cm{sup 2} and 3 min.

  15. Real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of intensity equation (ssTIE) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Tian, Xiaolin; He, Xiaoliang; Song, Xiaojun; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2016-08-01

    Microscopy based on transport of intensity equation provides quantitative phase distributions which opens another perspective for cellular observations. However, it requires multi-focal image capturing while mechanical and electrical scanning limits its real time capacity in sample detections. Here, in order to break through this restriction, real time quantitative phase microscopy based on single-shot transport of the intensity equation method is proposed. A programmed phase mask is designed to realize simultaneous multi-focal image recording without any scanning; thus, phase distributions can be quantitatively retrieved in real time. It is believed the proposed method can be potentially applied in various biological and medical applications, especially for live cell imaging.

  16. A theoretical analysis of the accuracy of single-energy CT bone-mineral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, E.O.; Evans, W.D.; Owen, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    A relationship has been derived between the in vivo concentration of calcium hydroxyapatite and the in vitro concentration of K 2 HPO 4 solution in a single-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) bone-mineral determination. Under certain simplifying assumptions this relationship is linear. The gradient term has been calculated as a function of scanner effective energy using the measured variation of solvent water density with K 2 HPO 4 concentration; it ranges from 1.17 at 60 keV to 1.21 at 80 keV. The intercept term has been calculated as a function of effective energy, patient age and trabecular bone volume (TBV) by modelling the constituents of whole trabecular bone and using published normal composition data. It varies from about 15 to 25 mg cm -3 at an effective energy of 70 keV and within a TBV range of 5 to 20%. This intercept term may be used as an additive correction which improves the accuracy of single-energy QCT results without significant loss of precision. However, the method is limited by the uncertainties of tissue composition in an individual patient. (author)

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Seed Quality Characteristics in Lentil using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fedoruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed shape, color, and pattern of lentil ( Medik. subsp. are important quality traits as they determine market class and possible end uses. A recombinant inbred line population was phenotyped for seed dimensions over multiple site–years and classified according to cotyledon and seed coat color and pattern. The objectives were to determine the heritability of seed dimensions, identify genomic regions controlling these dimensions, and map seed coat and cotyledon color genes. A genetic linkage map consisting of 563 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 10 simple sequence repeats, and four seed color loci was developed for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Loci for seed coat color and pattern mapped to linkage groups 2 (, 3 (, and 6 ( while the cotyledon color locus ( mapped to linkage group 1. The broad sense heritability estimates were high for seed diameter (broad-sense heritability [] = 0.92 and seed plumpness ( = 0.94 while seed thickness ( = 0.60 and days to flowering ( = 0.45 were more moderate. There were significant seed dimension QTL on six of the seven linkage groups. The most significant QTL for diameter and plumpness was found at the cotyledon color locus (. The markers identified in this study can be used to help enrich breeding populations for desired seed quality characteristics, thereby increasing efficiency in the lentil breeding program.

  18. Quantitation in PET using isotopes emitting prompt single gammas: application to yttrium-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrand, Stephan; Jamar, Francois; Mathieu, Isabelle; De Camps, Joelle; Lonneux, Max; Pauwels, Stanislas; Sibomana, Merence; Labar, Daniel; Michel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Several yttrium-90 labelled somatostatin analogues are now available for cancer radiotherapy. After injection, a large amount of the compound is excreted via the urinary tract, while a variable part is trapped in the tumour(s), allowing the curative effect. Unfortunately, the compound may also be trapped in critical tissues such as kidney or bone marrow. As a consequence, a method for assessment of individual biodistribution and pharmacokinetics is required to predict the maximum dose that can be safely injected into patients. However, 90 Y, a pure β - particle emitter, cannot be used for quantitative imaging. Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter that allows imaging of tissue uptake using a PET camera. In addition to the positron, 86 Y also emits a multitude of prompt single γ-rays, leading to significant overestimation of uptake when using classical reconstruction methods. We propose a patient-dependent correction method based on sinogram tail fitting using an 86 Y point spread function library. When applied to abdominal phantom acquisition data, the proposed correction method significantly improved the accuracy of the quantification: the initial overestimation of background activity by 117% was reduced to 9%, while the initial error in respect of kidney uptake by 84% was reduced to 5%. In patient studies, the mean discrepancy between PET total body activity and the activity expected from urinary collections was reduced from 92% to 7%, showing the benefit of the proposed correction method. (orig.)

  19. SNPer: an R library for quantitative variant analysis on single nucleotide polymorphisms among influenza virus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unitsa Sangket

    Full Text Available Influenza virus (IFV can evolve rapidly leading to genetic drifts and shifts resulting in human and animal influenza epidemics and pandemics. The genetic shift that gave rise to the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic originated from a triple gene reassortment of avian, swine and human IFVs. More minor genetic alterations in genetic drift can lead to influenza drug resistance such as the H274Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance. Hence, a rapid tool to detect IFV mutations and the potential emergence of new virulent strains can better prepare us for seasonal influenza outbreaks as well as potential pandemics. Furthermore, identification of specific mutations by closely examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IFV sequences is essential to classify potential genetic markers associated with potentially dangerous IFV phenotypes. In this study, we developed a novel R library called "SNPer" to analyze quantitative variants in SNPs among IFV subpopulations. The computational SNPer program was applied to three different subpopulations of published IFV genomic information. SNPer queried SNPs data and grouped the SNPs into (1 universal SNPs, (2 likely common SNPs, and (3 unique SNPs. SNPer outperformed manual visualization in terms of time and labor. SNPer took only three seconds with no errors in SNP comparison events compared with 40 hours with errors using manual visualization. The SNPer tool can accelerate the capacity to capture new and potentially dangerous IFV strains to mitigate future influenza outbreaks.

  20. Optimization design of energy deposition on single expansion ramp nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shengjun; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiaoyong; Qin, Yupei; Ye, Zhifei

    2017-11-01

    Optimization design has been widely used in the aerodynamic design process of scramjets. The single expansion ramp nozzle is an important component for scramjets to produces most of thrust force. A new concept of increasing the aerodynamics of the scramjet nozzle with energy deposition is presented. The essence of the method is to create a heated region in the inner flow field of the scramjet nozzle. In the current study, the two-dimensional coupled implicit compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Menter's shear stress transport turbulence model have been applied to numerically simulate the flow fields of the single expansion ramp nozzle with and without energy deposition. The numerical results show that the proposal of energy deposition can be an effective method to increase force characteristics of the scramjet nozzle, the thrust coefficient CT increase by 6.94% and lift coefficient CN decrease by 26.89%. Further, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm coupled with the Radial Basis Function neural network surrogate model has been employed to determine optimum location and density of the energy deposition. The thrust coefficient CT and lift coefficient CN are selected as objective functions, and the sampling points are obtained numerically by using a Latin hypercube design method. The optimized thrust coefficient CT further increase by 1.94%, meanwhile, the optimized lift coefficient CN further decrease by 15.02% respectively. At the same time, the optimized performances are in good and reasonable agreement with the numerical predictions. The findings suggest that scramjet nozzle design and performance can benefit from the application of energy deposition.

  1. Single component, reversible ionic liquids for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Blasucci; Ryan Hart; Veronica Llopis Mestre; Dominique Julia Hahne; Melissa Burlager; Hillary Huttenhower; Beng Joo Reginald Thio; Pamela Pollet; Charles L. Liotta; Charles A. Eckert [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

    2010-06-15

    Single component, reversible ionic liquids have excellent potential as novel solvents for a variety of energy applications. Our energy industry is faced with many new challenges including increased energy consumption, depleting oil reserves, and increased environmental awareness. We report the use of reversible ionic liquids to solve two energy challenges: extraction of hydrocarbons from contaminated crude oil and carbon capture from power plant flue gas streams. Our reversible solvents are derived from silylated amine molecular liquids which react with carbon dioxide reversibly to form ionic liquids. Here we compare the properties of various silylated amine precursors and their corresponding ionic liquids. We show how the property changes are advantageous in the two aforementioned energy applications. In the case of hydrocarbon purification, we take advantage of the polarity switch between precursor and ionic liquid to enable separations. In carbon capture, our solvents act as dual physical and chemical capture agents for carbon dioxide. Finally, we show the potential economics of scale-up for both processes. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Tunka-Rex: energy reconstruction with a single antenna station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, R.; Bezyazeekov, P. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Fedorov, O.; Gress, O. A.; Haungs, A.; Huege, T.; Kazarina, Y.; Kleifges, M.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kostunin, D.; Krömer, O.; Kungel, V.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monkhoev, R.; Osipova, E. A.; Pakhorukov, A.; Pankov, L.; Prosin, V. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Schröder, F. G.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Tunka-Radio extension (Tunka-Rex) is a radio detector for air showers in Siberia. From 2012 to 2014, Tunka-Rex operated exclusively together with its host experiment, the air-Cherenkov array Tunka-133, which provided trigger, data acquisition, and an independent air-shower reconstruction. It was shown that the air-shower energy can be reconstructed by Tunka-Rex with a precision of 15% for events with signal in at least 3 antennas, using the radio amplitude at a distance of 120 m from the shower axis as an energy estimator. Using the reconstruction from the host experiment Tunka-133 for the air-shower geometry (shower core and direction), the energy estimator can in principle already be obtained with measurements from a single antenna, close to the reference distance. We present a method for event selection and energy reconstruction, requiring only one antenna, and achieving a precision of about 20%. This method increases the effective detector area and lowers thresholds for zenith angle and energy, resulting in three times more events than in the standard reconstruction.

  3. Incorporation of causative quantitative trait nucleotides in single-step GBLUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, Breno O; Lourenco, Daniela A L; Masuda, Yutaka; Legarra, Andres; Misztal, Ignacy

    2017-07-26

    Much effort is put into identifying causative quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) in animal breeding, empowered by the availability of dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information. Genomic selection using traditional SNP information is easily implemented for any number of genotyped individuals using single-step genomic best linear unbiased predictor (ssGBLUP) with the algorithm for proven and young (APY). Our aim was to investigate whether ssGBLUP is useful for genomic prediction when some or all QTN are known. Simulations included 180,000 animals across 11 generations. Phenotypes were available for all animals in generations 6 to 10. Genotypes for 60,000 SNPs across 10 chromosomes were available for 29,000 individuals. The genetic variance was fully accounted for by 100 or 1000 biallelic QTN. Raw genomic relationship matrices (GRM) were computed from (a) unweighted SNPs, (b) unweighted SNPs and causative QTN, (c) SNPs and causative QTN weighted with results obtained with genome-wide association studies, (d) unweighted SNPs and causative QTN with simulated weights, (e) only unweighted causative QTN, (f-h) as in (b-d) but using only the top 10% causative QTN, and (i) using only causative QTN with simulated weight. Predictions were computed by pedigree-based BLUP (PBLUP) and ssGBLUP. Raw GRM were blended with 1 or 5% of the numerator relationship matrix, or 1% of the identity matrix. Inverses of GRM were obtained directly or with APY. Accuracy of breeding values for 5000 genotyped animals in the last generation with PBLUP was 0.32, and for ssGBLUP it increased to 0.49 with an unweighted GRM, 0.53 after adding unweighted QTN, 0.63 when QTN weights were estimated, and 0.89 when QTN weights were based on true effects known from the simulation. When the GRM was constructed from causative QTN only, accuracy was 0.95 and 0.99 with blending at 5 and 1%, respectively. Accuracies simulating 1000 QTN were generally lower, with a similar trend. Accuracies using the

  4. Image quality comparison between single energy and dual energy CT protocols for hepatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Pelc, Norbert J.; Ng, Joshua M.; Megibow, Alec J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enables volumetric scans in a single breath hold and is clinically useful for hepatic imaging. For simple tasks, conventional single energy (SE) computed tomography (CT) images acquired at the optimal tube potential are known to have better quality than dual energy (DE) blended images. However, liver imaging is complex and often requires imaging of both structures containing iodinated contrast media, where atomic number differences are the primary contrast mechanism, and other structures, where density differences are the primary contrast mechanism. Hence it is conceivable that the broad spectrum used in a dual energy acquisition may be an advantage. In this work we are interested in comparing these two imaging strategies at equal-dose and more complex settings. Methods: We developed numerical anthropomorphic phantoms to mimic realistic clinical CT scans for medium size and large size patients. MDCT images based on the defined phantoms were simulated using various SE and DE protocols at pre- and post-contrast stages. For SE CT, images from 60 kVp through 140 with 10 kVp steps were considered; for DE CT, both 80/140 and 100/140 kVp scans were simulated and linearly blended at the optimal weights. To make a fair comparison, the mAs of each scan was adjusted to match the reference radiation dose (120 kVp, 200 mAs for medium size patients and 140 kVp, 400 mAs for large size patients). Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of liver against other soft tissues was used to evaluate and compare the SE and DE protocols, and multiple pre- and post-contrasted liver-tissue pairs were used to define a composite CNR. To help validate the simulation results, we conducted a small clinical study. Eighty-five 120 kVp images and 81 blended 80/140 kVp images were collected and compared through both quantitative image quality analysis and an observer study. Results: In the simulation study, we found that the CNR of pre-contrast SE image mostly

  5. Collective and single-particle states at high excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, A.M.; Van der Molen, H.K.T.; Harakeh, M.N.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ihara, F.; Inomata, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Damping of high-lying single-particle states was investigated by the study of proton decay from high-lying states in 91 Nb, populated by the 90 Zr(α,t) reaction with E α = 180 MeV. In addition to decay to the ground state of 90 Zr, semi-direct decay was observed to the low-lying (2 + and 3 - ) phonon states, confirming the conclusion from other experiments that these phonon states play an important role in the damping process of the single-particle states. Furthermore, the population and decay of Isobaric Analogue States of 91 Zr, which are located at an excitation energy of about 10 - 12 MeV in 91 Nb, has been studied in the same reaction. (author)

  6. Energy expenditure during a single-handed transatlantic yacht race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S D; Leamon, S M; Nevola, V R; Llewellyn, M G L

    2008-04-01

    The popularity of sports that expose people to consecutive days of high-intensity physical activity continues to increase. The ability to adequately nourish the human body to sustain the required level of competitive performance may be a key contributor to success in such events. The energy expenditure of a male competitor in a single-handed, transatlantic race (Transat 2004) was assessed using the doubly-labelled water technique. Mean total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) during the race (13 days) was 14.5 MJ/day with a peak expenditure of 18.6 MJ during the most physically demanding 24-hour period. This mean TDEE was approximately 25% lower than that reported in a previous study (14.5 vs. 19.3 MJ/day) for a 13-day leg of a fully crewed offshore race. The difference in results was probably due to the fact that in the previous study, the crew operated in "watches" (work shifts), affording each crew member greater opportunity to eat, rest and sleep. Effective planning and efficient management of resources is essential to the success of the solo sailor. However, the extent to which maintenance of energy balance underpins competitive success remains to be established. To maintain energy balance during the race, a mean daily energy intake of 14.5 MJ/day was necessary for the subject in this study. However, this mean value for energy intake would have been inadequate to match the peak energy expended during the most physically demanding 24 hours of the race.

  7. Soft matter interactions at the molecular scale: interaction forces and energies between single hydrophobic model peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Philipp; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2017-02-08

    In all realms of soft matter research a fundamental understanding of the structure/property relationships based on molecular interactions is crucial for developing a framework for the targeted design of soft materials. However, a molecular picture is often difficult to ascertain and yet essential for understanding the many different competing interactions at play, including entropies and cooperativities, hydration effects, and the enormous design space of soft matter. Here, we characterized for the first time the interaction between single hydrophobic molecules quantitatively using atomic force microscopy, and demonstrated that single molecular hydrophobic interaction free energies are dominated by the area of the smallest interacting hydrophobe. The interaction free energy amounts to 3-4 kT per hydrophobic unit. Also, we find that the transition state of the hydrophobic interactions is located at 3 Å with respect to the ground state, based on Bell-Evans theory. Our results provide a new path for understanding the nature of hydrophobic interactions at the single molecular scale. Our approach enables us to systematically vary hydrophobic and any other interaction type by utilizing peptide chemistry providing a strategic advancement to unravel molecular surface and soft matter interactions at the single molecular scale.

  8. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    After having identified a large potential for profitable energy renovation of the existing building stock, a demonstration project was carried out in practice. This paper deals with the methods and results from the demonstration project concerning a 161 m² poorly insulated single-family house built...... saving improvements carried out in the project are “easy to carry out” and cost-beneficial measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, insulation of walls under windows and a new second window-frame with energy-saving glass. The work was carried out by professional contractors at a total......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....

  9. Virtual substitution scan via single-step free energy perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ying-Chih; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-05

    With the rapid expansion of our computing power, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to microseconds or even milliseconds have become increasingly common. The majority of these long trajectories are obtained from plain (vanilla) MD simulations, where no enhanced sampling or free energy calculation method is employed. To promote the 'recycling' of these trajectories, we developed the Virtual Substitution Scan (VSS) toolkit as a plugin of the open-source visualization and analysis software VMD. Based on the single-step free energy perturbation (sFEP) method, VSS enables the user to post-process a vanilla MD trajectory for a fast free energy scan of substituting aryl hydrogens by small functional groups. Dihedrals of the functional groups are sampled explicitly in VSS, which improves the performance of the calculation and is found particularly important for certain groups. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we employ VSS to compute the solvation free energy change upon substituting the hydrogen of a benzene molecule by 12 small functional groups frequently considered in lead optimization. Additionally, VSS is used to compute the relative binding free energy of four selected ligands of the T4 lysozyme. Overall, the computational cost of VSS is only a fraction of the corresponding multi-step FEP (mFEP) calculation, while its results agree reasonably well with those of mFEP, indicating that VSS offers a promising tool for rapid free energy scan of small functional group substitutions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Single Case Method in Psychology: How to Improve as a Possible Methodology in Quantitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Kjær, Elisa; Nedergaard, Jensine I

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of including Single-Case Method (SCM), as a possible methodology in quantitative research in the field of psychology, has been argued as useful, e.g., by Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Their article introduces a historical and conceptual analysis of SCMs and proposes changing the, often prevailing, tendency of neglecting SCM as an alternative to Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST). This article contributes by putting a new light on SCM as an equally important methodology in psychology. The intention of the present article is to elaborate this point of view further by discussing one of the most fundamental requirements as well as main characteristics of SCM regarding temporality. In this respect that; "…performance is assessed continuously over time and under different conditions…" Hurtado-Parrado and López-López (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49:2, 2015). Defining principles when it comes to particular units of analysis, both synchronic (spatial) and diachronic (temporal) elements should be incorporated. In this article misunderstandings of the SCM will be adduced, and further the temporality will be described in order to propose how the SCM could have a more severe usability in psychological research. It is further discussed how to implement SCM in psychological methodology. It is suggested that one solution might be to reconsider the notion of time in psychological research to cover more than a variable of control and in this respect also include the notion of time as an irreversible unity within life.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  12. A neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis method for the detection and semi-quantitation of DNA single-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand breaks are among the most prevalent lesions found in DNA. Traditional electrophoretic methods (e.g., the Comet assay) used for investigating these lesions rely on alkaline conditions to denature DNA prior to electrophoresis. However, the presence of alkali-labile sites in DNA can result in the introduction of additional single-strand breaks upon alkali treatment during DNA sample processing. Herein, we describe a neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis assay which is based on alkali-free DNA denaturation and is suitable for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of single-strand breaks in DNA isolated from different organisms.

  13. Developments in dual-energy, single-exposure chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Jungtsuoe.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional chest radiography (CCR), the most commonly performed technique for the diagnosis of lung cancer, does not detect a high percentage of these tumors. One reason for errors is the overlap of tumor image with bone image in a chest radiograph. Dual-energy (DE) radiography has been suggested as the most effective method to eliminate bone contrast for better lung tumor visualization. DE radiography also provides a bone image from which benign nodules can be identified by the presence of nodule calcification. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a film-screen based DE, single exposure technique in lung nodule detection and to improve its performance by both hardware (HD) and software developments (SD) to increase the accuracy of lung cancer diagnosis. Previous implementation of the technique resulted in small residual tissue contrast and incomplete tissue subtraction due to screen selection and x-ray beam hardening, respectively. HD, including uses of a new screen pair (Y 2 O 2 S/CaWO 4 ) and a K-edge filter (europium), were studied to improve residual tissue contrast by increasing the energy separation. Successful SD included a three-dimensional interpolation algorithm and noise suppression methods to achieve complete tissue subtraction and noise reduction, respectively. The results show that the new screen pair performed better than LaOBr/CaWo 4 ; the use of K-edge filter produced more residual tissue contrast than that obtained without it. Even though the dual exposure technique performed better than the single exposure technique in a simulated lung nodule detection study, the difference between the two techniques was statistically insignificant and they both performed better than CCR. Based on these encouraging results, the author concludes that the film-screen based DE, single exposure technique, with the HD and SD holds promise for further clinical study

  14. Energy and temperature fluctuations in the single electron box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Tineke L van den; Brange, Fredrik; Samuelsson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In mesoscopic and nanoscale systems at low temperatures, charge carriers are typically not in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding lattice. The resulting, non-equilibrium dynamics of electrons has only begun to be explored. Experimentally the time-dependence of the electron temperature (deviating from the lattice temperature) has been investigated in small metallic islands. Motivated by these experiments, we investigate theoretically the electronic energy and temperature fluctuations in a metallic island in the Coulomb blockade regime, tunnel coupled to an electronic reservoir, i.e. a single electron box. We show that electronic quantum tunnelling between the island and the reservoir, in the absence of any net charge or energy transport, induces fluctuations of the island electron temperature. The full distribution of the energy transfer as well as the island temperature is derived within the framework of full counting statistics. In particular, the low-frequency temperature fluctuations are analysed, fully accounting for charging effects and non-zero reservoir temperature. The experimental requirements for measuring the predicted temperature fluctuations are discussed. (paper)

  15. Experimental parameters for quantitative surface analysis by medium energy ion scattering, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Kersten, H.H.; Colenbrander, B.G.; Jongh, A.P. de; Saris, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A new UHV chamber for surface and surface layer analysis by collision spectroscopy of backscattered ions at medium energies is described. Experimental parameters like energy, angular and depth resolution, crystal alignment and background pressure are discussed. Formulae based on the use of an electrostatic energy analyser show that the analysis can be quantitative. Effects of beam induced build-up of a hydro-carbon layer, sputter cleaning and creation of radiation damage have been investigated for Cu (110) and Ni (110). Detection sensitivity for Carbon, Oxygen and Sulfur on Cu and Ni has been found to be 0.2, 0.1 and 0.03 of a monolayer respectively

  16. New results for single stage low energy carbon AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klody, G.M.; Schroeder, J.B.; Norton, G.A.; Loger, R.L.; Kitchen, R.L.; Sundquist, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    A new configuration of the NEC single stage, low energy carbon AMS system (U.S. Patent 6,815,666 B2) has been built and tested. The injector includes two 40-sample ion sources, electrostatic and magnetic analysis, and fast sequential injection. The gas stripper, analyzing magnet, electrostatic analyzer, and detector are on an open air 250 kV deck. Both 12 C and 13 C currents are measured on the deck after the stripper, and an SSB detector is used for 14 C counting. Injected 12 C and mass 13 ( 13 C and 12 CH) currents are also measured. Automated controls follow a user-specified run list for unattended operation. Initial test results show precision for 14 C/ 12 C ratios of better than 5 per mil, and backgrounds for unprocessed graphite of less than 0.005 x modern. We will report final results for precision, background, and throughput and discuss related design features

  17. Quantitative analysis of the energy distributions of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tőkési, K.; Varga, D.; Berényi, Z.

    2015-01-01

    We present results of theoretical and experimental studies of the spectra of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene in the primary energy range between 1 and 5 keV. The experiments were performed using a high energy resolution electron spectroscopy. The theoretical interpretation is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects. The separation between the carbon and hydrogen peak in the energy distributions is shown as a function of the primary electron energy. The simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings. We also present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of a single scattering. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with our measurements

  18. Single-Cell Quantitative PCR: Advances and Potential in Cancer Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Chi Young; Singh, Rajesh R; Salim, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    Tissues are heterogeneous in their components. If cells of interest are a minor population of collected tissue, it would be difficult to obtain genetic or genomic information of the interested cell population with conventional genomic DNA extraction from the collected tissue. Single-cell DNA analysis is important in the analysis of genetics of cell clonality, genetic anticipation, and single-cell DNA polymorphisms. Single-cell PCR using Single Cell Ampligrid/GeXP platform is described in this chapter.

  19. Comparison of PZN-PT, PMN-PT single crystals and PZT ceramic for vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Systematic analysis of PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals for energy harvesters. • Performance analysis and comparison under various conditions. • Discussion of the effect of the SSHI technique on single crystal energy harvesters. • Efficiency analysis in both on-resonance and off-resonance conditions. - Abstract: Vibration energy harvesting has a great potential to achieve self-powered operations for wireless sensors, wearable devices and medical electronics, and thus has attracted much attention in academia and industry. The majority of research into this subject has focused on the piezoelectric effect of synthetic materials, especially the perovskite PZT ceramics. Recently the new-generation piezoelectric materials PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals have gained significant interest because of their outstanding piezoelectric properties. They can be used to replace the widely-adopted PZT ceramics for improving energy harvesters’ performance substantially. However, there is little research on comparing PMN-PT and PZN-PT energy harvesters against PZT harvesters. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison between vibration energy harvesters using the PMN-PT, PZN-PT single crystals and those using the PZT ceramics. Key properties of the three materials are summarized and compared. The performance of the PMN-PT and PZN-PT energy harvesters is characterized under different conditions (beam length, resistance, frequency, excitation strength, and backward coupling effect), and is quantitatively compared with the PZT counterpart. Furthermore, the effect of the synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) circuit on the three harvesters is discussed. The experimental results indicate that energy harvesters using the PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals can significantly outperform those using the PZT ceramics. This study provides a strong base for future research on high-performance energy harvesters using the new PMN-PT and PZN-PT single

  20. Synthetic CT: Simulating low dose single and dual energy protocols from a dual energy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The choice of CT protocol can greatly impact patient dose and image quality. Since acquiring multiple scans at different techniques on a given patient is undesirable, the ability to predict image quality changes starting from a high quality exam can be quite useful. While existing methods allow one to generate simulated images of lower exposure (mAs) from an acquired CT exam, the authors present and validate a new method called synthetic CT that can generate realistic images of a patient at arbitrary low dose protocols (kVp, mAs, and filtration) for both single and dual energy scans. Methods: The synthetic CT algorithm is derived by carefully ensuring that the expected signal and noise are accurate for the simulated protocol. The method relies on the observation that the material decomposition from a dual energy CT scan allows the transmission of an arbitrary spectrum to be predicted. It requires an initial dual energy scan of the patient to either synthesize raw projections of a single energy scan or synthesize the material decompositions of a dual energy scan. The initial dual energy scan contributes inherent noise to the synthesized projections that must be accounted for before adding more noise to simulate low dose protocols. Therefore, synthetic CT is subject to the constraint that the synthesized data have noise greater than the inherent noise. The authors experimentally validated the synthetic CT algorithm across a range of protocols using a dual energy scan of an acrylic phantom with solutions of different iodine concentrations. An initial 80/140 kVp dual energy scan of the phantom provided the material decomposition necessary to synthesize images at 100 kVp and at 120 kVp, across a range of mAs values. They compared these synthesized single energy scans of the phantom to actual scans at the same protocols. Furthermore, material decompositions of a 100/120 kVp dual energy scan are synthesized by adding correlated noise to the initial material

  1. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-07-13

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference.

  2. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5-8 cm and a %FGV of 0%-100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a ±2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%/mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts.

  3. Quantitative analysis of screw dislocations in 6H-SiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, M.; Si, W.; Wang, S.

    1997-01-01

    Screw dislocations along the [0001[ axis in 6H-SiC single crystals have been studied extensively by Synchrotron White-Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Nomarski Optical Microscopy (NOM). Using SWBXT, the magnitude of the Burgers vector of screw dislocations has been determined by measuring the following four parameters: 1) the diameter of dislocation images in back-reflection topographs; 2) the width of bimodal dislocation images in transmission topographs; 3) the magnitude of the tilt of lattice planes on both sides of dislocation core in projection topographs; and 4) the magnitude of the tilt of lattice planes in section topographs. The four methods show good agreement. SEM results reveal that micropipes in the form of hollow tubes run through the crystal emerging as holes on the as-grown surface, with their diameters ranging from about 0.1 to a few micrometers. Correlation between topographic images and SEM micrographs shows that micropipes are screw dislocations with Burgers vector magnitudes from 2c to 7c (c is the lattice constant along the [0001[ axis). There is no empirical evidence that 1c dislocations have hollow cores. The Burgers vector magnitude of screw dislocations, b, and the diameter of associated micropipes, D, were fitted to Frank's prediction for hollow-core screw dislocations: D = μb 2 / 4π 2 γ, where μ is the shear modulus and γ is the specific surface energy. Statistical analysis of the relationship between D and b 2 shows that it is approximately linear, and the constant, γ / μ ranges from 1.1 x 10 -3 to 1.6 x 10 -3 nm

  4. Dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Precision of the mineral density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Bochu, M.

    1989-01-01

    The improvement that could be obtained in quantitative bone mineral measurements by dual energy computed tomography was tested in vitro. From the results of 15 mineral density measurements (in mg Ca/cm 3 , done on a precise lumbar spine phantom (Hologic) and referred to the values obtained on the same slices on a Siemens Osteo-CT phantom, the precision found was 0.8%, six times better than the precision calculated from the uncorrected measured values [fr

  5. Agreement and precision of periprosthetic bone density measurements in micro-CT, single and dual energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussmann, Bo; Overgaard, Søren; Torfing, Trine; Traise, Peter; Gerke, Oke; Andersen, Poul Erik

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement between bone mineral density measurements performed in micro CT, single and dual energy computed tomography, to determine how the keV level influences density measurements and to assess the usefulness of quantitative dual energy computed tomography as a research tool for longitudinal studies aiming to measure bone loss adjacent to total hip replacements. Samples from 10 fresh-frozen porcine femoral heads were placed in a Perspex phantom and computed tomography was performed with two acquisition modes. Bone mineral density was calculated and compared with measurements derived from micro CT. Repeated scans and dual measurements were performed in order to measure between- and within-scan precision. Mean density difference between micro CT and single energy computed tomography was 72 mg HA/cm 3 . For dual energy CT, the mean difference at 100 keV was 128 mg HA/cm 3 while the mean difference at 110-140 keV ranged from -84 to -67 mg HA/cm 3 compared with micro CT. Rescanning the samples resulted in a non-significant overall between-scan difference of 13 mg HA/cm 3 . Bland-Altman limits of agreement were wide and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.29 to 0.72, while 95% confidence intervals covered almost the full possible range. Repeating the density measurements for within-scan precision resulted in ICCs >0.99 and narrow limits of agreement. Single and dual energy quantitative CT showed excellent within-scan precision, but poor between-scan precision. No significant density differences were found in dual energy quantitative CT at keV-levels above 110 keV. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1470-1477, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adhesion energy of single wall carbon nanotube loops on various substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjun [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, ENS de Lyon, CNRS-46, Allée d' Italie, Lyon 69364 (France); Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, 508 Huancheng West Rd., Shaoxing 312000 (China); Ayari, Anthony [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Bellon, Ludovic, E-mail: ludovic.bellon@ens-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, ENS de Lyon, CNRS-46, Allée d' Italie, Lyon 69364 (France)

    2015-04-28

    The physics of adhesion of one-dimensional nano structures such as nanotubes, nano wires, and biopolymers on different substrates is of great interest for the study of biological adhesion and the development of nano electronics and nano mechanics. In this paper, we present force spectroscopy experiments of individual single wall carbon nanotube loops using a home-made interferometric atomic force microscope. Characteristic force plateaus during the peeling process allow the quantitative measurement of the adhesion energy per unit length on various substrates: graphite, mica, platinum, gold, and silicon. Moreover, using a time-frequency analysis of the deflection of the cantilever, we estimate the dynamic stiffness of the contact, providing more information on the nanotube configurations and its intrinsic mechanical properties.

  7. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  8. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  9. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  10. Quantitative analysis of single muscle fibre action potentials recorded at known distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, B.A.; Put, J.H.M.; Wallinga, W.; Wirtz, P.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo records of single fibre action potentials (SFAPs) have always been obtained at unknown distance from the active muscle fibre. A new experimental method has been developed enabling the derivation of the recording distance in animal experiments. A single fibre is stimulated with an

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Isolated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Their Molar Absorbance Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kuwahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molar absorbance coefficients of metallic, semiconducting, and (6,5 chirality enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated by a spray technique combined with atomic force microscopy. Single-wall carbon nanotubes with isolated and a single predominant electronic type were obtained by using the density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique. In the visible region, all coefficients had similar values around 2–5 × 109/mL mol−1 cm−1, independent of their diameter distribution and the electronic types of single-wall carbon nanotubes, and the εS22/εM11  and εS11/εM11 were estimated to be 1.0 and 4.0, respectively. The coefficient strongly depends on the length of single-wall carbon nanotubes, independent of their electronic types and chirality.

  12. Quantitative Molecular Imaging with a Single Gd-Based Contrast Agent Reveals Specific Tumor Binding and Retention in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mette L; Gao, Ying; Hutnick, Melanie A; Craig, Sonya E L; Pokorski, Jonathan K; Flask, Chris A; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M

    2017-06-06

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, especially cancer. However, the poor sensitivity of MRI relative to other imaging modalities, such as PET, has hindered the development and clinical use of molecular MRI contrast agents that could provide vital diagnostic information by specifically locating a molecular target altered in the disease process. This work describes the specific and sustained in vivo binding and retention of a protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ)-targeted, molecular magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent with a single gadolinium (Gd) chelate using a quantitative MRI T 1 mapping technique in glioma xenografts. Quantitative T 1 mapping is an imaging method used to measure the longitudinal relaxation time, the T 1 relaxation time, of protons in a magnetic field after excitation by a radiofrequency pulse. T 1 relaxation times can in turn be used to calculate the concentration of a gadolinium-containing contrast agent in a region of interest, thereby allowing the retention or clearance of an agent to be quantified. In this context, retention is a measure of molecular contrast agent binding. Using conventional peptide chemistry, a PTPμ-targeted peptide was linked to a chelator that had been conjugated to a lysine residue. Following complexation with Gd, this PTPμ-targeted molecular contrast agent containing a single Gd ion showed significant tumor enhancement and a sustained increase in Gd concentration in both heterotopic and orthotopic tumors using dynamic quantitative MRI. This single Gd-containing PTPμ agent was more effective than our previous version with three Gd ions. Differences between nonspecific and specific agents, due to specific tumor binding, can be determined within the first 30 min after agent administration by examining clearance rates. This more facile chemistry, when combined with quantitative MR techniques, allows for widespread adoption by academic

  13. Controlling energy transfer between multiple dopants within a single nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Sabatier, Clément; Kokuoz, Baris; Ballato, John

    2008-01-01

    Complex core-shell architectures are implemented within LaF3 nanoparticles to allow for a tailored degree of energy transfer (ET) between different rare earth dopants. By constraining specific dopants to individual shells, their relative distance to one another can be carefully controlled. Core-shell LaF3 nanoparticles doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ and consisting of up to four layers were synthesized with an outer diameter of ≈10 nm. It is found that by varying the thicknesses of an undoped layer between a Tb3+-doped layer and a Eu3+-doped layer, the degree of ET can be engineered to allow for zero, partial, or total ET from a donor ion to an acceptor ion. More specifically, the ratio of the intensities of the 541-nm Tb3+ and 590 nm Eu3+ peaks was tailored from core-shell configuration that restricts ET is used. Beyond simply controlling ET, which can be limiting when designing materials for optical applications, this approach can be used to obtain truly engineered spectral features from nanoparticles and composites made from them. Further, it allows for a single excitation source to yield multiple discrete emissions from numerous lanthanide dopants that heretofore would have been quenched in a more conventional active optical material. PMID:18250307

  14. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  15. Quantitative studies with the gamma-camera: correction for spatial and energy distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Raynaud, C.

    1977-01-01

    The gamma camera sensitivity distribution is an important source of error in quantitative studies. In addition, spatial distortion produces apparent variations in count density which degrades quantitative studies. The flood field image takes into account both effects and is influenced by the pile-up of the tail distribution. It is essential to measure separately each of these parameters. These were investigated using a point source displaced by a special scanning table with two X, Y stepping motors of 10 micron precision. The spatial distribution of the sensitivity, spatial distortion and photopeak in the field of view were measured and compared for different setting-up of the camera and PM gains. For well-tuned cameras, the sensitivity is fairly constant, while the variations appearing in the flood field image are primarily due to spatial distortion, the former more dependent than the latter on the energy window setting. This indicates why conventional flood field uniformity correction must not be applied. A correction technique to improve the results in quantitative studies has been tested using a continuously matched energy window at every point within the field. A method for correcting spatial distortion is also proposed, where, after an adequately sampled measurement of this error, a transformation can be applied to calculate the true position of events. The knowledge of the magnitude of these parameters is essential in the routine use and design of detector systems

  16. Utility of Quantitative Parameters from Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Destructive Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Moon, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Oh, Tae Jung; Lee, Dong-Hwa; So, Young

    2018-01-01

    Objective Quantitative parameters from Tc-99m pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) are emerging as novel diagnostic markers for functional thyroid diseases. We intended to assess the utility of SPECT/CT parameters in patients with destructive thyroiditis. Materials and Methods Thirty-five destructive thyroiditis patients (7 males and 28 females; mean age, 47.3 ± 13.0 years) and 20 euthyroid patients (6 males and 14 females; mean age, 45.0 ± 14.8 years) who underwent Tc-99m pertechnetate quantitative SPECT/CT were retrospectively enrolled. Quantitative parameters from the SPECT/CT (%uptake, standardized uptake value [SUV], thyroid volume, and functional thyroid mass [SUVmean × thyroid volume]) and thyroid hormone levels were investigated to assess correlations and predict the prognosis for destructive thyroiditis. The occurrence of hypothyroidism was the outcome for prognosis. Results All the SPECT/CT quantitative parameters were significantly lower in the 35 destructive thyroiditis patients compared to the 20 euthyroid patients using the same SPECT/CT scanner and protocol (p thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) significantly correlated with %uptake (p = 0.004), SUVmean (p thyroid mass (p thyroiditis patients, 16 progressed to hypothyroidism. On univariate and multivariate analyses, only T3 levels were associated with the later occurrence of hypothyroidism (p = 0.002, exp(β) = 1.022, 95% confidence interval: 1.008 – 1.035). Conclusion Novel quantitative SPECT/CT parameters could discriminate patients with destructive thyroiditis from euthyroid patients, suggesting the robustness of the quantitative SPECT/CT approach. However, disease progression of destructive thyroiditis could not be predicted using the parameters, as these only correlated with TSH, but not with T3, the sole predictor of the later occurrence of hypothyroidism. PMID:29713225

  17. Comparison of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods and platforms for single cell gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bridget C; Devonshire, Alison S; Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Marshall, Damian; Foy, Carole A

    2012-08-15

    Single cell gene expression analysis can provide insights into development and disease progression by profiling individual cellular responses as opposed to reporting the global average of a population. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the "gold standard" for the quantification of gene expression levels; however, the technical performance of kits and platforms aimed at single cell analysis has not been fully defined in terms of sensitivity and assay comparability. We compared three kits using purification columns (PicoPure) or direct lysis (CellsDirect and Cells-to-CT) combined with a one- or two-step RT-qPCR approach using dilutions of cells and RNA standards to the single cell level. Single cell-level messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis was possible using all three methods, although the precision, linearity, and effect of lysis buffer and cell background differed depending on the approach used. The impact of using a microfluidic qPCR platform versus a standard instrument was investigated for potential variability introduced by preamplification of template or scaling down of the qPCR to nanoliter volumes using laser-dissected single cell samples. The two approaches were found to be comparable. These studies show that accurate gene expression analysis is achievable at the single cell level and highlight the importance of well-validated experimental procedures for low-level mRNA analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meta- and statistical analysis of single-case intervention research data: quantitative gifts and a wish list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R; Levin, Joel R

    2014-04-01

    In this commentary, we add to the spirit of the articles appearing in the special series devoted to meta- and statistical analysis of single-case intervention-design data. Following a brief discussion of historical factors leading to our initial involvement in statistical analysis of such data, we discuss: (a) the value added by including statistical-analysis recommendations in the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for single-case intervention designs; (b) the importance of visual analysis in single-case intervention research, along with the distinctive role that could be played by single-case effect-size measures; and (c) the elevated internal validity and statistical-conclusion validity afforded by the incorporation of various forms of randomization into basic single-case design structures. For the future, we envision more widespread application of quantitative analyses, as critical adjuncts to visual analysis, in both primary single-case intervention research studies and literature reviews in the behavioral, educational, and health sciences. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative analysis of thermal diffuse X-ray scattering on single crystals. Communication 2. FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najsh, V.E.; Novoselova, T.V.; Sagaradze, I.V.; Kvyatkovskij, B.E.; Fedorov, V.I.; Chernenkov, Yu.P.

    1994-01-01

    With the use of X-ray diffractometer a study was made into the intensity of diffuse scattering in Ni crystals with FCC lattice. Earlier accomplished quantitative analysis for BCC crystals was extended to FCC lattices. Comparative evaluation was made for cooperative thermal oscillation patterns and corresponding diffuse scattering in crystals of various structures. Measurements on FCC crystals were carried out at room temperature using AgK a lpha-radiation in 96 points of Ni crystal. 8 refs., 4 figs

  20. A quantitative comparison of single-cell whole genome amplification methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F A de Bourcy

    Full Text Available Single-cell sequencing is emerging as an important tool for studies of genomic heterogeneity. Whole genome amplification (WGA is a key step in single-cell sequencing workflows and a multitude of methods have been introduced. Here, we compare three state-of-the-art methods on both bulk and single-cell samples of E. coli DNA: Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA, Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC, and the PicoPLEX single-cell WGA kit (NEB-WGA. We considered the effects of reaction gain on coverage uniformity, error rates and the level of background contamination. We compared the suitability of the different WGA methods for the detection of copy-number variations, for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and for de-novo genome assembly. No single method performed best across all criteria and significant differences in characteristics were observed; the choice of which amplifier to use will depend strongly on the details of the type of question being asked in any given experiment.

  1. Ion-solid interaction at low energies: principles and application of quantitative ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehus, H.; Spitzl, R.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative surface analysis with low-energy (500-5000 eV) ion scattering spectroscopy is known to be difficult, most often because of strong charge transfer and multiple scattering effects occurring during ion-surface interaction. In order to avoid neutralization problems, either alkali primary ions or noble gas ions in combination with the detection of all scattered particles was applied. Multiple scattering occurs predominantly at forward scattering and might confound the analysis. Backward scattering (i.e. 180 o impact collision ion scattering) bypasses strongly the multiple scattering complication and has been used successfully for the analysis of a number of surface structures for metals, semiconductors and binary alloys. A simple triangulation concept gives access to mass-selective qualitative surface crystallography. Quantitative surface structures were determined by comparison with computer simulations. (author)

  2. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...

  3. Quantitative measurement of damage caused by 1064-nm wavelength optical trapping of Escherichia coli cells using on-chip single cell cultivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayano, Satoru; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Yamashita, Shinobu; Yasuda, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    We quantitatively examined the possible damage to the growth and cell division ability of Escherichia coli caused by 1064-nm optical trapping. Using the synchronous behavior of two sister E. coli cells, the growth and interdivision times between those two cells, one of which was trapped by optical tweezers, the other was not irradiated, were compared using an on-chip single cell cultivation system. Cell growth stopped during the optical trapping period, even with the smallest irradiated power on the trapped cells. Moreover, the damage to the cell's growth and interdivision period was proportional to the total irradiated energy (work) on the cell, i.e., irradiation time multiplied by irradiation power. The division ability was more easily affected by a smaller energy, 0.36 J, which was 30% smaller than the energy that adversely affected growth, 0.54 J. The results indicate that the damage caused by optical trapping can be estimated from the total energy applied to cells, and furthermore, that the use of optical trapping for manipulating cells might cause damage to cell division and growth mechanisms, even at wavelengths under 1064 nm, if the total irradiation energy is excessive

  4. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97–1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20–4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17–0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  5. Nuclear fusion as new energy option in a global single-regional energy system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eherer, C.; Baumann, M.; Dueweke, J.; Hamacher, T.

    2005-01-01

    Is there a window of opportunity for fusion on the electricity market under 'business as usual' conditions, and if not, how do the boundary conditions have to look like to open such a window? This question is addressed within a subtask of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme of the European Commission. The most advanced energy-modelling framework, the TIMES model generator developed by the Energy Technology System Analysis Project group of the IEA (ETSAP) has been used to implement a global single-regional partial equilibrium energy model. Within the current activities the potential role of fusion power in various future energy scenarios is studied. The final energy demand projections of the baseline of the investigations are based on IIASA-WEC Scenario B. Under the quite conservative baseline assumptions fusion only enters the model solution with 35 GW in 2100 and it can be observed that coal technologies dominate electricity production in 2100. Scenario variations show that the role of fusion power is strongly affected by the availability of GEN IV fission breeding technologies as energy option and by CO 2 emission caps. The former appear to be a major competitor of fusion power while the latter open a window of opportunity for fusion power on the electricity market. An interesting outcome is furthermore that the possible share of fusion electricity is more sensitive to the potential of primary resources like coal, gas and uranium, than to the share of solar and wind power in the system. This indicates that both kinds of technologies, renewables and fusion power, can coexist in future energy systems in case of CO 2 emission policies and/or resource scarcity scenarios. It is shown that Endogenous Technological Learning (ETL), a more consistent description of technological progress than mere time series, has an impact on the model results. (author)

  6. Ratios of double to single ionization of He and Ne by strong 400-nm laser pulses using the quantitative rescattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Li, Xiaojin; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Lin, C. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the ratio between double and single ionization of He and Ne by intense laser pulses at wavelengths of 390 and 400 nm, respectively. The yields of doubly charged ions due to nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) are obtained by employing the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. In this model, the NSDI ionization probability is expressed as a product of the returning electron wave packet (RWP) and the total scattering cross sections for laser-free electron impact excitation and electron impact ionization of the parent ion. According to the QRS theory, the same RWP is also responsible for the emission of high-energy above-threshold ionization photoelectrons. To obtain absolute double-ionization yields, the RWP is generated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) within a one-electron model. The same TDSE results can also be taken to obtain single-ionization yields. By using the TDSE results to calibrate single ionization and the RWP obtained from the strong-field approximation, we further simplify the calculation such that the nonuniform laser intensity distribution in the focused laser beam can be accounted for. In addition, laser-free electron impact excitation and ionization cross sections are calculated using the state-of-the-art many-electron R -matrix theory. The simulation results for double-to-single-ionization ratios are found to compare well with experimental data and support the validity of the nonsequential double-ionization mechanism for the covered intensity region.

  7. Fast and quantitative differentiation of single-base mismatched DNA by initial reaction rate of catalytic hairpin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Li, Yixin; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Yang; Yang, Xiaoda; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2014-10-15

    The widely used catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) amplification strategy generally needs several hours to accomplish one measurement based on the prevailingly used maximum intensity detection mode, making it less practical for assays where high throughput or speed is desired. To make the best use of the kinetic specificity of toehold domain for circuit reaction initiation, we developed a mathematical model and proposed an initial reaction rate detection mode to quantitatively differentiate the single-base mismatch. Using the kinetic mode, assay time can be reduced substantially to 10 min for one measurement with the comparable sensitivity and single-base mismatch differentiating ability as were obtained by the maximum intensity detection mode. This initial reaction rate based approach not only provided a fast and quantitative differentiation of single-base mismatch, but also helped in-depth understanding of the CHA system, which will be beneficial to the design of highly sensitive and specific toehold-mediated hybridization reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the publishing landscape in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, Salvatore; Dallman, David; Vigen, Jens; Yeomans, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    World-wide collaboration in high-energy physics (HEP) is a tradition which dates back several decades, with scientific publications mostly coauthored by scientists from different countries. This coauthorship phenomenon makes it difficult to identify precisely the 'share' of each country in HEP scientific production. One year's worth of HEP scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals is analysed and their authors are uniquely assigned to countries. This method allows the first correct estimation on a pro rata basis of the share of HEP scientific publishing among several countries and institutions. The results provide an interesting insight into the geographical collaborative patterns of the HEP community. The HEP publishing landscape is further analysed to provide information on the journals favoured by the HEP community and on the geographical variation of their author bases. These results provide quantitative input to the ongoing debate on the possible transition of HEP publishing to an Open Access model. Foreword. This paper reports the results of a recent detailed study of the publishing landscape in high energy physics. We thought that because of its direct relevance to the high energy physics community, this important quantitative input to the debate on the transition to Open Access naturally finds its place in our journal. Marc Henneaux, JHEP Scientific Director

  9. Single-cell quantitative HER2 measurement identifies heterogeneity and distinct subgroups within traditionally defined HER2-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsum, Matthew D; Geretti, Elena; Paragas, Violette; Kudla, Arthur J; Moulis, Sharon P; Luus, Lia; Wickham, Thomas J; McDonagh, Charlotte F; MacBeath, Gavin; Hendriks, Bart S

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for breast and gastric cancer prognosis and patient treatment decisions. HER2 positivity, as defined by IHC or fluorescent in situ hybridization testing, remains an imprecise predictor of patient response to HER2-targeted therapies. Challenges to correct HER2 assessment and patient stratification include intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of quantitative and/or objective assays, and differences between measuring HER2 amplification at the protein versus gene level. We developed a novel immunofluorescence method for quantitation of HER2 protein expression at the single-cell level on FFPE patient samples. Our assay uses automated image analysis to identify and classify tumor versus non-tumor cells, as well as quantitate the HER2 staining for each tumor cell. The HER2 staining level is converted to HER2 protein expression using a standard cell pellet array stained in parallel with the tissue sample. This approach allows assessment of HER2 expression and heterogeneity within a tissue section at the single-cell level. By using this assay, we identified distinct subgroups of HER2 heterogeneity within traditional definitions of HER2 positivity in both breast and gastric cancers. Quantitative assessment of intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity may offer an opportunity to improve the identification of patients likely to respond to HER2-targeted therapies. The broad applicability of the assay was demonstrated by measuring HER2 expression profiles on multiple tumor types, and on normal and diseased heart tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative single-vesicle analysis of antimicrobial peptide-induced leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Ehrlich, Nicky; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2013-01-01

    Although the research field of antimicrobial peptides has attracted considerable scientific attention in the past decades, the microbicidal mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides still remain elusive. One of the keys to a more profound comprehension of the function of these peptides is a deeper...... was combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to quantify leakage from a bulk collection of lipid vesicles in aqueous solution. Quantitative correlation between the two techniques was achieved through a detailed experimental protocol. The potential of combining the two techniques was tested using...

  11. Constrained energy minimization applied to apparent reflectance and single-scattering albedo spectra: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmini, Ronald G.; Graver, William R.; Kappus, Mary E.; Anderson, Mark E.

    1996-11-01

    Constrained energy minimization (CEM) has been applied to the mapping of the quantitative areal distribution of the mineral alunite in an approximately 1.8 km2 area of the Cuprite mining district, Nevada. CEM is a powerful technique for rapid quantitative mineral mapping which requires only the spectrum of the mineral to be mapped. A priori knowledge of background spectral signatures is not required. Our investigation applies CEM to calibrated radiance data converted to apparent reflectance (AR) and to single scattering albedo (SSA) spectra. The radiance data were acquired by the 210 channel, 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers airborne Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment sensor. CEM applied to AR spectra assumes linear mixing of the spectra of the materials exposed at the surface. This assumption is likely invalid as surface materials, which are often mixtures of particulates of different substances, are more properly modeled as intimate mixtures and thus spectral mixing analyses must take account of nonlinear effects. One technique for approximating nonlinear mixing requires the conversion of AR spectra to SSA spectra. The results of CEM applied to SSA spectra are compared to those of CEM applied to AR spectra. The occurrence of alunite is similar though not identical to mineral maps produced with both the SSA and AR spectra. Alunite is slightly more widespread based on processing with the SSA spectra. Further, fractional abundances derived from the SSA spectra are, in general, higher than those derived from AR spectra. Implications for the interpretation of quantitative mineral mapping with hyperspectral remote sensing data are discussed.

  12. A unified material decomposition framework for quantitative dual- and triple-energy CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Vernekohl, Don; Han, Fei; Han, Bin; Peng, Hao; Yang, Yong; Xing, Lei; Min, James K

    2018-04-21

    Many clinical applications depend critically on the accurate differentiation and classi-fication of different types of materials in patient anatomy. This work introduces a unified framework for accurate nonlinear material decomposition and applies it, for the first time, in the concept of triple-energy CT (TECT) for enhanced material differentiation and classification as well as dual-energy CT METHODS: We express polychromatic projection into a linear combination of line integrals of material-selective images. The material decomposition is then turned into a problem of minimizing the least-squares difference between measured and estimated CT projections. The optimization problem is solved iteratively by updating the line integrals. The proposed technique is evaluated by using several numerical phantom measurements under different scanning protocols The triple-energy data acquisition is implemented at the scales of micro-CT and clinical CT imaging with commercial "TwinBeam" dual-source DECT configuration and a fast kV switching DECT configu-ration. Material decomposition and quantitative comparison with a photon counting detector and with the presence of a bow-tie filter are also performed. The proposed method provides quantitative material- and energy-selective images exam-ining realistic configurations for both dual- and triple-energy CT measurements. Compared to the polychromatic kV CT images, virtual monochromatic images show superior image quality. For the mouse phantom, quantitative measurements show that the differences between gadodiamide and iodine concentrations obtained using TECT and idealized photon counting CT (PCCT) are smaller than 8 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively. TECT outperforms DECT for multi-contrast CT imag-ing and is robust with respect to spectrum estimation. For the thorax phantom, the differences between the concentrations of the contrast map and the corresponding true reference values are smaller than 7 mg/mL for all of the realistic

  13. Early Intervention for Children with Conduct Disorders: A Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen studies were analyzed that employed single-subject designs focusing on conduct disorders in preschoolers. Results indicated that reinforcement produced most positive outcomes, followed by punishment, timeout, and differential attention. Subject characteristics such as sex, handicapping condition, and target behavior typically bore little…

  14. A Quantitative and Systematic Methodology to Investigate Energy Consumption Issues in Multimodal Intercity Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Du

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy issues in transportation systems have garnered increasing attention recently. This study proposes a systematic methodology for policy-makers to minimize energy consumption in multimodal intercity transportation systems considering suppliers’ operational constraints and travelers’ mobility requirements. A bi-level optimization model is developed for this purpose and considers the air, rail, private auto, and transit modes. The upper-level model is a mixed integer nonlinear program aiming to minimize energy consumption subject to transportation suppliers’ operational constraints and traffic demand distribution to paths resulting from the lower-level model. The lower-level model is a linear program seeking to maximize the trip utilities of travelers. The interactions between the multimodal transportation suppliers and intercity traffic demand are considered under the goal of minimizing system energy consumption. The proposed bi-level mixed integer model is relaxed and transformed into a mathematical program with complementarity constraints, and solved using a customized branch-and-bound algorithm. Numerical experiments, conducted using multimodal travel options between Lafayette, Indiana and Washington, D.C. reiterate that shifting traffic demand from private cars to the transit and rail modes significantly reduce energy consumption. Moreover, the proposed methodology provides tools to quantitatively analyze system energy consumption and traffic demand distribution among transportation modes under specific policy instruments. The results illustrate the need to systematically incorporate the interactions among traveler preferences, network structure, and supplier operational schemes to provide policy-makers insights for developing traffic demand shift mechanisms to minimize system energy consumption. Hence, the proposed methodology provide policy-makers the capability to analyze energy consumption in the transportation sector by a

  15. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  16. Quantitative evaluation of dual-energy digital mammography for calcification imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C

    2004-01-01

    Dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM), where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Under ideal imaging conditions, when the mammography image data are free of scatter and other biases, DEDM could be used to determine the thicknesses of the imaged calcifications. We present quantitative evaluation of a DEDM technique for calcification imaging. The phantoms used in the evaluation were constructed by placing aluminium strips of known thicknesses (to simulate calcifications) across breast-tissue-equivalent materials of different glandular-tissue compositions. The images were acquired under narrow-beam geometry and high exposures to suppress the detrimental effects of scatter and random noise. The measured aluminium thicknesses were found to be approximately linear with the true aluminium thicknesses and independent of the underlying glandular-tissue composition. However, the dual-energy images underestimated the true aluminium thickness due to the presence of scatter from adjacent regions. Regions in the DEDM image that contained no aluminium yielded very low aluminium thicknesses (<0.07 mm). The aluminium contrast-to-noise ratio in the dual-energy images increased with the aluminium thickness and decreased with the glandular-tissue composition. The changes to the aluminium contrast-to-noise ratio and the contrast of the tissue structures between the low-energy and DEDM images are also presented

  17. Quantitative prediction of solvation free energy in octanol of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Eduardo J; Jaña, Gonzalo A

    2009-03-01

    The free energy of solvation, DeltaGS0, in octanol of organic compounds is quantitatively predicted from the molecular structure. The model, involving only three molecular descriptors, is obtained by multiple linear regression analysis from a data set of 147 compounds containing diverse organic functions, namely, halogenated and non-halogenated alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amines, ethers and esters; covering a DeltaGS0 range from about -50 to 0 kJ.mol(-1). The model predicts the free energy of solvation with a squared correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a standard deviation, 2.4 kJ.mol(-1), just marginally larger than the generally accepted value of experimental uncertainty. The involved molecular descriptors have definite physical meaning corresponding to the different intermolecular interactions occurring in the bulk liquid phase. The model is validated with an external set of 36 compounds not included in the training set.

  18. Quantitative Prediction of Solvation Free Energy in Octanol of Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Delgado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of solvation, ΔGS0 , in octanol of organic compunds is quantitatively predicted from the molecular structure. The model, involving only three molecular descriptors, is obtained by multiple linear regression analysis from a data set of 147 compounds containing diverse organic functions, namely, halogenated and non-halogenated alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amines, ethers and esters; covering a ΔGS0 range from about –50 to 0 kJ·mol-1. The model predicts the free energy of solvation with a squared correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a standard deviation, 2.4 kJ·mol-1, just marginally larger than the generally accepted value of experimental uncertainty. The involved molecular descriptors have definite physical meaning corresponding to the different intermolecular interactions occurring in the bulk liquid phase. The model is validated with an external set of 36 compounds not included in the training set.

  19. Quantitative comparison of genotoxic (mutagenic and carcinogenic) risks and the choice of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1983-01-01

    For 25 years, pollution for radiation has been governed by restrictive rules enacted and periodically revised by an international commission, and adopted by all countries. Nothing similar exists for mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. Since these substances affect the genetic material in the cells with reactions often similar to those caused by radiation, quantitative comparisons are possible, in particular for some of those compounds produced by the combustion of coal, oil and gaz. This paper describes the main results obtained at the Institut Curie, since 1975, with ethylene, ethylene oxide and vinyl chloride monomer. The consequences are discussed for: a) the establishement of control rules for the main genotoxic chemical pollutions; b) the assessment of long term risks in the cases of nuclear energy and of the energies obtained by combustion [fr

  20. A quantitative study of quasiparticle traps using the single-Cooper-pair-transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Court, N. A.; Ferguson, A. J.; Lutchyn, Roman; Clark, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    We use radio-frequency reflectometry to measure quasiparticle tunneling rates in the single-Cooper-pair-transistor. Devices with and without quasiparticle traps in proximity to the island are studied. A $10^2$ to $10^3$-fold reduction in the quasiparticle tunneling rate onto the island is observed in the case of quasiparticle traps. In the quasiparticle trap samples we also measure a commensurate decrease in quasiparticle tunneling rate off the island.

  1. The workflow of single-cell expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), s. 323-331 ISSN 1473-7159 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02154S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : single-cell workflow * gene expression profiling * RT-qPCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.516, year: 2014

  2. Quantitative mouse brain phenotyping based on single and multispectral MR protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Alexandra; Gewalt, Sally; Avants, Brian B.; Cook, James J.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated image analysis methods have been developed for the human brain, but such tools still need to be adapted and optimized for quantitative small animal imaging. We propose a framework for quantitative anatomical phenotyping in mouse models of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The framework encompasses an atlas space, image acquisition protocols, and software tools to register images into this space. We show that a suite of segmentation tools (Avants, Epstein et al., 2008) designed for human neuroimaging can be incorporated into a pipeline for segmenting mouse brain images acquired with multispectral magnetic resonance imaging (MR) protocols. We present a flexible approach for segmenting such hyperimages, optimizing registration, and identifying optimal combinations of image channels for particular structures. Brain imaging with T1, T2* and T2 contrasts yielded accuracy in the range of 83% for hippocampus and caudate putamen (Hc and CPu), but only 54% in white matter tracts, and 44% for the ventricles. The addition of diffusion tensor parameter images improved accuracy for large gray matter structures (by >5%), white matter (10%), and ventricles (15%). The use of Markov random field segmentation further improved overall accuracy in the C57BL/6 strain by 6%; so Dice coefficients for Hc and CPu reached 93%, for white matter 79%, for ventricles 68%, and for substantia nigra 80%. We demonstrate the segmentation pipeline for the widely used C57BL/6 strain, and two test strains (BXD29, APP/TTA). This approach appears promising for characterizing temporal changes in mouse models of human neurological and psychiatric conditions, and may provide anatomical constraints for other preclinical imaging, e.g. fMRI and molecular imaging. This is the first demonstration that multiple MR imaging modalities combined with multivariate segmentation methods lead to significant improvements in anatomical segmentation in the mouse brain. PMID:22836174

  3. A Quantitative Theoretical Framework For Protein-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement-Förster-Type Resonance Energy Transfer (PIFE-FRET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Eitan; Ploetz, Evelyn; Hohlbein, Johannes; Cordes, Thorben; Weiss, Shimon

    2016-07-07

    Single-molecule, protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) serves as a molecular ruler at molecular distances inaccessible to other spectroscopic rulers such as Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer. In order to provide two simultaneous measurements of two distances on different molecular length scales for the analysis of macromolecular complexes, we and others recently combined measurements of PIFE and FRET (PIFE-FRET) on the single molecule level. PIFE relies on steric hindrance of the fluorophore Cy3, which is covalently attached to a biomolecule of interest, to rotate out of an excited-state trans isomer to the cis isomer through a 90° intermediate. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework that accounts for relevant photophysical and kinetic parameters of PIFE-FRET, show how this framework allows the extraction of the fold-decrease in isomerization mobility from experimental data, and show how these results provide information on changes in the accessible volume of Cy3. The utility of this model is then demonstrated for experimental results on PIFE-FRET measurement of different protein-DNA interactions. The proposed model and extracted parameters could serve as a benchmark to allow quantitative comparison of PIFE effects in different biological systems.

  4. Quantitative echocardiographic measures in the assessment of single ventricle function post-Fontan: Incorporation into routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rodrigo; Ginde, Salil; Saudek, David; Loomba, Rohit S; Stelter, Jessica; Frommelt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative echocardiographic measurements of single ventricular (SV) function have not been incorporated into routine clinical practice. A clinical protocol, which included quantitative measurements of SV deformation (global circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rate), standard deviation of time to peak systolic strain, myocardial performance index (MPI), dP/dT from an atrioventricular valve regurgitant jet, and superior mesenteric artery resistance index, was instituted for all patients with a history of Fontan procedure undergoing echocardiography. All measures were performed real time during clinically indicated studies and were included in clinical reports. A total of 100 consecutive patients (mean age = 11.95±6.8 years, range 17 months-31.3 years) completed the protocol between September 1, 2014 to April 29, 2015. Deformation measures were completed in 100% of the studies, MPI in 93%, dP/dT in 55%, and superior mesenteric artery Doppler in 82%. The studies were reviewed to assess for efficiency in completing the protocol. The average time for image acquisition was 27.4±8.8 (range 10-62 minutes). The average time to perform deformation measures was 10.8±5.5 minutes (range 5-35 minutes) and time from beginning of imaging to report completion was 53.4±13.7 minutes (range 27-107 minutes). There was excellent inter-observer reliability when deformation indices were blindly repeated. Patients with a single left ventricle had significantly higher circumferential strain and strain rate, longitudinal strain and strain rate, and dP/dT compared to a single right ventricle. There were no differences in quantitative indices of ventricular function between patients 10 years post-Fontan. Advanced quantitative assessment of SV function post-Fontan can be consistently and efficiently performed real time during clinically indicated echocardiograms with excellent reliability. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general the...... available on the internet: http://www.rwsc.dk/EP_Villa_Projektrapport_RW_DK/main_report_villa.pdf....

  6. Single Particle energy levels in ODD-A Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasijo, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Singe particle energies for atomic nuclei with odd-A number of nucleons, i.e. nuclei possessing odd number of protons or odd number of neutrons, were calculated based on Nilsson's theory, and then the diagrams were made. the energy diagram is in the from of plot of energies as function of deformations, entities identifying the deviations from the spherical shape. The energy calculations were done using FORTRAN 77 language of PC (Personal Computer) version with Microsoft Fortran Power Station compiler, which was then combined with WORD version 6.0 and EXCEL version 5.0 of WINDOWS WORKGROUP to make the plot

  7. The Relationship between Student's Quantitative Skills, Application of Math, Science Courses, and Science Marks at Single-Sex Independent High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, David

    2012-01-01

    For independent secondary schools who offer rigorous curriculum to attract students, integration of quantitative skills in the science courses has become an important definition of rigor. However, there is little research examining students' quantitative skills in relation to high school science performance within the single-sex independent school…

  8. Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wu, Jenny; Duell, Thomas

    2009-09-18

    Cloning of large chunks of human genomic DNA in recombinant systems such as yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes has greatly facilitated the construction of physical maps, the positional cloning of disease genes or the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes for diagnostic purposes. For this process to work efficiently, the DNA cloning process and subsequent clone propagation need to maintain stable inserts that are neither deleted nor otherwise rearranged. Some regions of the human genome; however, appear to have a higher propensity than others to rearrange in any host system. Thus, techniques to detect and accurately characterize such rearrangements need to be developed. We developed a technique termed 'Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping (QDFM)' that allows accurate tagging of sequence elements of interest with near kilobase accuracy and optimized it for delineation of rearrangements in recombinant DNA clones. This paper demonstrates the power of this microscopic approach by investigating YAC rearrangements. In our examples, high-resolution physical maps for regions within the immunoglobulin lambda variant gene cluster were constructed for three different YAC clones carrying deletions of 95 kb and more. Rearrangements within YACs could be demonstrated unambiguously by pairwise mapping of cosmids along YAC DNA molecules. When coverage by YAC clones was not available, distances between cosmid clones were estimated by hybridization of cosmids onto DNA fibers prepared from human genomic DNA. In addition, the QDFM technology provides essential information about clone stability facilitating closure of the maps of the human genome as well as those of model organisms.

  9. Free energy profiles from single-molecule pulling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Szabo, Attila

    2010-12-14

    Nonequilibrium pulling experiments provide detailed information about the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of molecules. We show that unperturbed free energy profiles as a function of molecular extension can be obtained rigorously from such experiments without using work-weighted position histograms. An inverse Weierstrass transform is used to relate the system free energy obtained from the Jarzynski equality directly to the underlying molecular free energy surface. An accurate approximation for the free energy surface is obtained by using the method of steepest descent to evaluate the inverse transform. The formalism is applied to simulated data obtained from a kinetic model of RNA folding, in which the dynamics consists of jumping between linker-dominated folded and unfolded free energy surfaces.

  10. Assessment of left ventricular function by electrocardiogram-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography using quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koichi; Adachi, Itaru; Konno, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can assess left ventricular (LV) perfusion and function easily using quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software. ECG-gated SPECT was performed in 44 patients with coronary artery disease under post-stress and resting conditions to assess the values of LV functional parameters, by comparison to LV ejection fraction derived from gated blood pool scan and myocardial characteristics. A good correlation was obtained between ejection fraction using QGS and that using cardiac blood pool scan (r=0.812). Some patients with myocardial ischemia had lower ejection fraction under post-stress compared to resting conditions, indicating post-stress LV dysfunction. LV wall motion and wall thickening were significantly impaired in ischemic and infarcted myocardium, and the degree of abnormality in the infarcted areas was greater than in the ischemia area. LV functional parameters derived using QGS were useful to assess post-stress LV dysfunction and myocardial viability. In conclusion, ECG-gated myocardial SPECT permits simultaneous quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion and function. (author)

  11. Characterization of a single 90-degrees 'UREAD' energy channel

    OpenAIRE

    LUPOI, ROCCO

    2006-01-01

    Most engineering products are designed to either deliver or withstand a specific maximum force or level of energy. It is important however that the design of a struct ure or a machine incorporates an external or internal mechanism to overcome excessive loading, so as to reduce human discomfort and unsafe operations. Most high-energy absorption devices are not re-usable and have rebound forces comparable to those that being absorbed. This paper examines t...

  12. Semiempirical formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.; Waak, B.T.

    1978-01-01

    The stepwise multiple linear regression technique has been used to analyze the single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in nuclei along the line of beta stability. Their regular and systematic trends lead to semiempirical model-independent formulas for single-particle energies of neutrons and protons in the bound nuclei as functions of nuclear parameters A and Z for given states specified by nl/sub j/. These formulas are almost as convenient as the harmonic oscillator energy formulas to use. The single-particle energies computed from these formulas have been compared with the experimental data and are found in reasonable agreement

  13. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  14. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...

  15. Inflation and Dark Energy with a Single Superfield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the possibility to construct supergravity models with a single superfield describing inflation as well as the tiny cosmological constant $V \\sim 10^{{-120}}$. One could expect that the simplest way to do it is to study models with a supersymmetric Minkowski vacuum and then slightly uplift

  16. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of single fingerprints in forensic DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Klempner, Stacey A; Patel, Rosni A; Mitchell, Adele A; Axler-DiPerte, Grace L; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2014-11-01

    Fingerprints and touched items are important sources of DNA for STR profiling, since this evidence can be recovered in a wide variety of criminal offenses. However, there are some fundamental difficulties in working with these samples, including variability in quantity and quality of extracted DNA. In this study, we collected and analyzed over 700 fingerprints. We compared a commercially available extraction protocol (Zygem) to two methods developed in our laboratory, a simple one-tube protocol and a high sensitivity protocol (HighSens) that includes additional steps to concentrate and purify the DNA. The amplification protocols tested were AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® using either 28 or 31 amplification cycles, and Identifiler® Plus using 32 amplification cycles. We found that the HighSens and Zygem extraction methods were significantly better in their DNA yields than the one-tube method. Identifiler® Plus increased the quality of the STR profiles for the one-tube extraction significantly. However, this effect could not be verified for the other extraction methods. Furthermore, microscopic analysis of single fingerprints revealed that some individuals tended to shed more material than others onto glass slides. However, a dense deposition of skin flakes did not strongly correlate with a high quality STR profile. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  18. Quantitation of ultraviolet-induced single-strand breaks using oligonucleotide chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Min Jung; Choo, Jaebum; Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Song, Joon Myong

    2008-01-01

    A simple, accurate and robust methodology was established for the direct quantification of ultraviolet (UV)-induced single-strand break (SSB) using oligonucleotide chip. Oligonucleotide chips were fabricated by covalently anchoring the fluorescent-labeled ssDNAs onto silicon dioxide chip surfaces. Assuming that the possibility of more than one UV-induced SSB to be generated in a small oligonucleotide is extremely low, SSB formation was investigated quantifying the endpoint probe density by fluorescence measurement upon UV irradiation. The SSB yields obtained based on the highly sensitive laser-induced fluorometric determination of fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides were found to coincide well with that predicted from a theoretical extrapolation of the results obtained for plasmid DNAs using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. The developed method has the potential to serve as a high throughput, sample-thrifty, and time saving tool to realize more realistic, and direct quantification of radiation and chemical-induced strand breaks. It will be especially useful for determining the frequency of SSBs or lesions convertible to SSBs by specific cleaving reagents or enzymes

  19. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  20. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Weyland, M. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sang, X.; Xu, W.; Dycus, J.H.; LeBeau, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); D' Alfonso, A.J.; Allen, L.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D., E-mail: scott.findlay@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. - Highlights: • Absolute scale quantification of 2D atomic-resolution EDX maps is demonstrated. • Factors contributing to remaining small quantitative discrepancies are identified. • Experiment confirms large probe-forming apertures suppress channelling enhancement. • The thickness range suitable for reliable column-by-column analysis is discussed.

  1. Quantitative analysis of the publishing landscape in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, S; Vigen, Jens; Yeomans, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    World-wide collaboration in high-energy physics (HEP) is a tradition which dates back several decades, with scientific publications mostly coauthored by scientists from different countries. This coauthorship phenomenon makes it difficult to identify precisely the "share" of each country in HEP scientific production. One year's worth of HEP scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals is analysed and their authors are uniquely assigned to countries. This method allows the first correct estimation on a pro rata basis of the share of HEP scientific publishing among several countries and institutions. The results provide an interesting insight into the geographical collaborative patterns of the HEP community. The HEP publishing landscape is further analysed to provide information on the journals favoured by the HEP community and on the geographical variation of their author bases. These results provide quantitative input to the ongoing debate on the possible transition of HEP publishing to an Open Acce...

  2. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  3. Green initiative impact on stock prices: A quantitative study of the clean energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisich, John M.

    The purpose of this quantitative ex post facto research study was to explore the relationship between green initiative expense disclosures and stock prices of 46 NASDAQ listed Clean Edge Green Energy global companies from 2007 to 2010. The independent variables were sales and marketing, environmental, customer and supplier, community, and corporate governance practices that were correlated with the dependent variable in the study of stock prices. Expense disclosures were examined in an effort to measure the impact of green initiative programs and to expose the interrelationships between green initiative expense disclosures and fluctuations of stock prices. The data for the research was secondary data from existing annual reports. A statistically significant relationship was revealed between environmental practices and changes in stock prices. The study results also provided substantial evidence for leadership and managerial decision making to reduce or increase green initiative practices to maximize shareholder wealth of their respective organizations.

  4. Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    There has been a large body of statements claiming that the large-scale deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) could eventually reshape the future distribution grid operation in numerous ways. Thus, it is necessary to introduce a framework to measure to what extent the power system......, comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation...... results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles....

  5. Spatially Mapping Energy Transfer from Single Plasmonic Particles to Semiconductor Substrates via STEM/EELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Cherqui, Charles; Bigelow, Nicholas W; Duscher, Gerd; Straney, Patrick J; Millstone, Jill E; Masiello, David J; Camden, Jon P

    2015-05-13

    Energy transfer from plasmonic nanoparticles to semiconductors can expand the available spectrum of solar energy-harvesting devices. Here, we spatially and spectrally resolve the interaction between single Ag nanocubes with insulating and semiconducting substrates using electron energy-loss spectroscopy, electrodynamics simulations, and extended plasmon hybridization theory. Our results illustrate a new way to characterize plasmon-semiconductor energy transfer at the nanoscale and bear impact upon the design of next-generation solar energy-harvesting devices.

  6. Is scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) quantitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2013-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) is a widely applied elemental microanalysis method capable of identifying and quantifying all elements in the periodic table except H, He, and Li. By following the "k-ratio" (unknown/standard) measurement protocol development for electron-excited wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), SEM/EDS can achieve accuracy and precision equivalent to WDS and at substantially lower electron dose, even when severe X-ray peak overlaps occur, provided sufficient counts are recorded. Achieving this level of performance is now much more practical with the advent of the high-throughput silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS). However, three measurement issues continue to diminish the impact of SEM/EDS: (1) In the qualitative analysis (i.e., element identification) that must precede quantitative analysis, at least some current and many legacy software systems are vulnerable to occasional misidentification of major constituent peaks, with the frequency of misidentifications rising significantly for minor and trace constituents. (2) The use of standardless analysis, which is subject to much broader systematic errors, leads to quantitative results that, while useful, do not have sufficient accuracy to solve critical problems, e.g. determining the formula of a compound. (3) EDS spectrometers have such a large volume of acceptance that apparently credible spectra can be obtained from specimens with complex topography that introduce uncontrolled geometric factors that modify X-ray generation and propagation, resulting in very large systematic errors, often a factor of ten or more. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Single-dose rofecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults: a quantitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuay Henry J

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rofecoxib is a cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective inhibitor. This systematic review of rofecoxib in acute pain examined studies in adults of analgesic efficacy over six hours, the amount and quality of the evidence on extended duration of analgesia, and the quality and quantity of evidence on adverse events. Methods Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2001, Biological Abstracts (March 2002, MEDLINE (March 2002 and PubMed (March 2002 were searched using rofecoxib as a free text term. The area under the pain relief versus time curve was dichotomized using validated equations to derive the proportion of patients on rofecoxib 50 mg or placebo with at least 50% pain relief over six hours. This was used to calculate the number needed to treat for at least 50% pain relief over six hours for rofecoxib compared with placebo. Information on duration of analgesia and adverse events was also collected. Results Five included trials investigated 1,118 patients, of whom 211 received placebo and 464 received rofecoxib 50 mg. The NNT for rofecoxib 50 mg was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.6. The weighted mean remedication time was 1.9 hours for placebo (126 patients, 7.4 hours for ibuprofen 400 mg (97 patients and 13.6 hours for rofecoxib 50 mg (322 patients. Conclusion Rofecoxib at 2–4 times the standard daily dose for chronic pain is an effective single dose oral analgesic in acute pain. Limitations in trial reporting constrain conclusions about longer duration of analgesia and adverse event profile.

  8. Chemical compositions of subway particles in Seoul, Korea determined by a quantitative single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunni; Hwang, HeeJin; Park, YooMyung; Kim, HyeKyoung; Ro, Chul-Un

    2008-12-15

    A novel single particle analytical technique, low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis, was applied to characterize seasonal subway samples collected at a subway station in Seoul, Korea. For all 8 samples collected twice in each season, 4 major types of subway particles, based on their chemical compositions, are significantly encountered: Fe-containing; soil-derived; carbonaceous; and secondary nitrate and/or sulfate particles. Fe-containing particles are generated indoors from wear processes at rail-wheel-brake interfaces while the others may be introduced mostly from the outdoor urban atmosphere. Fe-containing particles are the most frequently encountered with relative abundances in the range of 61-79%. In this study, it is shown that Fe-containing subway particles almost always exist either as partially or fully oxidized forms in underground subway microenvironments. Their relative abundances of Fe-containing particles increase as particle sizes decrease. Relative abundances of Fe-containing particles are higher in morning samples than in afternoon samples because of heavier train traffic in the morning. In the summertime samples, Fe-containing particles are the most abundantly encountered, whereas soil-derived and nitrate/sulfate particles are the least encountered, indicating the air-exchange between indoor and outdoor environments is limited in the summer, owing to the air-conditioning in the subway system. In our work, it was observed that the relative abundances of the particles of outdoor origin vary somewhat among seasonal samples to a lesser degree, reflecting that indoor emission sources predominate.

  9. QUANTITATION OF INTRACELLULAR NAD(P)H IN LIVING CELLS CAN MONITOR AN IMBALANCE OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN REAL TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitation of intracellular NAD(P)H in living cells can monitor an imbalance of DNA single strand break repair in real time.ABSTRACTDNA single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions in genomic DNA generated either by oxidative stress or du...

  10. Quantitative in-situ TEM nanotensile testing of single crystal Ni facilitated by a new sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaeeaghmiyoni, Vahid; Idrissi, Hosni; Groten, Jonas; Schwaiger, Ruth; Schryvers, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Twin-jet electro-polishing and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) were combined to produce small size Nickel single crystal specimens for quantitative in-situ nanotensile experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The combination of these techniques allows producing samples with nearly defect-free zones in the centre in contrast to conventional FIB-prepared samples. Since TEM investigations can be performed on the electro-polished samples prior to in-situ TEM straining, specimens with desired crystallographic orientation and initial microstructure can be prepared. The present results reveal a dislocation nucleation-controlled plasticity, in which small loops induced by FIB near the edges of the samples play a central role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A quantitative theory of the Hounsfield unit and its application to dual energy scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R A

    1977-10-01

    A standard definition is proposed for the Hounsfield number. Any number in computed tomography can be converted to the Hounsfield scale after performing a simple calibration using air and water. The energy dependence of the Hounsfield number, H, is given by the expression H = (Hc + Hp Q)/(1 + Q), where Hc and Hp are the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of the material being measured, expressed in Hounsfield units, and Q is the "quality factor" of the scanner. Q can be measured by performing a scan of a single calibrating material, such as a potassium iodine solution. By applying this analysis to dual energy scans, the Compton and photoelectric coefficients of an unknown substance may easily be obtained. This can lead to a limited degree of chemical identification.

  12. Exploring the energy landscape of biopolymers using single molecule force spectroscopy and molecular simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeon, Changbong

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, single molecule force techniques have opened a new avenue to decipher the folding landscapes of biopolymers by allowing us to watch and manipulate the dynamics of individual proteins and nucleic acids. In single molecule force experiments, quantitative analyses of measurements employing sound theoretical models and molecular simulations play central role more than any other field. With a brief description of basic theories for force mechanics and molecular simulation techniqu...

  13. Effects of Single and Combined Application of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Yield of Anisum (Pimpinella anisum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kamayestani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of single and combined applications of biofertilazer and organic fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum (Pimpinella anisum, an experiment was conducted based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and fifteen treatments at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011 year. Treatments were: (1 mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices, (2 mycorrhiza + cow manure, (3 mycorrhiza + vermicompost, (4 mycorrhiza+ compost, (5 mycorrhiza + chemical fertilizer, (6 biosulfur (Thiobacillus sp. + Bentonite, (7 biosulfur + chemical fertilizer, (8 biosulfur + cow manure, (9 biosulfur + vermicompost, (10 biosulfur+compost,11 (cow manure, (12 vermicompost, (13 chemical fertilizer (NPK, (14compost and (15 control. The results showed that application of fertilizer treatments had significant effect on most characteristics of anisum. The highest number of seed per umbelet (7.24, economic yield (1263.4kg/ha were obtained fram biosulfur treatment. The highest dry matter yield (4504.1 kg/ha resulted from combined application of biosulfur + chemical fertilizer and the highest harvest index (25.97% observed in biosulfur+cow manure. The combined application of mycorrhiza affected some qualification traits, as the highest number of umbel per plant (65.7, 1000 seed-weight (3.24 g and essential oil percentage (5.3% resulted from combined application of mycorrhiza+chemical fertilizer. In general, it can be concluded that application of organic and biological fertilizer particularly mycorrhiza and biosulfur had a significant effect on improving of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of anisum. Furthermore, the combined application of organic and biological fertilizer had higher positive effects than their single application.

  14. Quantitative determination and classification of energy drinks using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita; Héberger, Károly; Fodor, Marietta

    2016-09-01

    Almost a hundred commercially available energy drink samples from Hungary, Slovakia, and Greece were collected for the quantitative determination of their caffeine and sugar content with FT-NIR spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Calibration models were built with partial least-squares regression (PLSR). An HPLC-UV method was used to measure the reference values for caffeine content, while sugar contents were measured with the Schoorl method. Both the nominal sugar content (as indicated on the cans) and the measured sugar concentration were used as references. Although the Schoorl method has larger error and bias, appropriate models could be developed using both references. The validation of the models was based on sevenfold cross-validation and external validation. FT-NIR analysis is a good candidate to replace the HPLC-UV method, because it is much cheaper than any chromatographic method, while it is also more time-efficient. The combination of FT-NIR with multidimensional chemometric techniques like PLSR can be a good option for the detection of low caffeine concentrations in energy drinks. Moreover, three types of energy drinks that contain (i) taurine, (ii) arginine, and (iii) none of these two components were classified correctly using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Such classifications are important for the detection of adulterated samples and for quality control, as well. In this case, more than a hundred samples were used for the evaluation. The classification was validated with cross-validation and several randomization tests (X-scrambling). Graphical Abstract The way of energy drinks from cans to appropriate chemometric models.

  15. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors for quantitative monitoring of pentose and disaccharide accumulation in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looger Loren L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineering microorganisms to improve metabolite flux requires detailed knowledge of the concentrations and flux rates of metabolites and metabolic intermediates in vivo. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors represent a promising technology for measuring metabolite levels and corresponding rate changes in live cells. These sensors have been applied successfully in mammalian and plant cells but potentially could also be used to monitor steady-state levels of metabolites in microorganisms using fluorimetric assays. Sensors for hexose and pentose carbohydrates could help in the development of fermentative microorganisms, for example, for biofuels applications. Arabinose is one of the carbohydrates to be monitored during biofuels production from lignocellulose, while maltose is an important degradation product of starch that is relevant for starch-derived biofuels production. Results An Escherichia coli expression vector compatible with phage λ recombination technology was constructed to facilitate sensor construction and was used to generate a novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for arabinose. In parallel, a strategy for improving the sensor signal was applied to construct an improved maltose sensor. Both sensors were expressed in the cytosol of E. coli and sugar accumulation was monitored using a simple fluorimetric assay of E. coli cultures in microtiter plates. In the case of both nanosensors, the addition of the respective ligand led to concentration-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer responses allowing quantitative analysis of the intracellular sugar levels at given extracellular supply levels as well as accumulation rates. Conclusion The nanosensor destination vector combined with the optimization strategy for sensor responses should help to accelerate the development of metabolite sensors. The new carbohydrate fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors can be used for in vivo

  16. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  17. Single-field isodose charts for high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The main part of this guide comprises isodose chart specifications divided into four sections: cesium-137 gamma rays, cobalt-60 gamma rays, high-energy x-rays and electron beams. In each section the information is further classified according to the equipment model and the institution of origin. 1 fig

  18. Comparative analysis of bone mineral contents with dual-energy quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T. J.; Yoon, S. M.; Kim, O. B.; Lee, S. M.; Suh, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The Dual-Energy Quantitative Computed Tomography(DEQCT) was compared with bone equivalent K 2 HPO 4 standard solution and ash weight of animal cadaveric trabecular bone in the measurement of bone mineral contents(BMC). The attenuation coefficient of tissues highly depends on the radiation energy, density and effective atomic number of composition. The bone mineral content of DEQCT in this experiments was determined from empirical constants and mass attenuation coefficients of bone, fat and soft tissue equivalent solution in two photon spectra. In this experiments, the BMC of DEQCT with 80 and 120kV p X rays was compared to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. We obtained the mass attenuation coefficient of 0.2409, 0.5608 and 0.2206 in 80kV p , and 0.2046, 0.3273 and 0.1971 cm 2 /g in 120kV p X-ray spectra for water, bone and fat equivalent materials, respectively. The BMC with DEQCT was accomplished with empirical constants K 1 =0.3232, K 2 =0.2450 and mass attenuation coefficients has very closed to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. The BMC of empirical DEQCT and that of manufacturing DEQCT were correlated with ash weight as a correlation r=0.998 and r=0.996, respectively. The BMC of empirical DEQCT using the experimental mass attenuation coefficients and that of manufacture have showed very close to ash weight of animal trabecular bone. (author)

  19. Magnetization reversal processes of single nanomagnets and their energy barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krone, P.; Makarov, D.; Albrecht, M.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micromagnetic simulations were performed to investigate the influence of geometry and magnetic anisotropy constant on energy barrier and magnetization reversal mechanism of individual bits important for the bit patterned media concept in magnetic data storage. It is shown that dependency of the energy barrier on magnetic and geometric properties of bits can be described by an analytical approach in the case of quasi-coherent magnetization rotation process. However, when the bit size exceeds a critical size, for which an incoherent magnetization reversal is preferred, the analytical approach becomes invalid and no self-consistent theory is available. By systematically investigating the influence of bit size on the magnetization reversal mode, it was found that the transition from quasi-coherent to incoherent magnetization reversal mode can still be described analytically if an activation volume is considered instead of the bit volume. In this case, the nucleation volume is an important parameter determining thermal stability of the bit. If the volume of the bit is larger than twice the activation volume, the energy barrier stays nearly constant; with further increase in bit size, no gain in thermal stability can be achieved.

  20. Tunnelling determined superconducting energy gap of bulk single crystal aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civiak, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for fabricating Giaver tunnel junctions on bulk aluminum. Al-I-Ag junctions were prepared, where I is the naturally formed oxide on the polished, chemically treated aluminum surface. The aluminum energy gap was determined from tunneling conductance curves obtained from samples oriented in three different crystal directions, and as a function of magnetic field in each of these orientations. In contrast to the results of microwave absorption measurements on superconducting aluminum, no magnetic field dependence could be measured for either the average gap or the spread in gap values of the tunneling electrons. This is consistent with commonly accepted tunneling selection rules, and Garfunkel's interpretation of the microwave behavior which depended upon adjusting the energy spectrum of only the electrons traveling parallel to the surface in the presence of a magnetic field. The energy gaps measured for samples oriented in the 100, 110 and 111 directions are 3.52, 3.50 and 3.39 kT/sub c/, respectively. The trend in the anisotropy is the same as in the calculation of Leavens and Carbotte, however, the magnitude of the anisotropy is smaller than in their calculation and that which previous measurements have indicated

  1. Gene Set Analyses of Genome-Wide Association Studies on 49 Quantitative Traits Measured in a Single Genetic Epidemiology Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene set analysis is a powerful tool for interpreting a genome-wide association study result and is gaining popularity these days. Comparison of the gene sets obtained for a variety of traits measured from a single genetic epidemiology dataset may give insights into the biological mechanisms underlying these traits. Based on the previously published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype data on 8,842 individuals enrolled in the Korea Association Resource project, we performed a series of systematic genome-wide association analyses for 49 quantitative traits of basic epidemiological, anthropometric, or blood chemistry parameters. Each analysis result was subjected to subsequent gene set analyses based on Gene Ontology (GO terms using gene set analysis software, GSA-SNP, identifying a set of GO terms significantly associated to each trait (pcorr < 0.05. Pairwise comparison of the traits in terms of the semantic similarity in their GO sets revealed surprising cases where phenotypically uncorrelated traits showed high similarity in terms of biological pathways. For example, the pH level was related to 7 other traits that showed low phenotypic correlations with it. A literature survey implies that these traits may be regulated partly by common pathways that involve neuronal or nerve systems.

  2. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  3. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  4. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  5. Final report of a quantitative survey on the public perception of nuclear energy. Study on the social support among citizens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, M.; Haufe, M.; Wendte, R.; De Jonge, J.; Merkx, P.

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the title study is to obtain a representative and independent image of the conceptions and opinions among the Dutch population with regard to nuclear energy in 2009 in general and with regard to four nuclear energy scenarios from the Energy report in particular: (1a) No new nuclear power plants; (1b) no new nuclear power plants unless inherently safe; (2) Replace the Borssele plant in 2033; (3) new nuclear power plants after 2020 (in addition to replacing Borssele). The study consisted of a qualitative and a quantitative component. In this report the quantitative study is reported. Moreover, part of the PQR (Partners in Quality Research) study of 2006 was replicated and the desk research with regard to the public perception of nuclear energy in other countries. The results of the qualitative study are included in the Report on Qualitative Research of the Public Perception of Nuclear Energy. [nl

  6. A qualitative and quantitative design of low-carbon development in Cambodia: Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hak, Mao; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Gomi, Kei

    2017-01-01

    The formulation of a policy for a low-carbon development plan is one of the most important steps to help Cambodia achieve sustainable development objectives, promote a greener development path, and contribute to the global effort to reducing CO 2 emissions. This study is designed to propose some low-carbon energy strategies and quantitatively to assess CO 2 emissions and reductions. The Extended Snapshot (ExSS) tool is used to quantify socioeconomic assumptions and to estimate CO 2 emissions and reduction potentials. The results show that CO 2 emissions are projected to increase to about 23,277 (by about 5.5 times) and 91,325 ktCO 2 /year (by about 21.6 times) in 2030BaU and 2050BaU, respectively, from 4,221 ktCO 2 /year in 2010. This study proposes five strategies for low-carbon development plan towards 2050 which are expected to reduce CO 2 emissions by about 12,826 (about 55%) and 52,153 ktCO 2 /year (about 57%) in 2030CM and 2050CM, respectively. The present results should help researchers and experts gain a better understanding of CO 2 emissions and reduction potentials by applying a number of low-carbon measures in Cambodia. While the results should be counted as a preliminary study because of limited available country information, they are expected to provide useful insights for the government in formulating a concrete climate change mitigation policy for the country. - Highlights: • Low-carbon development is a win-win approach for socioeconomic development. • Cambodia has significant opportunities to reduce CO 2 emissions in the energy sector. • Five low-carbon energy strategies can limit CO 2 emissions by around 50% in Cambodia. • Green transport strategy contributes the highest CO 2 emissions reduction.

  7. Single ionization of Ne, Ar and Kr by proton impact: Single differential distributions in energy and angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otranto, S [CONICET and Dto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, CONICET and Universidad de Buenos Aires C1428EGA (Argentina); Olson, R E, E-mail: sotranto@uns.edu.a [Physics Department, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    In this work we present a theoretical study of singly differential cross sections in energy and angle for the single ionization of neon, argon and krypton by proton impact. Theoretical results obtained by means of the Continuum Distorted Wave-Eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) model are compared to those provided by the First Born Approximation (FBA) and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method as well as to experimental data from several laboratories. We note in particular for argon, that the CDW-EIS model does not reproduce the experimental data as accurately as expected, while the CTMC instead is in very good agreement.

  8. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S.; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H.; Tang, Henry

    2014-01-01

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored

  9. Single photon energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbotham, Andrew; Patel, Shamim; Ciricosta, Orlando; Suggit, Matthew J.; Wark, Justin S. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Coppari, Federica; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Tang, Henry [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    With the pressure range accessible to laser driven compression experiments on solid material rising rapidly, new challenges in the diagnosis of samples in harsh laser environments are emerging. When driving to TPa pressures (conditions highly relevant to planetary interiors), traditional x-ray diffraction techniques are plagued by increased sources of background and noise, as well as a potential reduction in signal. In this paper we present a new diffraction diagnostic designed to record x-ray diffraction in low signal-to-noise environments. By utilising single photon counting techniques we demonstrate the ability to record diffraction patterns on nanosecond timescales, and subsequently separate, photon-by-photon, signal from background. In doing this, we mitigate many of the issues surrounding the use of high intensity lasers to drive samples to extremes of pressure, allowing for structural information to be obtained in a regime which is currently largely unexplored.

  10. Quantitative comparison between a multiecho sequence and a single-echo sequence for susceptibility-weighted phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Guillaume; Savard, Geneviève; Bard, Céline; Beaudoin, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits arising from the use of a multiecho sequence for susceptibility-weighted phase imaging using a quantitative comparison with a standard single-echo acquisition. Four healthy adult volunteers were imaged on a clinical 3-T system using a protocol comprising two different three-dimensional susceptibility-weighted gradient-echo sequences: a standard single-echo sequence and a multiecho sequence. Both sequences were repeated twice in order to evaluate the local noise contribution by a subtraction of the two acquisitions. For the multiecho sequence, the phase information from each echo was independently unwrapped, and the background field contribution was removed using either homodyne filtering or the projection onto dipole fields method. The phase information from all echoes was then combined using a weighted linear regression. R2 maps were also calculated from the multiecho acquisitions. The noise standard deviation in the reconstructed phase images was evaluated for six manually segmented regions of interest (frontal white matter, posterior white matter, globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus and lateral ventricle). The use of the multiecho sequence for susceptibility-weighted phase imaging led to a reduction of the noise standard deviation for all subjects and all regions of interest investigated in comparison to the reference single-echo acquisition. On average, the noise reduction ranged from 18.4% for the globus pallidus to 47.9% for the lateral ventricle. In addition, the amount of noise reduction was found to be strongly inversely correlated to the estimated R2 value (R=-0.92). In conclusion, the use of a multiecho sequence is an effective way to decrease the noise contribution in susceptibility-weighted phase images, while preserving both contrast and acquisition time. The proposed approach additionally permits the calculation of R2 maps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel concept of nonimaging single reflection solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovsky, D.

    2004-07-01

    Many solar applications require temperatures higher than those that can be achieved by common flat-plate collectors. Temperatures over 100 C are necessary e.g. for industrial process heat. Such temperatures can be obtained by means of solar energy concentrators. Advantages of concentrating the solar radiation can bring in addition to higher temperatures also decrease in heat losses and material savings due to smaller size of absorber, if taking into account that costs for material absorber per square meter can be possibly higher than costs for e.g. concentrating mirrors. On the other hand, using the concentration, two other kinds of losses will raise: losses of diffuse radiation and optical losses. There exist a variety of solar energy concentrators for different purposes. For lowtemperature applications, inexpensive concentrators of diffuse radiation can be used. For these concentrators, acceptance angle A defines the ability to concentrate the diffuse radiation and also its concentration factor C. To this class of concentrators belongs e.g. nonimaging types like CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), V-trough types, cylindrical concentrators etc. This paper deals with development of a new type of concentrator, novel concept of which is based on functionality of CPC by means of flat mirrors, primarily designed for needs of SME's (Small and Medium Enterprises). The CLON project is being ellaborated under the 5th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig.)

  12. Ultrafast Single and Multiexciton Energy Transfer in Semiconductor Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Richard

    Photophysical processes such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enable optical antennas, wavelength down-conversion in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and optical bio-sensing schemes. The rate and efficiency of this donor to acceptor transfer of excitation between chromophores dictates the utility of FRET and can unlock new device operation motifs including quantum-funnel solar cells and reduced gain thresholds. However, the fastest reported FRET time constants involving spherical quantum dots (QDs) (0.12-1 ns), do not outpace biexciton Auger recombination (0.01-0.1 ns), which impedes multiexciton-driven applications including electrically-pumped lasers and carrier-multiplication-enhanced photovoltaics. Precisely controlled, few-monolayer thick semiconductor nano-platelets with tens-of-nanometer diameters exhibit intense optical transitions and hundreds-of-picosecond Auger recombination, but heretofore lack FRET characterizations. We examine binary CdSe NPL solids and show that inter-plate FRET (~6-23 ps, presumably for co-facial arrangements) can occur 15-50 times faster than Auger recombination and demonstrate multiexcitonic FRET, making such materials ideal candidates for advanced technologies. This work was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a tunable single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  14. A High Energy and High Efficiency Spectral Shaping Single Frequency Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase II project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser system for coherent Lidar systems for remote sensing. Current state-of-art...

  15. Fingerprints of single nuclear spin energy levels using STM - ENDOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassen, Yishay; Averbukh, Michael; Jbara, Moamen; Siebenhofer, Bernhard; Shnirman, Alexander; Horovitz, Baruch

    2018-04-01

    We performed STM-ENDOR experiments where the intensity of one of the hyperfine components detected in ESR-STM is recorded while an rf power is irradiated into the tunneling junction and its frequency is swept. When the latter frequency is near a nuclear transition a dip in ESR-STM signal is observed. This experiment was performed in three different systems: near surface SiC vacancies where the electron spin is coupled to a next nearest neighbor 29 Si nucleus; Cu deposited on Si(111)7x7 surface, where the unpaired electron of the Cu atom is coupled to the Cu nucleus ( 63 Cu, 65 Cu) and on Tempo molecules adsorbed on Au(111), where the unpaired electron is coupled to a Nitrogen nucleus ( 14 N). While some of the hyperfine values are unresolved in the ESR-STM data due to linewidth we find that they are accurately determined in the STM-ENDOR data including those from remote nuclei, which are not detected in the ESR-STM spectrum. Furthermore, STM-ENDOR can measure single nuclear Zeeman frequencies, distinguish between isotopes through their different nuclear magnetic moments and detect quadrupole spectra. We also develop and solve a Bloch type equation for the coupled electron-nuclear system that facilitates interpretation of the data. The improved spectral resolution of STM - ENDOR opens many possibilities for nanometric scale chemical analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative assessment of the presence of a single leg separation in Björk-Shiley convexoconcave prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, H A; Maliepaard, C; van der Linden, L P; Jessurun, E R; Ludwig, J W; Plokker, H W; Schalij, M J; Weeda, H W; Laufer, J L; Huysmans, H A; Reiber, J H

    1997-09-01

    The authors developed an analytic software package for the objective and reproducible assessment of a single leg separation (SLS) in the outlet strut of Björk-Shiley convexoconcave (BSCC) prosthetic heart valves. The radiographic cinefilm recordings of 18 phantom valves (12 intact and 6 SLS) and of 43 patient valves were acquired. After digitization of regions of interest in a cineframe, several processing steps were carried out to obtain a one-dimensional corrected and averaged density profile along the central axis of each strut leg. To characterize the degree of possible separation, two quantitative measures were introduced: the normalized pit depth (NPD) and the depth-sigma ratio (DSR). The group of 43 patient studies was divided into a learning set (25 patients) and a test set (18 patients). All phantom valves with an SLS were detected (sensitivity, 100%) at a specificity of 100%. The threshold values for the NPD and the DSR to decide whether a fracture was present or not were 3.6 and 2.5, respectively. On the basis of the visual interpretations of the 25 patient studies (learning set) by an expert panel, it was concluded that none of the patients had an SLS. To achieve a 100% specificity by quantitative analysis, the threshold values for the NPD and the DSR were set at 5.8 and 2.5, respectively, for the patient data. Based on these threshold values, the analysis of patient data from the test set resulted in one false-negative detection and three false-positive detections. An analytic software package for the detection of an SLS was developed. Phantom data showed excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). Further research and software development is needed to increase the sensitivity and specificity for patient data.

  17. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  18. Integrating Quantitative Reasoning into STEM Courses Using an Energy and Environment Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. D.; Lyford, M. E.; Mayes, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    Many secondary and post-secondary science classes do not integrate math into their curriculum, while math classes commonly teach concepts without meaningful context. Consequently, students lack basic quantitative skills and the ability to apply them in real-world contexts. For the past three years, a Wyoming Department of Education funded Math Science Partnership at the University of Wyoming (UW) has brought together middle and high school science and math teachers to model how math and science can be taught together in a meaningful way. The UW QR-STEM project emphasizes the importance of Quantitative Reasoning (QR) to student success in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). To provide a social context, QR-STEM has focused on energy and the environment. In particular, the project has examined how QR and STEM concepts play critical roles in many of the current global challenges of energy and environment. During four 3-day workshops each summer and over several virtual and short face-to-face meetings during the academic year, UW and community college science and math faculty work with math and science teachers from middle and high schools across the state to improve QR instruction in math and science classes. During the summer workshops, faculty from chemistry, physics, earth sciences, biology and math lead sessions to: 1) improve the basic science content knowledge of teachers; 2) improve teacher understanding of math and statistical concepts, 3) model how QR can be taught by engaging teachers in sessions that integrate math and science in an energy and environment context; and 4) focus curricula using Understanding by Design to identify enduring understandings on which to center instructional strategies and assessment. In addition to presenting content, faculty work with teachers as they develop classroom lessons and larger units to be implemented during the school year. Teachers form interdisciplinary groups which often consist of math and

  19. Millijoule Pulse Energy Second Harmonic Generation With Single-Stage Photonic Bandgap Rod Fiber Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Saby, Julien; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, a single-stage Q-switched single-mode (SM) ytterbium-doped rod fiber laser delivering record breaking pulse energies at visible and UV light. We use a photonic bandgap rod fiber with a mode field diameter of 59μm based on a new distributed...

  20. Quantitative considerations in medium energy ion scattering depth profiling analysis of nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalm, P.C.; Bailey, P. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Reading, M.A. [Physics and Materials Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Rossall, A.K. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den, E-mail: j.vandenberg@hud.ac.uk [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The high depth resolution capability of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) is becoming increasingly relevant to the characterisation of nanolayers in e.g. microelectronics. In this paper we examine the attainable quantitative accuracy of MEIS depth profiling. Transparent but reliable analytical calculations are used to illustrate what can ultimately be achieved for dilute impurities in a silicon matrix and the significant element-dependence of the depth scale, for instance, is illustrated this way. Furthermore, the signal intensity-to-concentration conversion and its dependence on the depth of scattering is addressed. Notably, deviations from the Rutherford scattering cross section due to screening effects resulting in a non-coulombic interaction potential and the reduction of the yield owing to neutralization of the exiting, backscattered H{sup +} and He{sup +} projectiles are evaluated. The former mainly affects the scattering off heavy target atoms while the latter is most severe for scattering off light target atoms and can be less accurately predicted. However, a pragmatic approach employing an extensive data set of measured ion fractions for both H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions scattered off a range of surfaces, allows its parameterization. This has enabled the combination of both effects, which provides essential information regarding the yield dependence both on the projectile energy and the mass of the scattering atom. Although, absolute quantification, especially when using He{sup +}, may not always be achievable, relative quantification in which the sum of all species in a layer adds up to 100%, is generally possible. This conclusion is supported by the provision of some examples of MEIS derived depth profiles of nanolayers. Finally, the relative benefits of either using H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions are briefly considered.

  1. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, W.Q.; Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100 kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. - Highlights: • Three multislice algorithms for low-energy transmission electron microscopy are evaluated. • The propagator-corrected algorithm is a good alternative for voltages down to 20 kV. • Below 20 kV, a fully-corrected algorithm has to be employed for quantitative simulations.

  2. Validities of three multislice algorithms for quantitative low-energy transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, W.Q.; Chen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Three different types of multislice algorithms, namely the conventional multislice (CMS) algorithm, the propagator-corrected multislice (PCMS) algorithm and the fully-corrected multislice (FCMS) algorithm, have been evaluated in comparison with respect to the accelerating voltages in transmission electron microscopy. Detailed numerical calculations have been performed to test their validities. The results show that the three algorithms are equivalent for accelerating voltage above 100 kV. However, below 100 kV, the CMS algorithm will introduce significant errors, not only for higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections but also for zero-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) reflections. The differences between the PCMS and FCMS algorithms are negligible and mainly appear in HOLZ reflections. Nonetheless, when the accelerating voltage is further lowered to 20 kV or below, the PCMS algorithm will also yield results deviating from the FCMS results. The present study demonstrates that the propagation of the electron wave from one slice to the next slice is actually cross-correlated with the crystal potential in a complex manner, such that when the accelerating voltage is lowered to 10 kV, the accuracy of the algorithms is dependent of the scattering power of the specimen. - Highlights: • Three multislice algorithms for low-energy transmission electron microscopy are evaluated. • The propagator-corrected algorithm is a good alternative for voltages down to 20 kV. • Below 20 kV, a fully-corrected algorithm has to be employed for quantitative simulations

  3. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-01-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  4. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia’s reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede, E-mail: gwibawa@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS), Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  5. Quantitative analysis of Indonesia's reserves and energy security as an evaluation by the nation in facing global competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiratama, Hadi; Yerido, Hezron; Tetrisyanda, Rizki; Ginting, Rizqy R.; Wibawa, Gede

    2015-12-01

    Energy security has become a serious concern for all countries in the world and each country has its own definiton for measuring its energy security. The objective of this study was to measure energy security of Indonesia quantitatively by comparing it with other countries and provide some recommendations for enhancing the energy security. In this study, the database was developed from various sources and was cross-checked to confirm validity of the data. Then the parameters of energy security were defined, where all of data will be processed towards the selected parameters. These parameters (e.g. Primary Energy mix, TPES/capita, FEC/capita, Self Sufficiency, Refining capacity, Overseas Energy Resources, Resources diversification) are the standards used to produce an analysis or evaluation of national energy management. Energy balances for Indonesia and 10 selected countries (USA, Germany, Russia, England, Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand and India) were presented from 2009 to 2013. With a base index of 1.0 for Indonesia, calculated energy security index capable of representing Indonesia energy security compared relatively to other countries were also presented and discussed in detail. In 2012, Indonesia security index is ranked 11 from 11 countries, while USA and South Korea are the highest with security index of 3.36 and 2.89, respectively. According to prediction for 2025, Indonesia energy security is ranked 10 from 11 countries with only Thailand has lower security index (0.98). This result shows that Indonesia energy security was vulnerable to crisis and must be improved. Therefore this study proposed some recommendations to improve Indonesia energy security. Indonesia need to increase oil production by constructing new refinery plants, developing infrastructure for energy distribution to reduce the potential of energy shortage and accelerating the utilization of renewable energy to reduce the excessive use of primary energy. From energy policy

  6. Design and Implementation of Wireless Energy Meter System for Monitoring the Single Phase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    U. V, Prashanth B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless energy meter is a system developed to serve as a basic single-phase energy meter with advanced functionalities such as Peak hour setting, Peak load setting Wireless reading transmission; further the system eliminates the role of a Meter Reader.

  7. Exact results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: Formalism and applications in chemical kinetics and single-molecule free energy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.

  8. Quantitative myocardial thallium single-photon emission computed tomography in normal women: demonstration of age-related differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Touzery, C.; Cottin, Y.; Benoit, T.; Athis, P. d'; Roy, S.; Louis, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Rigo, P.; Brunotte, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is the development of a database of normal women for quantitative analysis of exercise and reinjection myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET). We studied 101 subjects (40 males and 61 females) with less than 5% likelihood of coronary artery disease. All patients underwent stress and rest thallium-201 myocardial SPET. Myocardial stress was induced by bicycle exercise test (n=51), dipyridamole infusion (n=27) or a combined test (n=23). Multivariate ANOVA showed that the type of stress did not influence the percentage of thallium uptake for each region. Significant differences between men and women were found for the percentage of uptake in the inferior and the anterior wall. The most original finding of this study is the correlation between age and thallium uptake in the three regions of the anterior wall, showing an increase in measured thallium uptake with age for women. Consequently, two groups of women, those under and those over 55 years old, were separated, with a significantly lower tracer uptake in the anterior wall in the younger age group. (orig./MG)

  9. Modeling the Dispersibility of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solvents by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hayriye; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, including behavior in organic solvents is very important for design, manufacturing and utilizing of their counterparts with improved properties. In the present study a quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) approach was applied to predict the dispersibility of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in various organic solvents. A number of additive descriptors and quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated and utilized to build QSAR models. The best predictability is shown by a 4-variable model. The model showed statistically good results (R2training = 0.797, Q2 = 0.665, R2test = 0.807), with high internal and external correlation coefficients. Presence of the X0Av descriptor and its negative term suggest that small size solvents have better SWCNTs solubility. Mass weighted descriptor ATS6m also indicates that heavier solvents (and small in size) most probably are better solvents for SWCNTs. The presence of the Dipole Z descriptor indicates that higher polarizability of the solvent molecule increases the solubility. The developed model and contributed descriptors can help to understand the mechanism of the dispersion process and predictorganic solvents that improve the dispersibility of SWNTs. PMID:28347035

  10. Modeling the Dispersibility of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solvents by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Yilmaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of physico-chemical properties of carbon nanotubes, including behavior in organic solvents is very important for design, manufacturing and utilizing of their counterparts with improved properties. In the present study a quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR approach was applied to predict the dispersibility of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in various organic solvents. A number of additive descriptors and quantum-chemical descriptors were calculated and utilized to build QSAR models. The best predictability is shown by a 4-variable model. The model showed statistically good results (R2training = 0.797, Q2 = 0.665, R2test = 0.807, with high internal and external correlation coefficients. Presence of the X0Av descriptor and its negative term suggest that small size solvents have better SWCNTs solubility. Mass weighted descriptor ATS6m also indicates that heavier solvents (and small in size most probably are better solvents for SWCNTs. The presence of the Dipole Z descriptor indicates that higher polarizability of the solvent molecule increases the solubility. The developed model and contributed descriptors can help to understand the mechanism of the dispersion process and predictorganic solvents that improve the dispersibility of SWNTs.

  11. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  12. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Results: Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40–77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas – tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 ke

  14. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  15. Single-particle energies and density of states in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, H.; Chan, G. K.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is commonly used as the foundation to obtain neutral excited states and transition weights in DFT, but does not allow direct access to density of states and single-particle energies, i.e. ionisation energies and electron affinities. Here we show that by extending TD-DFT to a superfluid formulation, which involves operators that break particle-number symmetry, we can obtain the density of states and single-particle energies from the poles of an appropriate superfluid response function. The standard Kohn- Sham eigenvalues emerge as the adiabatic limit of the superfluid response under the assumption that the exchange- correlation functional has no dependence on the superfluid density. The Kohn- Sham eigenvalues can thus be interpreted as approximations to the ionisation energies and electron affinities. Beyond this approximation, the formalism provides an incentive for creating a new class of density functionals specifically targeted at accurate single-particle eigenvalues and bandgaps.

  16. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables

  17. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  18. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  19. Energy scavenging based on a single-crystal PMN-PT nanobelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Cai, Wei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Yao, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Self-powered nanodevices scavenging mechanical energy require piezoelectric nanostructures with high piezoelectric coefficients. Here we report the fabrication of a single-crystal (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanobelt with a superior piezoelectric constant (d33 = ~550 pm/V), which is approximately ~150%, 430%, and 2100% of the largest reported values for previous PMN-PT, PZT and ZnO nanostructures, respectively. The high d33 of the single-crystalline PMN-PT nanobelt results from the precise orientation control during its fabrication. As a demonstration of its application in energy scavenging, a piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) is built on the single PMN-PT nanobelt, generating a maximum output voltage of ~1.2 V. This value is ~4 times higher than that of a single-CdTe PNG, ~13 times higher than that of a single-ZnSnO3 PNG, and ~26 times higher than that of a single-ZnO PNG. The profoundly increased output voltage of a lateral PNG built on a single PMN-PT nanobelt demonstrates the potential application of PMN-PT nanostructures in energy harvesting, thus enriching the material choices for PNGs.

  20. In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (≤ 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (≥ 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

  1. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use of these products may lead to consumer and/or environmental exposure to TiO2, possibly in form of nanoparticles. The aim of this study is to perform a leaching test and apply state-of-the-art methods to investigate nano-TiO2 and total Ti release from five types of commercially available conventional textiles: table placemats, wet wipes, microfiber cloths, and two types of baby bodysuits, with Ti contents ranging from 2.63 to 1448 μg/g. Released particle analysis was performed using conventional and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and spICP-MS), in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to measure total and particulate TiO2 release by mass and particle number, as well as size distribution. Less than 1% of the initial Ti content was released over 24 h of leaching, with the highest releases reaching 3.13 μg/g. The fraction of nano-TiO2 released varied among fabric types and represented 0-80% of total TiO2 release. Particle mode sizes were 50-75 nm, and TEM imaging revealed particles in sizes of 80-200 nm. This study highlights the importance of using a multi-method approach to obtain quantitative release data that is able to provide an indication regarding particle number, size distribution, and mass concentration, all of which can help in understanding the fate and exposure of nanoparticles.

  2. 3D quantitative assessment of response to fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy and single-session stereotactic radiosurgery of vestibular schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Chapiro, J. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lin, M. [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound Imaging and Interventions (UII), Briarcliff Manor, NY (United States); Geschwind, J.F. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Science, New Haven, CT (United States); Kleinberg, L. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rigamonti, D.; Jusue-Torres, I.; Marciscano, A.E. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yousem, D.M. [The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Division of Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    To determine clinical outcome of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS) after treatment with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) and single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) by using 3D quantitative response assessment on MRI. This retrospective analysis included 162 patients who underwent radiation therapy for sporadic VS. Measurements on T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (in 2-year post-therapy intervals: 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12 years) were taken for total tumour volume (TTV) and enhancing tumour volume (ETV) based on a semi-automated technique. Patients were considered non-responders (NRs) if they required subsequent microsurgical resection or developed radiological progression and tumour-related symptoms. Median follow-up was 4.1 years (range: 0.4-12.0). TTV and ETV decreased for both the FSRT and SRS groups. However, only the FSRT group achieved significant tumour shrinkage (p < 0.015 for TTV, p < 0.005 for ETV over time). The 11 NRs showed proportionally greater TTV (median TTV pre-treatment: 0.61 cm{sup 3}, 8-10 years after: 1.77 cm{sup 3}) and ETV despite radiation therapy compared to responders (median TTV pre-treatment: 1.06 cm{sup 3}; 10-12 years after: 0.81 cm{sup 3}; p = 0.001). 3D quantification of VS showed a significant decrease in TTV and ETV on FSRT-treated patients only. NR had significantly greater TTV and ETV over time. (orig.)

  3. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  4. An EPMA study on KNbO3 and NaNbO3 single crystals - potential reference materials for quantitative microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardzzija, Z.; Bernik, S.; Malic, B.; Ceh, M.; Marinenko, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of KNbO 3 and NaNbO 3 were selected from the limited number of suitable alkali compounds that are available and evaluated as possible reference materials for the electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) of alkaline niobates with a composition described by the general formula K 1-x Na x NbO 3 . The EPMA study verified that KNbO 3 and NaNbO 3 single crystals are stable under the electron beam and compositionally homogeneous. A quantitative microanalysis confirmed the composition of pure KNbO 3 , while the NaNbO 3 crystal contained 0.3 mass fraction % of Ca. A significant improvement in the accuracy of the quantitative EPMA of polycrystalline potassium-sodium niobates was achieved using these single crystals as standards. The crystals can also be useful as reference materials for the analysis of sodium and potassium in other materials. (author)

  5. Bayesian view of single-qubit clocks, and an energy versus accuracy tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Kandula, Varshith; Sriram, Praveen; Deshpande, Abhishek; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2017-09-01

    We bring a Bayesian approach to the analysis of clocks. Using exponential distributions as priors for clocks, we analyze how well one can keep time with a single qubit freely precessing under a magnetic field. We find that, at least with a single qubit, quantum mechanics does not allow exact timekeeping, in contrast to classical mechanics, which does. We find the design of the single-qubit clock that leads to maximum accuracy. Further, we find an energy versus accuracy tradeoff—the energy cost is at least kBT times the improvement in accuracy as measured by the entropy reduction in going from the prior distribution to the posterior distribution. We propose a physical realization of the single-qubit clock using charge transport across a capacitively coupled quantum dot.

  6. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    , and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...... that the use of this approach produced a better renovation with a larger energy saving. The initial evaluation helped the house owners identify a maintenance backlog, and the use of an independent advisor helped ensure quality throughout the process. Renovations are too often carried out for just one purpose......: maintenance, to update functions or to reduce energy consumption. But a lot can be gained by combining these efforts, which can reduce expenses for planning and execution and avoid doing things twice. Research for this thesis demonstrated this approach by carrying out a renovation based on maintenance...

  7. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses...... with heat pumps and floor heating are investigated for storage capability. The aim is to shift energy consumption a few hours in time to mitigate the effect of fluctuating production from wind and other renewable energy sources on the grid. Based on measurements in six inhabited houses for approximately...... a year prediction models are analysed. The main topic of this work is to investigate how behaviour of inhabitants affect the quality of predictions. Unfortunately the output of the models for single inhabited single family houses seems to give large standard deviations of the predictions, and aggregated...

  8. Machine learning of single molecule free energy surfaces and the impact of chemistry and environment upon structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, Rachael A; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2015-03-14

    The conformational states explored by polymers and proteins can be controlled by environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and solvent) and molecular chemistry (e.g., molecular weight and side chain identity). We introduce an approach employing the diffusion map nonlinear machine learning technique to recover single molecule free energy landscapes from molecular simulations, quantify changes to the landscape as a function of external conditions and molecular chemistry, and relate these changes to modifications of molecular structure and dynamics. In an application to an n-eicosane chain, we quantify the thermally accessible chain configurations as a function of temperature and solvent conditions. In an application to a family of polyglutamate-derivative homopeptides, we quantify helical stability as a function of side chain length, resolve the critical side chain length for the helix-coil transition, and expose the molecular mechanisms underpinning side chain-mediated helix stability. By quantifying single molecule responses through perturbations to the underlying free energy surface, our approach provides a quantitative bridge between experimentally controllable variables and microscopic molecular behavior, guiding and informing rational engineering of desirable molecular structure and function.

  9. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  10. The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more. -- Highlights: •Actors do not see energy efficiency as a critical problem. •Factors other than costs and price were important in the decision making. •Energy issues just one factor in housing purchase decisions. •The consumers don′t know what to ask for. •Building norms should require the most energy efficient solution

  11. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O. A.; Wong, C. W.; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices

  12. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  13. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  14. Quantitative low-energy electron diffraction analysis of the GaN(000-1) (1×1) reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Paskova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 606, 7-8 (2012), s. 740-743 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/10/P028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : gallium nitride * semiconductor surfaces * quantitative low-energy electron diffraction * LEED Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2012

  15. Systematic measurements of the gain and the energy resolution of single and double mask GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Schmidt, D.J.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.

  16. Beyond the random-phase approximation for the electron correlation energy: the importance of single excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinguo; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2011-04-15

    The random-phase approximation (RPA) for the electron correlation energy, combined with the exact-exchange (EX) energy, represents the state-of-the-art exchange-correlation functional within density-functional theory. However, the standard RPA practice--evaluating both the EX and the RPA correlation energies using Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals from local or semilocal exchange-correlation functionals--leads to a systematic underbinding of molecules and solids. Here we demonstrate that this behavior can be corrected by adding a "single excitation" contribution, so far not included in the standard RPA scheme. A similar improvement can also be achieved by replacing the non-self-consistent EX total energy by the corresponding self-consistent Hartree-Fock total energy, while retaining the RPA correlation energy evaluated using KS orbitals. Both schemes achieve chemical accuracy for a standard benchmark set of noncovalent intermolecular interactions.

  17. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  18. Interfacial free energy governs single polystyrene chain collapse in water and aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Isaac T S; Walker, Gilbert C

    2010-05-12

    The hydrophobic interaction is significantly responsible for driving protein folding and self-assembly. To understand it, the thermodynamics, the role of water structure, the dewetting process surrounding hydrophobes, and related aspects have undergone extensive investigations. Here, we examine the hypothesis that polymer-solvent interfacial free energy is adequate to describe the energetics of the collapse of a hydrophobic homopolymer chain at fixed temperature, which serves as a much simplified model for studying the hydrophobic collapse of a protein. This implies that changes in polymer-solvent interfacial free energy should be directly proportional to the force to extend a collapsed polymer into a bad solvent. To test this hypothesis, we undertook single-molecule force spectroscopy on a collapsed, single, polystyrene chain in water-ethanol and water-salt mixtures where we measured the monomer solvation free energy from an ensemble average conformations. Different proportions within the binary mixture were used to create solvents with different interfacial free energies with polystyrene. In these mixed solvents, we observed a linear correlation between the interfacial free energy and the force required to extend the chain into solution, which is a direct measure of the solvation free energy per monomer on a single chain at room temperature. A simple analytical model compares favorably with the experimental results. This knowledge supports a common assumption that explicit water solvent may not be necessary for cases whose primary concerns are hydrophobic interactions and hydrophobic hydration.

  19. Reorganization energy upon charging a single molecule on an insulator measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatayer, Shadi; Schuler, Bruno; Steurer, Wolfram; Scivetti, Ivan; Repp, Jascha; Gross, Leo; Persson, Mats; Meyer, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Intermolecular single-electron transfer on electrically insulating films is a key process in molecular electronics1-4 and an important example of a redox reaction5,6. Electron-transfer rates in molecular systems depend on a few fundamental parameters, such as interadsorbate distance, temperature and, in particular, the Marcus reorganization energy7. This crucial parameter is the energy gain that results from the distortion of the equilibrium nuclear geometry in the molecule and its environment on charging8,9. The substrate, especially ionic films10, can have an important influence on the reorganization energy11,12. Reorganization energies are measured in electrochemistry13 as well as with optical14,15 and photoemission spectroscopies16,17, but not at the single-molecule limit and nor on insulating surfaces. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), with single-charge sensitivity18-22, atomic-scale spatial resolution20 and operable on insulating films, overcomes these challenges. Here, we investigate redox reactions of single naphthalocyanine (NPc) molecules on multilayered NaCl films. Employing the atomic force microscope as an ultralow current meter allows us to measure the differential conductance related to transitions between two charge states in both directions. Thereby, the reorganization energy of NPc on NaCl is determined as (0.8 ± 0.2) eV, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide the atomistic picture of the nuclear relaxations on charging. Our approach presents a route to perform tunnelling spectroscopy of single adsorbates on insulating substrates and provides insight into single-electron intermolecular transport.

  20. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  1. The value of quantitative gallium-67 single-photon emission tomography in the clinical management of malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokkel, M.P.M.; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van; Takes, R.P.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish whether quantitative gallium-67 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) represents an accurate method for the assessment of infection and, moreover, for the monitoring of therapeutic effect. Eight patients (five males, three females) with the clinical diagnosis of MEO were studied. In three patients antibiotic treatment was prolonged for several weeks because visual analysis of gallium scintigraphy still showed slightly increased uptake in the affected area on the first follow-up scan. In one patient, it was decided to stop antibiotic treatment despite a slight increase in uptake on the second follow-up scan. Lesion to non-lesion (L/NL) ratios obtained from 67 Ga SPET images at initial diagnosis and during follow-up were assessed in correlation with clinical and biochemical data and with the results of CT scans. In addition to a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), all patients showed increased uptake on the affected side, with L/NL ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.6 at the time of diagnosis. CT scans failed to demonstrate abnormalities in four patients. Including four scans demonstrating slightly increased uptake in the affected area, L/NL ratios after 6-8 weeks of antibiotic treatment were 1.0±0.1. Despite a persistently elevated ESR in the majority of patients, none of them demonstrated local recurrence or complications during follow-up. In all patients, leucocyte count was within the normal range throughout the course. No relation was found between the slightly increased uptake on the follow-up scans and surgical treatment. It is concluded that in addition to the visual analysis of 67 Ga SPET imaging, L/NL ratios should be calculated for a more accurate assessment of disease activity in MEO. Despite visually slightly increased uptake, L/NL ratios of 1.0±0.1 during follow-up are highly indicative of complete recovery, regardless of ESR values or leucocytosis. CT scans are of little value for diagnosis or for

  2. The value of quantitative gallium-67 single-photon emission tomography in the clinical management of malignant external otitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokkel, M.P.M.; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology, Leiden University Hospital (Netherlands); Takes, R.P.; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Leiden University Hospital (Netherlands)

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish whether quantitative gallium-67 single-photon emission tomography (SPET) represents an accurate method for the assessment of infection and, moreover, for the monitoring of therapeutic effect. Eight patients (five males, three females) with the clinical diagnosis of MEO were studied. In three patients antibiotic treatment was prolonged for several weeks because visual analysis of gallium scintigraphy still showed slightly increased uptake in the affected area on the first follow-up scan. In one patient, it was decided to stop antibiotic treatment despite a slight increase in uptake on the second follow-up scan. Lesion to non-lesion (L/NL) ratios obtained from {sup 67}Ga SPET images at initial diagnosis and during follow-up were assessed in correlation with clinical and biochemical data and with the results of CT scans. In addition to a raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), all patients showed increased uptake on the affected side, with L/NL ratios ranging from 1.4 to 3.6 at the time of diagnosis. CT scans failed to demonstrate abnormalities in four patients. Including four scans demonstrating slightly increased uptake in the affected area, L/NL ratios after 6-8 weeks of antibiotic treatment were 1.0{+-}0.1. Despite a persistently elevated ESR in the majority of patients, none of them demonstrated local recurrence or complications during follow-up. In all patients, leucocyte count was within the normal range throughout the course. No relation was found between the slightly increased uptake on the follow-up scans and surgical treatment. It is concluded that in addition to the visual analysis of {sup 67}Ga SPET imaging, L/NL ratios should be calculated for a more accurate assessment of disease activity in MEO. Despite visually slightly increased uptake, L/NL ratios of 1.0{+-}0.1 during follow-up are highly indicative of complete recovery, regardless of ESR values or leucocytosis. CT scans are of little value for

  3. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  4. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  5. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Mellado, B; Proudfoot, J; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A; Stanek, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets (SEU) performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip for switching power supplies. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and present a solution using external circuitry to effectively eliminate the effect.

  6. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Finkel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices.

  7. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  8. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  9. Identifying Incomplete Atypical Femoral Fractures With Single-Energy Absorptiometry: Declining Prevalence

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenna, Malachi

    2017-03-01

    Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) are associated with long-term bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. Early identification of AFF prior to their completion provides an opportunity to intervene, potentially reducing morbidity associated with these fractures. Single-energy X-ray absorptiometry (SE) is an imaging method recently shown to detect incomplete AFF (iAFF) prior to fracture completion.

  10. Stacking fault energy measurements in WSe2 single crystals using weak-beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, M.K.; Patel, J.V.; Patel, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    The weak-beam method of electron microscopy is used to observe threefold dislocations in WSe 2 single crystals grown by direct vapour transport method. The widths of the three fold ribbons are used to determine the stacking fault energy in these crystals. Variation of the width of the ribbons with temperature are also studied and discussed. (author)

  11. Barriers for Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses and Suggested Solutions to Overcome These

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2011-01-01

    As much as 40% of the total energy consumption in Denmark is utilized by the building sector and most of this energy is used for heating. Political initiatives have been taken to reduce this amount considerably but for this to happen, the energy consumption of the existing residential housing stock...... must be reduced dramatically. The greatest saving potential is found among the approximately 440.000 standardised single-family houses which were constructed in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It is found that barriers preventing the implementation of this great potential are present in various forms among all...

  12. Low-energy neutron-induced single-event upsets in static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoqiang; Guo Hongxia; Wang Guizhen; Ling Dongsheng; Chen Wei; Bai Xiaoyan; Yang Shanchao; Liu Yan

    2009-01-01

    The visual analysis method of data process was provided for neutron-induced single-event upset(SEU) in static random access memory(SRAM). The SEU effects of six CMOS SRAMs with different feature size(from 0.13 μm to 1.50 μm) were studied. The SEU experiments were performed using the neutron radiation environment at Xi'an pulsed reactor. And the dependence of low-energy neutron-induced SEU cross section on SRAM's feature size was given. The results indicate that the decreased critical charge is the dominant factor for the increase of single event effect sensitivity of SRAM devices with decreased feature size. Small-sized SRAM devices are more sensitive than large-sized ones to single event effect induced by low-energy neutrons. (authors)

  13. Computing Relative Free Energies of Solvation using Single Reference Thermodynamic Integration Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Wallqvist, Anders

    2010-11-09

    This paper introduces an efficient single-topology variant of Thermodynamic Integration (TI) for computing relative transformation free energies in a series of molecules with respect to a single reference state. The presented TI variant that we refer to as Single-Reference TI (SR-TI) combines well-established molecular simulation methodologies into a practical computational tool. Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange (HREX), the SR-TI variant can deliver enhanced sampling in select degrees of freedom. The utility of the SR-TI variant is demonstrated in calculations of relative solvation free energies for a series of benzene derivatives with increasing complexity. Noteworthy, the SR-TI variant with the HREX option provides converged results in a challenging case of an amide molecule with a high (13-15 kcal/mol) barrier for internal cis/trans interconversion using simulation times of only 1 to 4 ns.

  14. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

  15. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  16. Quantitative on-chip determination of taurine in energy and sports drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, S.; Revermann, T.; Karst, U.

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the quantitative determination of taurine in beverages by microchip electrophoresis was developed. A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure, only including two dilution steps and the addition of the fluorogenic labeling reagent NBD-Cl (4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan), is

  17. Monte carlo study of MOSFET packaging, optimised for improved energy response: single MOSFET filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M A R; Cutajar, D L; Hardcastle, N; Guatelli, S; Rosenfeld, A B

    2010-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the energy response of a conventionally packaged single metal-oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET) detector were performed with the goal of improving MOSFET energy dependence for personal accident or military dosimetry. The MOSFET detector packaging was optimised. Two different 'drop-in' design packages for a single MOSFET detector were modelled and optimised using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Absorbed photon dose simulations of the MOSFET dosemeter placed in free-air response, corresponding to the absorbed doses at depths of 0.07 mm (D(w)(0.07)) and 10 mm (D(w)(10)) in a water equivalent phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm(3) for photon energies of 0.015-2 MeV were performed. Energy dependence was reduced to within + or - 60 % for photon energies 0.06-2 MeV for both D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10). Variations in the response for photon energies of 15-60 keV were 200 and 330 % for D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10), respectively. The obtained energy dependence was reduced compared with that for conventionally packaged MOSFET detectors, which usually exhibit a 500-700 % over-response when used in free-air geometry.

  18. Three-dimensional atomic-image reconstruction from a single-energy Si(100) photoelectron hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Agui, A.; Yoshigoe, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: J. J. Barton proposed a basic algorithm for three-dimensional atomic-image reconstruction from photoelectron hologram, which is based on the Fourier transform(FT). In the use of a single-energy hologram, the twin-image appears in principle. The twin image disappears in the use of multi-energy hologram, which requires longer measuring time and variable-energy light source. But the reconstruction in the use of a simple FT is difficult because the scattered electron wave is not s-symmetric wave. Many theoretical and experimental approaches based on the FT have been researched. We propose a new algorithm so-called 'scattering pattern matrix', which is not based on the FT. The algorithm utilizes the 'scattering pattern', and iterative gradient method. Real space image can be reconstructed from a single-energy hologram without initial model. In addition, the twin image disappears. We reconstructed the three-dimensional atomic image of Si bulk structure from an experimental single-energy hologram of Si(100) 2s emission, which is shown The experiment was performed with using a Al-K α light source. The experimental setup is shown in. Then we calculated a vertical slice image of the reconstructed Si bulk structure, which is shown. The atomic images appear around the expected positions

  19. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, G; Mileto, A; Gaeta, M; Blandino, A; Mazziotti, S; Scribano, E

    2013-02-01

    To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate "all-in-one'' approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-phase dual-energy CT urography in the evaluation of haematuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenti, G.; Mileto, A.; Gaeta, M.; Blandino, A.; Mazziotti, S.; Scribano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of a single-phase dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) urography protocol with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement and to calculate the potential dose reduction by omitting the unenhanced scan. Materials and methods: Eighty-four patients referred for haematuria underwent CT urography using a protocol that included single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase scans. DECT-based images [virtual unenhanced (VUE), weighted average, and colour-coded iodine overlay] were reconstructed. Opacification degree by contrast media of the upper urinary tract, and image quality of virtual unenhanced images were independently evaluated using a four-point scale. The diagnostic accuracy in detecting urothelial tumours on DECT-based images was determined. The dose of a theoretical dual-phase single-energy protocol was obtained by multiplying the effective dose of the unenhanced single-energy acquisition by two. Radiation dose saving by omitting the unenhanced scan was calculated. Results: The degree of opacification was scored as optimal or good in 86.9% of cases (k = 0.72); VUE image quality was excellent or good in 83.3% of cases (k = 0.82). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for urothelial tumours detection were 85.7, 98.6, 92.3, and 97.1%. Omission of the unenhanced scan led to a mean dose reduction of 42.7 ± 5%. Conclusion: Single-phase DECT urography with synchronous nephrographic–excretory phase enhancement represents an accurate “all-in-one’’ approach with a radiation dose saving up to 45% compared with a standard dual-phase protocol.

  1. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions...... in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7% reduction in natural gas consumption....

  2. Different heating systems for single family house: Energy and economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Valentina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing building stock energy consumption accounts for about 38% of final energy consumption in Republic of Serbia. 70% of that energy is consumed by residential sector, mostly for space heating. This research is addressed to the single family house building placed in the Belgrade city. The house has ground and first floor with total heating area of 130 m2 and pellet as space heating source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate energy and economic analysis for different heating systems. Several homeheating were compared: Option 1 (biomass combustion boiler using pellet as a fuel, Option 2 (gas combustion boiler and Option 3 (heat pump. The building performance was evaluated by TRNSYS 17 simulation code. Results show estimated savings using renewable energy sources. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42008

  3. Single-electron capture in low-energy Ar6+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akguengoer, K.; Kamber, E.Y.; Ferguson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Double differential cross sections for state-selective single-electron capture processes in Ar 6+ -He collisions have been measured at laboratory energies between 75 and 900 eV and scattering angles between 0 and 8 . At the lowest energy, the zero-angle spectrum shows capture into Ar 5+ (4p) to be the most important channel. However, as the scattering angle is increased, a second peak appears at angles ≥2 and becomes more pronounced relative to the 4p capture channel. The energy spectra are interpreted qualitatively in terms of the reaction windows, which are calculated using the single-crossing Landau-Zener model. Total and differential cross sections are also measured and compared with available measurements and calculations. (orig.)

  4. High Energy, Single-Mode, All-Solid-State and Tunable UV Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Hovis, FLoyd

    2007-01-01

    A high energy, single mode, all solid-state Nd:YAG laser primarily for pumping an UV converter is developed. Greater than 1 J/pulse at 50 HZ PRF and pulse widths around 22 ns have been demonstrated. Higher energy, greater efficiency may be possible. Refinements are known and practical to implement. Technology Demonstration of a highly efficient, high-pulse-energy, single mode UV wavelength generation using flash lamp pumped laser has been achieved. Greater than 90% pump depletion is observed. 190 mJ extra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency > 21% (> 27% for 1 mJ seed). 160 mJ intra-cavity SFG; IR to UV efficiency up to 24% Fluence laser is being refined to match or exceed the above UV converter results. Currently the Nd:YAG pump laser development is a technology demonstration. System can be engineered for compact packaging.

  5. Characterization of membrane protein interactions in plasma membrane derived vesicles with quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Del Piccolo, Nuala; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-08-18

    Here we describe an experimental tool, termed quantitative imaging Förster resonance energy transfer (QI-FRET), that enables the quantitative characterization of membrane protein interactions. The QI-FRET methodology allows us to acquire binding curves and calculate association constants for complex membrane proteins in the native plasma membrane environment. The method utilizes FRET detection, and thus requires that the proteins of interest are labeled with florescent proteins, either FRET donors or FRET acceptors. Since plasma membranes of cells have complex topologies precluding the acquisition of two-dimensional binding curves, the FRET measurements are performed in plasma membrane derived vesicles that bud off cells as a result of chemical or osmotic stress. The results overviewed here are acquired in vesicles produced with an osmotic vesiculation buffer developed in our laboratory, which does not utilize harsh chemicals. The concentrations of the donor-labeled and the acceptor-labeled proteins are determined, along with the FRET efficiencies, in each vesicle. The experiments utilize transient transfection, such that a wide variety of concentrations is sampled. Then, data from hundreds of vesicles are combined to yield dimerization curves. Here we discuss recent findings about the dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), membrane proteins that control cell growth and differentiation via lateral dimerization in the plasma membrane. We focus on the dimerization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), a RTK that plays a critically important role in skeletal development. We study the role of different FGFR3 domains in FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand, and we show that FGFR3 extracellular domains inhibit unliganded dimerization, while contacts between the juxtamembrane domains, which connect the transmembrane domains to the kinase domains, stabilize the unliganded FGFR3 dimers. Since FGFR3 has been documented to harbor many pathogenic

  6. Drivers and inhibitors of renewable energy: A qualitative and quantitative study of the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, David; Vredenburg, Harrie; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the factors that affect the development of renewable energy in the Caribbean. The Caribbean region can serve as a laboratory in studying the institutional issues relating to energy development due to the differences in political jurisdictions over a short distance. Based on 12 case studies and 75 in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders, we identified five factors that appear to be critical for the development of renewable energy in the Caribbean: entrepreneurship attitudes, the role of local champions, the electric utility influence, informal institutions and the influence of international agencies. We built a multiple regression model to test these relationships through a survey of 34 political jurisdictions in the Caribbean. The statistical analysis we conducted suggests that informal institutions have a significant impact on the extent of renewable energy development, while the incumbent electricity utilities’ influence may impede the development of renewable energy. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations on how best to make use of these factors identified, in order to develop effective energy policies throughout the Caribbean. - Highlights: • Informal institutions impact the effectiveness of renewable energy policies • Electric utilities’ positioning can impede the development of renewable energy. • Entrepreneurship attitude may impact renewable energy development. • Role of champions and impact of international agencies may be additional factors

  7. Effect of energy selection on quantitative analysis in secondary ion microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, I.M.; Solberg, T.N.; Smith, J.V.; Clayton, R.N.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    1977-01-01

    Systematic change of voltage on the components of the secondary ion (SI) extraction system of our AEI-IM20 ion microprobe produced major changes of relative intensities of secondary ions passing through the mass spectrometer. The repeller, which bends the SI beam through about 60 0 , has the greatest effect, and can be used to plot the energy distribution. The extractor and the deflecting and focusing components have smaller but significant effects. Because low-energy secondary ions have a near-symmetrical distribution, whereas high-energy ones have an assymetric distribution favoring high energies, tuning of the acceptance band to higher energy reduces interference from low-energy ions, which tend to be unwanted molecular ions, at the expense of reduced transmission. Tuning to lower energy increases interference but gives higher transmission. The former condition is desirable for instruments restricted to low mass resolution, whereas both conditions are valuable for instruments adjustable for both high and low mass resolution. Other important factors are (a) sensitivity to surface irregularities which perturb SI energy collection, and (b) change in derived 'temperatures' from thermodynamic sputtering models merely from tuning the energy acceptance band. Careful attention to the above factors yielded reproducible SI ratios for the binary series of plagioclase feldspars. (Auth.)

  8. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: brian.miller@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States); Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fisher, Darrell R. [Dade Moeller Health Group, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  9. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W; Frost, Sofia H L; Frayo, Shani L; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C; Green, Damian J; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Orozco, Johnnie J; Press, Oliver W; Pagel, John M; Sandmaier, Brenda M

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50-80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ((211)At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) cpm/cm(2) (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was

  10. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Svendsen, Svend; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Paiho, Satu; Ala-Juusela, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the Nordic countries there is significant primary energy saving potential in single-family houses from 1970s. ► There are several behavioral, economical and market related hindrances to adoption of energy efficiency measures. ► One-stop-shop business models to offer full service energy renovation packages are slowly emerging. ► Marketing strategies and policy measures are required to promote full service energy renovation of single-family house. - Abstract: In Nordic countries significant primary energy saving potential exists in houses built before 1980. These old houses need to be renovated, which provides an opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures. However, there are several economic and market hindrances and the renovation markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses are discussed

  11. Financing U.S. Renewable Energy Projects Through Public Capital Vehicles: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Feldman, D.

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores the possibility of financing renewable energy projects through raising capital in the public markets. It gives an overview of the size, structure, and benefits of public capital markets, as well as showing how renewable energy projects might take advantage of this source of new funds to lower the cost of electricity.

  12. Experimental and analytical parametric study of single-crystal unimorph beams for vibration energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, M Amin; Bilgen, Onur; Inman, Daniel J; Friswell, Michael I

    2011-07-01

    This research presents an experimental and theoretical energy harvesting characterization of beam-like, uniform cross-section, unimorph structures employing single-crystal piezoelectrics. Different piezoelectric materials, substrates, and configurations are examined to identify the best design configuration for lightweight energy harvesting devices for low-power applications. Three types of piezoelectrics (singlecrystal PMN-PZT, polycrystalline PZT-5A, and PZT-5H-type monolithic ceramics) are evaluated in a unimorph cantilevered beam configuration. The devices have been excited by harmonic base acceleration. All of the experimental characteristics have been used to validate an exact electromechanical model of the harvester. The study shows the optimum choice of substrate material for single-crystal piezoelectric energy harvesting. Comparison of energy scavengers with stainless steel substrates reveals that single-crystal harvesters produce superior power compared with polycrystalline devices. To further optimize the power harvesting, we study the relation between the thickness of the substrate and the power output for different substrate materials. The relation between power and substrate thickness profoundly varies among different substrate materials. The variation is understood by examining the change of mechanical transmissibility and the variations of the coupling figure of merit of the harvesters with thickness ratio. The investigation identifies the optimal thickness of the substrate for different substrate materials. The study also shows that the densities of the substrates and their mechanical damping coefficients have significant effects on the power output.

  13. Evolution of Single-Particle Energies for N=9 Nuclei at Large N/Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuosmaa A. H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the nucleus 14B using the 13B(d,p14B and 15C(d,3He14B reactions. The two reactions provide complementary information about the negative-parity 1s1/2 and 0d5/2 neutron single-particle states in 14B. The data from the (d,p reaction give neutron-spectroscopic strengths for these levels, and the (d,3He results confirm the existence of a broad 2- excited state suggested in the literature. Together these results provide estimates of the sd-shell neutron effective single-particle energies in 14B.

  14. Integrated Spectral Energy Distributions and Absorption Feature Indices of Single Stellar Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2004-01-01

    Using evolutionary population synthesis, we present integrated spectral energy distributions and absorption-line indices defined by the Lick Observatory image dissector scanner (referred to as Lick/IDS) system, for an extensive set of instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs). The ages of the SSPs are in the range 1-19 Gyr and the metallicities [Fe/H] are in the range -2.3 - 0.2. Our models use the rapid single stellar evolution algorithm of Hurley, Pols and Tout for the stellar e...

  15. Characteristic electron energy loss in lanthanum films adsorbed on tungsten (110) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Kobylyanskij, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of electron energy loss (ELS) in a wide range of energy loss 0-150 eV has been studied for La films adsorbed on W(110) single crystal with the coverage Θ from submonolayer to a few monolayers. The concentration dependence of loss energy peaks amplitude of different nature has been studied for the adsorption of rare earth element on refractory substrate. It has been shown that the essential information for the interpretation of the energy loss nature may be obtained by the investigation of such dependences for La adsorption on W(110). It is found that the surface and bulk plasmons peaks appear in ELS of La-W(110) system before the completion of the physical monolayer. Thus, the collectivization of valence electrons in the rare earth element film at the transition metal surface ensues for the submonolayer coverage like in the case of collective processes in alkali and alkaline earth element films

  16. Ultrafast excitation energy transfer from encapsulated quaterrylene to single-walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Takeshi, E-mail: koyama@nuap.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsunekawa, Takuya [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Research Center for Advanced Carbon Materials, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Asaka, Koji; Saito, Yahachi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kishida, Hideo [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakamura, Arao [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate excitation energy transfer from an encapsulated quaterrylene molecule to a single-walled carbon nanotube by means of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The time constant of energy transfer becomes shorter with increasing average diameter of nanotube: 1.4±0.2 ps for 1.0 nm, 1.1±0.2 ps for 1.4 nm, and 0.4±0.1 ps for 1.8 nm. The observed behavior is discussed considering the distance of less than 1 nm between the molecule and the nanotube wall. - Highlights: • Dynamical properties of excited states in quaterrylene/SWNT composites were studied. • Excitation energy transfer occurs in the time range of 0.4-1.4 ps. • The transfer rate depends on the nanotube diameter, i.e. molecule-nanotube wall distance. • This dependence indicates the feature of excitation energy transfer on the nanoscale.

  17. Singlet-triplet splittings from the virial theorem and single-particle excitation energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Axel D.

    2018-01-01

    The zeroth-order (uncorrelated) singlet-triplet energy difference in single-particle excited configurations is 2Kif, where Kif is the Coulomb self-energy of the product of the transition orbitals. Here we present a non-empirical, virial-theorem argument that the correlated singlet-triplet energy difference should be half of this, namely, Kif. This incredibly simple result gives vertical HOMO-LUMO excitation energies in small-molecule benchmarks as good as the popular TD-B3LYP time-dependent approach to excited states. For linear acenes and nonlinear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the performance is significantly better than TD-B3LYP. In addition to the virial theorem, the derivation borrows intuitive pair-density concepts from density-functional theory.

  18. The scattering of low energy helium ions and atoms from a copper single crystal, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheij, L.K.; Poelsema, B.; Boers, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering of 4-10 keV helium ions from a copper surface cannot be completely described with elastic, single collisions. The general behaviour of the measured energy and width of the surface peak can be explained by differences in inelastic energy losses for scattering from an ideal surface and from surface structures (damage). Multiple scattering effects have a minor influence. Additional information about the inelastic processes is obtained from scattering experiments with a primary atom beam. For large angles of incidence, the energy of the reflected ions is reduced about 20 eV if the primary beam consists of atoms instead of ions. An explanation of this effect and an explanation of the different behaviour of small angles is given. In the investigated energy range, the electronic stopping power might depend on the charge state of the primary particles. The experimental results are rather well explained by the Lindhard, Scharff, Schioett theory

  19. Energy measurements of thermally stimulated exoelectrons from LiF single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubozoe, T.; Watanabe, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of energy measurements of thermally stimulated exoelectrons from LiF single crystal irradiated with X rays, the integral energy spectrum is found to be broad and to deviate from an exponential distribution, and the onset of saturation current is not around zero volts. However, with an increasing period of illumination with UV radiation just after X-ray irradiation, the onset of saturation current goes toward zero volts and the energy spectrum can be approximated by an exponential distribution. The mean energy is then evaluated to be approximately 0.3 eV. Experimental spectra are compared with those of Monte Carlo calculations based on a model with an overthermal exponential distribution, taking into account electron-phonon interactions and satisfactory agreement is obtained. (author)

  20. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping; Zhu Zhiyuan; Li Yong; Zhu Dezhang; Xia Huihao

    2008-01-01

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  1. Reproducibility and quantitativity of oblique-angle reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography using Tl-201 myocardial phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Nanbu, Ichiro; Seki, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate reproducibility and quantitativity of oblique-angle reconstruction of myocardial phantom SPECT. Myocardial phantom with transmural and subendcardial defects, and off-axis phantom with wall thickness changing continuously from 0 to 23 mm were used. Sixty projection data in every 6 0 were aquired using dual-camera (ZLC) with high resolution collimators connected to Scintipac-2400 computer system. Oblique-angle reconstructed images were obtained by indicating the long axis of the phantom manually in the transaxial and vertical long axial tomograms. Reproducibility and quantitativity were evaluated by creating circumferential profile (CFP) of the finally reconstructed short axial images. Inter- and intra-operater reproducibility of relative counting ratio were less than 6.7% (C.V.) and 3.3% (C.V.), respectively. Both inter- and intraoperater reproducibility of absolute counts were better than that of counting ratio (less than 5.1% (C.V.) and 2.9% (C.V.), respectively). Variation of defect location in the reconstructed image and between the slices were less than 1 sampling interval of CFP (6 0 ) and 0.6 slice, respectively. Quantitativity of counts in the reconstructed images was poor in the transmulal defect, but was fair in the subendocardial defect. Counting ratio was greatly affected by wall thickness. Temporal quantitatibity or linearity of the counts in sequential SPECTs was good in non-defect area, especially when wall thickness was greater than 70% (16 mm) of maximum. In conclusion, three-dimensional oblique-angle reconstruction in Tl-201 myocardial SPECT could be applicable to relative and temporal quantitation of local myocardial activity other than defect area for the quantitative evaluation of Tl-201 myocardial wash-out. (J.P.N.)

  2. CMEIAS color segmentation: an improved computing technology to process color images for quantitative microbial ecology studies at single-cell resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Colin A; Reddy, Chandan K; Dazzo, Frank B

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative microscopy and digital image analysis are underutilized in microbial ecology largely because of the laborious task to segment foreground object pixels from background, especially in complex color micrographs of environmental samples. In this paper, we describe an improved computing technology developed to alleviate this limitation. The system's uniqueness is its ability to edit digital images accurately when presented with the difficult yet commonplace challenge of removing background pixels whose three-dimensional color space overlaps the range that defines foreground objects. Image segmentation is accomplished by utilizing algorithms that address color and spatial relationships of user-selected foreground object pixels. Performance of the color segmentation algorithm evaluated on 26 complex micrographs at single pixel resolution had an overall pixel classification accuracy of 99+%. Several applications illustrate how this improved computing technology can successfully resolve numerous challenges of complex color segmentation in order to produce images from which quantitative information can be accurately extracted, thereby gain new perspectives on the in situ ecology of microorganisms. Examples include improvements in the quantitative analysis of (1) microbial abundance and phylotype diversity of single cells classified by their discriminating color within heterogeneous communities, (2) cell viability, (3) spatial relationships and intensity of bacterial gene expression involved in cellular communication between individual cells within rhizoplane biofilms, and (4) biofilm ecophysiology based on ribotype-differentiated radioactive substrate utilization. The stand-alone executable file plus user manual and tutorial images for this color segmentation computing application are freely available at http://cme.msu.edu/cmeias/ . This improved computing technology opens new opportunities of imaging applications where discriminating colors really matter most

  3. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Wang, Mei; Lu, Li; Chen, Bo; Jin, Lixin; Wang, Jiandong; Larson, Andrew C.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  4. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  5. Validity of single term energy expression for ground state rotational band of even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: There are large numbers of empirical studies of gs band of even-even nuclei in various mass regions. The Bohr-Mottelson's energy expression is E(I) = AX + BX 2 +CX 3 +... where X = I(I+1). The anharmonic vibrator energy expression is: E(I) = al + bl 2 + cl 3 SF model with energy expression: E(I)= pX + qI + rXI... where the terms represents the rotational, vibrational and R-V interaction energy, respectively. The validity f the various energy expressions with two terms had been tested by Sharma for light, medium and heavy mass regions using R I s. R 4 plots (where, spin I=6, 8, 10, 12), which are parameter independent. It was also noted, that of the goodness of energy expression can be judged with the minimum input of energies (i.e. only 2 parameters) and predictability's of the model p to high spins. Recently, Gupta et. al proposed a single term energy expression (SSTE) which was applied for rare earth region. This proposed power law reflected the unity of rotation - vibration in a different way and was successful in explaining the structure of gs-band. It will be useful for test the single term energy expression for light and heavy mass region. The single term expression for energy of ground state band can be written as: E I =axI b , where the index b and the coefficient a are the constant for the band. The values of b+1 and a 1 are as follows: b 1 =log(R 1 )/log(I/2) and a 1 =E I /I b ... The following results were gained: 1) The sharp variation in the value of index b at given spin will be an indication of the change in the shape of the nucleus; 2) The value of E I /I b is fairly constant with spin below back-bending, which reflects the stability of shape with spin; 3) This proposed power law is successful in explaining the structure of gs-band of nuclei

  6. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tony; Nielsen, Erik; Auberle, William; Solop, Frederic I.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: ► We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality

  7. A quantitative method to analyze the quality of EIA information in wind energy development and avian/bat assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Tony, E-mail: tc282@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: erik.nielsen@nau.edu [Environmental Science and Policy Program, School of Earth Science and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, 602 S Humphreys P.O. Box 5694, Flagstaff, AZ, 86011 (United States); Auberle, William, E-mail: william.auberle@nau.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northern Arizona University, 2112 S Huffer Ln P.O. Box 15600, Flagstaff, AZ, 860011 (United States); Solop, Frederic I., E-mail: fred.solop@nau.edu [Political Science Program, Department of Politics and International Affairs, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 15036, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been a tool for decision makers since the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Since that time, few analyses have been performed to verify the quality of information and content within EIAs. High quality information within assessments is vital in order for decision makers, stake holders, and the public to understand the potential impact of proposed actions on the ecosystem and wildlife species. Low quality information has been a major cause for litigation and economic loss. Since 1999, wind energy development has seen an exponential growth with unknown levels of impact on wildlife species, in particular bird and bat species. The purpose of this article is to: (1) develop, validate, and apply a quantitative index to review avian/bat assessment quality for wind energy EIAs; and (2) assess the trends and status of avian/bat assessment quality in a sample of wind energy EIAs. This research presents the development and testing of the Avian and Bat Assessment Quality Index (ABAQI), a new approach to quantify information quality of ecological assessments within wind energy development EIAs in relation to avian and bat species based on review areas and factors derived from 23 state wind/wildlife siting guidance documents. The ABAQI was tested through a review of 49 publicly available EIA documents and validated by identifying high variation in avian and bat assessments quality for wind energy developments. Of all the reviewed EIAs, 66% failed to provide high levels of preconstruction avian and bat survey information, compared to recommended factors from state guidelines. This suggests the need for greater consistency from recommended guidelines by state, and mandatory compliance by EIA preparers to avoid possible habitat and species loss, wind energy development shut down, and future lawsuits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed, validated, and applied a quantitative index to review

  8. Feasibility of generating quantitative composition images in dual energy mammography: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Ye-seul; Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Haenghwa; Choi, Seungyeon; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. For years, mammography has been used as the gold standard for localizing breast cancer, despite its limitation in determining cancer composition. Therefore, the purpose of this simulation study is to confirm the feasibility of obtaining tumor composition using dual energy digital mammography. To generate X-ray sources for dual energy mammography, 26 kVp and 39 kVp voltages were generated for low and high energy beams, respectively. Additionally, the energy subtraction and inverse mapping functions were applied to provide compositional images. The resultant images showed that the breast composition obtained by the inverse mapping function with cubic fitting achieved the highest accuracy and least noise. Furthermore, breast density analysis with cubic fitting showed less than 10% error compare to true values. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of creating individual compositional images and capability of analyzing breast density effectively.

  9. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  10. Single and double ionization of helium by high-energy photon impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, L.R.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Production of singly and doubly charged helium ions by impact of keV photons is studied. The ratio R ph = σ ph ++ /σ ph + for photoabsorption is calculated in the photon-energy range 2--18 keV using correlated initial- and final- state wave functions. Extrapolation towards symptotic photon energies yields R ph (ω → ∞) = 1.66% in agreement with previous predictions. Ionization due to Compton scattering, which becomes comparable to photoabsorption above ω ∼ 3 keV, is discussed

  11. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  12. A Study on Energy Saving of Single Phase Induction Motor By Voltage Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jong Moon [Pusan College of Information Technolgy, Pusan (Korea); Kim, Joon Hong [Dong Myong College, Pusan (Korea)

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a simple effective method for energy saving of AC motors having a widely variable load. The proposed method is based on an optimal efficiency control which is operated by voltage-current pattern such as to maintain the maximum efficiency on the efficiency-output characteristics of the motor, TRIAC voltage control characteristics. The parameters of simplified voltage-current pattern can be determined approximately and reliably from the rated voltage and current of the motor. Experiments are focused on a single phase capacitor motor, the optimal energy saving are proved by proposed method. (author). 8 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  14. Energy transfer from natural photosynthetic complexes to single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiwatowski, Kamil [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Dużyńska, Anna; Świniarski, Michał [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Szalkowski, Marcin [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Zdrojek, Mariusz; Judek, Jarosław [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Mackowski, Sebastian, E-mail: mackowski@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Wroclaw Research Center EIT+, Stablowicka 147, Wroclaw (Poland); Kaminska, Izabela [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Combination of fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy results indicates that single-walled carbon nanotubes are extremely efficient quenchers of fluorescence emission associated with chlorophylls embedded in a natural photosynthetic complex, peridinin-chlorophyll-protein. When deposited on a network of the carbon nanotubes forming a thin film, the emission of the photosynthetic complexes diminishes almost completely. This strong reduction of fluorescence intensity is accompanied with dramatic shortening of the fluorescence lifetime. Concluding, such thin films of carbon nanotubes can be extremely efficient energy acceptors in structures involving biologically functional complexes. - Highlights: • Fluorescence imaging of carbon nanotube - based hybrid structure. • Observation of efficient energy transfer from chlorophylls to carbon nanotubes.

  15. Bone mineral density in renal osteodystrophy: Comparison of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Maeurer, J.; Grabbe, E.; Scheler, F.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of bone density were carried out in 25 patients on dialysis for terminal renal insufficiency, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike in subjects with normal kidneys, there was no significant correlation between these methods in this series. Ten patients showed an increase in bone density of the vertebral spongiosa on QCT measurements, which was interpreted as due to osteosclerotic bone changes in renal osteopathy. QCT showed advantages over DXA in demonstrating these changes. (orig.) [de

  16. Quantitative appraisal and potential analysis for primary biomass resources for energy utilization in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanli, Yang; Peidong, Zhang; Yonghong, Zheng; Lisheng, Wang [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Wenlong, Zhang; Yongsheng, Tian [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of science, Qingdao 266101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    As the largest agricultural country, China has abundant biomass resources, but the distribution is scattered and difficult to collect. It is essential to estimate the biomass resource and its potential for bioenergy utilization in China. In this study, the amount of main biomass resources for possible energy use and their energy utilization potential in China are analyzed based on statistical data. The results showed that the biomass resource for possible energy use amounted to 8.87 x 10{sup 8} tce in 2007 of which the crops straw is 1.42 x 10{sup 8} tce, the forest biomass is 2.85 x 10{sup 8} tce, the poultry and livestock manure is 4.40 x 10{sup 7} tce, the municipal solid waste is 1.35 x 10{sup 6} tce, and the organic waste water is 6.46 x 10{sup 6} tce. Through the information by thematic map, it is indicated that, except arctic-alpine areas and deserts, the biomass resource for possible energy use was presented a relatively average distribution in China, but large gap was existed in different regions in the concentration of biomass resources, with the characteristics of East dense and West sparse. It is indicated that the energy transformation efficiency of biomass compressing and shaping, biomass anaerobic fermentation and biomass gasification for heating have higher conversion efficiency. If all of the biomass resources for possible energy use are utilized by these three forms respectively, 7.66 x 10{sup 12} t of biomass briquettes fuel, 1.98 x 10{sup 12} m{sup 3} of low calorific value gas and 3.84 x 10{sup 11} m{sup 3} of biogas could be produced, 3.65 x 10{sup 8} t to 4.90 x 10{sup 8} t of coal consumption could be substituted, and 6.12 x 10{sup 8} t to 7.53 x 10{sup 8} t of CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced. With the enormous energy utilization potential of biomass resources and the prominent benefit of energy saving and emission reduction, it proves an effective way to adjust the energy consumption structure, to alleviate the energy crisis, to ensure

  17. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeloglou, P.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO[sub 2] overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO[sub 2] emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs

  18. Quantitative feasibility study of magnetocaloric energy conversion utilizing industrial waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuarnoz, D.; Kitanovski, A.; Gonin, C.; Borgeaud, Y.; Delessert, M.; Meinen, M.; Egolf, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model magnetic energy conversion machine for the use of industrial waste heat. ► Efficiencies and masses of the system are evaluated by a numerical model. ► Excellent potential of profitability is expected with large low-exergy heat sources. -- Abstract: The main objective of this theoretical study was to investigate under which conditions a magnetic energy conversion device (MECD) – utilizing industrial waste heat – is economically feasible. Furthermore, it was evaluated if magnetic energy conversion (MCE) has the potential of being a serious concurrent to already existing conventional energy conversion technologies. Up-today the availability of magnetocaloric materials with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetocaloric effect is rather limited. Therefore, this study was mainly focused on applications with heat sources of low to medium temperature levels. Magnetic energy conversion machines, containing permanent magnets, are numerically investigated for operation conditions with different temperature levels, defined by industrial waste heat sources and environmental heat sinks, different magnetic field intensities and different frequencies of operation (number of thermodynamic cycles per unit of time). Theoretical modeling and numerical simulations were performed in order to determine thermodynamic efficiencies and the exergy efficiencies as function of different operation conditions. From extracted data of our numerical results, approximate values of the total mass and total volume of magnetic energy conversion machines could be determined. These important results are presented dependent on the produced electric power. An economic feasibility study supplements the scientific study. It shows an excellent potential of profitability for certain machines. The most important result of this article is that the magnetic energy conversion technology can be economically and technically competitive to or even beat conventional energy

  19. A quantitative method for selecting renewable energy projects in the mining industry based on sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, M.

    2014-01-01

    Mining companies sponsor a range of non-core, corporate social responsibility projects to adhere to social and labour plans and environmental management prerequisites that form part of a mining licence application. Some companies go above and beyond such projects, sponsoring initiatives that generate renewable energy through solar power, wind energy, natural gas, etc. The challenge for these companies is to choose between a variety of projects to ensure maximum value, especially in times when...

  20. Energy Tax versus Carbon Tax. A quantitative macro economical analysis with the HERMES/MIDAS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeloglou, P. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    1992-03-01

    The idea of imposing a tax has been recently put forward as a policy-instrument to induce substitutions aiming at reducing CO{sub 2} overall emissions. One can distinguish two options: recycle tax revenues for energy system restructuring (supply or demand restructuring); or use the corresponding revenues in order to reduce the negative impacts caused on the economic activity by the introduction of the tax. Several papers dealing with only the macroeconomic aspects of the environmental problems have been written. These papers neglect more or less the energy sphere and consider that the energy feedback effects are very small. Macroeconomic impacts of the carbon tax have been examined for the United Kingdom and for the four big European countries elsewhere. In this paper a synthesis of both the energy and the macroeconomic approaches is realized. The approach adopted is global and tries to evaluate the impacts on both the economic and energy system. The main question examined is the effectiveness and impacts of fiscal policy on CO{sub 2} emission and the effects of the adoption of an accommodating policy. Thus, not only the effects of imposing an energy or carbon tax are examined, but also the effects of introducing accommodating measures are studied. The analysis is effected by using the HERMES-MIDAS linked system of models and is limited in analyzing the effects of carbon and energy taxes and the reduction of direct taxes and is effected for four countries namely France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In section 2 policy scenarios are described while in sections three and four the results of the policy simulations are presented. In section five we compare the differences of two taxes (energy tax and carbon tax) and in section six the reduction of direct taxation as an accommodating measure is examined. 27 tabs., 10 refs.

  1. Invariant operator theory for the single-photon energy in time-varying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Ryeol, Choi

    2010-01-01

    After the birth of quantum mechanics, the notion in physics that the frequency of light is the only factor that determines the energy of a single photon has played a fundamental role. However, under the assumption that the theory of Lewis–Riesenfeld invariants is applicable in quantum optics, it is shown in the present work that this widely accepted notion is valid only for light described by a time-independent Hamiltonian, i.e., for light in media satisfying the conditions, ε(i) = ε(0), μ(t) = μ(0), and σ(t) = 0 simultaneously. The use of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant operator method in quantum optics leads to a marvelous result: the energy of a single photon propagating through time-varying linear media exhibits nontrivial time dependence without a change of frequency. (general)

  2. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... houses. A one-stop-shop in the form of a full-service concept could be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers...... includes an ideal full-service concept and technical renovation solutions targeted to different types of single-family houses....

  3. Luminescence properties and energy transfer processes in YAG:Yb,Er single crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Brabec, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the study of the optical properties of YAG:Yb,Er single-crystalline films (SCF) grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The absorption, cathodoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra and photoluminescence decay curves were measured for the SCFs with different doping levels of Er 3+ (from 0.6 to 4.2 at.%) and Yb 3+ (from 0.1 to 0.6 at.%). The spectra, excited by synchrotron radiation in the fundamental absorption range of the YAG and in the intraionic absorption bands of both dopants, reveal energy transfer from the YAG host to the Er 3+ and Yb 3+ ions and between these ions. -- Highlights: •Growth of YAG:Yb,Er single crystalline films by LPE method. •Peculiarities of luminescence of YAG:Yb,Er films with different Er–Yb content. •Yb–Er energy transfer processes in YAG hosts

  4. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  5. Investigation of current university research concerning energy conversion and conservation in small single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G. R.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of university research concerning energy conversion and conservation techniques which may be applied in small single-family residences. Information was accumulated through published papers, progress reports, telephone conversations, and personal interviews. A synopsis of each pertinent investigation is given. Finally, a discussion of the synopses is presented and recommendations are made concerning the applicability of concepts for the design and construction of NASA-Langley Research Center's proposed Technology Utilization House in Hampton, Virginia.

  6. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex has long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent m...

  7. Binding energy and mechanical stability of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotube serpentines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Junhua; Lu, Lixin; Rabczuk, Timon

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Geblinger et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 195 (2008)] and Machado et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 105502 (2013)] reported the experimental and molecular dynamics realization of S-like shaped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), the so-called CNT serpentines. We reported here results from continuum modeling of the binding energy γ between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates as well as the mechanical stability of the CNT serpentine formation. The critical length for the mechanical stability and adhesion of different CNT serpentines are determined in dependence of E i I i , d, and γ, where E i I i and d are the CNT bending stiffness and distance of the CNT translation period. Our continuum model is validated by comparing its solution to full-atom molecular dynamics calculations. The derived analytical solutions are of great importance for understanding the interaction mechanism between different single- and multi-walled CNT serpentines and substrates

  8. Centroids of effective interactions from measured single-particle energies: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    Centroids of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for the mass region A=28--64 are extracted directly from experimental single-particle spectra, by comparing single-particle energies relative to different cores. Uncertainties in the centroids are estimated at approximately 100 keV, except in cases of exceptional fragmentation of the single-particle strength. The use of a large number of inert cores allows the dependence of the interaction on mass or model space to be investigated. The method permits accurate empirical modifications to be made to realistic interactions calculated from bare nucleon-nucleon potentials, which are known to possess defective centroids in many cases. In addition, the centroids can be used as input to the more sophisticated fitting procedures that are employed to produce matrix elements of the effective interaction

  9. Actual interaction effects between policy measures for energy efficiency-A qualitative matrix method and quantitative simulation results for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the conditions for a successful implementation of saving options, a general framework was developed to investigate possible interaction effects in sets of energy policy measures. Interaction regards the influence of one measure on the energy saving effect of another measure. The method delivers a matrix for all combinations of measures, with each cell containing qualitative information on the strength and type of interaction: overlapping, reinforcing, or independent of each other. Results are presented for the set of policy measures on household energy efficiency in the Netherlands for 1990-2003. The second part regards a quantitative analysis of the interaction effects between three major measures: a regulatory energy tax, investment subsidies and regulation of gas use for space heating. Using a detailed bottom-up model, household energy use in the period 1990-2000 was simulated with and without these measures. The results indicate that combinations of two or three policy measures yield 13-30% less effect than the sum of the effects of the separate measures

  10. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  11. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of five genetically modified rice events using a single standard reference molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2017-07-01

    One novel standard reference plasmid, namely pUC-RICE5, was constructed as a positive control and calibrator for event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) rice (Bt63, Kemingdao1, Kefeng6, Kefeng8, and LLRice62). pUC-RICE5 contained fragments of a rice-specific endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase) as well as the five GM rice events. An existing qualitative PCR assay approach was modified using pUC-RICE5 to create a quantitative method with limits of detection correlating to approximately 1-10 copies of rice haploid genomes. In this quantitative PCR assay, the square regression coefficients ranged from 0.993 to 1.000. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 and 0.10% to 0.67%, respectively. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) validated the method and the results suggest it could be used routinely to identify five GM rice events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A quantitative analysis of aerosols inside an armored vehicle perforated by a kinetic energy penetrator containing tungsten, nickel, and cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Kenneth; Cheng, Yung Sung; Holmes, Thomas D

    2007-04-01

    These tests were conducted to develop a database that could be used to assess risks to soldiers from exposure to aerosolized metallic particulates when the crew compartment of an Abrams tank is perforated by a kinetic energy penetrator. Quantitative data are reported for aerosols produced by kinetic energy penetrators containing tungsten, nickel, and cobalt. The following are addressed: (1) concentrations and rates of particle settling inside the vehicle, (2) particle size distribution, (3) inhalable and respirable particulates, (4) distribution of aerosol particles by mass, and (5) particle shapes. The scenario described in this report simulates a rare occurrence. The lessons learned, however, highlight a requirement for developing protocols for analyses of metals in body fluids and urine as soon as practical, and also for implementing targeted postdeployment medical surveillance programs that monitor both body burden for respired metals and pulmonary function.

  13. A quantitative assessment of the determinants of the net energy value of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Disdier, Anne-Celia; Gauroy, Christine; Treguer, David

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the net energy balance of biofuel products (in terms of savings on fossil fuels) and assessed the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from substituting biofuels for fossil fuel. These studies provide very different results, with net balance ranging from highly positive to negative. Our study analyses a large sample of these studies by retrieving the main parameters used and converting them into units of measurement that are comparable. This information is used to unravel the main determinants of the differences in net energy value across studies. Our approach relies on descriptive statistics and econometric estimates based on a meta-analysis methodology. Our results suggest that the large variability across studies can be explained by the degree to which particular inputs (i.e. nitrogen, farm labor) are controlled for, and the way fossil energy consumption is allocated to the various co-products.

  14. On the quantitative prediction of bunch lengthening in high energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, T.

    1981-12-01

    The longitudinal current dependent electromagnetic interaction between a bunch of charged particles and accelerator components can be described by a Green's Function in time domain or by an impedance in frequency domain. The aim of this paper is to describe a procedure which yields an approximate Green's Function for cylindrically symmetric objects. Once this Green's Function is quantitatively known the equation of motion for the particles can be solved easily by a turn-by-turn tracking code on a computer. Thus it is possible to predict the bunch length and width as a function of charge per bunch for future accelerators and storage rings based on pure geometrical data of the accelerator components. Results are presented for PETRA and LEP. A comparison between measurements at PETRA and computations shows an excellent agreement. (orig.)

  15. Single-Use Energy Sources and Operating Room Time for Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Martin, Jared C; Blaskiewicz, Robert J; Yeung, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intraoperative direct costs of a single-use energy device with reusable energy devices during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). An academic hospital. Forty-six women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy from March 2013 to September 2013. Each patient served as her own control. One side of the uterine attachments was desiccated and transected with the single-use device (Ligasure 5-mm Blunt Tip LF1537 with the Force Triad generator). The other side was desiccated and transected with reusable bipolar forceps (RoBi 5 mm), and transected with monopolar scissors using the same Covidien Force Triad generator. The instrument approach used was randomized to the attending physician who was always on the patient's left side. Resident physicians always operated on the patient's right side and used the converse instruments of the attending physician. Start time was recorded at the utero-ovarian pedicle and end time was recorded after transection of the uterine artery on the same side. Costs included the single-use device; amortized costs of the generator, reusable instruments, and cords; cleaning and packaging of reusable instruments; and disposal of the single-use device. Operating room time was $94.14/min. We estimated that our single use-device cost $630.14 and had a total time savings of 6.7 min per case, or 3.35 min per side, which could justify the expense of the device. The single-use energy device had significant median time savings (-4.7 min per side, p energy device that both desiccates and cuts significantly reduced operating room time to justify its own cost, and it also reduced total intraoperative direct costs during laparoscopic hysterectomy in our institution. Operating room cost per minute varies between institutions and must be considered before generalizing our results. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new method for testing pile by single-impact energy and P-S curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Yong; Duan, Yong-Kang; Wang, Bin; Hu, Yi-Li; Yang, Run-Hai; Xu, Jun; Zhao, Jin-Ming

    2004-11-01

    By studying the pile-formula and stress-wave methods ( e.g., CASE method), the authors propose a new method for testing piles using the single-impact energy and P-S curves. The vibration and wave figures are recorded, and the dynamic and static displacements are measured by different transducers near the top of piles when the pile is impacted by a heavy hammer or micro-rocket. By observing the transformation coefficient of driving energy (total energy), the consumed energy of wave motion and vibration and so on, the vertical bearing capacity for single pile is measured and calculated. Then, using the vibration wave diagram, the dynamic relation curves between the force ( P) and the displacement ( S) is calculated and the yield points are determined. Using the static-loading test, the dynamic results are checked and the relative constants of dynamic-static P-S curves are determined. Then the subsidence quantity corresponding to the bearing capacity is determined. Moreover, the shaped quality of the pile body can be judged from the formation of P-S curves.

  17. High-pT Jet Energy Scale Uncertainty from single hadron response with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00534683; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The jet energy scale (JES) uncertainty is estimated using different methods at different p$_\\text{T}$ ranges. In-situ techniques exploiting the p$_\\text{T}$ balance between a jet and a reference object (e.g. Z or gamma) are used at lower p$_\\text{T}$, but at very high p$_\\text{T}$ (> 2.5 TeV) there is not enough statistics for such in-situ techniques. A low JES uncertainty at high-p$_\\text{T}$ is important in several searches for new phenomena, e.g. the dijet resonance and angular searches. In the highest p$_\\text{T}$ range, the JES uncertainty is estimated using the calorimeter response to single hadrons. In this method, jets are treated as a superposition of energy depositions of single particles. An uncertainty is applied to each energy deposition belonging to the particles within the jet, and propagated to the final jet energy scale. This poster presents the JES uncertainty found with this method at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and its developments.

  18. Preliminary study of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhang Longjiang; Zhou Changsheng; Lu Guangming; Ma Yan; Gu Haifeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary applications of single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Methods: Thirty patients underwent dual energy heart imaging with DSCT, of which 6 cases underwent SPECT or DSA within one week. Two experienced radiologists assessed image quality of coronary arteries and iodine map of myocardium. and correlated the coronary artery stenosis with the perfusion distribution of iodine map. Results: l00% (300/300) segments reached diagnostic standards. The mean score of image for all patients was 4.68±0.57. Mural coronary artery was present in 10 segments in S cases, atherosclerotic plaques in 32 segments in 12 cases, of which 20 segments having ≥50% stenosis, 12 segments ≤50% stenosis; dual energy CT coronary angiography was consistent with the DSA in 3 patients. 37 segmental perfusion abnormalities on iodine map were found in 15 cases, including 28 coronary blood supply segment narrow segment and 9 no coronary stenosis (including three negative segments in SPECD. Conclusion: Single contrast enhanced dual energy heart imaging can provide good coronary artery and myocardium perfusion images in the patients with appropriate heart rate, which has a potential to be used in the clinic and further studies are needed. (authors)

  19. Model of a single mode energy harvester and properties for optimal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yabin; Sodano, Henry A

    2008-01-01

    The process of acquiring the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy is termed power harvesting. In the last few years, the field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth due to the ever increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended life. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their finite energy supply, which necessitates their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and covert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. The development of energy harvesting systems is greatly facilitated by an accurate model to assist in the design of the system. This paper will describe a theoretical model of a piezoelectric based energy harvesting system that is simple to apply yet provides an accurate prediction of the power generated around a single mode of vibration. Furthermore, this model will allow optimization of system parameters to be studied such that maximal performance can be achieved. Using this model an expression for the optimal resistance and a parameter describing the energy harvesting efficiency will be presented and evaluated through numerical simulations. The second part of this paper will present an experimental validation of the model and optimal parameters

  20. A new computer code for quantitative analysis of low-energy ion scattering data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, G; Breeman, M; Boerma, D.O

    We have developed a computer program for the full analysis of low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) data, i.e. an analysis that is equivalent to the full calculation of the three-dimensional trajectories of beam particles through a number of layers in the solid, and ending in the detector. A dedicated

  1. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS- based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node’s specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM, block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  2. Modeling and analysis of energy quantization effects on single electron inverter performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Surya Shankar; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, for the first time, the effects of energy quantization on single electron transistor (SET) inverter performance are analyzed through analytical modeling and Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that energy quantization mainly changes the Coulomb blockade region and drain current of SET devices and thus affects the noise margin, power dissipation, and the propagation delay of SET inverter. A new analytical model for the noise margin of SET inverter is proposed which includes the energy quantization effects. Using the noise margin as a metric, the robustness of SET inverter is studied against the effects of energy quantization. A compact expression is developed for a novel parameter quantization threshold which is introduced for the first time in this paper. Quantization threshold explicitly defines the maximum energy quantization that an SET inverter logic circuit can withstand before its noise margin falls below a specified tolerance level. It is found that SET inverter designed with CT:CG=1/3 (where CT and CG are tunnel junction and gate capacitances, respectively) offers maximum robustness against energy quantization.

  3. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  4. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kan; Cai, Zhipeng; Du, Keqin; Zou, Fumin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Jianqing

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS-) based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node's specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM), block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT) basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs) which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  5. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel application of quantitative single-photon emission computed-tomography/computed tomography to predict early response to methimazole in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Bang, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Moon, Jae Hoon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); So, Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Woo [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Since Graves' disease (GD) is resistant to antithyroid drugs (ATDs), an accurate quantitative thyroid function measurement is required for the prediction of early responses to ATD. Quantitative parameters derived from the novel technology, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), were investigated for the prediction of achievement of euthyroidism after methimazole (MMI) treatment in GD. A total of 36 GD patients (10 males, 26 females; mean age, 45.3 ± 13.8 years) were enrolled for this study, from April 2015 to January 2016. They underwent quantitative thyroid SPECT/CT 20 minutes post-injection of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (5 mCi). Association between the time to biochemical euthyroidism after MMI treatment and uptake, standardized uptake value (SUV), functional thyroid mass (SUVmean × thyroid volume) from the SPECT/CT, and clinical/biochemical variables, were investigated. GD patients had a significantly greater %uptake (6.9 ± 6.4%) than historical control euthyroid patients (n = 20, 0.8 ± 0.5%, p < 0.001) from the same quantitative SPECT/CT protocol. Euthyroidism was achieved in 14 patients at 156 ± 62 days post-MMI treatment, but 22 patients had still not achieved euthyroidism by the last follow-up time-point (208 ± 80 days). In the univariate Cox regression analysis, the initial MMI dose (p = 0.014), %uptake (p = 0.015), and functional thyroid mass (p = 0.016) were significant predictors of euthyroidism in response to MMI treatment. However, only uptake remained significant in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (p = 0.034). A uptake cutoff of 5.0% dichotomized the faster responding versus the slower responding GD patients (p = 0.006). A novel parameter of thyroid uptake from quantitative SPECT/CT is a predictive indicator of an early response to MMI in GD patients.

  7. Quantitative depth profiling of near surface semiconductor structures using ultra low energy SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliner, D.I.

    1999-09-01

    The continual reduction in size of semiconductor structures and depths of junctions is putting a greater strain on characterization techniques. Accurate device and process modelling requires quantified electrical and dopant profiles from the topmost few nanometres. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical technique commonly used in the semiconductor industry to measure concentration depth profiles. To allow the quantification of the features that are closer to the surface, lower energy ions are employed, which also improves the available depth resolution. The development of the floating ion gun (FLIG) has made it possible to use sub keV beam energies on a routine basis, allowing quantified dopant profiles to be obtained within the first few nanometres of the surface. This thesis demonstrates that, when profiling with oxygen ion beams, greatest certainty in the retained dose is achieved at normal incidence, and when analysing boron accurate profile shapes are only obtained when the primary beam energy is less than half that of the implant. It was shown that it is now possible to profile, though with slower erosion rates and a limited dynamic range, with 100 eV oxygen (0 2 + ) ion beams. Profile features that had developed during rapid thermal annealing, that could only be observed when ultra low energy ion beams were used, were investigated using various analytical techniques. Explanations of the apparently inactive dopant were proposed, and included suggestions for cluster molecules. The oxide thickness of fully formed altered layers has also been investigated. The results indicate that a fundamental change in the mechanism of oxide formation occurs, and interfaces that are sharper than those grown by thermal oxidation can be produced using sub-keV ion beams. (author)

  8. A single-item global job satisfaction measure is associated with quantitative blood immune indices in white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    Although a single-item job satisfaction measure has been shown to be reliable and inclusive as multiple-item scales in relation to health, studies including immunological data are few. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of single-item job and family life satisfaction based on its association with immune indices. A total of 189 white-collar employees (70% men) underwent a blood draw for the measurement of natural killer (NK), total T, and B cell counts as well as plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentrations and completed single-item job and family life satisfaction measures, respectively. The response options for satisfaction measures were 'dissatisfied' (coded 1) to 'satisfied' (coded 4). Spearman's partial correlations controlling for cofactors revealed that increased job satisfaction was positively associated with NK cells (rsp=0.201, p=0.007) and IgG (rsp=0.178, p=0.018), while family life satisfaction was unrelated to immune indices. Those who reported a combination of low job/low family life satisfaction had significantly lower NK and higher B cell counts than those with a high job/high family life satisfaction. Our study suggests that the single-item summary measure of job satisfaction, but not family life satisfaction, may be a valid tool to evaluate immune status in healthy white-collar employees.

  9. An Immunofluorescence-assisted Microfluidic Single Cell Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Tumour Cells Separated from Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hoshino

    2015-11-01

    matched the results from a few thousand cells. Some markers (e.g., ER, HER2 that are commonly used for cancer identification showed relatively large deviations in expres‐ sion levels. However, others (e.g., GRB7 showed devia‐ tions that are small enough to supplement single cell disease profiling.

  10. SU-E-I-41: Dictionary Learning Based Quantitative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Xing, L; Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: DECT collects two sets of projection data under higher and lower energies. With appropriates composition methods on linear attenuation coefficients, quantitative information about the object, such as density, can be obtained. In reality, one of the important problems in DECT is the radiation dose due to doubled scans. This work is aimed at establishing a dictionary learning based reconstruction framework for DECT for improved image quality while reducing the imaging dose. Methods: In our method, two dictionaries were learned respectively from the high-energy and lowenergy image datasets of similar objects under normal dose in advance. The linear attenuation coefficient was decomposed into two basis components with material based composition method. An iterative reconstruction framework was employed. Two basis components were alternately updated with DECT datasets and dictionary learning based sparse constraints. After one updating step under the dataset fidelity constraints, both high-energy and low-energy images can be obtained from the two basis components. Sparse constraints based on the learned dictionaries were applied to the high- and low-energy images to update the two basis components. The iterative calculation continues until a pre-set number of iteration was reached. Results: We evaluated the proposed dictionary learning method with dual energy images collected using a DECT scanner. We re-projected the projection data with added Poisson noise to reflect the low-dose situation. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with that obtained using FBP based method and TV based method. It was found that the proposed approach yield better results than other methods with higher resolution and less noise. Conclusion: The use of dictionary learned from DECT images under normal dose is valuable and leads to improved results with much lower imaging dose

  11. SU-E-I-41: Dictionary Learning Based Quantitative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J [Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: DECT collects two sets of projection data under higher and lower energies. With appropriates composition methods on linear attenuation coefficients, quantitative information about the object, such as density, can be obtained. In reality, one of the important problems in DECT is the radiation dose due to doubled scans. This work is aimed at establishing a dictionary learning based reconstruction framework for DECT for improved image quality while reducing the imaging dose. Methods: In our method, two dictionaries were learned respectively from the high-energy and lowenergy image datasets of similar objects under normal dose in advance. The linear attenuation coefficient was decomposed into two basis components with material based composition method. An iterative reconstruction framework was employed. Two basis components were alternately updated with DECT datasets and dictionary learning based sparse constraints. After one updating step under the dataset fidelity constraints, both high-energy and low-energy images can be obtained from the two basis components. Sparse constraints based on the learned dictionaries were applied to the high- and low-energy images to update the two basis components. The iterative calculation continues until a pre-set number of iteration was reached. Results: We evaluated the proposed dictionary learning method with dual energy images collected using a DECT scanner. We re-projected the projection data with added Poisson noise to reflect the low-dose situation. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with that obtained using FBP based method and TV based method. It was found that the proposed approach yield better results than other methods with higher resolution and less noise. Conclusion: The use of dictionary learned from DECT images under normal dose is valuable and leads to improved results with much lower imaging dose.

  12. The water footprint of energy from biomass: a quantitative assessment and consequences of an increasing share of bio-energy in energy supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the water footprint (WF) of different primary energy carriers derived from biomass expressed as the amount of water consumed to produce a unit of energy (m3/GJ). The paper observes large differences among the WFs for specific types of primary bio-energy carriers. The WF depends

  13. Quantitative optical extinction-based parametric method for sizing a single core-shell Ag-Ag2O nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillan, J M J; Scaffardi, L B; Schinca, D C

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a parametric method for determining the core radius and shell thickness in small silver-silver-oxide core-shell nanoparticles (Nps) based on single particle optical extinction spectroscopy. The method is based on the study of the relationship between plasmon peak wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and contrast of the extinction spectra as a function of core radius and shell thickness. This study reveals that plasmon peak wavelength is strongly dependent on shell thickness, whereas FWHM and contrast depend on both variables. These characteristics may be used for establishing an easy and fast stepwise procedure to size core-shell NPs from single particle absorption spectrum. The importance of the method lies in the possibility of monitoring the growth of the silver-oxide layer around small spherical silver Nps in real time. Using the electrostatic approximation of Mie theory, core-shell single particle extinction spectra were calculated for a silver particle's core size smaller than about 20 nm and different thicknesses of silver oxide around it. Analysis of the obtained curves shows a very particular characteristic of the plasmon peak of small silver-silver-oxide Nps, expressed in the fact that its position is strongly dependent on oxide thickness and weakly dependent on the core radius. Even a very thin oxide layer shifts the plasmon peak noticeably, enabling plasmon tuning with appropriate shell thickness. This characteristic, together with the behaviour of FWHM and contrast of the extinction spectra can be combined into a parametric method for sizing both core and shell of single silver Nps in a medium using only optical information. In turn, shell thickness can be related to oxygen content in the Np's surrounding media. The method proposed is applied to size silver Nps from single particle extinction spectrum. The results are compared with full optical spectrum fitting using the electrostatic approximation in Mie theory. The method

  14. Financial methods applicable to energy-conserving retrofits for single-family residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The National Savings and Loan League (NSLL) has been researching techniques that may be used to finance energy-conservation measures in the residential sector. Twelve techniques developed and tested by NSLL are: future-advances clause under open-end mortgages; borrowing against existing savings accounts; home-improvement loans; variable-rate mortgages; second trusts or second mortgages; variable-payment mortgages; balloon-payment mortgages; deferred monthly payments for periods of excessive energy use; renegotiation of terms at set intervals; lower interest rates offered on mortgages in return for lender sharing in equity appreciation of the property; graduated payments; and deferred-interest loans. The testing took place in Pittsburgh, PA. The program consisted of 8 specific tasks, including several directed at different financial innovations for the financing of retrofits. Details are presented on findings; legal research; relationship of utilities to installation of retrofits; financing techniques applicable to retrofits; and national energy program for single-family residences. Some extensive attachments include information on: legal aspects, energy loan advertisements, and potential savings to be realized from various residential retrofit energy-conservation measures.

  15. Nuclear-charge and positron-energy dependence of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Wu, X.Y.

    1995-01-01

    We report an experimental study of the single-quantum annihilation of positrons in a number of elements having atomic numbers between 49 and 90, utilizing a monoenergetic positron beam. Measurements were made of the differential cross sections for the forward direction for the K, L, and M atomic shells in targets of Th, Pb, Au, Hf, Gd, and In, having thicknesses that vary between 2.7 and 4.4 mg/cm 2 . A shielded HPGe detector of high relative photopeak efficiency was used for recording the photon spectrum. Values for the individual atomic shells were obtained in the positron kinetic-energy range 1.02--2.24 MeV. It was observed that the differential cross sections measured for the forward direction varied with energy for each major shell almost alike so that the shell ratios appeared to remain constant while the positron energy varied. The dependence of the cross section on the atomic number Z of the target element was tested for each of the major shells at various energies of measurement. It was seen that the cross sections follow a Z ν relation with ν∼5.1 as the exponent for the K shell. For the higher shells, the exponent is approximately 6.4, which is significantly larger. It was also noted that this pattern is fairly independent of the positron energy. The results on the Z dependence are seen to be clearly at variance with the most updated theoretical predictions

  16. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  17. Application of high energy accelerator to study of single event burn-out (SEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hada, Takashi; Aoki, Shiro; Nakamura, Masao; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Hirose, Takayuki; Ohira, Hideharu; Nagai, Yuki

    1996-12-01

    Hitherto, as nuclear fission fragments of 252-Cf, one of radioactive matters have been used for elucidation of single event mechanism, this method has a limit for analysis of power MOSFET with long charge collection region (generally, empty layer) and is difficult to form the experiment simulating the space environment, because of their wide LET (Linear Energy Transfer) range and of short flying distance of about 15 micrometer. As a result, some irradiation experiments using an accelerator capable of forming charged particle beam with long flying distance and single energy became essential to elucidate the SEB mechanism. In this paper, an experiment result of SEB phenomenon using high energy accelerator was reported. As a result, following items were found: (1) With increase of impressed charge, collected charge shows two peaks, and also increases, (2) commercial power MOSFET shows about 280 V in SEB resistance, and power MOSFET developed for the space use shows about 320 V, which is improved about 40 V for the commercial one, and so forth. (G.K.)

  18. A Single-Chip Solar Energy Harvesting IC Using Integrated Photodiodes for Biomedical Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Law, Man-Kay; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%. By employing an auxiliary charge pump (AQP) using zero threshold voltage (ZVT) devices in parallel with the main charge pump, a low startup voltage of 0.25 V is obtained while minimizing the reversion loss. A 4 V in gate drive voltage is utilized to reduce the conduction loss. Systematic charge pump and solar cell area optimization is also introduced to improve the energy harvesting efficiency. The proposed system is implemented in a standard 0.18- [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 1.54 [Formula: see text]. Measurement results show that the on-chip charge pump can achieve a maximum efficiency of 67%. With an incident power of 1.22 [Formula: see text] from a halogen light source, the proposed energy harvesting IC can deliver an output power of 1.65 [Formula: see text] at 64% charge pump efficiency. The chip prototype is also verified using in-vitro experiment.

  19. Single photon and multiphoton events with missing energy in $e^{+} e^{-}$ collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    Single- and multi-photon events with missing energy are selected in 619/pb of data collected by the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189GeV and 209GeV. The cross sections of the process e^+e^- -> nu nu gamma (gamma) are found to be in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, and the number of light neutrino species is determined, including lower energy data, to be N_nu = 2.98 +/- 0.05 +/- 0.04. Selection results are also given in the form of tables which can be used to test future models involving single- and multi-photon signatures at LEP. These final states are also predicted by models with large extra dimensions and by several supersymmetric models. No evidence for such models is found. Among others, lower limits between 1.5TeV and 0.65TeV are set, at 95% confidence level, on the new scale of gravity for the number of extra dimensions between 2 and 8.

  20. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-06-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ( E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ( E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  1. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ(E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ(E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  2. Single source dual energy CT: What is the optimal monochromatic energy level for the analysis of the lung parenchyma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, M., E-mail: mickael.ohana@gmail.com [iCube Laboratory, Université de Strasbourg/CNRS, UMR 7357, 67400 Illkirch (France); Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Labani, A., E-mail: aissam.labani@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Severac, F., E-mail: francois.severac@chru-strasbourg.fr [Département de Biostatistiques et d’Informatique Médicale, Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg,1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Jeung, M.Y., E-mail: Mi-Young.Jeung@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Radiologie B, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Gaertner, S., E-mail: Sebastien.Gaertner@chru-strasbourg.fr [Service de Médecine Vasculaire, Nouvel Hôpital Civil – Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg,1 place de l’hôpital, 67000 Strasbourg (France); and others

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Lung parenchyma aspect varies with the monochromatic energy level in spectral CT. • Optimal diagnostic and image quality is obtained at 50–55 keV. • Mediastinum and parenchyma could be read on the same monochromatic energy level. - Abstract: Objective: To determine the optimal monochromatic energy level for lung parenchyma analysis in spectral CT. Methods: All 50 examinations (58% men, 64.8 ± 16yo) from an IRB-approved prospective study on single-source dual energy chest CT were retrospectively included and analyzed. Monochromatic images in lung window reconstructed every 5 keV from 40 to 140 keV were independently assessed by two chest radiologists. Based on the overall image quality and the depiction/conspicuity of parenchymal lesions, each reader had to designate for every patient the keV level providing the best diagnostic and image quality. Results: 72% of the examinations exhibited parenchymal lesions. Reader 1 picked the 55 keV monochromatic reconstruction in 52% of cases, 50 in 30% and 60 in 18%. Reader 2 chose 50 keV in 52% cases, 55 in 40%, 60 in 6% and 40 in 2%. The 50 and 55 keV levels were chosen by at least one reader in 64% and 76% of all patients, respectively. Merging 50 and 55 keV into one category results in an optimal setting selected by reader 1 in 82% of patients and by reader 2 in 92%, with a 74% concomitant agreement. Conclusion: The best image quality for lung parenchyma in spectral CT is obtained with the 50–55 keV monochromatic reconstructions.

  3. Assigning Significance in Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics to Include Single-Peptide-Hit Proteins with Low Replicates

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingbo

    2010-01-01

    When sample replicates are limited in a label-free proteomics experiment, selecting differentially regulated proteins with an assignment of statistical significance remains difficult for proteins with a single-peptide hit or a small fold-change. This paper aims to address this issue. An important component of the approach employed here is to utilize the rule of Minimum number of Permuted Significant Pairings (MPSP) to reduce false positives. The MPSP rule generates permuted sample pairings fr...

  4. Quantitatively identical orientation-dependent ionization energy and electron affinity of diindenoperylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W. N.; Yonezawa, K.; Makino, R.; Kato, K.; Hinderhofer, A.; Ueno, N.; Kera, S. [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Murdey, R.; Shiraishi, R.; Yoshida, H.; Sato, N. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-12-16

    Molecular orientation dependences of the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of diindenoperylene (DIP) films were studied by using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The molecular orientation was controlled by preparing the DIP films on graphite and SiO{sub 2} substrates. The threshold IE and EA of DIP thin films were determined to be 5.81 and 3.53 eV for the film of flat-lying DIP orientation, respectively, and 5.38 and 3.13 eV for the film of standing DIP orientation, respectively. The result indicates that the IE and EA for the flat-lying film are larger by 0.4 eV and the frontier orbital states shift away from the vacuum level compared to the standing film. This rigid energy shift is ascribed to a surface-electrostatic potential produced by the intramolecular polar bond (>C{sup −}-H{sup +}) for standing orientation and π-electron tailing to vacuum for flat-lying orientation.

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Off-Shore Wind Energy Project’s Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Amir Hamzeh Mirkheshti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of wind power can solve the issue of growing power consumption with insufficient distribution facilities. Based on an extensive research on more than 20 studies, this study explores the risks associated with off-shore wind energy in Persian Gulf in Iran. This paper tries to identify the risks in related off-shore wind energy project, in order to specify which variables have the most impact on project by qualitative analysis through application of the impact and the possibility of every risk. A survey was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of variables and risks. Certain key components in completion of the project should be taken into account such as technology, research team, expert teams (personnel that have a good knowledge of this industry, and choosing the right spot where the wind farms will be located. The objective of this paper is to present the variables encountered in wind power project and to highlight the risks that must be controlled by the project developers, project team, supply chain actors, manufacturers, and all the stockholders involved in successful completion of a project.

  6. Preparation, Single-Molecule Manipulation, and Energy Transfer Investigation of a Polyfluorene-graft-DNA polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mikael; Christensen, Rasmus S; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Bakke, Mette R; Riber, Camilla F; Nielsen, Karina S; Zelikin, Alexander N; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2017-08-04

    Conjugated polymers have been intensively studied due to their unique optical and electronic properties combined with their physical flexibility and scalable bottom up synthesis. Although the bulk qualities of conjugated polymers have been extensively utilized in research and industry, the ability to handle and manipulate conjugated polymers at the nanoscale lacks significantly behind. Here, the toolbox for controlled manipulation of conjugated polymers was expanded through the synthesis of a polyfluorene-DNA graft-type polymer (poly(F-DNA)). The polymer possesses the characteristics associated with the conjugated polyfluorene backbone, but the protruding single-stranded DNA provides the material with an exceptional addressability. This study demonstrates controlled single-molecule patterning of poly(F-DNA), as well as energy transfer between two different polymer-DNA conjugates. Finally, highly efficient DNA-directed quenching of polyfluorene fluorescence was shown. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Radiative capture of nucleons at astrophysical energies with single-particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.T.; Bertulani, C.A.; Guimaraes, V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiative capture of nucleons at energies of astrophysical interest is one of the most important processes for nucleosynthesis. The nucleon capture can occur either by a compound nucleus reaction or by a direct process. The compound reaction cross sections are usually very small, especially for light nuclei. The direct capture proceeds either via the formation of a single-particle resonance or a non-resonant capture process. In this work we calculate radiative capture cross sections and astrophysical S-factors for nuclei in the mass region A<20 using single-particle states. We carefully discuss the parameter fitting procedure adopted in the simplified two-body treatment of the capture process. Then we produce a detailed list of cases for which the model works well. Useful quantities, such as spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients, are obtained and compared to published data.

  8. Systematics of intermediate-energy single-nucleon removal cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostevin, J. A.; Gade, A.

    2014-11-01

    There is now a large and increasing body of experimental data and theoretical analyses for reactions that remove a single nucleon from an intermediate-energy beam of neutron- or proton-rich nuclei. In each such measurement, one obtains the inclusive cross section for the population of all bound final states of the mass A -1 reaction residue. These data, from different regions of the nuclear chart, and that involve weakly and strongly bound nucleons, are compared with theoretical expectations. These calculations include an approximate treatment of the reaction dynamics and shell-model descriptions of the projectile initial state, the bound final states of the residues, and the single-particle strengths computed from their overlap functions. The results are discussed in the light of recent data, more exclusive tests of the eikonal dynamical description, and calculations that take input from more microscopic nuclear structure models.

  9. Low energy transvenous cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans using a single lead system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Jung, J; Fries, R; Stopp, M; Sen, S; Schieffer, H; Ozbek, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of atrial cardioversion using an endocardial single lead system presently used for ventricular defibrillation. The study population consisted of 26 recipients of an ICD in combination with a conventional endocardial single lead system with the proximal spring electrode as anode in the SVC and the distal as cathode in the apex of the RV. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were induced by right atrial burst pacing. If the arrhythmia sustained > 1 minute, biphasic shocks synchronized with the R wave were delivered using the implanted device, beginning with an energy of 4 J. If 4 J failed to terminate the arrhythmia, energy was increased stepwise, if the first shock was successful, a step-down testing was performed after reinduction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The mean atrial defibrillation threshold was 2.3 +/- 1.2 J (range, 0.5-5 J). A total of 154 shocks were delivered and no adverse effects were observed. The mean defibrillation threshold for atrial flutter was somewhat lower than that for AF (1.8 +/- 1 J vs 2.7 +/- 1.4 J, P = 0.08). There was no correlation between the atrial defibrillation threshold and a history of previously occurring atrial tachyarrhythmias, the kind of the underlying heart disease, a prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs, the dimension of the LA, the LVEF, or the ventricular DFT. Internal atrial cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias using a transvenous single lead system designed for ventricular defibrillation is feasible and safe at low energies, and may have important clinical applications.

  10. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).

  11. Hard photon emission from high energy electrons and positrons in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Strakhovenko, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    A radiation of electrons and positrons in single crystals in coherent bremsstrahlung (CBS) region has been considered for the case when CBS has the most hard spectrum. Under this condition a particle moves near a crystalline plane (in fcc(d) crystal for axis (001) this is the plane (110)) and influence of the continuous plane potential should be taken into account. This potential gives additional contribution in soft part of the spectrum and affects on hard photon emission. Observation of this phenomena at high energy is discussed. 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Radiation hardness of a single crystal CVD diamond detector for MeV energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroyuki [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho Toki-city, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsubota, Masakatsu [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We have fabricated a particle detector using single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. The irradiation dose dependence of the output pulse height from the diamond detector was measured using 3 MeV protons. The pulse height of the output signals from the diamond detector decreases as the amount of irradiation increases at count rates of 1.6–8.9 kcps because of polarization effects inside the diamond crystal. The polarization effect can be cancelled by applying a reverse bias voltage, which restores the pulse heights. Additionally, the radiation hardness performance for MeV energy protons was compared with that of a silicon surface barrier detector.

  13. Fragmentation of high-energy ionic hydrogen clusters by single collision with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouaskit, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Chevarier, A.; Chevarier, N.; Gerlic, E.; Stern, M.

    1994-09-01

    Fragmentation of mass-selected 60-keV/amu-H n + induced by single collision with helium has been studied for various cluster sizes n (9, 13,21, 25, and 31). The absolute cross sections of the charged fragments H p + are measured from p equal to n-2. The deduced mass distributions are strongly different from those obtained at lower collision energy (where molecular evaporation is mainly involved) due to a strong production of ionic fragments with a size of p/n -τ , where A is the normalized fragment mass (p/n) and τ an exponent close to 2.6. (authors)

  14. Single Event Upset Energy Dependence In a Buck-Converter Power Supply Design

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, G; The ATLAS collaboration; De Lurgio, P; Stanek, R; Mellado, B; Gopalakrishnan, A; Mahadik, S; Reed, R; Senthilkumaran, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of Single Event Upsets performed on a commercial pulse-width modulator controller chip that we are using for a switching power supply design for the Atlas Tile Calorimeter at the LHC. We performed tests to study the probability of an SEU occurring as a function of incident particle (hadron) energy. We compare the results with prediction from theory. We discuss the performance of the circuit, and perform an analysis using Bendel parameters. We also present a solution that we found using external circuitry that eliminates the effect.

  15. Application of electron energy loss spectroscopy for single wall carbon nanotubes (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, N.; Jain, S.; Mittal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is among the few techniques that are available for the characterization of modified single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having nanometer dimensions (~1-3 nm). CNTs can be modified either by surface functionalization or coating, between bundles of nanotubes by doping, intercalation and fully or partially filling the central core. EELS is an exclusive technique for the identification, composition analysis, and crystallization studies of the chemicals and materials used for the modification of SWCNTs. The present paper serves as a compendium of research work on the application of EELS for the characterization of modified SWCNTs. (authors)

  16. Single electron capture differential cross section in H+ + He collisions at intermediate and high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; Fainstein, P D; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D

    2005-01-01

    The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS II) approximation is employed to study differential cross sections (DCS) for single electron capture in H + + He collisions at intermediate and high energies. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entrance and exit channels, respectively. Both DCS are also shown together with other theoretical results and with experimental data

  17. Influence of copper single crystal structures on the reflection of low energy hydrogen and helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijen, H.H.W.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the 'wedge-focussing' phenomenon is outlined. Investigations have been made to check up to what extent proton reflection can be simulated by using H 2 + or H 3 + as incident ions and analysing the reflected protons. The results of an experimental study of the influence of surface semi-channels on the reflection of low energy ( + , H 2 + and He + ions from copper single crystals with attention to the wedge-focussing effect are presented (G.T.H.)

  18. Energy efficient power electronic controller for a capacitor-run single-phase induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravana Ilango, G.; Samidurai, K.; Roykumar, M.; Thanushkodi, K.

    2009-01-01

    At present the speed control of a capacitor-run single-phase induction motor is being achieved by using triac based voltage regulators. This paper proposes a new scheme; an electronic transformer acts as a voltage regulator. Performance comparison is made between these two schemes in this paper. It is found that the proposed scheme has superior operating and performance characteristics. Experimental results show that apart from improvement in performance with respect to power factor and total harmonic distortion an appreciable amount of energy saving is also obtained in the electronic transformer based scheme.

  19. Fundamental parameters method for quantitative energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Zararsiz, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the requirement of the standart material in photon excited energy distributed X-ray fluorescence analysis has been removed. The interaction of X-rays with matter has been taken into account. A computer program has been developed by using the fundamental parameters of X-ray fluorescence technique and the spectral intensity 'K' of pure elements at saturation thickness has been obtained. For experimental purpose a convenient source-target-detector geometry has been designed. In order to excite the samples,Cd-109 radioisotope source has been used. The peak intensities has been obtained in a vacum chamber by counting the emitted X-rays. The calculation of concentration has been performed for double mixed samples correcting the effects of absorption and enchancement factors. The results were in conformity with their certificate values. (author)

  20. Quantification of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV-UG) in single and mixed infected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Saadia; Winter, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The quantity of genomic DNA-A and DNA-B of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus Uganda (Uganda variant, EACMV-UG) was analysed using quantitative PCR to assess virus concentrations in plants from susceptible and tolerant cultivars. The concentrations of genome components in absolute and relative quantification experiments in single and mixed viral infections were determined. Virus concentration was much higher in symptomatic leaf tissues compared to non-symptomatic leaves and corresponded with the severity of disease symptoms. In general, higher titres were recorded for EACMV-UG Ca055 compared to ACMV DRC6. The quantitative assessment also showed that the distribution of both viruses in the moderately resistant cassava cv. TMS 30572 was not different from the highly susceptible cv. TME 117. Natural mixed infections with both viruses gave severe disease symptoms. Relative quantification of virus genomes in mixed infections showed higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-A compared to ACMV DNA-A, but a marked reduction of EACMV-UG DNA-B. The higher concentrations of EACMV-UG DNA-B compared to EACMV DNA-A accumulation in single infections were consistent. Since DNA-B is implicated in virus cell-to-cell spread and systemic movement, the abundance of the EACMV-UG DNA-B may be an important factor driving cassava mosaic disease epidemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography during maximal pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with adenosine for assessing coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S.; Mahmarian, J.J.; Boyce, T.M.; Verani, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic value of maximal pharmacologic coronary vasodilation with intravenously administered adenosine in conjunction with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of coronary artery disease was investigated in 101 consecutive patients who had concomitant coronary arteriography. Tomographic images were assessed visually and from computer-quantified polar maps of the thallium-201 distribution. Significant coronary artery disease, defined as greater than 50% luminal diameter stenosis, was present in 70 patients. The sensitivity for detecting patients with coronary artery disease using quantitative analysis was 87% in the total group, 82% in patients without myocardial infarction and 96% in those with prior myocardial infarction; the specificity was 90%. The sensitivity for diagnosing coronary artery disease in patients without infarction with single-, double-and triple-vessel disease was 76%, 86% and 90%, respectively. All individual stenoses were identified in 68% of patients with double-vessel disease and in 65% of those with triple-vessel disease. The extent of the perfusion defects, as quantified by polar maps, was directly related to the extent of coronary artery disease. In conclusion, quantitative thallium-201 SPECT during adenosine infusion has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing the presence of coronary artery disease, localizing the anatomic site of coronary stenosis and identifying the majority of affected vascular regions in patients with multivessel involvement

  2. Quantitative evaluation of a single-distance phase-retrieval method applied on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Sara; Larsson, Emanuel; Alves, Frauke; Dal Monego, Simeone; Biffi, Stefania; Garrovo, Chiara; Lorenzon, Andrea; Tromba, Giuliana; Dullin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis concerning the application of a single-distance phase-retrieval algorithm on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung at different sample-to-detector distances is presented. Propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PBI) has already proven its potential in a great variety of soft-tissue-related applications including lung imaging. However, the strong edge enhancement, caused by the phase effects, often hampers image segmentation and therefore the quantitative analysis of data sets. Here, the benefits of applying single-distance phase retrieval prior to the three-dimensional reconstruction (PhR) are discussed and quantified compared with three-dimensional reconstructions of conventional PBI data sets in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preservation of image features. The PhR data sets show more than a tenfold higher CNR and only minor blurring of the edges when compared with PBI in a predominately absorption-based set-up. Accordingly, phase retrieval increases the sensitivity and provides more functionality in computed tomography imaging

  3. Microwave measurements of energy lost to longitudinal modes by single electron bunches traversing periodic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.; Weaver, J.N.; Wilson, P.B.

    1981-10-01

    In the design of future linear colliders, it will be important to minimize the loss of beam energy due to the excitation of higher-order modes in the accelerator structure by single bunches of electrons or positrons. This loss is not only detrimental in itself but also gives rise to energy spectrum widening and transverse emittance growth. Microwave measurements made on disk-loaded and alternating-spoke structures to determine the loss to the longitudinal modes are described. In these measurements the Gaussian bunch is simulated by a current pulse of the same shape transmitted through the structure on an axial center conductor. Results to date are presented for the total longitudinal loss parameter per period K in volts per picocoulomb

  4. The European single market of energy faced with conventional supply safety concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    By analysing the context of the creation of the Single Energy Market, this article tries to understand the logic behind the coexistence of two energy safety concepts: (1) the financial gains of international trading; (2) the protection against supply shortage risks using domestic self-sufficiency policies. Both concepts are based on an informative context conditioned by the two crises, which mainly impact the security perceptions of today: the oil crisis in the seventies and the Californian crisis in 2001. They are based on opposite factors: anti-market behaviour in the first case and excessive competition in the second case. The nature of liberalization, of the relation-ship with non-EU producing countries and the perception of the dangers are inherent to such an informative context. (author)

  5. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  7. A comparison of single particle tracking and temporal image correlation spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of endosome motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, F. W.; Wustner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used for measu......Single particle tracking (SPT) is becoming a standard method to extract transport parameters from time-lapse image sequences of fluorescent vesicles in living cells. Another method to obtain these data is temporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS), but this method is less often used...... for measurement of intracellular vesicle transport. Here, we present an extensive comparison of SPT and TICS. First we examine the effect of photobleaching, shading and noise on SPT and TICS analysis using simulated image sequences. To this end, we developed a simple photophysical model, which relates spatially...... varying illumination intensity to the bleaching propensity and fluorescence intensity of the moving particles. We found that neither SPT nor TICS are affected by photobleaching per se, but the transport parameters obtained by both methods are sensitive to the signal-to-noise ratio. In addition, the number...

  8. Quantitative assessment of changes in the dermal fibroblast population of pig skin after single doses of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-10-01

    Changes in the density of fibroblast nuclei in reticular dermis of pigs was studied from 6 to 104 weeks after a single dose of 15.4 Gy of X-rays. The largest decrease in fibroblasts occurred between 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation; after this there was only a slight fall in fibroblast number until 104 weeks when observations ceased. At 26 weeks and later times after irradiation reduction in the density of fibroblast nuclei in the reticular dermis was dose-dependent for single doses in the range 8.0-20.7 Gy. The dose-response curve had an initial shoulder, after which the fall in the fibroblast nuclear density was linearly related to dose. Data obtained between 26 weeks and 104 weeks after irradiation, could be fitted by the same dose-response curve. The fall in the counts of fibroblast nuclei was compared with earlier studies. The loss of fibroblasts occurred after an initial reduction in blood flow in the pig skin but was concomitant with general reduction in dermal thickness.

  9. A quantitative assessment of changes in the dermal fibroblast population of pig skin after single doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, R.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the density of fibroblast nuclei in reticular dermis of pigs was studied from 6 to 104 weeks after a single dose of 15.4 Gy of X-rays. The largest decrease in fibroblasts occurred between 12 and 26 weeks after irradiation; after this there was only a slight fall in fibroblast number until 104 weeks when observations ceased. At 26 weeks and later times after irradiation reduction in the density of fibroblast nuclei in the reticular dermis was dose-dependent for single doses in the range 8.0-20.7 Gy. The dose-response curve had an initial shoulder, after which the fall in the fibroblast nuclear density was linearly related to dose. Data obtained between 26 weeks and 104 weeks after irradiation, could be fitted by the same dose-response curve. The fall in the counts of fibroblast nuclei was compared with earlier studies. The loss of fibroblasts occurred after an initial reduction in blood flow in the pig skin but was concomitant with general reduction in dermal thickness. (author)

  10. Quantitative analysis of energy metabolism in human muscle using SLOOP 31P-MR-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.; Koestler, H.; Buchner, S.; Sandstede, J.; Hahn, D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Energy metabolism is vital for regular muscle function. In humans, in vivo analysis using 31 P-MR-spectroscopy (MRS) is mostly restricted to semiquantitative parameters due to technical demands. We applied spatial localization with optimal pointspread function (SLOOP) for quantification in human skeletal and cardiac muscle. Subjects/Methods: 10 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 were examined using a 1.5 T system (Magnetom VISION) and chemical shift imaging (CSI) for data collection. Concentrations of PCr, ATP and P i as well as PCr/ATP ratios were calculated by SLOOP. Results: Concentrations of PCr, ATP and P i were 29.9±3.4, 7.1±0.9 and 5.7±1.2 [mmol/kg] in normal skeletal muscle, corresponding to previously published studies. Two of the patients with a duration of disease longer than 10 years and a pronounced muscle weakness showed a significant decrease of PCr and ATP in skeletal muscle below 10 and 5 mmol/kg. One of these patients had an additional reduction of PCr in cardiac muscle. (orig.) [de

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Features Evaluation of Two Methods of Sugarcane Harvesting (with aim of Energy and Sugar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Andekaeizadeh

    2018-03-01

    per hour (Mg.h-1 Chopper energy consumption in Energycane method was 1.65 KJ more than Sugarcane method. The quantitative parameters including forward speed (km.h-1, field capacity (ha.h-1, the field performance (Mg.ha-1 and reed output (Mg.h-1 were also measured. Finally, statistical comparison was conducted between the two methods. The aim of this study is to provide Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method using the calculated parameters by the Matanker et al. This method provides decision-making ability for a manager. Materials and Methods In this study, quantitative parameters including fuel consumption (Lit.ha-1, harvester power (kW, efficiency of engine torque (%, energy of used hydraulic oil in basecutter, chopper and elevator (Mj.Mg-1, forward speed (km.h-1, field capacity (ha.h-1, the field performance (Mg.ha-1 and reed output (Mg.h-1 and qualitative parameters including the mean of average diameter of the stem (mm, stem height (m, number of stems on the meter (m-1, the percentage of cut stems and intact, cut stems and partially damaged and strongly damaged stems. The average height of straw and the stubble (mm, average of bulk density (kg.m-3, the average of moisture content, average of dry matter (biomass, (Mg.ha-1 were measured. Data analysis was conducted with Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method. Tables 1 and 2 in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters for the two methods of A and B, to form of rij matrix and based on measured criteria (C have arranged, respectively. Conclusions Choosing the appropriate method for sugarcane harvesting should be according to the purpose of harvesting. Energycane method has high energy consumption that it increases the operational costs. On the other hand, the quality of the obtained biomass from it is better, but Sugarcane method has high energy efficiency. But in terms of quality, the plant is not in good condition. For this reason, it is necessary, aim of harvesting and its type, be specified before crop

  12. A quantitative, non-destructive methodology for habitat characterisation and benthic monitoring at offshore renewable energy developments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V Sheehan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs. Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a "flying array" that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects. The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth, then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms⁻¹ current, the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath

  13. A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Attrill, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs). Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs) could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a “flying array” that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects). The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth), then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m) high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms−1 current), the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath MPAs and

  14. Output energy of a photovoltaic module mounted on a single-axis tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tian Pau

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the electric energy from a photovoltaic module was calculated theoretically at different azimuths and tilt angles in Taiwan. The gain of the module mounted on a single-axis tracking panel relative to a traditional fixed panel was analyzed. To simulate different operation environments, both types of radiation will be considered in addition to observed radiation, i.e. the extraterrestrial radiation and the global radiation predicted by an empirical model. The results show that the optimal tilt angle obtained from the observed data is flatter than those from other two radiation types and becomes flatter while the panel deviates from due south. The yearly gains obtained from the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiations are 51.4%, 28.5% and 18.7%, respectively, if a single-axis tracked panel is installed with the yearly optimal tilt angle; the similar gains are 45.3%, 25.9% and 17.5%, respectively, while the panel is adjusted to its monthly optimal angle each month. The amount of yearly energy in due west (or east) is less than its maximum in due south by about 11%, 10% and 5% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation respectively. The yearly conversion efficiency of a fixed module is 10.2%, 9.2% and 8.3% for the extraterrestrial, predicted and observed radiation, respectively.

  15. Energy-expending behaviour in frightened caribou when dispersed singly or in small bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Blehr

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of single, and small bands of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus when confronted by humans was compared with the energy—saving behaviour zoologists have ascribed to caribou in encounters with non-hunting wolves (Canis lupus. When confronted by me, or upon getting my scent, caribou ran away on all occasions. Their flight was occasionally interrupted by short stops to look back in my direction, but would continue on all occasions until they were out of sight. This behaviour is inconsistent with the one ascribed to caribou by zoologists when the intruder is a wolf instead of a human. In their view, the caribou stop their flight soon after the wolf gives up the chase, and accordingly save energy owing to their ability to distinguish between hunting and non-hunting wolves. However, small bands of caribou, as well as single animals, have never been observed to behave in this manner. On the contrary, the behaviour of caribou in such encounters is known to follow the same pattern as in their encounters with humans. Energy—saving behaviour is, however, sometimes observed when caribou become inquisitive about something in their surroundings. They will then readily approach as well as try to get down-wind of the object. When the object does not induce fear, it may simply be ignored, or charged before the caribou calm down. The effect of this "confirming behaviour" is that energy which would otherwise have been spent in needless flights from non-predators is saved.

  16. Single-cell tracking reveals antibiotic-induced changes in mycobacterial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglica, Željka; Özdemir, Emre; McKinney, John D

    2015-02-17

    ATP is a key molecule of cell physiology, but despite its importance, there are currently no methods for monitoring single-cell ATP fluctuations in live bacteria. This is a major obstacle in studies of bacterial energy metabolism, because there is a growing awareness that bacteria respond to stressors such as antibiotics in a highly individualistic manner. Here, we present a method for long-term single-cell tracking of ATP levels in Mycobacterium smegmatis based on a combination of microfluidics, time-lapse microscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based ATP biosensors. Upon treating cells with antibiotics, we observed that individual cells undergo an abrupt and irreversible switch from high to low intracellular ATP levels. The kinetics and extent of ATP switching clearly discriminate between an inhibitor of ATP synthesis and other classes of antibiotics. Cells that resume growth after 24 h of antibiotic treatment maintain high ATP levels throughout the exposure period. In contrast, antibiotic-treated cells that switch from ATP-high to ATP-low states never resume growth after antibiotic washout. Surprisingly, only a subset of these nongrowing ATP-low cells stains with propidium iodide (PI), a widely used live/dead cell marker. These experiments also reveal a cryptic subset of cells that do not resume growth after antibiotic washout despite remaining ATP high and PI negative. We conclude that ATP tracking is a more dynamic, sensitive, reliable, and discriminating marker of cell viability than staining with PI. This method could be used in studies to evaluate antimicrobial effectiveness and mechanism of action, as well as for high-throughput screening. New antimicrobials are urgently needed to stem the rising tide of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. All antibiotics are expected to affect bacterial energy metabolism, directly or indirectly, yet tools to assess the impact of antibiotics on the ATP content of individual bacterial cells are lacking. The

  17. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present an economic overview of the opportunities for energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark financed over the long term. The paper focuses on the economic difference between energy savings and the repayment of investment. Taking out the average remaining 20% equity...... in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  18. Validation of quantitative brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with a conventional single-head SPET camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Savolainen, S.; Launes, J.

    1993-01-01

    Phantom measurements were performed with a conventional single-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera in order to validate the relevance of the basal ganglia/frontal cortex iodine-123 iodobenzamide (IBZM) uptake ratios measured in patients. Inside a cylindrical phantom (diameter 22 cm), two cylinders with a diameter of 3.3 cm were inserted. The activity concentrations of the cylinders ranged from 6.0 to 22.6 kBq/ml and the cylinder/background activity ratios varied from 1.4 to 3.8. From reconstructed SPET images the cylinder/background activity ratios were calculated using three different regions of interest (ROIs). A linear relationship between the measured activity ratio and the true activity ratio was obtained. In patient studies, basal ganglia/frontal cortex IBZM uptake ratios determined from the reconstructed slices using attentuation correction prior to reconstruction were 1.30 ±0.03 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 9), 1,33 ±0.09 in infantile and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (n = 7) and 1.34 ±0.05 in narcolepsy (n = 8). Patients with Huntington's disease had significantly lower ratios (1.09 ±0.04, n = 5). The corrected basal ganglia/frontal cortex ratios, determined using linear regression, were about 80 % higher. The use of dual-window scatter correction increased the measured ratios by about 10 %. Although comprehensive correction methods can further improve the resolution in SPET images, the resolution of the SPET system used by us (1.5 - 2 cm) will determine what is achievable in basal ganglia D2 receptor imaging. (orig.)

  19. Validation of quantitative brain dopamine D2 receptor imaging with a conventional single-head SPET camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, P [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Liewendahl, K [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Savolainen, S [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Launes, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Neurology

    1993-08-01

    Phantom measurements were performed with a conventional single-head single-photon emission tomography (SPET) camera in order to validate the relevance of the basal ganglia/frontal cortex iodine-123 iodobenzamide (IBZM) uptake ratios measured in patients. Inside a cylindrical phantom (diameter 22 cm), two cylinders with a diameter of 3.3 cm were inserted. The activity concentrations of the cylinders ranged from 6.0 to 22.6 kBq/ml and the cylinder/background activity ratios varied from 1.4 to 3.8. From reconstructed SPET images the cylinder/background activity ratios were calculated using three different regions of interest (ROIs). A linear relationship between the measured activity ratio and the true activity ratio was obtained. In patient studies, basal ganglia/frontal cortex IBZM uptake ratios determined from the reconstructed slices using attentuation correction prior to reconstruction were 1.30 [+-]0.03 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 9), 1,33 [+-]0.09 in infantile and juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (n = 7) and 1.34 [+-]0.05 in narcolepsy (n = 8). Patients with Huntington's disease had significantly lower ratios (1.09 [+-]0.04, n = 5). The corrected basal ganglia/frontal cortex ratios, determined using linear regression, were about 80 % higher. The use of dual-window scatter correction increased the measured ratios by about 10 %. Although comprehensive correction methods can further improve the resolution in SPET images, the resolution of the SPET system used by us (1.5 - 2 cm) will determine what is achievable in basal ganglia D2 receptor imaging. (orig.)

  20. Endoleak detection using single-acquisition split-bolus dual-energy computer tomography (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javor, D.; Wressnegger, A.; Unterhumer, S.; Kollndorfer, K.; Nolz, R.; Beitzke, D.; Loewe, C. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To assess a single-phase, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) with a split-bolus technique and reconstruction of virtual non-enhanced images for the detection of endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Fifty patients referred for routine follow-up post-EVAR CT and a history of at least one post-EVAR follow-up CT examination using our standard biphasic (arterial and venous phase) routine protocol (which was used as the reference standard) were included in this prospective trial. An in-patient comparison and an analysis of the split-bolus protocol and the previously used double-phase protocol were performed with regard to differences in diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and image quality. The analysis showed a significant reduction of radiation dose of up to 42 %, using the single-acquisition split-bolus protocol, while maintaining a comparable diagnostic accuracy (primary endoleak detection rate of 96 %). Image quality between the two protocols was comparable and only slightly inferior for the split-bolus scan (2.5 vs. 2.4). Using the single-acquisition, split-bolus approach allows for a significant dose reduction while maintaining high image quality, resulting in effective endoleak identification. (orig.)

  1. Optimal visualization of focal nodular hyperplasia: quantitative and qualitative evaluation of single and multiphasic arterial phase acquisition at 1.5 T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Caroline; Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valérie; Zins, Marc

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the qualitative and quantitative benefit of multiple arterial phase acquisitions for the depiction of hypervascularity in FNH explored MR imaging using an extracellular contrast agent. Between 2007 and 2014, all patients who underwent MR imaging for the exploration of FNH were included. The protocol included a single or a triple arterial phase ("single" and "triple" group, respectively). Arterial phases were visually divided into four types: (1) angiographic, (2) early, (3) late, and (4) portal. Signal intensity on arterial phase images was visually recorded as intense, moderate, or low for each lesion. Lesion-to-liver contrast (LLC) and relative lesion enhancement (RE) were calculated and compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney test. Thirty-five women were included (mean 45-year old, range 20-66), with 50 FNH (mean size 30 mm). Single and triple groups included 20 patients (30 FNH) and 15 patients (20 FNH), respectively. Signal intensity was intense in all lesions in the triple group and in 22/30 (73%) in the single group (p = 0.041). Intense signals were more frequently found in the early arterial phase (p < 0.001). RE was not significantly different (1.78 ± 0.84 vs. 1.98 ± 1.81 p = 0.430, in the single and triple groups, respectively) but LLC was significantly higher in the triple group (0.32 ± 0.10 vs. 0.22 ± 0.10, p = 0.005). LLC was significantly higher in the first two arterial phases in the triple group (p < 0.001). Acquisition of three arterial phases improves the visualization of hypervascularity of FNH, as lesions show high visual signal intensity and contrast. Optimal visualization is obtained in the early arterial phase.

  2. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... but it was not possible to reach the intended operative temperature when the outside temperatures were very low. During the cooling season, the cooling demand was high and overheating was a problem. Although the house was designed as a plus-energy house, it did not perform as one under the Danish climate conditions...

  3. Fourier Analysis of Single-Shot Dual-Energy X-ray Imaging Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The sandwich detector was realized by stacking two scintillator-based flat-panel detectors (FPDs) between which an intermediate copper (Cu) filter layer was placed to further enhance spectral energy separation. As a result, the proper selection of filter material and its thickness could be a trade-off between the extent of energy separation (hence, DE image quality) and image noise due to reduction in the number of x-ray quanta reaching the rear FPD. Although the conventional kVp-switching dual-shot method showed better image qualities than the single-shot method because of larger spectral energy separation, the motion-artifact-free DE image with reasonably good image quality was a potential prospect of the single-shot method. For the reliable and better use of the sandwich detector for specific imaging applications, the sandwich detector should be optimally designed with a proper selection of scintillator material and thickness in each detector layer (i.e. the front and rear detectors), and aforementioned intermediate filter material and thickness. It is noted that glue is used to adhere the fragile photodiode array onto the ceramic substrate and these glue patterns are apparent in the rear and DE images. The glue pattern in the rear image comes from the front FPD. Unlike the conventional ESF as shown in Fig. 3(a), the ESF obtained from the subtracted image showed an enhancement as shown in Fig. 3(b). Consequently, the MTF obtained from the subtraction ESF showed a bandpass filter characteristic, as shown in Fig. 3(c), unlike the conventional low-pass filter characteristic (i.e., monotonic decrease of MTF value with increasing the spatial frequency). This MTF characteristic is due to the subtraction of two images with different spatial resolving powers (i.e., different thicknesses of phosphors between the front and rear detectors) as can be seen in unsharp masking digital image processing, which subtracts Gaussian-blurred image from the original image

  4. Fourier Analysis of Single-Shot Dual-Energy X-ray Imaging Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The sandwich detector was realized by stacking two scintillator-based flat-panel detectors (FPDs) between which an intermediate copper (Cu) filter layer was placed to further enhance spectral energy separation. As a result, the proper selection of filter material and its thickness could be a trade-off between the extent of energy separation (hence, DE image quality) and image noise due to reduction in the number of x-ray quanta reaching the rear FPD. Although the conventional kVp-switching dual-shot method showed better image qualities than the single-shot method because of larger spectral energy separation, the motion-artifact-free DE image with reasonably good image quality was a potential prospect of the single-shot method. For the reliable and better use of the sandwich detector for specific imaging applications, the sandwich detector should be optimally designed with a proper selection of scintillator material and thickness in each detector layer (i.e. the front and rear detectors), and aforementioned intermediate filter material and thickness. It is noted that glue is used to adhere the fragile photodiode array onto the ceramic substrate and these glue patterns are apparent in the rear and DE images. The glue pattern in the rear image comes from the front FPD. Unlike the conventional ESF as shown in Fig. 3(a), the ESF obtained from the subtracted image showed an enhancement as shown in Fig. 3(b). Consequently, the MTF obtained from the subtraction ESF showed a bandpass filter characteristic, as shown in Fig. 3(c), unlike the conventional low-pass filter characteristic (i.e., monotonic decrease of MTF value with increasing the spatial frequency). This MTF characteristic is due to the subtraction of two images with different spatial resolving powers (i.e., different thicknesses of phosphors between the front and rear detectors) as can be seen in unsharp masking digital image processing, which subtracts Gaussian-blurred image from the original image.

  5. Magneto-transport in the zero-energy Landau level of single-layer and bilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, U; Giesbers, A J M; Elferen, H J van; Kurganova, E V; McCollam, A; Maan, J C

    2011-01-01

    We present recent low-temperature magnetotransport experiments on single-layer and bilayer graphene in high magnetic field up to 33 T. In single layer graphene the fourfold degeneracy of the zero-energy Landau level is lifted by a gap opening at filling factor ν = 0. In bilayer graphene, we observe a partial lifting of the degeneracy of the eightfold degenerate zero-energy Landau level.

  6. Study of Six Energy-Window Settings for Scatter Correction in Quantitative 111In Imaging: Comparative analysis Using SIMIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Facenda, A.; Castillo Lopez, J. P.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Perez, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Activity quantification in nuclear medicine imaging is highly desirable, particularly for dosimetry and biodistribution studies of radiopharmaceuticals. Quantitative 111 In imaging is increasingly important with the current interest in therapy using 90 Y-radiolabeled compounds. Photons scattered in the patient are one of the major problems in quantification, which leads to degradation of image quality. The aim of this work was to assess the configuration of energy windows and the best weight factor for the scatter correction in 111 In images. All images were obtained using the Monte Carlo simulation code, Simind, configured to emulate the gamma camera Nucline SPIRIT DH-V. Simulations were validated by a positive agreement between experimental and simulated line-spread functions (LSF) of 99 mTc. It was examined the sensitivity, the scatter-to-total ratio, the contrast and the spatial resolution for scatter-compensated images obtained from six different multi-windows scatter corrections. Taking into consideration the results, the best energy-window setting was two 20% windows centered at 171 and 245keV, together with a 10% scatter window located between the photo peaks at 209keV. (Author)

  7. Systems Level Dissection of Anaerobic Methane Cycling: Quantitative Measurements of Single Cell Ecophysiology, Genetic Mechanisms, and Microbial Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphan, Victoria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Tyson, Gene [University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia; Meile, Christof [University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia; McGlynn, Shawn [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Yu, Hang [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Chadwick, Grayson [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Marlow, Jeffrey [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Dekas, Anne [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Hettich, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Chongle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ellisman, Mark [University of California San Diego; Hatzenpichler, Roland [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Skennerton, Connor [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Scheller, Silvan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-12-25

    The global biological CH4 cycle is largely controlled through coordinated and often intimate microbial interactions between archaea and bacteria, the majority of which are still unknown or have been only cursorily identified. Members of the methanotrophic archaea, aka ‘ANME’, are believed to play a major role in the cycling of methane in anoxic environments coupled to sulfate, nitrate, and possibly iron and manganese oxides, frequently forming diverse physical and metabolic partnerships with a range of bacteria. The thermodynamic challenges overcome by the ANME and their bacterial partners and corresponding slow rates of growth are common characteristics in anaerobic ecosystems, and, in stark contrast to most cultured microorganisms, this type of energy and resource limited microbial lifestyle is likely the norm in the environment. While we have gained an in-depth systems level understanding of fast-growing, energy-replete microorganisms, comparatively little is known about the dynamics of cell respiration, growth, protein turnover, gene expression, and energy storage in the slow-growing microbial majority. These fundamental properties, combined with the observed metabolic and symbiotic versatility of methanotrophic ANME, make these cooperative microbial systems a relevant (albeit challenging) system to study and for which to develop and optimize culture-independent methodologies, which enable a systems-level understanding of microbial interactions and metabolic networks. We used an integrative systems biology approach to study anaerobic sediment microcosms and methane-oxidizing bioreactors and expanded our understanding of the methanotrophic ANME archaea, their interactions with physically-associated bacteria, ecophysiological characteristics, and underlying genetic basis for cooperative microbial methane-oxidation linked with different terminal electron acceptors. Our approach is inherently multi-disciplinary and multi-scaled, combining transcriptional and

  8. Quantitative Analysis on the Energy and Environmental Impact of the Korean National Energy R&D Roadmap a Using Bottom-Up Energy System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties, 196 member states are obliged to submit their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC for every 5 years. As a member, South Korea has already proposed the reduction target and need to submit the achievement as a result of the policies and endeavors in the near future. In this paper, a Korean bottom-up energy system model to support the low-carbon national energy R&D roadmap will be introduced and through the modeling of various scenarios, the mid-to long-term impact on energy consumptions and CO2 emissions will be analyzed as well. The results of the analysis showed that, assuming R&D investments for the 11 types of technologies, savings of 13.7% with regards to final energy consumptions compared to the baseline scenario would be feasible by 2050. Furthermore, in the field of power generation, the generation proportion of new and renewable energy is expected to increase from 3.0% as of 2011 to 19.4% by 2050. This research also suggested that the analysis on the Energy Technology R&D Roadmap based on the model can be used not only for overall impact analysis and R&D portfolio establishment, but also for the development of detailed R&D strategies.

  9. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E.; Whitehouse, Harvey; François, Pieter; Feeney, Kevin; Mullins, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel; Collins, Christina; Grohmann, Stephanie; Mendel-Gleason, Gavin; Turner, Edward; Dupeyron, Agathe; Cioni, Enrico; Reddish, Jenny; Levine, Jill; Jordan, Greine; Brandl, Eva; Williams, Alice; Cesaretti, Rudolf; Krueger, Marta; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe; Tuan, Po-Ju; Peregrine, Peter; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Kradin, Nikolay; Korotayev, Andrey; Palmisano, Alessio; Baker, David; Bidmead, Julye; Bol, Peter; Christian, David; Cook, Connie; Covey, Alan; Feinman, Gary; Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Kristinsson, Axel; Miksic, John; Mostern, Ruth; Petrie, Cameron; Rudiak-Gould, Peter; ter Haar, Barend; Wallace, Vesna; Mair, Victor; Xie, Liye; Baines, John; Bridges, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph; Lockhart, Bruce; Bogaard, Amy; Spencer, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Do human societies from around the world exhibit similarities in the way that they are structured, and show commonalities in the ways that they have evolved? These are long-standing questions that have proven difficult to answer. To test between competing hypotheses, we constructed a massive repository of historical and archaeological information known as “Seshat: Global History Databank.” We systematically coded data on 414 societies from 30 regions around the world spanning the last 10,000 years. We were able to capture information on 51 variables reflecting nine characteristics of human societies, such as social scale, economy, features of governance, and information systems. Our analyses revealed that these different characteristics show strong relationships with each other and that a single principal component captures around three-quarters of the observed variation. Furthermore, we found that different characteristics of social complexity are highly predictable across different world regions. These results suggest that key aspects of social organization are functionally related and do indeed coevolve in predictable ways. Our findings highlight the power of the sciences and humanities working together to rigorously test hypotheses about general rules that may have shaped human history. PMID:29269395

  10. Quantitative characterization of all single amino acid variants of a viral capsid-based drug delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Emily C; Jakobson, Christopher M; Favor, Andrew H; Lobba, Marco J; Álvarez-Benedicto, Ester; Francis, Matthew B; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2018-04-11

    Self-assembling proteins are critical to biological systems and industrial technologies, but predicting how mutations affect self-assembly remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a technique, termed SyMAPS (Systematic Mutation and Assembled Particle Selection), that can be used to characterize the assembly competency of all single amino acid variants of a self-assembling viral structural protein. SyMAPS studies on the MS2 bacteriophage coat protein revealed a high-resolution fitness landscape that challenges some conventional assumptions of protein engineering. An additional round of selection identified a previously unknown variant (CP[T71H]) that is stable at neutral pH but less tolerant to acidic conditions than the wild-type coat protein. The capsids formed by this variant could be more amenable to disassembly in late endosomes or early lysosomes-a feature that is advantageous for delivery applications. In addition to providing a mutability blueprint for virus-like particles, SyMAPS can be readily applied to other self-assembling proteins.

  11. Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarction using single photon emission computed tomography using technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Kokubu, Tatsuo; Murase, Kenya; Hamamoto, Ken; Itoh, Taketoshi; Doiuchi, Junji; Ochi, Takaaki

    1986-09-01

    The usefulness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PPi) was evaluated in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. SPECT was performed with a rotating gamma camera after conventional planar images were made. Infarct size was measured from transaxial images of myocardial pyrophosphate uptakes. In each slice, the boundary was defined by subtracting 70 percent of the maximal counts and the number of voxels automatically counted. This subtraction rate was determined by phantom study and by compraing SPECT using /sup 99m/Tc-PPi with thallium-201-gated myocardial scintigraphy (/sup 201/Tl gated SPECT). The planar images showed diffuse uptakes in two of the 15 patients, and in these cases it was difficult to detect the infarct site. In contrast, SPECT images clearly imaged the infarct site consistent with the electrocardiographic findings, and they were definitely separated from the uptakes in the bones in all cases. Infarct size, ranging from 3.4 ml to 78.3 ml, correlated well with cumulative creatine kinase release (r = 0.84, p < 0.01, y = 772x + 13900). Correlation of infarct size with peak serum creatine kinase level was also significant (r = 0.66, p < 0.01, y = 10.6x + 693). In conclusion, SPECT with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi is a useful means of investigating the spatial distribution of pyrophosphate uptake and of evaluating the size of myocardial infarction.

  12. Exercise-induced stunning continues for at least one hour: evaluation with quantitative gated single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun; Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Tokita, Naoki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Xiuli, Mu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the after-effect of exercise on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated at 1 h after exercise and at rest by technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using an automated program in 53 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: normal scan (n = 16), ischaemia (n = 19) and infarction (n = 18), based on the interpretation of perfusion images. Postexercise LVEF did not differ from resting LVEF in the groups with normal scan and infarction. In patients with ischaemia, postexercise EDV (90±17 ml, mean ±SD) and ESV (44±15 ml) were significantly higher than EDV (84±15 ml, P = 0.001) and ESV (36±14 ml, P<0.0005) at rest. LVEF was significantly depressed 1 h after exercise (53%±9% vs 58%±9%, P<0.0001). In ischaemic patients with depressed postexercise LVEF, LVEF difference between rest and postexercise showed a significant correlation with the sum of defect scores, which were reversible from exercise to rest perfusion images (r = 0.92, P<0.0001). These results indicate that exercise-induced LV dysfunction (myocardial stunning) continues for at least 1 h in ischaemic patients and that the extent of LVEF depression is determined by the severity of ischaemia. (orig.)

  13. Exercise-induced stunning continues for at least one hour: evaluation with quantitative gated single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.K.; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yoshioka, Jun; Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi; Tokita, Naoki; Maruyama, Atsushi; Xiuli, Mu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Division of Tracer Kinetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-04-29

    To elucidate the after-effect of exercise on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated at 1 h after exercise and at rest by technetium-99m tetrofosmin gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using an automated program in 53 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: normal scan (n = 16), ischaemia (n = 19) and infarction (n = 18), based on the interpretation of perfusion images. Postexercise LVEF did not differ from resting LVEF in the groups with normal scan and infarction. In patients with ischaemia, postexercise EDV (90{+-}17 ml, mean {+-}SD) and ESV (44{+-}15 ml) were significantly higher than EDV (84{+-}15 ml, P = 0.001) and ESV (36{+-}14 ml, P<0.0005) at rest. LVEF was significantly depressed 1 h after exercise (53%{+-}9% vs 58%{+-}9%, P<0.0001). In ischaemic patients with depressed postexercise LVEF, LVEF difference between rest and postexercise showed a significant correlation with the sum of defect scores, which were reversible from exercise to rest perfusion images (r = 0.92, P<0.0001). These results indicate that exercise-induced LV dysfunction (myocardial stunning) continues for at least 1 h in ischaemic patients and that the extent of LVEF depression is determined by the severity of ischaemia. (orig.) With 7 figs., 19 refs.

  14. Quantitative analysis of acute myocardial infarction using single photon emission computed tomography using technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Kokubu, Tatsuo; Murase, Kenya; Hamamoto, Ken; Itoh, Taketoshi; Doiuchi, Junji; Ochi, Takaaki.

    1986-01-01

    The usefulness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using technetium-99m pyrophosphate ( 99m Tc-PPi) was evaluated in 15 patients with acute myocardial infarction. SPECT was performed with a rotating gamma camera after conventional planar images were made. Infarct size was measured from transaxial images of myocardial pyrophosphate uptakes. In each slice, the boundary was defined by subtracting 70 percent of the maximal counts and the number of voxels automatically counted. This subtraction rate was determined by phantom study and by compraing SPECT using 99m Tc-PPi with thallium-201-gated myocardial scintigraphy ( 201 Tl gated SPECT). The planar images showed diffuse uptakes in two of the 15 patients, and in these cases it was difficult to detect the infarct site. In contrast, SPECT images clearly imaged the infarct site consistent with the electrocardiographic findings, and they were definitely separated from the uptakes in the bones in all cases. Infarct size, ranging from 3.4 ml to 78.3 ml, correlated well with cumulative creatine kinase release (r = 0.84, p 99m Tc-PPi is a useful means of investigating the spatial distribution of pyrophosphate uptake and of evaluating the size of myocardial infarction. (author)

  15. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail: gh-du@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  16. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  17. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zeyuan; Wei, Bingqing

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni))/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  18. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Guo, Jinlong; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10"−"3 s"−"1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10"−"2 s"−"1.

  19. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  20. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe

    2016-03-01

    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  1. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan eCao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation for emphysema using three-dimensional computed tomography volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, H; Chen, F; Ohsumi, A; Hijiya, K; Takahashi, M; Ohata, K; Yamada, T; Sato, M; Aoyama, A; Bando, T; Date, H

    2014-04-01

    Although double lung transplantation is performed more frequently for emphysema, single lung transplantation (SLT) continues to be performed owing to limited donor organ availability. Native lung hyperinflation (NLH) is a unique complication following SLT for emphysema. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of lung transplantation, which we used to assess NLH in emphysema patients undergoing SLT. The primary purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of 3D-CT volumetry in the evaluation of NLH following SLT for emphysema. In 5 emphysema patients undergoing SLT at Kyoto University Hospital, 3D-CT volumetry data, pulmonary function test results, and clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Three patients did not develop a significant mediastinal shift, whereas the other 2 patients developed a mediastinal shift. In the 3 patients without a mediastinal shift, 3D-CT volumetry did not show a significant increase in native lung volume. These patients had a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation and firm adhesion on the mediastinal side was detected during lung transplantation. One of 2 patients with a mediastinal shift developed severe dyspnea with significantly decreased pulmonary function, and 3D-CT volumetry showed a significant increase in the native lung volume. However, the other patient did not show any dyspnea and his native lung volume decreased postoperatively (preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively: +981 mL and -348 mL, respectively). Although bilateral lung transplantation has become preferable for emphysema patients owing to postoperative NLH with SLT, patients with a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation might be good candidates for SLT. 3D-CT volumetry may be a useful method for detection of NLH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  4. A facile one-step fluorescence method for the quantitation of low-content single base deamination impurity in synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoye; Liang, Ruiting; Stolee, Jessica A

    2018-06-05

    Oligonucleotides are being researched and developed as potential drug candidates for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. The characterization of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) impurities caused by base mutations (e.g. deamination) which are closely related to the target ASO is a significant analytical challenge. Herein, we describe a novel one-step method, utilizing a strategy that combines fluorescence-ON detection with competitive hybridization, to achieve single base mutation quantitation in extensively modified synthetic ASOs. Given that this method is highly specific and sensitive (LoQ = 4 nM), we envision that it will find utility for screening other impurities as well as sequencing modified oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Near infra-red spectroscopy quantitative modelling of bivalve protein, lipid and glycogen composition using single-species versus multi-species calibration and validation sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jill K.; Maher, William A.; Purss, Matthew B. J.

    2018-03-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantitative modelling was used to measure the protein, lipid and glycogen composition of five marine bivalve species (Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Anadara trapezia) from multiple locations and seasons. Predictive models were produced for each component using individual species and aggregated sample populations for the three oyster species (S. glomerata, O. angasi and C. gigas) and for all five bivalve species. Whole animal tissues were freeze dried, ground to > 20 μm and scanned by NIRS. Protein, lipid and glycogen composition were determined by traditional chemical analyses and calibration models developed to allow rapid NIRS-measurement of these components in the five bivalve species. Calibration modelling was performed using wavelet selection, genetic algorithms and partial least squares analysis. Model quality was assessed using RPIQ and RMESP. For protein composition, single species model results had RPIQ values between 2.4 and 3.5 and RMSEP between 8.6 and 18%, the three oyster model had an RPIQ of 2.6 and an RMSEP of 10.8% and the five bivalve species had an RPIQ of 3.6 and RMSEP of 8.7% respectively. For lipid composition, single species models achieved RPIQ values between 2.9 and 5.3 with RMSEP between 9.1 and 11.2%, the oyster model had an RPIQ of 3.6 and RMSEP of 6.8 and the five bivalve model had an RPIQ of 5.2 and RMSEP of 6.8% respectively. For glycogen composition, the single species models had RPIQs between 3.8 and 18.9 with RMSEP between 3.5 and 9.2%, the oyster model had an RPIQ of 5.5 and RMSEP of 7.1% and the five bivalve model had an RPIQ of 4 and RMSEP of 7.6% respectively. Comparison between individual species models and aggregated models for three oyster species and five bivalve species for each component indicate that aggregating data from like species produces high quality models with robust and reliable quantitative application. The benefit of

  6. Single frequency thermal wave radar: A next-generation dynamic thermography for quantitative non-destructive imaging over wide modulation frequency ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexander; Chen, Liangjie; Ramirez Venegas, Diego; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran; Sun, Qiming; Mandelis, Andreas; Rodriguez, Ignacio Rojas

    2018-04-01

    Single-Frequency Thermal Wave Radar Imaging (SF-TWRI) was introduced and used to obtain quantitative thickness images of coatings on an aluminum block and on polyetherketone, and to image blind subsurface holes in a steel block. In SF-TWR, the starting and ending frequencies of a linear frequency modulation sweep are chosen to coincide. Using the highest available camera frame rate, SF-TWRI leads to a higher number of sampled points along the modulation waveform than conventional lock-in thermography imaging because it is not limited by conventional undersampling at high frequencies due to camera frame-rate limitations. This property leads to large reduction in measurement time, better quality of images, and higher signal-noise-ratio across wide frequency ranges. For quantitative thin-coating imaging applications, a two-layer photothermal model with lumped parameters was used to reconstruct the layer thickness from multi-frequency SF-TWR images. SF-TWRI represents a next-generation thermography method with superior features for imaging important classes of thin layers, materials, and components that require high-frequency thermal-wave probing well above today's available infrared camera technology frame rates.

  7. Single frequency thermal wave radar: A next-generation dynamic thermography for quantitative non-destructive imaging over wide modulation frequency ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexander; Chen, Liangjie; Ramirez Venegas, Diego; Sivagurunathan, Koneswaran; Sun, Qiming; Mandelis, Andreas; Rodriguez, Ignacio Rojas

    2018-04-01

    Single-Frequency Thermal Wave Radar Imaging (SF-TWRI) was introduced and used to obtain quantitative thickness images of coatings on an aluminum block and on polyetherketone, and to image blind subsurface holes in a steel block. In SF-TWR, the starting and ending frequencies of a linear frequency modulation sweep are chosen to coincide. Using the highest available camera frame rate, SF-TWRI leads to a higher number of sampled points along the modulation waveform than conventional lock-in thermography imaging because it is not limited by conventional undersampling at high frequencies due to camera frame-rate limitations. This property leads to large reduction in measurement time, better quality of images, and higher signal-noise-ratio across wide frequency ranges. For quantitative thin-coating imaging applications, a two-layer photothermal model with lumped parameters was used to reconstruct the layer thickness from multi-frequency SF-TWR images. SF-TWRI represents a next-generation thermography method with superior features for imaging important classes of thin layers, materials, and components that require high-frequency thermal-wave probing well above today's available infrared camera technology frame rates.

  8. Quantitative Review Finds No Evidence of Cognitive Effects in Healthy Populations From Single-session Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Forte, Jason D; Carter, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 15-years, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a relatively novel form of neuromodulation, has seen a surge of popularity in both clinical and academic settings. Despite numerous claims suggesting that a single session of tDCS can modulate cognition in healthy adult populations (especially working memory and language production), the paradigms utilized and results reported in the literature are extremely variable. To address this, we conduct the largest quantitative review of the cognitive data to date. Single-session tDCS data in healthy adults (18-50) from every cognitive outcome measure reported by at least two different research groups in the literature was collected. Outcome measures were divided into 4 broad categories: executive function, language, memory, and miscellaneous. To account for the paradigmatic variability in the literature, we undertook a three-tier analysis system; each with less-stringent inclusion criteria than the prior. Standard mean difference values with 95% CIs were generated for included studies and pooled for each analysis. Of the 59 analyses conducted, tDCS was found to not have a significant effect on any - regardless of inclusion laxity. This includes no effect on any working memory outcome or language production task. Our quantitative review does not support the idea that tDCS generates a reliable effect on cognition in healthy adults. Reasons for and limitations of this finding are discussed. This work raises important questions regarding the efficacy of tDCS, state-dependency effects, and future directions for this tool in cognitive research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project ''Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,'' Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH → H 2 R reactions where RH is CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , or C 3 H 8 , (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants

  10. Isotope shifts in odd and even energy levels of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope shift studies in the gadolinium spectra have been extended in the region 4140 to 4535 A. Isotope shift Δσ(156 to 160) have been measured in 315 lines of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom using a recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Some of the Gd I lines studied involve transitions from newly identified high odd levels of 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 5d 3 configurations to low even levels of 4f 8 6s 2 and 4f 7 6s 2 6p configurations. Electronic configurations of the energy levels have been discussed on the basis of observed isotope shifts. In some cases assigned configurations have been revised and probable configurations have been suggested. (author)

  11. Spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single molecule with intramolecular spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Kuck, Stefan; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Hoffmann, Germar; Blügel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2010-07-23

    We investigate the spin- and energy-dependent tunneling through a single organic molecule (CoPc) adsorbed on a ferromagnetic Fe thin film, spatially resolved by low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Interestingly, the metal ion as well as the organic ligand show a significant spin dependence of tunneling current flow. State-of-the-art ab initio calculations including also van der Waals interactions reveal a strong hybridization of molecular orbitals and substrate 3d states. The molecule is anionic due to a transfer of one electron, resulting in a nonmagnetic (S=0) state. Nevertheless, tunneling through the molecule exhibits a pronounced spin dependence due to spin-split molecule-surface hybrid states.

  12. Non-degenerate single-particle energies in the Ginocchio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Kirson, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    A one-body operator expressing the breaking of the degeneracy of the single-nucleon energies is added to the pairing interaction of the Ginocchio model. This operator couples states inside the model's SD space to states outside it. The influence of this coupling on the effective interaction in the SD space and the possibility of expressing the results in terms of renormalization of parameters in the fermion hamiltonian or the IBM are investigated. The effective interaction is found to be almost diagonal in seniority, while splitting the previously-degenerate seniority multiplets. Appropriately renormalized Ginocchio and IBM hamiltonians can approximately reproduce the results, but fermion-number dependence of the hamiltonian parameters and explicit three-body interactions are needed to reproduce the computed effects exactly. (orig.)

  13. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  14. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  15. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  16. Non-degenerate single-particle energies in the Ginocchio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.; Kirson, M.W.

    1983-07-01

    A one-body operator expressing the breaking of the degeneracy of the single-nucleon energies is added to the pairing interaction of the Ginocchio model. This operator couples states inside the model's S-D space to states outside it. The influence of this coupling on the effective interaction in the S-D space and the possibility of expressing the results in terms of renormalization of parameters in the fermion hamiltonian or the IBM are investigated. The effective interaction is found to be almost diagonal in seniority, while splitting the previously-degenerate seniority multiplets. Appropiately renormalized Ginocchio and IBM hamiltonians can approximately reproduce the results, but fermion-number dependence of the hamiltonian parameters and explicit three-body interactions are needed to reproduce the computed effects exactly. (author)

  17. Interaction of a single mode field cavity with the 1D XY model: Energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonchev, H; Donkov, A A; Chamati, H

    2016-01-01

    In this work we use the fundamental in quantum optics Jaynes-Cummings model to study the response of spin 1/2chain to a single mode of a laser light falling on one of the spins, a focused interaction model between the light and the spin chain. For the spin-spin interaction along the chain we use the XY model. We report here the exact analytical results, obtained with the help of a computer algebra system, for the energy spectrum in this model for chains of up to 4 spins with nearest neighbors interactions, either for open or cyclic chain configurations. Varying the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange coupling relative to the light-spin interaction we have investigated both cases of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin chains. (paper)

  18. Energy levels of the single excited states in NaI and Na-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherbini, T.M.; Wahby, A.S.

    1987-08-01

    Energy levels of the single excited 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ns( 2 S), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 mp( 2 P), 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 md( 2 D) and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 nf( 2 F); n=4-7, m=3-6 states for NaI and Na-like ions are calculated using the one configuration Hartree-Fock method. Good agreement is obtained between our results for the higher members of the NaI sequence and previous data from photo-absorption and beam foil experiments. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  19. X-ray diffraction patterns of single crystals implanted with high-energy light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of silicon and gallium arsenide single crystals implanted with high-energy protons and α-particles were studied. A various models of lattice parameter changes were analysed. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice parameter depth-distribution can be assumed to be proportional to vacancy distribution obtained by Monte-Carlo method and from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. Most of the X-ray experiments were performed using synchrotron source of X-ray radiation in particular in the case of back-reflection and transmission section topographic methods. The new method of direct determination of the implanted ion ranges was proposed using synchrotron radiation back-reflection section topography. A number of new interference phenomena was revealed and explained. These interferences are important in the applications of diffraction theory in studying of the real structure of implanted layers. (author)

  20. A Method for Extracting the Free Energy Surface and Conformational Dynamics of Fast-Folding Proteins from Single Molecule Photon Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy holds the promise of providing direct measurements of protein folding free energy landscapes and conformational motions. However, fulfilling this promise has been prevented by technical limitations, most notably, the difficulty in analyzing the small packets of photons per millisecond that are typically recorded from individual biomolecules. Such limitation impairs the ability to accurately determine conformational distributions and resolve sub-millisecond processes. Here we develop an analytical procedure for extracting the conformational distribution and dynamics of fast-folding proteins directly from time-stamped photon arrival trajectories produced by single molecule FRET experiments. Our procedure combines the maximum likelihood analysis originally developed by Gopich and Szabo with a statistical mechanical model that describes protein folding as diffusion on a one-dimensional free energy surface. Using stochastic kinetic simulations, we thoroughly tested the performance of the method in identifying diverse fast-folding scenarios, ranging from two-state to one-state downhill folding, as a function of relevant experimental variables such as photon count rate, amount of input data, and background noise. The tests demonstrate that the analysis can accurately retrieve the original one-dimensional free energy surface and microsecond folding dynamics in spite of the sub-megahertz photon count rates and significant background noise levels of current single molecule fluorescence experiments. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of single molecule FRET experiments of fast protein folding that is also potentially extensible to the analysis of any other biomolecular process governed by sub-millisecond conformational dynamics. PMID:25988351

  1. Analyses of the energy-dependent single separable potential models for the NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Beghi, L.

    1981-08-01

    Starting from a systematic study of the salient features regarding the quantum-mechanical two-particle scattering off an energy-dependent (ED) single separable potential and its connection with the rank-2 energy-independent (EI) separable potential in the T-(K-) amplitude formulation, the present status of the ED single separable potential models due to Tabakin (M1), Garcilazo (M2) and Ahmad (M3) has been discussed. It turned out that the incorporation of a self-consistent optimization procedure improves considerably the results of the 1 S 0 and 3 S 1 scattering phase shifts for the models (M2) and (M3) up to the CM wave number q=2.5 fm -1 , although the extrapolation of the results up to q=10 fm -1 reveals that the two models follow the typical behaviour of the well-known super-soft core potentials. It has been found that a variant of (M3) - i.e. (M4) involving one more parameter - gives the phase shifts results which are generally in excellent agreement with the data up to q=2.5 fm -1 and the extrapolation of the results for the 1 S 0 case in the higher wave number range not only follows the corresponding data qualitatively but also reflects a behaviour similar to the Reid soft core and Hamada-Johnston potentials together with a good agreement with the recent [4/3] Pade fits. A brief discussion regarding the features resulting from the variations in the ED parts of all the four models under consideration and their correlations with the inverse scattering theory methodology concludes the paper. (author)

  2. Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Lei; Li, Yilei; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Long; Niu, Simiao; Chenet, Daniel; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Yufeng; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-23

    The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m(-2) and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.

  3. Upgrade of neutron energy spectrometer with single multilayer bonner sphere using onion-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukpshi, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritan, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ogata, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In order to measure neutron energy spectra, the conventional Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) are widely used. In this spectrometer, several measurements with different size Bonner spheres are required. Operators should, therefore, place these spheres in several times to a measurement point where radiation dose might be relatively high. In order to reduce this effort, novel neutron energy spectrometer using an onion-like single Bonner sphere was proposed in our group. This Bonner sphere has multiple sensitive spherical shell layers in the single sphere. In this spectrometer, a band-shaped thermal neutron detection medium, which consists of a LiF-ZnS mixed powder scintillator sheet and a wavelength-shifting (WLS) fiber readout, was looped to each sphere at equal angular intervals. Amount of LiF neutron converter is reduced near polar region, where the band-shaped detectors are concentrated, in order to uniform the directional sensitivity. The LiF-ZnS mixed powder has an advantage of extremely high light yield. However, since it is opaque, scintillation photons cannot be collect uniformly. This type of detector shows no characteristic shape in the pulse height spectrum. Subsequently, it is difficult to set the pulse height discrimination level. This issue causes sensitivity fluctuation due to gain instability of photodetectors and/or electric modules. In order to solve this problem, we propose to replace the LiF-ZnS mixed powder into a flexible and Transparent RUbber SheeT type LiCaAlF6 (TRUST LiCAF) scintillator. TRUST LiCAF scintillator can show a peak shape corresponding to neutron absorption events in the pulse height spectrum. We fabricated the prototype detector with five sensitive layers using TRUST LiCAF scintillator and conducted basic experiments to evaluate the directional uniformity of the sensitivity. The fabricated detector shows excellent directional uniformity of the neutron sensitivity

  4. Synchronous timing of multi-energy fast beam extraction during a single AGS cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabusi, J.; Naase, S.

    1985-01-01

    Synchronous triggering of fast beams is required because the field of Kicker Magnets must rise within the open space between one beam bunch and the next. Within the Brookhaven AGS, Fast Extracted Beam (FEB) triggering combines nominal timing, based on beam energy with bunch-to-bunch synchronization, based on the accelerating rf waveform. During beam acceleration, a single bunch is extracted at 22 GeV/c and within the same AGS cycle, the remaining eleven bunches are extracted at 28.4 GeV/c. When the single bunch is extracted, a ''hole'', which is left in the remaining circulating beam, can appear in random locations within the second extraction during successive AGS cycles. To overcome this problem, a synchronous rf/12 counting scheme and logic circuitry are used to keep track of the bunch positions relative to each other, and to place the ''hole'' in any desired location within the second extraction. The rf/12 signal is used also to synchronize experimenters triggers

  5. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  6. Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad; McCarty, Perry L; Shin, Chungheon; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-09-01

    An aluminum dioxide (Al 2 O 3 ) ceramic membrane was used in a single-stage anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. The AFCMBR was operated continuously for 395days at 25°C using a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 260mg/L. A membrane net flux as high as 14.5-17L/m 2 h was achieved with only periodic maintenance cleaning, obtained by adding 25mg/L of sodium hypochlorite solution. No adverse effect of the maintenance cleaning on organic removal was observed. An average SCOD in the membrane permeate of 23mg/L was achieved with a 1h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Biosolids production averaged 0.014±0.007gVSS/gCOD removed. The estimated electrical energy required to operate the AFCMBR system was 0.039kWh/m 3 , which is only about 17% of the electrical energy that could be generated with the methane produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing new compositions of [001]C relaxor ferroelectric single crystals using a work-energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2016-04-01

    The desired operating range of ferroelectric materials with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary is limited by field induced phase transformations. In [001]C cut and poled relaxor ferroelectric single crystals the mechanically driven ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation is hindered by antagonistic electrical loading. Instability around the phase transformation makes the current experimental technique for characterization of the large field behavior very time consuming. Characterization requires specialized equipment and involves an extensive set of measurements under combined electrical, mechanical, and thermal loads. In this work a mechanism-based model is combined with a more limited set of experiments to obtain the same results. The model utilizes a work-energy criterion that calculates the mechanical work required to induce the transformation and the required electrical work that is removed to reverse the transformation. This is done by defining energy barriers to the transformation. The results of the combined experiment and modeling approach are compared to the fully experimental approach and error is discussed. The model shows excellent predictive capability and is used to substantially reduce the total number of experiments required for characterization. This decreases the time and resources required for characterization of new compositions.

  8. Adrenal incidentaloma triage with single source (fast kVp switch) dual energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Daniel I; Keshavarzi, Nahid R; Parker, Robert A; Kaza, Ravi K; Platt, Joel F; Francis, Isaac R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate single source dual energy CT (DECT) for distinguishing benign and indeterminate adrenal nodules, with attention to effects of phase of intravenous contrast enhancement. Materials and methods An IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective review revealed 273 contrast-enhanced abdominal DECTs from November 2009–March 2012. 50 adrenal nodules ≥ 0.8 cm were identified in 41 patients: 22 female, 19 male, average age 66 (range 36–88 years). CT post-processing and measurements were independently performed by two radiologists (R1 and R2) for each nodule: (1) HU on true non-contrast images; (2) post-contrast HU on monochromatic spectral images at 40, 75, and 140 keV; (3) post-contrast material density (mg/cc) on virtual non-contrast (VNC) images. Nodules were separated into benign (VNC images, benign nodules had significantly lower material density (R1: 992.4 mg/cc ± 9.9; R2: 992.7 mg/cc ±9.6) than indeterminate nodules (R1: 1001.1mg/cc ±20.5 (p .038); R2: 1007.6 HU ±13.4 (p <.0001). Conclusion DECT tools can mathematically subtract iodine or minimize its effects in high energy reconstructions, approximating non-contrast imaging and potentially reducing the need for additional studies to triage adrenal nodules detected on post-contrast DECT exams. PMID:25055267

  9. Single- and dual energy QCT around acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty using 3-dimensional segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    of segmentation software and to compare bone mineral density (BMD) measurements in single- and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT) Materials and Methods: 24 male patients with total hip arthroplasty (12 cemented and 12 uncemented) were scanned and rescanned using SECT and virtual monochromatic DECT images. 3D- ROIs......Background: Bone density measurements around hip implants are challenged by artifacts and the complex anatomy of the acetabulum. We developed 3D segmentation software and used dual energy CT to reduce artifacts. Purpose / Aim of Study: To test the between-scan agreement and reliability...... the cemented cup the mean BMD for SECT was 523 mg/ccm with a between-scan difference of 14 mg/ccm, p=0.25 and 186 mg/ccm in DECT with a difference of 6 mg/ccm, p=0.15. ICC was >0.95 with more narrow limits of agreement in DECT compared with SECT. Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was 25% higher with DECT...

  10. Indirect Solar Water Heating in Single-Family, Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Solar water heating systems are not new, but they have not become prevalent in most of the U.S. Most of the country is cold enough that indirect solar thermal systems are required for freeze protection, and average installed cost of these systems is $9,000 to $10,000 for typical systems on single-family homes. These costs can vary significantly in different markets and with different contractors, and federal and regional incentives can reduce these up-front costs by 50% or more. In western Massachusetts, an affordable housing developer built a community of 20 homes with a goal of approaching zero net energy consumption. In addition to excellent thermal envelopes and PV systems, the developer installed a solar domestic water heating system (SDHW) on each home. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), a research consortium funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program, commissioned some of the systems, and CARB was able to monitor detailed performance of one system for 28 months.

  11. A liquid chromatography method with single quadrupole mass spectrometry for quantitative determination of indomethacin in maternal plasma and urine of pregnant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Vernikovskaya, Daria I.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.; Rytting, Erik; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography with single quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for the quantitative determination of indomethacin in the maternal plasma and urine of pregnant patients under treatment. A deuterium-labeled isotope of indomethacin (d4-indomethacin) was used as an internal standard. The maternal plasma and urine samples were acidified with 1.0 MHCl then extracted with chloroform to achieve the extraction recovery range of 94% to 104% with variation less than 11%. Chromatographic separation was achieved by a Waters Symmetry C18 column with isocratic elution of 0.05% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile (47:53, v/v). An in-source fragmentation was applied on the single quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source at positive mode. The LC-ESI-MS quantification was performed in the selected ion monitoring mode targeting ions at m/z 139 for indomethacin and m/z 143 for its internal standard. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges between 14.8 and 2.97×103 ng/mL for plasma samples and between 10.5 and 4.21×103 ng/mL for urine samples. The relative standard deviation of this method was less than 8% for intra- and inter-day assays, and the accuracy ranged between 90% and 108%. PMID:23474812

  12. Consistent scalar and tensor perturbation power spectra in single fluid matter bounce with dark energy era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalhau, Anna Paula; Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Vitenti, Sandro Dias Pinto

    2018-04-01

    perturbations and also for the ratio between tensor and scalar amplitudes, r =T /S ≲0.1 . The amplification of scalar perturbations over tensor perturbations takes place only around the bounce, due to quantum effects, and it would not occur if General Relativity has remained valid throughout this phase. Hence, this is a bouncing model in which a single field induces not only an expanding background dark energy phase but also produces all observed features of cosmological perturbations of quantum mechanical origin at linear order.

  13. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  14. A combined static-dynamic single-dose imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Maria; Shrestha, Uttam M; Seo, Youngho; Gullberg, Grant T; Botvinick, Elias H

    2017-08-03

    SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a clinical mainstay that is typically performed with static imaging protocols and visually or semi-quantitatively assessed for perfusion defects based upon the relative intensity of myocardial regions. Dynamic cardiac SPECT presents a new imaging technique based on time-varying information of radiotracer distribution, which permits the evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In this work, a preliminary feasibility study was conducted in a small patient sample designed to implement a unique combined static-dynamic single-dose one-day visit imaging protocol to compare quantitative dynamic SPECT with static conventional SPECT for improving the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen patients (11 males, four females, mean age 71 ± 9 years) were enrolled for a combined dynamic and static SPECT (Infinia Hawkeye 4, GE Healthcare) imaging protocol with a single dose of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin administered at rest and a single dose administered at stress in a one-day visit. Out of 15 patients, eleven had selective coronary angiography (SCA), 8 within 6 months and the rest within 24 months of SPECT imaging, without intervening symptoms or interventions. The extent and severity of perfusion defects in each myocardial region was graded visually. Dynamically acquired data were also used to estimate the MBF and CFR. Both visually graded images and estimated CFR were tested against SCA as a reference to evaluate the validity of the methods. Overall, conventional static SPECT was normal in ten patients and abnormal in five patients, dynamic SPECT was normal in 12 patients and abnormal in three patients, and CFR from dynamic SPECT was normal in nine patients and abnormal in six patients. Among those 11 patients with SCA, conventional SPECT was normal in 5, 3 with documented CAD on SCA with an overall accuracy of 64%, sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 83%. Dynamic SPECT image

  15. Comprehensive Wavelengths, Energy Levels, and Hyperfine Structure Parameters of Singly-Ionized Iron-Group Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    We propose to measure wavelengths, energy levels, and hyperfine structure parameters of Ni II, Mn II, Sc II and other singly-ionized iron-group elements, covering the wavelength range 80 nm to 5500 nm. We shall use archival data from spectrometers at NIST and Kitt Peak National Observatory for spectra above 140 nm. Additional experimental observations will be taken if needed using Fourier transform spectrometers at NIST. Spectra will be taken using our normal incidence grating spectrograph to provide better sensitivity than the FT spectra and to extend the wavelength range down to 80 nm. We aim to produce a comprehensive description of the spectra of all singly-ionized iron- group elements. The wavelength uncertainty of the strong lines will be better than 1 part in 10^7. For most singly-ionized iron-group elements available laboratory data have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than astronomical observations over wide spectra ranges. Some of these laboratory measurements date back to the 1960's. Since then, Fourier transform spectroscopy has made significant progress in improving the accuracy and quantity of data in the UV-vis-IR region, but high quality Fourier transform spectra are still needed for Mn II, Ni II and Sc II. Fourier transform spectroscopy has low sensitivity in the VUV region and is limited to wavelengths above 140 nm. Spectra measured with high-resolution grating spectrographs are needed in this region in order to obtain laboratory data of comparable quality to the STIS and COS spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope. Currently, such data exist only for Fe II and Cr II. Lines of Sc II, V II, and Mn II show hyperfine structure, but hyperfine structure parameters have been measured for relatively few lines of these elements. Significant errors can occur if hyperfine structure is neglected when abundances are determined from stellar spectra. Measurements of hyperfine structure parameters will be made using Fourier transform spectroscopy

  16. SU-E-I-98: Dose Comparison for Pulmonary Embolism CT Studies: Single Energy Vs. Dual Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the size specific dose estimate (SSDE), dose length product (DLP) and noise relationship for pulmonary embolism studies evaluated by single source dual energy computed tomography (DECT) against conventional CT (CCT) studies in a busy cancer center and to determine the dose savings provided by DECT. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study was performed to determine the CTDIvol and DLP from a subset of patients scanned with both DECT and CCT over the past five years. We were able to identify 30 breast cancer patients (6 male, 24 female, age range 24 to 81) who had both DECT and CCT studies performed. DECT scans were performed with a GE HD 750 scanner (140/80 kVp, 480 mAs and 40 mm) and CCT scans were performed with a GE Lightspeed 16 slice scanner (120 kVp, 352 mAs, 20 mm). Image noise was measured by placing an ROI and recording the standard deviation of the mean HU along the descending aorta. Results: The average DECT patient size specific dose estimate was to be 14.2 ± 1.7 mGy as compared to 22.4 ± 2.7 mGy from CCT PE studies, which is a 37% reduction in the SSDE. The average DECT DLP was 721.8 ± 84.6 mGy-cm as compared to 981.8 ± 106.1 mGy-cm for CCT, which is a 26% decrease. Compared to CCT the image noise was found to decrease by 19% when using DECT for PE studies. Conclusion: DECT SSDE and DLP measurements indicate dose savings and image noise reduction when compared to CCT. In an environment that heavily debates CT patient doses, this study confirms the effectiveness of DECT in PE imaging

  17. Quantitation: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography may be used quantitatively if its limitations are recognized and quantitation is made in relation to some reference area on the image. Relative quantitation is discussed in outline in relation to the liver, brain and pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and heart. (U.K.)

  18. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn

    2016-05-10

    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  19. Quantitative analysis without standards using local peak-to-background ratios with the energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer EDR-184

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, F.; Heckel, J.

    1986-01-01

    The method realized in program QMA-184 of the energy dispersive X-Ray-Microanalyzer EDR-184 for quantitative spectra analyzing of bulk materials by using local peak-to-background ratios is described in detail. The authors demonstrate efficiency and limitations of the used method by discussion of experimental results. (author)

  20. Systematic and quantitative mRNA expression analysis of TRP channel genes at the single trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion level in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewauw Ine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory nerve fibres arising from cell bodies within the trigeminal ganglia (TG in the head and from a string of dorsal root ganglia (DRG located lateral to the spinal cord convey endogenous and environmental stimuli to the central nervous system. Although several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP superfamily of cation channels have been implicated in somatosensation, the expression levels of TRP channel genes in the individual sensory ganglia have never been systematically studied. Results Here, we used quantitative real-time PCR to analyse and compare mRNA expression of all TRP channels in TG and individual DRGs from 27 anatomically defined segments of the spinal cord of the mouse. At the mRNA level, 17 of the 28 TRP channel genes, TRPA1, TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPML1 and TRPP2, were detectable in every tested ganglion. Notably, four TRP channels, TRPC4, TRPM4, TRPM8 and TRPV1, showed statistically significant variation in mRNA levels between DRGs from different segments, suggesting ganglion-specific regulation of TRP channel gene expression. These ganglion-to-ganglion differences in TRP channel transcript levels may contribute to the variability in sensory responses in functional studies. Conclusions We developed, compared and refined techniques to quantitatively analyse the relative mRNA expression of all TRP channel genes at the single ganglion level. This study also provides for the first time a comparative mRNA distribution profile in TG and DRG along the entire vertebral column for the mammalian TRP channel family.

  1. 3D Quantitative tumour burden analysis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before TACE: comparing single-lesion vs. multi-lesion imaging biomarkers as predictors of patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleckenstein, Florian N.; Schernthaner, Ruediger E.; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Sahu, Sonia; Zhao, Yan; Hamm, Bernd; Gebauer, Bernhard; Lin, MingDe; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Chapiro, Julius

    2016-01-01

    To compare the ability of single- vs. multi-lesion assessment on baseline MRI using 1D- and 3D-based measurements to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) before transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This retrospective analysis included 122 patients. A quantitative 3D analysis was performed on baseline MRI to calculate enhancing tumour volume (ETV [cm 3 ]) and enhancing tumour burden (ETB [%]) (ratio between ETV [cm 3 ] and liver volume). Furthermore, enhancing and overall tumour diameters were measured. Patients were stratified into two groups using thresholds derived from the BCLC staging system. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier plots, uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) and concordances. All methods achieved good separation of the survival curves (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed an HR of 5.2 (95 % CI 3.1-8.8, p < 0.001) for ETV [cm 3 ] and HR 6.6 (95 % CI 3.7-11.5, p < 0.001) for ETB [%] vs. HR 2.6 (95 % CI 1.2-5.6, p = 0.012) for overall diameter and HR 3.0 (95 % CI 1.5-6.3, p = 0.003) for enhancing diameter. Concordances were highest for ETB [%], with no added predictive power for multi-lesion assessment (difference between concordances not significant). 3D quantitative assessment is a stronger predictor of survival as compared to diameter-based measurements. Assessing multiple lesions provides no substantial improvement in predicting OS than evaluating the dominant lesion alone. (orig.)

  2. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  3. Comparison of bone volume measurements using conventional single and dual energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yung Kyoon; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yon Min

    2017-01-01

    The study examines changes in calcium volume on born by comparing two figures; one is measured by dual energy computed tomography(DECT) followed by applying variation in monochromatic energy selection( keV), material decomposition(MD), and material suppressed iodine(MSI) analysis, and the other is measured by con