WorldWideScience

Sample records for single dose effects

  1. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 5mg/kg body weight dose of caffeine on cardiovascular system of normal young adult males of Black African Origin. Twenty normal young adult male volunteers participated. A repeated measures 2 randomized Crosse over (counter balanced) double blind design was ...

  2. Single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianshe; Cai Nan; Liu Jiaxin; Wu Qinzhi; Wang Jia

    2012-01-01

    In this work, single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and 252 Cf source were studied. The single event burnout and single event gate rupture (SEB/SEGR) effects were investigated, and the relationship between drain-source breakdown voltage and ionizing dose was obtained. The results showed that the VDMOSFET devices were sensitive to SEB and SEGR, and measures to improve their resistance to SEB and SEGR should be considered seriously for their space applications. The drain-source breakdown voltage was sensitive to total ionizing dose effects as the threshold voltage. In assessing the devices' resistance to the total ionizing dose effects, both the threshold voltage and the drain-source breakdown voltage should be taken into account. (authors)

  3. Effect of single lithium doses on haemopoiesis regeneration after radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reported experiment failed to demonstrate any effect of single doses of lithium carbonate on haemopoiesis regeneration in experimental haematological syndrome of acute radiation sickness. The effects of gamma radiation on blood formation are shown. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  4. Effects of a Single Dose of Caffeine on Resting Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) or direct action on the heart and ... significant effect of caffeine on the cardiovascular system. Several other studies .... carbohydrate or fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle during exercise.

  5. Effect of ciprofloxacin on single dose chloroquine salivary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ciprofloxacin on the salivary and urinary concentrations of chloroquine (CQ) were investigated in six healthy volunteers, 20 to 30 years of age. Ciprofloxacin reduced the absorption, excretion rate and t1/2 of chloroquine in urine, Cmax and AUC in saliva but increased the Tmax in saliva. Thus, concurrent ...

  6. Effective dose comparison between stitched and single FOV in CBCT protocols for complete dental arcade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria Rosangela; Batista, Wilson Otto; Antonio, Patricia Lara de; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Maia, Ana F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare protocols with a single field of view and multiple stitched field of view with a similar clinical purpose by means of effective dose value. Materials and methods: Measurements of absorbed dose were performed with thermoluminescent dosemeters inserted in the position of organs/tissues of a female anthropomorphic phantom and from these values the effective dose was calculated, utilizing weighting factor tissue-ICRP 103 (2007). Results: The results obtained in this study for effective dose are within the range of 43.1 µSv and 111.5 µSv for equipment using protocols with single FOV and in the range of 44.5 µSv and 236.2 µSv for equipments that using protocols with stitched field of view. Conclusions: In terms of the value of effective dose, stitched FOV protocols do not have any advantage over the single field of view protocols. This results suggest the necessity for knowledge of the exposure parameters and effective dose values associated with each image protocol. - Highlights: • The study relies on the comparison of two protocols with similar goals of CBCT: stitched protocols and single protocols. • The stitched FOV protocol is more specific and it is good option when want imaging only of some dental units. • In relation the effective dose, single FOV protocols presents advantage over the stitched FOV protocols. • Know the exposure parameters and effective dose values associated with each image protocol is necessity for request the best CBCT tomographic image

  7. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8+ T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8+ T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8+/Treg and CD8+/CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  8. Effective dose to staff from interventional procedures: Estimations from single and double dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuipers, G.; Velders, X. L.

    2009-01-01

    The exposure of 11 physicians performing interventional procedures was measured by means of two personal dosemeters. One personal dosemeter was worn outside the lead apron and an additional under the lead apron. The study was set up in order to determine the added value of a dosemeter worn under the lead apron. With the doses measured, the effective doses of the physicians were estimated using an algorithm for single dosimetry and two algorithms for double dosimetry. The effective doses calculated with the single dosimetry algorithm ranged from 0.11 to 0.85 mSv in 4 weeks. With the double dosimetry algorithms, the effective doses ranged from 0.02 mSv to 0.47 mSv. The statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the accuracy of the effective doses calculated with single or double dosimetry algorithms. It was concluded that the effective dose cannot be considered a more accurate estimate when two dosemeters are used instead of one. (authors)

  9. Single and Multiple Ascending-dose Studies of Oral Delafloxacin: Effects of Food, Sex, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Randall; Hunt, Thomas; Benedict, Michael; Paulson, Susan K; Lawrence, Laura; Cammarata, Sue; Sun, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is describe the results of 2 studies that examined the pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability of single and multiple ascending doses of oral delafloxacin and the effects of food, sex, and age on oral delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, safety profile, and tolerability. The first study contained 3 parts and used unformulated delafloxacin in a capsule. Part 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single (50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 mg) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. Part 2 was a single-dose crossover study in which 20 men received 250 mg delafloxacin with or without food. Part 2 also included a parallel group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 16 women and 16 elderly men and women who were randomized (3:1) to receive 250 mg delafloxacin or placebo. Part 3 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple (100, 200, 400, 800, 1200 mg once daily for 5 days) ascending-dose study of oral delafloxacin in healthy men. The second study was a single-dose, randomized, 3-period crossover study in which participants received 900 mg delafloxacin (2 × 450-mg tablets) under fasted conditions, with a high-fat meal, or fasted with a high-fat meal 2 hours after dosing. Serial blood samples were collected, and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of delafloxacin were determined. Delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ increased with increasing oral dose over the dose range of 50 to 1600 mg. The increases in delafloxacin AUC0-∞ were dose proportional at doses of ≥200 mg. Steady state was reached by day 3 of dosing with minimal accumulation of delafloxacin. The Cmax of delafloxacin was decreased slightly in the presence of food. No sex difference in delafloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. In the elderly men and women, mean delafloxacin Cmax and AUC0-∞ were 35% higher than observed for young adults, which could be partially explained by a decrease in

  10. Effect of propranolol in head tremor: quantitative study following single-dose and sustained drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, S; Sasso, E; Negrotti, A; Baratti, M; Fava, R

    1992-12-01

    The effect of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been investigated in nine patients suffering from isolated (six patients) or prominent (three patients) essential tremor of the head. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the tremorolytic efficacy of propranolol has been assessed by a quantitative accelerometric method after a single oral dose (120 mg) and following 2 weeks of sustained treatment with two different dosage regimens of the drug (120 and 240 mg daily). As compared with placebo, a significant reduction in tremor magnitude was found following a single oral dose but not on sustained administration of the beta-blocker at either dosage. The results suggest that the efficacy of sustained propranolol on isolated or prominent essential head tremor is less predictable and satisfactory than expected on the basis of the single-dose response, as compared with hand tremor.

  11. Effects of a preovulatory single low dose of mifepristone on ovarian function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stege, Jolande G.; Pahl-van Beest, Elske H.; Beerthuizen, Rob J. C. M.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; Scholten, Piet C.; Bogchelman, Dick H.

    Objectives To investigate the effect of a single low dose of mifepristone on ovarian function, when administered in the preovulatory period. Methods Healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were studied during two consecutive menstrual cycles. Either mifepristone or placebo was given in a

  12. Effect of Low-Dose (Single-Dose Magnesium Sulfate on Postoperative Analgesia in Hysterectomy Patients Receiving Balanced General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate (N=20 and normal saline (N=20 groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mg·kg−1 in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (P<0.05. Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (P=0.0001. Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH.

  13. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, J.F.; Marlow, D.; Kamath, R.K.; Harbert, J.; Torrisi, J.R.; Barnes, W.A.; Potkul, R.K.; Newsome, J.T.; Delgado, G.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor

  14. Effect of a Single Dose of Dextromethorphan on Psychomotor Performance and Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Ashor, Ammar Waham

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the o...

  15. Protective effects of orally applied fullerenol nano particles in rats after a single dose of doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ičević Ivana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxylated, water soluble, fullerenol C60(OH24 nano particles (FNP in vitro and in vivo models, showed an expressive biological activity. The goal of this work was to investigate the potential protective effects of orally applied FNP on rats after a single dose of doxorubicin (DOX (8 mg/kg (i.p. 6 h after the last application of FNP. After the last drug administration, the rats were sacrificed, and the blood and tissues were taken for the analysis. Biochemical and pathological results obtained in this study indicate that fullerenol (FNP, in H2O:DMSO (80:20, w/w solution given orally in final doses of 10, 14.4, and 21.2 mg/kg three days successively, has the protective (hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity via its antioxidant properties.

  16. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  17. The effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amiresmaili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Endogenous opioids and addictive opiate drugs change many body functions. . Previous studies have referred to the effects of morphine on smooth and pulmonary muscles ., but the  effects of opioids on skeletal muscles is not known well. Thus, the current study aimed at assessing the effect of a single dose of morphine on muscle fatigue in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats weighing 220-270 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (the mice were kept in their cages and received food and water, morphine receiving group, fatigue group (the mice in this group were kept running on  a treadmill . for120 minutes at a rate of 20 meters per minute, and morphine plus fatigue group. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were obtained from the corner of their eyes and were sent to the laboratory for measurement of muscle fatigue indexes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Results: Administration of morphine to the fatigue group decreased running time compared with the control group (P=0.009. Furthermore, administration of morphine to the fatigue group significantly increased serum levels of LDH (P=0.009 and CPK (P=0.008. Conclusion: The present study showed that administration of a single dose of morphine in rats increases muscle fatigue biomarkers (LDH, CPK.

  18. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, C T J; Ramaekers, J G; Muntjewerff, N D; Sikkema, K L; Samyn, N; Read, N L; Brookhuis, K A; Riedel, W J

    2003-12-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, psychomotor performance and driving-related task performance. Twelve healthy recreational ecstasy users participated in an experimental study conducted according to a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over design. MDMA improved psychomotor performance, such as movement speed and tracking performance in a single task, as well as in a divided attention task. MDMA impaired the ability to predict object movement under divided attention. However, the inability to accurately predict object movement after MDMA may indicate impairment of particular performance skills relevant to driving. There was no effect of MDMA on visual search, planning or retrieval from semantic memory.

  19. Effect of a single dose of dextromethorphan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I; Ashor, Ammar Waham

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the other half (10 women, 8 men) received dextromethorphan. The choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task were measured before and after 2 h of taking the drugs. Dextromethorphan showed a significant deterioration in the 3-back working memory task (P0.05). On the other hand, placebo showed no significant changes as regards the choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task (P>0.05). A single dose of dextromethorphan has no effect on attention and arousal but may significantly impair the working memory capacity.

  20. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Antidrug Antibodies Occurring in Healthy Subjects After a Single Dose of Intravenous Infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D

    2017-12-01

    Infliximab pharmacokinetic studies have been performed in patients receiving chronic infliximab therapy. In these patients, infliximab antidrug antibodies (ADAs) increase infliximab clearance and decrease serum levels and drug efficacy. This study analyzed the pharmacokinetic effect of infliximab ADAs in healthy subjects receiving a single dose of intravenous infliximab. Data were obtained from a single-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of healthy subjects receiving 5 mg/kg of intravenous SB2 (infliximab biosimilar), EU-sourced Remicade (EU-IFX) or US-sourced Remicade (US-IFX). Serum infliximab was measured at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days after administration. ADAs were measured pre-dose and at 29 and 71 days. Data from the first ten subjects randomized to each treatment arm were utilized for this study. A two-compartment model of the serum infliximab vs. time curve was developed using nonlinear regression. At 10 weeks, 11 subjects (37%) developed ADAs. ADAs were detected in four subjects after SB2, one subject after EU-IFX, and six subjects after US-IFX infusion. Of these, neutralizing antibodies occurred in one subject after SB2, in no subjects after EU-IFX, and in three subjects after US-IFX infusion. Infliximab clearance was increased in subjects with ADAs vs. those without ADAs (12.89 ± 2.69 vs. 9.90 ± 1.74 ml/h; p ADAs (282.4 ± 56.4 vs. 343.3 ± 61.9 h; p ADAs are common in healthy subjects after a single intravenous dose of infliximab and result in faster infliximab clearance, shorter elimination time, and lower serum infliximab levels. These data confirm that ADAs are common with biologic therapy and significantly impact the efficacy of these drugs.

  2. Effect of single oral dose of tramadol on gastric secretions pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mueen Ullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is an atypical analgesic agent. It has been shown that intramuscular or intravenous injection tramadol is able to inhibit M3 muscarinic receptors. Tramadol is able to mediate smooth muscles contraction and glandular secretions. We have evaluated the effects of single oral dose of tramadol given preoperatively on gastric juices pH in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult, American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 30 or oral tramadol 50 mg (n = 30. General anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium. After induction of anesthesia 5 ml of gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric fluid pH was measured using pH meter. Result: There was no significant difference in the pH between the groups. Gastric pH of the placebo and tramadol groups was 1.97 versus 1.98 (P = 0.092 respectively. Conclusion: Preoperatively single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric acid secretions pH (>2.5. This may be due to pharmacokinetic disparity between the analgesic and pH elevating properties of tramadol.

  3. Single-dose relative biological effectiveness and toxicity studies under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, E.R.; Blekkenhorst, G.; Harrison, G.G.; Morrell, D.; Korrubel, J.; Gregory, A.; Phillips, J.; Manca, V.; Sealy, R.; Cape Town Univ.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to using hyperbaric oxygen with radiation in a clinical situation has been described in the preceding paper in this issue. To ascertain whether there might be a change in the relative biological effectiveness of radiation on normal mammalian tissue treated under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen, the acute reaction to radiation of pig skin was studied. A single dose enhancement ratio at the erythema reaction level of 1.4+-0.08 was obtained when compared with irradiation at normal body temperature in air. The authors studied also a series of antioxidant enzymes in rat liver and lung after exposure to hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen. Enzyme changes were such as to combat oxygen toxicity which might develop as a result of the pre-treatment. (author)

  4. Total and single doses influence the effectiveness of radiotherapy in palliative treatment of plasmacytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoelting, T.; Knauerhase, H.; Klautke, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Kundt, G. [Inst. for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: in a retrospective analysis of radiotherapy of plasmacytomas, the effectiveness and the prognostic factors in regard to pain reduction and recalcification were evaluated. Patients and methods: 138 patients (70 women, 68 men; 15-86 years, median 61 years) were irradiated at 272 target volumes (TVs) from January 1970 to December 2003. Results: in 192/225 TVs (85.3%), there was a pain reduction. The recalcification rate was 44.7% (51/114 TVs). Significant parameters for pain relief in the multivariate analysis were completeness of therapy (odds ratio [OR] 87.8; p < 0.001 vs. interruption), patients < 60 years (OR 23.0; p < 0.001 vs. {>=} 70 years), and a single dose of 2 Gy (OR 11.0; p = 0.027 vs. 4-15.0 Gy). Significant parameters for recalcification in the multivariate analysis were concurrent chemotherapy (OR 12.3; p < 0.001 vs. no chemotherapy), no fractures in the TV (OR 5.9; p < 0.004 vs. fracture), and a dose of 40-< 50 Gy (OR 21.9; p = 0.035 vs. < 30 Gy) or {>=} 50 Gy (OR 26.4; p = 0.033 vs. < 30 Gy). Conclusion: radiotherapy is a very effective palliative treatment. Patients with a reduced general condition, with multiple bone lesions and a poor prognosis profit from short-term schemes (e.g., 1 x 8 Gy to 10 x 3 Gy). Patients in good general condition with a life expectancy of > 1 year and an osteolysis at risk of fracture, should be treated with doses up to 40-50 Gy (20-25 x 2 Gy), in order to achieve the best possible recalcification and pain relief. (orig.)

  5. Effect of single dose, fractionated, and hyperfractionated trunk irradiation on weight gain, respiration frequency, and survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Giri, P.G.S.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation of a single dose into two equal doses separated by 4-6 h produced a sparing effect of approx. 5Gy as measured by delay in weight gain; approx. 4Gy as measured by increased respiration frequency; and approx. 6Gy as measured by survival. Fractionation into daily doses or hyperfractionation into twice-daily doses permitted an approximate doubling of the dose required for the same suppression of weight gain. For the respiration rates and survival endpoints, fractionation or hyperfractionation produced an even greater sparing effect since there was no increase in the respiration frequency at twice the doses that would produce changes if delivered within a few hours; and since essentially no lethality was observed at twice the doses that would kill 70%-100% of animals if delivered in one day. (UK)

  6. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on vomiting during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Kotoe; Morioka, Nobutada; Maruyama, Takashi; Komayama, Noriaki; Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Kawamata, Takakazu; Ozaki, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative vomiting leads to serious respiratory complications that could influence the surgical decision-making process for awake craniotomy. However, the use of antiemetics is still limited in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prophylactically administered single low-dose dexamethasone on the incidence of vomiting during awake craniotomy. The frequency of hyperglycemia was also examined. We conducted a retrospective case review of awake craniotomy for glioma resection between 2012 and 2015. Of the 124 patients, 91 were included in the analysis. Dexamethasone was not used in 43 patients and the 48 remaining patients received an intravenous bolus of 4.95 mg dexamethasone at anesthetic induction. Because of stable operating conditions, no one required conscious sedation throughout functional mapping and tumor resection. Although dexamethasone pretreatment reduced the incidence of intraoperative vomiting (P = 0.027), the number of patients who complained of nausea was comparable (P = 0.969). No adverse events related to vomiting occurred intraoperatively. Baseline blood glucose concentration did not differ between each group (P = 0.143), but the samples withdrawn before emergence (P = 0.018), during the awake period (P awake craniotomy cases. However, as even a small dose of dexamethasone increases the risk for hyperglycemia, antiemetic prophylaxis with dexamethasone should be administered after careful consideration. Monitoring of perioperative blood glucose concentration is also necessary.

  7. Effect of field size on the reaction of pig skin to single doses of X rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J W; Young, C M.A. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford (UK)

    1982-05-01

    The importance of the size of the treatment area for the response of the skin to radiation has been studied in the pig. The responses of skin areas of 16 cm/sup 2/ (4 x 4 cm) and 64cm/sup 2/ (16 x 4 cm) were compared after single doses of X rays. In the initial 3-9-week period after irradiation the severity of the erythema reaction, which is associated with epidermal cell death, was not influenced by the area of skin irradiated. For the later dermal response (10-16 weeks) a similar result was obtained. The dose required to produce dermal necrosis in 50% of the fields treated (ED/sub 50/) was approximately 2070 cGy for both field sizes. Additional studies have shown that the ED/sub 50/ for dermal necrosis was not influenced by the age of animals at the time of irradiation. This was despite considerable differences in the vascular density and blood flow in pig skin with increasing age. The apparent contradiction between the results of this experimental study in the pig, which shows no effect of field size, and currently accepted clinical practice is discussed.

  8. Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de L; Sanches, Rafael F; Macedo, Ligia R; Santos, Rafael G dos; Maia-de-Oliveira, João P; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araujo, Draulio B de; Riba, Jordi; Crippa, José A; Hallak, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca (AYA), a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.

  9. Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de L. Osório

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ayahuasca (AYA, a natural psychedelic brew prepared from Amazonian plants and rich in dimethyltryptamine (DMT and harmine, causes effects of subjective well-being and may therefore have antidepressant actions. This study sought to evaluate the effects of a single dose of AYA in six volunteers with a current depressive episode. Methods: Open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit. Results: Statistically significant reductions of up to 82% in depressive scores were observed between baseline and 1, 7, and 21 days after AYA administration, as measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. AYA administration resulted in nonsignificant changes in Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS scores and in the thinking disorder subscale of the BPRS, suggesting that AYA does not induce episodes of mania and/or hypomania in patients with mood disorders and that modifications in thought content, which could indicate psychedelic effects, are not essential for mood improvement. Conclusions: These results suggest that AYA has fast-acting anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in patients with a depressive disorder.

  10. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, CTJ; Ramaekers, JG; Muntjewerff, ND; Sikkema, KL; Samyn, N; Read, NL; Brookhuis, KA; Riedel, WJ

    2003-01-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition,

  11. Single-dose FTY720 pharmacokinetics, food effect, and pharmacological responses in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, John M; Schmouder, Robert; Barilla, Denise; Wang, Yibin; Kraus, Gerolf

    2004-01-01

    Aims FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist that redirects lymphocytes from the circulation to lymph nodes without impairing lymphocyte function. It is being developed as an immunomodulator for the prevention of acute rejection after organ transplantation. This study was performed to provide guidance on administration with respect to meals and to measure pharmacologic responses in healthy subjects. Methods In this randomized, two-period, crossover study, 14 healthy subjects received placebo on day −1 of each period with baseline circadian measurements of lymphocyte count and heart rate. Subjects subsequently received a single 1 mg oral dose of FTY720 on day 1 under fasting conditions and after a high fat meal. Blood FTY720 concentrations, lymphocyte count, and supine heart rate were assessed over an 8 day period after each FTY720 dose. The effect of food on FTY720 pharmacokinetics was assessed by standard bioequivalence testing. Results Both the peak concentration (0.65 ± 0.17 vs 0.64 ± 0.18 ng ml−1) and total exposure (AUC 149 ± 65 vs 139 ± 43 ng ml−1 h) did not differ significantly between fasting and fed states, respectively. The corresponding fed/fasting ratios and 90% confidence intervals were 1.00 (0.86, 1.17) for Cmax and 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) for AUC. Under both treatment conditions peripheral blood lymphocyte count decreased from baseline by 38 ± 9% over the first 2 days postdose and then increased towards predose values over the subsequent week. Whereas a circadian rhythm in supine heart rate was preserved in the presence of FTY720, the heart rate vs time curve was shifted downwards by 10% over the first day postdose and then recovered to prestudy values by days 3–5 postdose. These changes were asymptomatic. Conclusions Single 1 mg doses of FTY720 were well tolerated in healthy subjects and elicited a moderate decrease in peripheral blood lymphocyte count and a transient decrease in heart rate consistent with its pharmacological

  12. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  14. A Systematic Review on Effect of Single-Dose Preoperative Antibiotics at Surgical Osteotomy Extraction of Lower Third Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Karoline Brørup; Laulund, Anne Sofie; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic administered perorally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or topically for preventing infection and alveolar osteitis in lower third molar...... that penicillin V was effective in reducing the incidence of alveolar osteitis (OR = 0.1; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.30; P ≤ .0001). CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of 2 g of amoxicillin before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of SSI. A single dose of 0.8 g...... of penicillin V before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of alveolar osteitis....

  15. Antidepressant Effects of a Single Dose of Ayahuasca in Patients With Recurrent Depression: A SPECT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Rafael Faria; de Lima Osório, Flávia; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Macedo, Ligia R H; Maia-de-Oliveira, João Paulo; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; de Araujo, Draulio Barros; Riba, Jordi; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2016-02-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian botanical hallucinogenic brew which contains dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist, and harmine, a monoamine-oxidase A inhibitor. Our group recently reported that ayahuasca administration was associated with fast-acting antidepressive effects in 6 depressive patients. The objective of the present work was to assess the antidepressive potentials of ayahuasca in a bigger sample and to investigate its effects on regional cerebral blood flow. In an open-label trial conducted in an inpatient psychiatric unit, 17 patients with recurrent depression received an oral dose of ayahuasca (2.2 mL/kg) and were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale during acute ayahuasca effects and 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after drug intake. Blood perfusion was assessed eight hours after drug administration by means of single photon emission tomography. Ayahuasca administration was associated with increased psychoactivity (Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale) and significant score decreases in depression-related scales (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) from 80 minutes to day 21. Increased blood perfusion in the left nucleus accumbens, right insula and left subgenual area, brain regions implicated in the regulation of mood and emotions, were observed after ayahuasca intake. Ayahuasca was well tolerated. Vomiting was the only adverse effect recorded, being reported by 47% of the volunteers. Our results suggest that ayahuasca may have fast-acting and sustained antidepressive properties. These results should be replicated in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

  16. Endogenous concentrations, pharmacokinetics, and selected pharmacodynamic effects of a single dose of exogenous GABA in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Steinmetz, S J; McKemie, D S

    2015-04-01

    The anti-anxiety and calming effects following activation of the GABA receptor have been exploited in performance horses by administering products containing GABA. The primary goal of the study reported here was to describe endogenous concentrations of GABA in horses and the pharmacokinetics, selected pharmacodynamic effects, and CSF concentrations following administration of a GABA-containing product. The mean (±SD) endogenous GABA level was 36.4 ± 12.5 ng/mL (n = 147). Sixteen of these horses received a single intravenous and oral dose of GABA (1650 mg). Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 2) samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 48 h and analyzed using LC-MS. Plasma clearance and volume of distribution was 155.6 and 147.6 L/h and 0.154 and 7.39 L for the central and peripheral compartments, respectively. Terminal elimination half-life was 22.1 (intravenous) and 25.1 (oral) min. Oral bioavailability was 9.81%. Urine GABA concentrations peaked rapidly returning to baseline levels by 3 h. Horses appeared behaviorally unaffected following oral administration, while sedative-like changes following intravenous administration were transient. Heart rate was increased for 1 h postintravenous administration, and gastrointestinal sounds decreased for approximately 30 min following both intravenous and oral administration. Based on a limited number of horses and time points, exogenously administered GABA does not appear to enter the CSF to an appreciable extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protective effect of hypoxia in the ram testis during single and split-dose X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Wensing, C.J.G.; Bootsma, A.L.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Schipper, J.

    1988-01-01

    Spertogonial stem-cell survival in the ram was studied after single (6Gy) and split-dose X-irradiation both under normal and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was induced by inflation of an occluder implanted around the testicular artery. The occluders were inflated about 10 min before irradiation and deflated immediately after. Stem-cell survival was measured at 5 or 7 weeks after irradiation by determination of the Repopulation Index (RI) in histological testis sections. The RI-values after fractionated irradiation were only half those after single dose irradiation. Hypoxia had a protective effect on the stem-cell survival. After split-dose irradiation under hypoxic conditions two times more stem cells survived than under normal oxic conditions; the RI-values increased from 34% (oxic) to 68% (hypoxic). This effect of hypoxia was also found after single dose irradiation where the RI-values increased from 68% (oxic) to 84% (hypoxic). The development of the epithelium in repopulated tubules was also studied. Under hypoxia, a significantly higher fraction of tubules with complete epithelium was found after single (38 vs. 4%) as well as after split-dose irradiation (12 vs. 0%)

  18. Allergy medication in Japanese volunteers: treatment effect of single doses on nocturnal sleep architecture and next day residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julia; Eriksson, Malin; Stanley, Neil; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagi, Yuji

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of two histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists on nocturnal sleep architecture and on next day cognitive function and psychomotor performance. This was a single-site, randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study, comparing the effects of a single dose of chlorpheniramine (6 mg), fexofenadine (120 mg) and placebo in 18 healthy (male and female) Japanese volunteers aged 20-55 years. Volunteers were resident for 3 days and each period was separated by a minimum 5-day washout period. The three treatments were administered at 23.00 h. Overnight sleep was measured from 23.00 h to 07.00 h using polysomnography. Residual effects were studied at 07.00 h and 9.00 h the next morning, with the latency to sleep (sleep latency test) measured at 09.30 h. Compared with placebo, chlorpheniramine increased the latencies to sleep onset and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (p < or = 0.05 for both), and reduced the duration of REM sleep (p effects the next morning were concerned there were decrements in performance with chlorpheniramine, but not with fexofenadine. Chlorpheniramine 6 mg impaired divided attention (p < 0.001), vigilance (p < 0.05), working memory (p < 0.0001) and sensori-motor performance (p < 0.01), and the latency to daytime sleep was reduced (p < 0.0001). Six adverse events possibly related to study medication were reported during the study, three of which were related to placebo, two to fexofenadine and one to chlorpheniramine. These findings suggest that a single nocturnal dose of fexofenadine has advantages over the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, being free of disruption of night-time sleep and detrimental effects on cognitive performance the next day. It is likely that this advantage will remain with chronic ingestion, but this would need to be confirmed.

  19. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  20. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli; Fatemeh Amin; Elham Hakimizadeh; Ali Roohbakhsh; Sayed Ali Haeri Rohani; Ahmad Taghavi Rafsanjani; Abbas Haghparast; Ali Shamsizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later t...

  1. The effect of single and double doses of gamma radiation on pre-rigor mortis filleted saithe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underdahl, B.; Lunde, G.

    1973-01-01

    Saithe, caught off the western coast of Norway, were filleted immediately after killing, packed in plastic bags and irradiated using a cobalt-60 source at the Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller. The doses were 50, 100, 150, 50+50 and 50+100 krad. All samples were analysed for their total bacterial count, proteolytic activity, ammonia, total volatile acids, trimethylamine oxide, tri- and dimethylamine and formaldehyde. The organoleptic quality was evaluated by a panel of tasters. Double doses were more effective in reducing the total bacterial count than an equivalent single dose. A close relation was found between the bacterial count and the proteolytic activity. The trimethylamine oxide concentration was found to vary between 33 and 44 mg/100 g muscle, decreasing rapidly in non-irradiated fillets to 3 mg/100 g. In non-irradiated fillets trimethylamine oxide was mainly reduced to trimethylamine and in irradiated fillets to dimethylamine and formaldehyde. A split dose of 50+50 krad may have a favourable effect on the total bacterial number, but the analyses of proteolytic activity, the volatile acids and the trimethylamine indicate that a higher proportion of spoilage bacteria survive. The low proteolytic activity and the high content of DMA/FA prove that the split doses of 50+100 krad as compared with a single dose of 150 krad are particularly favourable in the case of saithe. (Auth.)

  2. Effects of single dose X-irradiation on the guinea-pig spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J F [Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit

    1981-09-01

    Lumbar or cervical regions of the guinea-pig spinal cord were irradiated with a single dose of 250 kV X-rays. The latency for paralysis, whether of hind- or fore-limbs, and the histopathology of the radiation-induced cord lesions depended critically on the radiation dose. There were definite but only minor differences between the reactions of lumbar and cervical cord to the same radiation dose. After 30 or 40 Gy there was white matter necrosis but after 20 Gy widespread demyelination associated with vacuolar spaces occurred. After irradiation of the lumbar cord with 30-40 Gy, the lesions in the guinea-pig differed from those reported in the rat. White-matter necrosis in the guinea-pig cord was only occasionally associated with spinal nerve root necrosis, whereas in the rat, nerve-root necrosis with sparing of the white matter was the main lesion. After 20 Gy to the cervical or lumbar cord the guinea-pig showed widespread demyelination and vacuolation whereas in rats vascular lesions were the main result.

  3. Effects of single doses of X-rays on renal function in the pig after the irradiation of both kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of a single kidney in the pig with relatively low doses of X-rays, in the order of 8 Gy, produces a pronounced reduction in both glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). This apparent high radiosensitivity may be due, in part, to the compensatory hypertrophy displayed by the contralateral unirradiated kidney. This could suppress any potential for recovery by the irradiated kidney. To test this hypothesis, both kidneys of 14-week-old Large White pigs were sequentially irradiated with single doses of 250 kV X-rays, in the range 8.8 to 12.6 Gy. Two weeks after irradiation, GFR and ERPF increased markedly in all irradiated kidneys; levels then declined in a dose-dependent manner. Following a dose of 8.8 Gy renal haemodynamics returned to control values within 4 weeks of irradiation. After higher doses, GFR and ERPF decreased markedly and remained below control values up to 24 weeks after irradiation. At all doses the mean functional status of irradiated kidneys in animals in which both kidneys were irradiated was significantly greater than that previously observed in the irradiated kidney of pigs in which only one kidney was irradiated. The findings support the above hypothesis, and indicate that individual kidneys in the same animal may differ in their response to a similar nephrotoxic insult. 35 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Radioprotective effects in mice by a single dose of subcutaneous administration of cobaltous chloride post γ-rays irradiation with a sublethal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    1993-01-01

    Radioprotective effects were investigated in mice which received subcutaneously a single dose of each inorganic metal: Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, Mo and W 24 hours post irradiation of 60 Co γ-rays with a sublethal dose. The effects were observed in mice injected with Co at an optimum dosage of 20 mg/kg·body weight. Then to elucidate mechanisms of the effects, mice were injected with Co containing the radioactive tracer ( 60 Co) following the radiation exposure, measured elimination of the radioactivity for 7 days, then sacrificed and divided to some tissues and organs. The radioactivity in whole body during this period resulted in a markedly higher retention than that for mice injected with [ 60 Co] alone, as well as liver in the organs. These higher retentions appeared to be related to the radioprotective effects. (author)

  5. Effects of a single high dose of 55Fe in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissue, J.A.; Burlington, H.; Cronkite, E.P.; Heldman, B.; Reincke, U.

    1979-01-01

    High doses of 55 Fe induced cytocide in maturing erythroid cells, due to the short-range deposition of decay energy. Organ damage at the time of death was evaluated in a group of 45 female mice of the C 57 BL/6 J strain given a single i.v. injection of 2,800 μCi, 1,400 μCi or 700 μCi of 55 FeCl 3 when 10 to 14 weeks old. A corresponding amount of cold iron was given to control animals by the same route. Radioiron-treated mice died spontaneously, or were killed when moribund. Mice given 2,800 μCi died after a median survival time of 27 days with severe depletion of hemopoietic cells in bone marrow and spleen, marked atrophy of lymphoid tissues and mild liver damage. After 1,400 μCi or 700 μCi, the median survival time was 117 and 439, respectively. In contrast, median survival was 847 days in control animals allowed to survive. In the two lower 55 Fe-dose groups, there was a dose-dependent pancytopenia. Atrophy of lymphoid tissues was moderate, and signs of liver damage slight. The degree of organ hemosiderosis in experimental and control animals was slight to moderate. Organ damage associated with deposition of cold iron was not apparent in tissue sections. Morphological signs of damage to non-hemopoietic organs such as the liver were not conspicuous. Direct radiation damage, primarily to the erythroid series, and competition for stem cells between the heavily depleted erythroid and the other hemopoietic cell lines must be considered among the possible factors leading to pancytopenia. Out of 14 55 Fe-treated mice who survived longer than 300 days developed tumors of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissues, or osteosarcomas. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Effect of adding celecoxib to a single dose of gabapentin on postoperative pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Choubsaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, several studies with conflicting results have been done on the role of gabapentin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pre-emptive analgesia to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding low doses of celecoxib to gabapentin on increasing the analgesic effect and patients’ satisfaction. Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 130 patients with ASA I, II class were divided in two groups as they were the candidates for elective inguinal hernia surgery with spinal anesthesia. Before the surgery, the control group (G received 300 mg oral dose of gabapentin and the study group (GC received 100 mg celecoxib in addition to the above dose. Severity of patients’ pain was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS. By the same token, the amount of painkillers usedwas measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The results suggested a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of pain level 4, 6 and 24 hours after surgery (P<0.05. Adding low-dose of celeoxib to gabapentin before the surgery and the combination of these two drugs caused further reduction of pain 4, 6 and 24 h after the surgery in comparison to the administration of gabapentin alone. Conclusion: Adding 100 mg celecoxib to 300 mg gabapentin resulted in a reduction of pain level 24 h after elective surgery of inguinal hernia in patients of control group (P<0.05. However, in terms of using painkillers (analgesics, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  7. Study on dose-effect relationship of radiation-induced DNA damage using single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Enhai; Li Jin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan; Zhao Yongcheng; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new, simple and quick radiation biodosimeter, which can be applied to estimate biological dose in case of radiation accident. Methods: DNA double-strand break were detected using neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and all the indexes of comet assay including HDNA%, TDNA%, CL, TL, TM, and OTM were analyzed by CASP (Comet Assay Software Project). The curve of dose-effect was fitted using SPSS 12.0 software. Results: Statistically significant dose-effect relationships were observed in all the indexes of comet assay, OTM was superior to other indexes. Conclusions: Application of neutral comet assay combined with CASP analysis could serve as a new radiation biodosimeter. (authors)

  8. Cost-effectiveness of a chemoprophylactic intervention with single dose rifampicin in contacts of new leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn J Idema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With 249,007 new leprosy patients detected globally in 2008, it remains necessary to develop new and effective interventions to interrupt the transmission of M. leprae. We assessed the economic benefits of single dose rifampicin (SDR for contacts as chemoprophylactic intervention in the control of leprosy. METHODS: We conducted a single centre, double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled trial in northwest Bangladesh between 2002 and 2007, including 21,711 close contacts of 1,037 patients with newly diagnosed leprosy. We gave a single dose of rifampicin or placebo to close contacts, with follow-up for four years. The main outcome measure was the development of clinical leprosy. We assessed the cost effectiveness by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER between the standard multidrug therapy (MDT program with the additional chemoprophylaxis intervention versus the standard MDT program only. The ICER was expressed in US dollars per prevented leprosy case. FINDINGS: Chemoprophylaxis with SDR for preventing leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients is cost-effective at all contact levels and thereby a cost-effective prevention strategy. In total, $6,009 incremental cost was invested and 38 incremental leprosy cases were prevented, resulting in an ICER of $158 per one additional prevented leprosy case. It was the most cost-effective in neighbours of neighbours and social contacts (ICER $214, slightly less cost-effective in next door neighbours (ICER $497 and least cost-effective among household contacts (ICER $856. CONCLUSION: Chemoprophylaxis with single dose rifampicin given to contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients is a cost-effective intervention strategy. Implementation studies are necessary to establish whether this intervention is acceptable and feasible in other leprosy endemic areas of the world.

  9. The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.The effect of a single rectal dose of cisapride on delayed gastric emptying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer, R.J.M.; Schoenmakers, E.A.J.M.; Kemerink, G.J.; Heidendal, G.A.K.; Sanders, D.G.M.; Stockbrügger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Cisapride has an established prokinetic effect in patients with delayed gastric emptying. However, rectal administration of the drug might be preferred in patients with either dysphagia or nausea due to

  10. Increased apoptotic potential and dose-enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles in combination with single-dose clinical electron beams on tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Mengya; Chen Yuhung; Chang Chihjui; Chen Helen H-W; Wu Chaoliang; Shiau Aili

    2008-01-01

    High atomic number material, such as gold, may be used in conjunction with radiation to provide dose enhancement in tumors. In the current study, we investigated the dose-enhancing effect and apoptotic potential of gold nanoparticles in combination with single-dose clinical electron beams on B16F10 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. We revealed that the accumulation of gold nanoparticles was detected inside B16F10 culture cells after 18 h of incubation, and moreover, the gold nanoparticles were shown to be colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in cells. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles radiosensitized melanoma cells in the colony formation assay (P=0.02). Using a B16F10 tumor-bearing mouse model, we further demonstrated that gold nanoparticles in conjunction with ionizing radiation significantly retarded tumor growth and prolonged survival compared to the radiation alone controls (P<0.05). Importantly, an increase of apoptotic signals was detected inside tumors in the combined treatment group (P<0.05). Knowing that radiation-induced apoptosis has been considered a determinant of tumor responses to radiation therapy, and the length of tumor regrowth delay correlated with the extent of apoptosis after single-dose radiotherapy, these results may suggest the clinical potential of gold nanoparticles in improving the outcome of melanoma radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Effects of single cyanamide dose on free amino acid pool in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskiy, S.Yu.

    Outbred rats were employed in trials on the effects of cyanamide - an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase proposed for the treatment of alcoholism - on the brain pool of essential and nonessential amino acid. Cyanamide was administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 60 mg/kg, followed in some experiments by intraperitoneal ethanol in a dose of 0.5 g/kg. Following cyanamide administration, marked enhancement of the levels of taurine, cystine, and GABA was noted, whereas the increase in serine was less pronounced. Cyanamide administration also induced depression of alanine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, and of ethanolamine levels. Administration of ethanol after priming with cyanamide had only the additional effect of diminishing the levels of cysteic acid and ornithine in the brain. However, the differences between the cyanamide animals and the cyanamide + ethanol animals were not significant. With currently available data, it is difficult to tell whether the effects of cyanamide are due to elevation in acetaldehyde levels, or to some direct effect of the drug on protein or amino acid metabolism. 24 references.

  12. Single-dose ceftriaxone for chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmer, M I; Nsanze, H; D'Costa, L J; Dylewski, J; Fransen, L; Piot, P; Ronald, A R

    1987-01-01

    Men with genital ulcers that were culture positive for Haemophilus ducreyi were treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone and randomized to three different dose regimens. All but 1 of 50 men treated with 1 g of intramuscular ceftriaxone were cured. Similarly, 0.5 and 0.25 g cured 43 of 44 men and 37 of 38 men, respectively. A single dose of 250 mg of intramuscular ceftriaxone is an effective treatment for chancroid. PMID:3566241

  13. Total and single doses influence the effectiveness of radiotherapy in palliative treatment of plasmacytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelting, T.; Knauerhase, H.; Klautke, G.; Kundt, G.; Fietkau, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: in a retrospective analysis of radiotherapy of plasmacytomas, the effectiveness and the prognostic factors in regard to pain reduction and recalcification were evaluated. Patients and methods: 138 patients (70 women, 68 men; 15-86 years, median 61 years) were irradiated at 272 target volumes (TVs) from January 1970 to December 2003. Results: in 192/225 TVs (85.3%), there was a pain reduction. The recalcification rate was 44.7% (51/114 TVs). Significant parameters for pain relief in the multivariate analysis were completeness of therapy (odds ratio [OR] 87.8; p 1 year and an osteolysis at risk of fracture, should be treated with doses up to 40-50 Gy (20-25 x 2 Gy), in order to achieve the best possible recalcification and pain relief. (orig.)

  14. Effect of a single gemfibrozil dose on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in bile and plasma in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ebba; Matsson, Elin M; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Knutson, Lars; Lennernäs, Hans

    2010-09-01

    The effect of a single intrajejunal dose of gemfibrozil (600 mg) on the plasma pharmacokinetics and biliary excretion of a single intrajejunal dose of rosuvastatin (20 mg) was investigated by using a multichannel catheter positioned in the distal duodenum-proximal jejunum in 8 healthy volunteers. Bile and plasma samples were collected every 20 minutes for 200 minutes, with additional plasma samples being drawn for up to 48 hours. Gemfibrozil did not affect the bioavailability of rosuvastatin, although it increased the apparent absorption phase during the initial 200 minutes (AUC(plasma,200min)) by 1.56-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.15). The interaction was less pronounced in this single-dose study than in a previous report when gemfibrozil was administered repeatedly; nevertheless, the interaction coincided with the highest exposure to gemfibrozil. The plausible reason why the interaction in this investigation was only minor is the low exposure to gemfibrozil (and its metabolites), suggesting that the total plasma concentration of gemfibrozil needs to be above 20 µM to affect the disposition of rosuvastatin. This study demonstrates the value of monitoring the plasma pharmacokinetics of the inhibitor, and not only the drug under investigation, to improve the mechanistic interpretation.

  15. Investigation of radial dose effect on single event upset cross-section due to heavy ions using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy ions are the main cause to produce single event upset (SEU) damage on electronic devices since they are high LET radiations. The dimension of electronic components in new technology, arise a challenge in radiation effect estimations. Accurate investigations require fully considering the ion track in energy deposition as a radial dose distribution. In this work, the distribution of delta rays as well as LET have been calculated to determine ionization structure around ion track by a Monte Carlo code, GEANT4. The radial dose of several heavy ions with different energy in silicon was investigated and compared with the works by other authors in this field. The results showed that heavy ions with identical LET can have different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. As a demonstrative example, according to our results, the error probability for 4.8 GeV iron was 8 times greater than that for 15 MeV carbon ions, in transistors with new process technology which have small dimension and low critical charges. Our results show that considering radial dose distribution considerably improves the accuracy of the SEU cross-section estimation in electronic devices especially for new technologies. - Highlights: • The single event upset is produced by heavy ions interaction on electronic devices. • The radial dose of several heavy ions in silicon was calculated by GEANT4. • Heavy ions with identical LET had different SEU cross-section in silicon transistors. • Low dimension and critical charge devices were more sensitive to radial dose effect

  16. Effect of single-dose x irradiation on the growth curves of a human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang-Thomsen, M.; Visfeldt, J.; Nielsen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice was exposed to single-dose x irradiation. Experimental growth data described mathematically according to a transformed Gompertz function were used to determine the effect of irradiation on growth delay, growth rate, and tumor shrinkage. The radiation-induced changes in the histology of the tumors were also described. The results showed that irradiation induced a dose-dependent growth delay; this parameter was therefore found suitable for the assessment of relative therapeutic effect. The treatment also induced a dose-dependent reduction in growth rate during regrowth. As a result of this effect on growth rate, extrapolation of tumor shrinkage to the time of treatment became directly misleading as a measure of the effect of the treatment. From this it can be deduced that in therapeutic studies where treatment induces nonparallel posttherapeutic growth curves, growth delay for various tumors and therapies cannot be compared directly. The transformed Gompertz function proved to be extremely well suited for evaluating these conditions

  17. Evaluation of acute toxicity and the effect of single injected doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... significant in therapeutic applications against diseases of diverse origins .... The rats were killed under ether anesthesia; one hour after injection and blood ..... that zerumbone could be safe for use in one dose treatment.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  19. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phonepasong Ayé Soukhathammavong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg and mebendazole (500 mg for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples were randomly assigned to albendazole (n=100 and mebendazole (n=100. Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment, and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline at 21-23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.8; P=0.01, and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001.

  20. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  1. Dose-effect relationship for cataract induction after single-dose total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Belkacemi, Yazid; Kal, Henk B.; Labopin, Myriam; Frassoni, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a dose-effect relationship for cataract induction, the tissue-specific parameter, α/β, and the rate of repair of sublethal damage, μ value, in the linear-quadratic formula have to be known. To obtain these parameters for the human eye lens, a large series of patients treated with different doses and dose rates is required. The data of patients with acute leukemia treated with single-dose total body irradiation (STBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) collected by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were analyzed. Methods and Materials: The data of 495 patients who underwent BMT for acute leukemia, who had STBI as part of their conditioning regimen, were analyzed using the linear-quadratic concept. The end point was the incidence of cataract formation after BMT. Of the analyzed patients, 175 were registered as having cataracts. Biologic effective doses (BEDs) for different sets of values for α/β and μ were calculated for each patient. With Cox regression analysis, using the overall chi-square test as the parameter evaluating the goodness of fit, α/β and μ values were found. Risk factors for cataract induction were the BED of the applied TBI regimen, allogeneic BMT, steroid therapy for >14 weeks, and heparin administration. To avoid the influence of steroid therapy and heparin on cataract induction, patients who received steroid or heparin treatment were excluded, leaving only the BED as a risk factor. Next, the most likely set of α/β and μ values was obtained. With this set, the cataract-free survival rates were calculated for specific BED intervals, according to the Kaplan-Meier method. From these calculations, cataract incidences were obtained as function of the BED at 120 months after STBI. Results: The use of BED instead of the TBI dose enabled the incidence of cataract formation to be predicted in a reasonably consistent way. With Cox regression analysis for all STBI data, a maximal chi-square value was

  2. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Findings. Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Conclusion. The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  3. ‌‌The effect of nicotine administration on physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome induced by single or frequent doses of morphine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Results: Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Discussion: The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  4. The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of benazepril and enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, N J; Sioufi, A; Howie, C A; Wade, J R; Elliott, H L

    1993-01-01

    1. Eighteen healthy, normotensive subjects (nine young and nine elderly) participated in a double-blind, 3-way, crossover study to compare aspects of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single oral doses of 10 mg benazepril, 10 mg enalapril and placebo. 2. The hypotensive effect was similar after both drugs but the absolute reductions were greater in the elderly who had higher initial levels of blood pressure. 3. The AUCs for both benazeprilat and enalaprilat were higher in the elderly but by a significantly greater amount for enalaprilat (+ 113% vs 40%; P benazepril are qualitatively similar to those with other ACE inhibitors. The clinical significance of the quantitative differences requires further investigation. PMID:9114905

  5. Effect of a single dose of levodopa on sexual response in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen; Gooren, Louis

    2005-01-01

    From animal research, there is ample evidence for a facilitating effect of dopamine on sexual behavior. In humans, little experimental research has been conducted on the inter-relation between dopamine and sexual response, even less so in women than in men. We investigated the effect of levodopa

  6. In vivo effect of single oral dose of artemether against early juvenile stages of Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Taman, Amira; El-Malky, Mohamed; Azab, Manar S; El-Hawary, Amira K; El-Tantawy, Dina A

    2013-10-01

    The current treatment and control of schistosomiasis, rely on a single drug, praziquantel, although, it has minor activity against juvenile stages of the parasite. Studies have shown that artemether (ART) exhibits effects against juveniles of Schistosoma mansoni Liberian and Puerto Rican strains, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. Aiming to assess the in vivo activity of single oral dose of ART against early juvenile stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, this study was established. Mice were treated with ART (400 mg/kg) at two time points evenly spaced over the period of larval development (7 and 21 days post-infection; pi), and a third treatment point (day 49 pi) was included to elucidate when susceptibility decreases. Administration of ART on day 7 pi reduced the total worm burden by 85.94%. The greatest reductions were seen when treatment was given on day 21 pi, with total and female worm burden reductions of 91.52% and 90.57%, respectively, and cessation of oviposition. Similar dose given on day 49 pi reduced total worm burden by 55.17% and female worm burden by 66.51%. Moreover, it induced significant reduction in the tissue egg load and significant alterations in the oogram pattern with decreased immature eggs and increased dead eggs. Antipathological activities were evident in significant reductions in granulomata count and diameter. In conclusion, ART exhibits major in vivo schistosomicidal effects against the early larval migratory stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, mainly the 21-day old schistosomula, hence preventing disease progression and morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of single and split doses of cobalt-60 gamma rays and 14 MeV neutrons on mouse stem cell spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker-Klom, U B; Köhnlein, W; Göhde, W

    2000-12-01

    The long-term effects of ionizing radiation on male gonads may be the result of damage to spermatogonial stem cells. Doses of 10 cGy to 15 Gy (60)Co gamma rays or 10 cGy to 7 Gy 14 MeV neutrons were given to NMRI mice as single or split doses separated by a 24-h interval. The ratios of haploid spermatids/2c cells and the coefficients of variation of DNA histogram peaks as measures of both the cytocidal and the clastogenic actions of radiation were analyzed by DNA flow cytometry after DAPI staining. The coefficient of variation is not only a statistical examination of the data but is also used here as a measure of residual damage to DNA (i.e. a biological dosimeter). Testicular histology was examined in parallel. At 70 days after irradiation, the relative biological effectiveness for neutrons at 50% survival of spermatogonial stem cells was 3.6 for single doses and 2.8 for split doses. The average coefficient of variation of unirradiated controls of elongated spermatids was doubled when stem cells were irradiated with single doses of approximately 14 Gy (60)Co gamma rays or 3 Gy neutrons and observed 70 days later. Split doses of (60)Co gamma rays were more effective than single doses, doubling DNA dispersion at 7 Gy. No fractionation effect was found with neutrons with coefficients of variation.

  8. Effectiveness of single dose rifampicin in preventing leprosy in close contacts of patients with newly diagnosed leprosy: cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, F. Johannes; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H.; van Brakel, Wim H.; Klatser, Paul R.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Smith, W. Cairns S.; Withington, Steve G.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Schuring, Ron P.; Faber, Roel; Borsboom, Gerard J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis using a single dose of rifampicin to prevent leprosy in close contacts. DESIGN: Single centre, double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Leprosy control programme in two districts of northwest Bangladesh with a

  9. Effect of single-dose radiation on cell survival and growth hormone secretion by rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Z.; Kuten, A.; Hertz, P.; Tatcher, M.; Kedar, A.; Benderly, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has been shown to impair growth hormone secretion in children. In this study a cell culture of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells was exposed to single doses of radiation in the range of 100 to 1500 rad. Survival curves were obtained for the different anterior pituitary cell lines, and growth hormone secretion was measured in the tissue culture medium. Both survival and growth hormone secretion curves showed an initial shoulder in the range of 0 to 300 rad, followed by a decline between 300 to 750 rad. It is concluded that growth hormone secreting acidophilic pituicytes are sensitive to radiation at single doses greater than 300 rad

  10. The effect of a preoperative single-dose methylprednisolone on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabakke, Anna J M; Holst, Lars B; Jørgensen, Jørgen C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methylprednisolone has been shown to have analgesic effects after orthopedic surgery. The objective of this trial was to compare the effect of 125 mg methylprednisolone with placebo on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized double......-blinded placebo-controlled trial women scheduled for elective abdominal hysterectomy (n=59) were randomized to preoperatively receive either 125 mg methylprednisolone or saline intravenously. Primary outcome was postoperative pain measured on a 0.0-10.0 visual analog scale and assessed at rest and during...... models. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases were analyzed (methylprednisolone n=25, placebo n=24). Pain scores were significantly higher in the methylprednisolone group compared to the placebo group during mobilization (0.79 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.07-1.50] P=0.03) but not at rest (0.55 [95% CI: -0...

  11. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Arınç, Hüseyin; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Yolcu, Mustafa; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Kayardi, Mahmut; Cosgun, Mehmet; Erguzel, Nuri; Gunduz, Huseyin; Uyan, Cihangir

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull) on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram.Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or tho...

  12. [Effect of supplementation with a single dose of vitamin D in children with cerebral palsy. Preliminary randomised controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Catalina; Meier, Martina; Witting, Scarlett; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Solano, Carlos; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have an increased risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. Although there are many studies on VD and CP, there is limited information about VD supplementation in these patients. To evaluate the effect of supplementation with a single dose of VD on the plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin-D (25OHD) in children with CP. Prospective-randomised-controlled-trial, including 30 Chilean children (19 males) with CP, median age 9.9 years (6.2-13.5). Clinical and biochemical variables including 25OHD, were recorded (time 0 and 8 weeks). Patients were allocated to the supplemented (S) group receiving 100,000 IU oral D3 at baseline, and compared with the placebo (P) group. Among clinical features are highlighted: gastrostomy (60%), underweight (30%), bed-ridden (93.3%), antiepileptic drugs (70%), and 43.3% used VD metabolism inducing antiepileptics. Baseline biochemical measurements were normal. The 25OHD was insufficient in 4/30 and deficient in 6/30. 25OHD levels were not associated with the variables studied. Eight patients completed the study in the S group, and 10 in P group. The placebo and supplementation groups had no significant difference in baseline variables. Serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 8 weeks were normal in both groups, with no statistically significant differences. 25OHD in the P group was normal in 6/10, and insufficient+deficient in 4/10, and the S group was normal in all (8/8) (exact Fisher test P=.07). A single dose of 100,000 IU VD could normalise the concentrations of 25OHD after 8 weeks of supplementation in Children with CP, but more studies are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  14. Effects of a single 1200-mg preoperative dose of gabapentin on anxiety and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, F; Bordenave, L; Sessler, D I; Chauvin, M

    2012-10-01

    Gabapentin has antihyperalgesic and potential anxiolytic effects. We therefore evaluated the effects of gabapentin premedication on anxiety, amnesia, and sedation. We tested the primary hypothesis that 1200mg of oral gabapentin 2 to 3h before surgery reduces preoperative anxiety. Our secondary hypothesis was that gabapentin administration is sedative without causing preoperative amnesia. Prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. Surgical patients having general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to either 1200mg oral gabapentin (n=32) or an identical-looking placebo (n=32) 2 to 3h before anaesthesia. Anxiety, sedation, and amnesia were quantified before premedication, 2h thereafter, and postoperatively. Preoperative anxiety was measured using the Spielberger state trait anxiety inventory (STAI state) and the visual analogue scale anxiety (VAS). Memory was assessed with the picture recall test of Snodgrass and Vanderwart. Results were compared with t, Mann-Whitney U, or Chi(2) tests as appropriate, Psedation scores. Gabapentin premedication, 1200mg, provided preoperative anxiolysis without causing sedation or impairing preoperative memory. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  16. Effects of single oral doses of lysine clonixinate and acetylsalicylic acid on platelet functions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, D; Muhs, A; Bertram, L; Rohleder, G; Nagyiványi, P; Peskar, B A

    1996-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate is an analgesic drug with a so far unknown mechanism of action. We have determined its effect on platelet cyclooxygenase in man. Biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX)B2 and prostaglandin (PG)F2 alpha in clotting whole blood ex vivo as well as collagen-induced platelet aggregation measured before and at various time points after oral administration of 125 mg lysine clonixinate were compared to results obtained with 500 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). While biosynthesis of both TXB2 and PGF2 alpha measured radioimmunologically was inhibited significantly 2.5 h, but not 6 h, after administration of lysine clonixinate, inhibition by ASA was much greater and still highly significant after 48 h. Similarly, collagen-induced aggregation of platelet-rich plasma was inhibited for a longer period and to a greater extent after administration of ASA than after lysine clonixinate. Our results indicate that lysine clonixinate is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor of moderate potency. It remains to be investigated whether mechanisms other than inhibition of cyclooxygenase contribute to the analgesic activity of lysine clonixinate.

  17. Single toxin dose-response models revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidenko, Eugene, E-mail: eugened@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH03756 (United States); Glaholt, SP, E-mail: sglaholt@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States); Kyker-Snowman, E, E-mail: ek2002@wildcats.unh.edu [Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH03824 (United States); Shaw, JR, E-mail: joeshaw@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Chen, CY, E-mail: Celia.Y.Chen@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer a rigorous analysis of the sigmoid shape single toxin dose-response relationship. The toxin efficacy function is introduced and four special points, including maximum toxin efficacy and inflection points, on the dose-response curve are defined. The special points define three phases of the toxin effect on mortality: (1) toxin concentrations smaller than the first inflection point or (2) larger then the second inflection point imply low mortality rate, and (3) concentrations between the first and the second inflection points imply high mortality rate. Probabilistic interpretation and mathematical analysis for each of the four models, Hill, logit, probit, and Weibull is provided. Two general model extensions are introduced: (1) the multi-target hit model that accounts for the existence of several vital receptors affected by the toxin, and (2) model with a nonzero mortality at zero concentration to account for natural mortality. Special attention is given to statistical estimation in the framework of the generalized linear model with the binomial dependent variable as the mortality count in each experiment, contrary to the widespread nonlinear regression treating the mortality rate as continuous variable. The models are illustrated using standard EPA Daphnia acute (48 h) toxicity tests with mortality as a function of NiCl or CuSO{sub 4} toxin. - Highlights: • The paper offers a rigorous study of a sigmoid dose-response relationship. • The concentration with highest mortality rate is rigorously defined. • A table with four special points for five morality curves is presented. • Two new sigmoid dose-response models have been introduced. • The generalized linear model is advocated for estimation of sigmoid dose-response relationship.

  18. [Safety Evaluation of Rare Sugar Syrup: Single-dose Oral Toxicity in Rats, Reverse Mutation Assay, Chromosome Aberration Assay, and Acute Non-Effect Level for Diarrhea of a Single Dose in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Takamine, Satoshi; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The safety of rare sugar syrup obtained from high-fructose corn syrup under slightly alkaline conditions was studied. Mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was assessed by a reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and an in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using Chinese hamster lung cell line (CHL/IU). No mutagenicity of rare sugar syrup was detected under these experimental conditions. Oral administration of single dose (15,000 mg/kg) of rare sugar syrup to rats caused no abnormalities, suggesting no adverse effect of rare sugar syrup. In humans, the acute non-effect level of rare sugar syrup for causing diarrhea was estimated as 0.9 g/kg body weight as dry solid base in both males and females.

  19. 8 Gy single-dose radiotherapy is effective in metastatic spinal cord compression: Results of a phase III randomized multicentre Italian trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranzano, Ernesto; Trippa, Fabio; Casale, Michelina; Costantini, Sara; Lupattelli, Marco; Bellavita, Rita; Marafioti, Luigi; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Santacaterina, Anna; Mignogna, Marcello; Silvano, Giovanni; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In a previous randomized trial we showed that the short-course radiotherapy (RT) regimen of 8 Gy x 2 was feasible in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) and short life expectancy. This phase III trial was planned to determine whether in the same category of patients 8 Gy single-dose is as effective as 8 Gy x 2. Materials and methods: Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with MSCC and short life expectancy were randomly assigned to a short-course of 8 Gy x 2 or to 8 Gy single-dose RT. Median follow-up was 31 months (range, 4-58). Results: A total of 303 (93%) patients are assessable, 150 treated with the short-course and 153 with the single-dose RT. No difference in response was found between the two RT schedules adopted. Median duration of response was 5 and 4.5 months for short-course and single-dose RT (p = 0.4), respectively. The median overall survival was 4 months for all cases. Light acute toxicity was registered in a minority of cases. Late toxicity was never recorded. Conclusions: Both RT schedules adopted were effective. As already shown in several trials evaluating RT regimens in uncomplicated painful bone metastases, also MSCC patients may achieve palliation with minimal toxicity and inconvenience with a single-dose of 8 Gy.

  20. Single Intravenous Dose of Novel Flurbiprofen-Loaded Proniosome Formulations Provides Prolonged Systemic Exposure and Anti-inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Preeti; Prajapati, Sunil K; Yadav, Rajbharan; Senyschyn, Danielle; Shea, Peter R; Trevaskis, Natalie L

    2016-11-07

    hydrated proniosomes can prolong systemic drug exposure over 3 days and provide a sustained therapeutic effect. The developed proniosomes represent a novel approach to treat acute pain and inflammation with the potential to be administered as a single intravenous dose by a clinician at the time of injury or surgery that provides adequate relief for several days and reduces fluctuations in therapy. Similar systems loaded with different drugs have potential for broader application in anesthesia, anti-infective, antiemetic, and cancer therapy.

  1. Fate of [14C] warfarin in guinea-pigs: effect of a concomitant single dose of salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Solomonraj, G.; Thomas, B.H.

    1978-01-01

    When a single dose of sodium salicylate (177.8 mg kg -1 , by mouth) was given with [ 14 C] warfarin (1 mg kg -1 , i.p.) to guinea-pigs, the salicylate depressed the blood concentrations of 14 C for 6 h. At 1 h, salicylate increased the distribution of 14 C in the liver and brain, but at 1 and 6 h it was decreased in the blood and kidney. A significant portion of the 14 C was excreted into the bile, but was subject to enterohepatic circulation and then excreted by the kidney. There was an enhancement of the biliary elimination of 14 C in the first 5 h after salicylate and a decrease in 14 C concentration in blood; the proportion of warfarin to its metabolites excreted in the urine and bile was unchanged. Salicylate displaced serum protein bound [ 14 C] warfarin in vitro. Salicylate increases the initial biliary elimination of warfarin by displacing some of that bound to plasma protein. This facilitated uptake of warfarin by the liver where it was metabolized. This effect of salicylate did not modify the hypoprothrombinaemia produced by warfarin. (author)

  2. Fate of (/sup 14/C) warfarin in guinea-pigs: effect of a concomitant single dose of salicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, L T; Solomonraj, G; Thomas, B H [Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Health Protection Branch

    1978-04-01

    When a single dose of sodium salicylate (177.8 mg kg/sup -1/, by mouth) was given with (/sup 14/C) warfarin (1 mg kg/sup -1/, i.p.) to guinea-pigs, the salicylate depressed the blood concentrations of /sup 14/C for 6 h. At 1 h, salicylate increased the distribution of /sup 14/C in the liver and brain, but at 1 and 6 h it was decreased in the blood and kidney. A significant portion of the /sup 14/C was excreted into the bile, but was subject to enterohepatic circulation and then excreted by the kidney. There was an enhancement of the biliary elimination of /sup 14/C in the first 5 h after salicylate and a decrease in /sup 14/C concentration in blood; the proportion of warfarin to its metabolites excreted in the urine and bile was unchanged. Salicylate displaced serum protein bound (/sup 14/C) warfarin in vitro. Salicylate increases the initial biliary elimination of warfarin by displacing some of that bound to plasma protein. This facilitated uptake of warfarin by the liver where it was metabolized. This effect of salicylate did not modify the hypoprothrombinaemia produced by warfarin.

  3. An explanation for the multiplicative and the additive dose-effect relationship with the single-hit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1997-01-01

    For solid tumors and for leukemia the excess cancer rate after a single radiation dose D is different. The multiplicative model describes the excess solid tumor probability rate which is proportional to the background rate of cancer and dependent on dose D. The additive model describes the excess probability rate for leukaemia which is proportional to the dose D but unrelated to the spontaneous rate of cancer. A second great difference between the two models is the duration of the increased cancer probability rate. The multiplicative mode predicts that the additional cancer risk persist the whole lifetime after exposure and the additive model predicts excess risk over a period of time. With the Single-hit model (SHM) which is a multistage cancer model both dose-response relationships can be described. It will be shown that only small differences in the derivation will lead to the different relationships. We then analyze the incidence data of leukemia (1950-1987) and of all solid tumors (1958-1987) of the atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  4. Spinal cord tolerance to single-session uniform irradiation in pigs: Implications for a dose-volume effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, Paul M.; Foster, Ryan D.; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Sayre, James W.; McBride, William H.; Solberg, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was performed to test the hypothesis that spinal cord radiosensitivity is significantly modified by uniform versus laterally non-uniform dose distributions. Materials and methods: A uniform dose distribution was delivered to a 4.5–7.0 cm length of cervical spinal cord in 22 mature Yucatan minipigs for comparison with a companion study in which a laterally non-uniform dose was given [1]. Pigs were allocated into four dose groups with mean maximum spinal cord doses of 17.5 ± 0.1 Gy (n = 7), 19.5 ± 0.2 Gy (n = 6), 22.0 ± 0.1 Gy (n = 5), and 24.1 ± 0.2 Gy (n = 4). The study endpoint was motor neurologic deficit determined by a change in gait within one year. Spinal cord sections were stained with a Luxol fast blue/periodic acid Schiff combination. Results: Dose–response curves for uniform versus non-uniform spinal cord irradiation were nearly identical with ED 50 ’s (95% confidence interval) of 20.2 Gy (19.1–25.8) and 20.0 Gy (18.3–21.7), respectively. No neurologic change was observed for either dose distribution when the maximum spinal cord dose was ⩽17.8 Gy while all animals experienced deficits at doses ⩾21.8 Gy. Conclusion: No dose-volume effect was observed in pigs for the dose distributions studied and the endpoint of motor neurologic deficit; however, partial spinal cord irradiation resulted in less debilitating neurologic morbidity and histopathology

  5. Effect of a single dose of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii on the occurrence of porcine neonatal diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, L R; Le Bon, M; Richards, P J; Guillou, D; Dodd, C E R; Mellits, K H

    2015-11-01

    Piglet neonatal diarrhoea is an important issue in modern pig production and is linked to increased mortality and poor growth rates, affecting long-term pig health, increasing use of medication and cost of production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (SB) is a probiotic yeast with documented clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in humans. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of SB on occurrence and severity of neonatal diarrhoea in piglets, mortality and growth rate. Forty-six litters (606 piglets) were randomly allocated to a control or SB treatment (n=23 per treatment). Within 24 h of farrowing, piglets assigned to the SB treatment received a single oral dose of a paste containing 3.3×10(9) CFU of SB CNCM I-107(9). Piglets from the control litters received a placebo paste. Piglet weight, mortality and diarrhoea were recorded up to day 7 of age. It was shown that numbers of diarrhoea days were significantly correlated with increased mortality rate and reduced weight gain (P<0.05). SB treatment had no effect on growth or mortality in diarrhoeic litters. However, SB-supplemented litters had significantly lower faecal scores, indicating firmer faeces (P<0.01) and fewer numbers of diarrhoeic days (P<0.01) during the 1(st) week of life. Reduction in the number of diarrhoeic litters compared with the control group was observed following the probiotic administration (P<0.05). These results highlight the detrimental effects of neonatal diarrhoea on pre-weaning performance and suggest that SB, by reducing diarrhoea duration and severity, has the potential of improving enteric health in the early stages of life in pigs.

  6. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  7. Coronary vasodilatory action after a single dose of nicorandil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractCoronary hemodynamics and vasodilatory effects on major epicardial arteries were investigated after a single dose of nicorandil in 22 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease. Nicorandil, 20 mg, was administered sublingually to 11 consecutive

  8. Toxicokinetics and toxicological effects of single oral dose of fumonisin B1 containing Fusarium verticillioides culture material in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkin, P; Direito, G; Simas, M M S; Mallmann, C A; Corrêa, B

    2010-05-14

    Toxicokinetics and the toxicological effects of culture material containing fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) were studied in male weaned piglets by clinical, pathological, biochemical and sphingolipid analyses. The animals received a single oral dose of 5 mg FB(1)/kg of body weight, obtained from Fusarium verticillioides culture material. FB(1) was detected by HPLC in plasma collected at 1-h intervals up to 6h and at 12-h intervals up to 96 h. FB(1) eliminated in feces and urine was quantified over a 96-h period and in liver samples collected 96 h post-intoxication. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine serum enzyme activity, total bilirubin, cholesterol, sphinganine (Sa), sphingosine (So) and the Sa/So ratio. FB(1) was detected in plasma between 30 min and 36 h after administration. The highest concentration of FB(1) was observed after 2 h, with a mean concentration of 282 microg/ml. Only 0.93% of the total FB(1) was detected in urine between 75 min and 41 h after administration, the highest mean concentration (561 microg/ml) was observed during the interval after 8 at 24 h. Approximately 76.5% of FB(1) was detected in feces eliminated between 8 and 84 h after administration, with the highest levels observed between 8 and 24 h. Considering the biochemical parameters, a significant increase only occurred in cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In plasma and urine, the highest Sa and Sa/So ratios were obtained at 12 and 48 h, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics After Single Ascending Dose, Food Effect, and Safety of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696), an Angiotensin Receptor and Neprilysin Inhibitor, in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahori, Mizuki; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Langenickel, Thomas; Pal, Parasar; Zhou, Wei; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2017-06-01

    LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) is a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) that has been developed for treatment of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction and approved in the US, Europe, and many other countries. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in healthy Japanese male subjects (N = 50) to assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of single ascending oral doses (20-600 mg) of LCZ696. Food effect was also evaluated following administration of 200 mg dose. Plasma and urine samples from 40 subjects receiving LCZ696 were collected to assess pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan). Following single oral dose administration of LCZ696, sacubitril and valsartan rapidly appeared in systemic circulation with a dose-linear increase in the exposure to the LCZ696 analytes. Of the administered dose, approximately 0.85 %, 54.0 %, and 8.19 % of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan, respectively, were recovered in urine. Food reduced AUC of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan by 21, 8, and 40 %, respectively, and C max by 72, 27, and 51 %, respectively. Single oral doses of up to 600 mg of LCZ696 were safe and generally well tolerated in healthy Japanese male subjects.

  10. Acoustic neuromas: single dose vs fractionated therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, M; Debus, J; Lohr, F; Engenhart-Cabillic, R; Wannenmacher, M

    1997-07-01

    patients (18%) in the RS group, none of them requiring therapy, but none in the FT group. Hearing impairment improved in 1 case (RS) and 4 cases (FT). Complete hearing loss was diagnosed in 1 case in the FT group but in 3 cases in the RS group (all these patients were treated with 16 Gy or more). One temporary facial nerve weakness was found after FT. Among the RS group treated with {>=}16 Gy, 4 permanent facial nerve lesions were observed with complete facial nerve paresis in 2 patients. Improvement of vertigo or tinnitus was found in 1 patient after FT and in 3 patients treated with RS. If radiosurgical doses were <15 Gy, no severe side effects were observed. Among this group, 6 patients (54%) showed a significant reduction of preexisting neurological dysfunction. Conclusion: Radiosurgical treatment of small acoustic neuromas with doses <15 Gy prescribed to a volume <10 ccm results in excellent tumor control with no relevant toxicity. For fractionated therapy, results are comparable, even if the tumor volume exceeded 10 ccm. Single dose treatment with doses >15 Gy may cause higher toxicity. Fractionated conformal radiotherapy offers effective tumor control and low morbidity especially after contralateral neurosurgical resection of an acoustic neuroma with consecutive hearing loss and/or facial paresis.

  11. Effects of food intake on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium soft gelatin capsules: a single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallion, Ralph; Moore, Keith A

    2009-10-01

    Diclofenac potassium liquid-filled soft gelatin capsule (DPSGC) is an investigational formulation that uses dispersing agents designed to facilitate rapid and consistent absorption of this NSAID. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of food intake on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of oral DPSGC at doses of 25 and 50 mg. In this open-label, randomized, single-dose (2 distinct doses), 2-way crossover bioavailability study, healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of DPSGC 25 or 50 mg after an overnight fast (fasted condition) or high-fat breakfast (fed condition) (period 1). After 7 days, the participants received the same dose under the opposite fed/fasted condition (period 2). Serial blood samples were obtained before and through 6 hours after study drug administration. Concentrations of diclofenac in plasma were determined using HPLC, and PK profiles were studied using ANCOVA. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored and recorded on each in-clinic day. Of 47 participants included in the study, 24 received the 25-mg dose of DPSGC and 23 received the 50-mg dose. The majority of participants were male (80.9%), and the mean age was 28.6 years. The mean (SD) AUC values for the fasted and fed states were 691 (195) and 680 (184) ng x h/mL, respectively, with the 25-mg dose, and 1521 (377) and 1416 (366) ng . h/mL, respectively, with the 50-mg dose, suggesting that the extent of absorption was similar with both dietary conditions at each dose. Food intake was associated with decreases in C(max) by nearly half in the 25-mg group (fasted vs fed, 1156 [482] vs 686 [411] ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and the 50-mg group (2365 [1034] vs 1154 [592 ng/mL; P < 0.05) and delayed T(max) in the 25-mg group (0.49 [0.16] vs 1.02 [0.55] hours; P < 0.05) and 50-mg group (0.51 [0.19] vs 1.28 [0.71] hours; P < 0.05). Two mild AEs (nasal congestion and light-headedness) were reported in 2 participants who received 25 mg under fed conditions

  12. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  13. Cost-effectiveness of single-dose tamsulosin and dutasteride combination therapy compared with tamsulosin monotherapy in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anna; Doyle, Scott; Posnett, John; Hunjan, Manjit

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of single-dose dutasteride/tamsulosin combination therapy as a first-line treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS). A Markov state transition model was developed to estimate healthcare costs and patient outcomes, measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), for patients aged ≥50 years with diagnosed BPH and moderate to severe symptoms. Costs and outcomes were estimated for two treatment comparators: oral, daily, single-dose combination therapy (dutasteride 0.5 mg + tamsulosin 0.4 mg), and oral daily tamsulosin (0.4 mg) over a period up to 25 years. The efficacy of comparators was taken from results of the Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAT) trial. Cumulative discounted costs per patient were higher with combination therapy than with tamsulosin, but QALYs were also higher. After 25 years, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for combination therapy was £12,219, well within the threshold range (£20,000-£30,000 per QALY) typically applied in the NHS. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of combination therapy being cost-effective given the threshold range is between 78% and 88%. Single-dose combination dutasteride/tamsulosin therapy has a high probability of being cost-effective in comparison to tamsulosin monotherapy in the UK's NHS. © 2013 BJU International.

  14. The effect of single oral doses of duloxetine, reboxetine, and midodrine on the urethral pressure in healthy female subjects, using urethral pressure reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels; Cerneus, Dirk; Sawyer, William

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect on urethral pressure of reference drugs known to reduce stress urinary incontinence symptoms by different effect size and mechanisms of action on urethral musculature under four test conditions in healthy female subjects using urethral pressure reflectometry. METHODS......: Healthy females aged 18-55 years were recruited by advertising for this phase 1, single site, placebo-controlled, randomized, four-period, crossover study. The interventions were single oral doses of 10 mg Midodrine, 80 mg Duloxetine, 12 mg Reboxetine, and placebo. The endpoints were the opening urethral...... pressure measured in each period at four time points (predose and 2, 5.5, and 9 h after dosing). RESULTS: Twenty-nine females were enrolled; 25 randomized and 24 completed the study. The opening urethral pressure was higher in all measurements with filled bladder compared with empty bladder, and during...

  15. Pharmacokinetics of pregabalin controlled-release in healthy volunteers: effect of food in five single-dose, randomized, clinical pharmacology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Marci L; Plotka, Anna; Alvey, Christine W; Pitman, Verne W; Alebic-Kolbah, Tanja; Scavone, Joseph M; Bockbrader, Howard N

    2014-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of the immediate-release (IR) and the recently developed controlled-release (CR) formulation of pregabalin are dose proportional. Pregabalin IR can be taken with or without food. This analysis characterizes the effect of food on pregabalin CR. The objectives of this analysis were: (1) to evaluate the effect of administration time and fat or caloric content of an accompanying meal on the pharmacokinetic properties of a single dose of pregabalin CR (330 mg) relative to a single dose of pregabalin IR (300 mg); (2) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of a single dose of pregabalin CR administered fasted relative to a single dose of pregabalin CR administered immediately after food; and (3) to determine the safety and tolerability of single-dose administration of pregabalin CR and IR with and without food. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of pregabalin CR was determined in five phase I, open-label, single-dose, crossover studies (24-28 participants/study). Caloric and fat content of meals were varied and treatments were administered in the morning, at midday, or in the evening. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h post-dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from plasma concentration-time data using standard noncompartmental methods. Adverse events were monitored throughout all studies. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy participants (19-54 years of age) received pregabalin. Peak plasma concentrations (C max) were lower for CR than the respective pregabalin IR doses, and time to C max occurred later. When pregabalin CR was administered with food at midday or in the evening, total exposures [area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinite time (AUC∞)] were equivalent for pregabalin CR and IR formulations regardless of fat or caloric content. When pregabalin CR was administered with an 800-1,000 calorie medium-fat breakfast, AUC∞ was equivalent for

  16. Safe and Effective Use of the Once Weekly Dulaglutide Single-Dose Pen in Injection-Naïve Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matfin, Glenn; Van Brunt, Kate; Zimmermann, Alan G; Threlkeld, Rebecca; Ignaut, Debra A

    2015-04-21

    This 4-week, phase 3b, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, outpatient study demonstrated the safe and effective use of the dulaglutide single-dose pen containing 0.5 mL of placebo for subcutaneous injection in injection-naïve adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with A1C ≤ 8.5% (69 mmol/mol), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and ≤ 45 kg/m(2). Patients completed a modified self-injecting subscale of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (mD-FISQ) and were trained to self-inject with the single-dose pen. Patients completed the initial self-injection at the site, injected at home for 2 subsequent weeks, and returned to the site for the final injection. The initial and final self-injections were evaluated for success; the final (initial) self-injection success rate was the primary (secondary) outcome measure, and the primary (secondary) objective was to demonstrate this success rate as being significantly greater than 80%. Patients recorded their level of pain after each injection. After the final injection, patients completed the mD-FISQ and the Medication Delivery Device Assessment Battery (MDDAB) to assess their perceptions of the single-dose pen, including ease of use and experience with the device. Among 211 patients (mean age: 61 years), the primary objective was met, with a final injection success rate of 99.1% (95% CI: 96.6% to 99.7%). Among 214 patients, the initial injection success rate was 97.2% (95% CI: 94.0% to 98.7%), meeting the key secondary objective. Overall, most patients (>96%) found the device easy to use, were satisfied with the device, and would be willing to continue to use the single-dose pen after the study. There was a significant reduction (P injecting, as measured by the mD-FISQ. The dulaglutide single-dose pen was found to be a safe and effective device for use by patients with T2D who were injection-naïve. A positive injection experience is an important factor for patients and providers when initiating injectable

  17. A randomized study of the effects of single-dose gabapentin versus placebo on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirks, Jesper; Fredensborg, Birgitte B; Christensen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The anticonvulsant gabapentin has proven effective for neuropathic pain in three large placebo-controlled clinical trials. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated antihyperalgesic effects in models involving central neuronal sensitization. It has been suggested that central...... neuronal sensitization may play an important role in postoperative pain. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gabapentin on morphine consumption and postoperative pain in patients undergoing radical mastectomy. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients...... received a single dose of oral gabapentin (1,200 mg) or placebo 1 h before surgery. Patients received patient-controlled analgesia with morphine at doses of 2.5 mg with a lock-out time of 10 min for 4 h postoperatively. Pain was assessed on a visual analog scale at rest and during movement, and side...

  18. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    patients,       treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were       sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised       surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically       optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index...... on the       regularity of the implant, such that the benefit of optimisation was       larger for irregular implants. OI and HI correlated strongly with target       volume limiting the usability of these parameters for comparison of dose       plans between patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dwell time optimisation significantly......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  19. Low doses effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this article is asked the question about a possible carcinogens effect of low dose irradiation. With epidemiological data, knowledge about the carcinogenesis, the professor Tubiana explains that in spite of experiments made on thousand or hundred of thousands animals it has not been possible to bring to the fore a carcinogens effect for low doses and then it is not reasonable to believe and let the population believe that low dose irradiation could lead to an increase of neoplasms and from this point of view any hardening of radiation protection standards could in fact, increase anguish about ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  20. Effects of single-shot and steady-state propofol anaesthesia on rocuronium dose-response relationship: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäuble, C G; Stäuble, R B; Schaller, S J; Unterbuchner, C; Fink, H; Blobner, M

    2015-08-01

    Similar to volatile anaesthetics, propofol may influence neuromuscular transmission. We hypothesised that the administration of propofol influenced the potency of rocuronium depending on the duration of the administration. After consent, patients scheduled for elective surgery randomly received rocuronium either after induction of anaesthesia with propofol (2 min of propofol, n = 36) or after 30 min of propofol infusion (30 min of propofol, n = 36). Remifentanil was given in both groups. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed by calibrated electromyography. The dose-response relationship of rocuronium was determined with a single-bolus technique (0.07, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45 mg/kg rocuronium). The primary endpoints were the ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium after 2 and 30 min propofol. Data are presented as means with (95% confidence interval). The trial is registered with the Eudra-CT: 2009-012815-16. A total of 72 patients were included. Time to maximal neuromuscular blockade was significantly shorter in patients after 30 min of propofol [3.3 min (2.9-3.7)] compared with patients anaesthetised with 2 min of propofol [4.6 min (4.0-5.2)]. After 30 min of propofol, the slope of the dose-response curve was significantly steeper (30 min of propofol: 4.34 [3.62-5.05]; 2 min of propofol: [3.34 (2.72-3.96)], resulting in lower ED95 values of rocuronium (30 min of propofol: 0.287 mg/kg [0.221-0.368]; 2 min of propofol [0.391 mg/kg (0.296-0.520)]. The ED50 were not different between groups. The potency of rocuronium was significantly enhanced after propofol infusion for 30 min. Estimates of potency those are usually determined during steady-state anaesthesia might underestimate rocuronium requirements for endotracheal intubation at the time of induction. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  2. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, J.H.; Rusek, A.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X.S.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  3. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J H; Sanzari, J; Avery, S; Sayers, C; Krigsfeld, G; Nuth, M; Wan, X S; Rusek, A; Kennedy, A R

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  4. Effects of propranolol on conversational reciprocity in autism spectrum disorder: a pilot, double-blind, single-dose psychopharmacological challenge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Ferguson, Bradley J; Stichter, Janine P; Porges, Eric C; Ragsdale, Alexandra S; Lewis, Morgan L; Beversdorf, David Q

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important addition to treatment, yet currently available agents target co-morbid psychiatric concerns, such as aggression and irritability. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist with anxiolytic effects, has been shown to improve verbal fluency and working memory in adults and adolescents with ASD in single-dose challenges. The present pilot study explores the acute effects of propranolol on a measure of conversational reciprocity in this population. We also examined whether autonomic activity and anxiety moderate or mediate response to the drug, given relationships between these variables and ASD, as well as the drug's effects. In a within-subject crossover design, 20 individuals with ASD received a single dose of propranolol or placebo during two sessions in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. After drug administration, participants performed a conversational reciprocity task by engaging in a short conversation with the researcher. Measurements of autonomic activity and anxiety were obtained before and after drug administration. Propranolol significantly improved performance on the conversational reciprocity task total [d = 0.40] and nonverbal communication domain scores when compared to the placebo condition. However, neither autonomic activity nor anxiety was significantly associated with drug response. Acute propranolol administration improved conversational reciprocity in ASD. Further exploration of these preliminary findings, as well as other potential treatment response predictors, with serial doses is warranted.

  5. The effects of peritoneal dialysis on the single dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of valproic acid in a uremic epileptic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J M; Farrell, K; Abbott, F S; Ferguson, S; Godolphin, W J

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of valproic acid (VPA) have been studied during peritoneal dialysis in a uremic male epileptic child following a single 500 mg dose and after multiple doses over 5 months (700 mg daily) of valproic acid as the syrup. Serum level decline was biphasic in both instances with a terminal half-life of 27.2 after the single dose and 10.2 h at steady-state. Total serum clearance was 0.0236 l/h/kg after the single dose and increased to 0.0408 l/h/kg after 5 months. Free (intrinsic) serum clearances were 0.1489 and 0.1518 l/h/kg and serum free fractions were 0.224 and 0.272 respectively for the single dose and steady-state studies. Peritoneal dialysis for periods of 12 or 24 h removed an average of 4.5% of the VPA dose.

  6. A Phase 1, Single-center, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study in Healthy Subjects to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Clinical Effects, and Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Intravenous Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) after a Single Ascending Bolus Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; Valk, Beatrijs I; Eleveld, Douglas J; Absalom, Anthony R; Meyer, Peter; Meier, Sascha; den Daas, Izaak; Chou, Thomas; van Amsterdam, Kai; Campagna, Jason A; Sweeney, Steven P

    2017-07-01

    Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) is a new "soft" etomidate analog. The primary objectives of this first-in-human study were to describe the safety and efficacy of ABP-700 and to determine its maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ABP-700 and its primary metabolite (cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl acid), to assess the clinical effects of ABP-700, and to investigate the dose-response and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. Sixty subjects were divided into 10 cohorts and received an increasing, single bolus of either ABP-700 or placebo. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory evaluations, infusion-site reactions, continuous monitoring of vital signs, physical examination, adverse event monitoring, and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing. Clinical effects were assessed with modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index monitoring. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Stopping criteria were met at 1.00 mg/kg dose. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events were dose-dependent and comprised involuntary muscle movement, tachycardia, and ventilatory effects. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation evoked a physiologic cortisol response in all subjects, no different from placebo. Pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model described the data well. A rapid onset of anesthesia/sedation after bolus administration and also a rapid recovery were observed. A quantitative concentration-effect relationship was described for the modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index. This first-in-human study of ABP-700 shows that ABP-700 was safe and well tolerated after single-bolus injections up to 1.00 mg/kg. Bolus doses of 0.25 and 0.35 mg/kg were found to provide the most beneficial clinical effect versus side-effect profile.

  7. Acoustic neuromas: single dose vs fractionated therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M.; Debus, J.; Lohr, F.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiosurgical treatment (RS) of acoustic neuromas is a well established treatment. However, few data are available concerning conformal fractionated radiotherapy (FT) of this tumor entity. We evaluated treatment outcome and toxicity for both treatment modalities in 41 patients treated at our institution between 1984 and 1997. Material and Methods: All treatments were performed using a specially adapted linear accelerator and circular collimators for convergent beam RS or multi-leaf collimators (leaf thickness 1 or 3mm) for multi-field RS or fractionated treatment. 22 patients (7 male, 15 female, median age 60 years, range 20-83 years) were treated radiosurgically with single doses between 7 and 28 Gray (median 15 Gy) prescribed to the 80% isodose line. Tumor volumes ranged from 0.7 to 10.5 ccm with a median volume of 3.4 ccm. The median number of isocenters was 2 (1-4 isocenters). One patient was treated by a multi-field technique (14 isocentric irregularly shaped noncoplanar fields). 19 patients (5 male, 14 female, median age 55 years, range 20-81 years) were treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy. Median dose was 60 Gray with a median daily fraction size of 2 Gy and a median of 3 (1-4) irregularly shaped isocentric fields. Tumor volumes ranged from 0.7 to 32.4 ccm (median 15 ccm). Median follow-up was 30 months (7-149 months) for radiosurgical and 30 months (2-88 months) for fractionated treatment. Seven patients who underwent fractionated treatment had previously undergone neurosurgical resection on the contralateral side. One had undergone radiosurgery on the opposite side before. Results: All tumors were locally controlled. A volume reduction of more than 20% was seen in 16% after RS and 18% following FT. Typical posttherapeutic central reduction of contrast media enhancement was found in 73% following RS after a median of 8 (3-12) months and in 63% following FT after a median of 6 (1-12) months. Temporary brainstem edema was diagnosed in 4

  8. The Lack of Effect of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of ZX008 (Fenfluramine Oral Solution): Results of a Single-dose, Two-period Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammaitoni, Arnold; Smith, Steven; Boyd, Brooks

    2018-06-22

    Fenfluramine is being developed as a low-dose adjunctive treatment for seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome and other epileptic encephalopathies, including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Most patients with Dravet syndrome receive multiple antiepileptic drugs, making it challenging for caregivers to track correct administration times. The present Phase I study was conducted to determine the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of fenfluramine. Healthy nonsmoking subjects aged 18 to 50years were enrolled in an open-label, crossover, Phase I pharmacokinetic and safety profile study and received 2 single 0.8-mg/kg doses of ZX008 (fenfluramine hydrochloride oral solution), 1 after a 10-hour overnight fast and the other 30 minutes after the start of consumption of a high-fat breakfast, in a randomly assigned order. A washout period of at least 9days separated the 2 treatment periods. Venous blood samples were taken before each dose and periodically for 72hours after each dose for determination of concentrations of fenfluramine and its active metabolite norfenfluramine. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for each subject by noncompartmental analysis. In the 13 subjects completing both treatment periods, food had no effect on the rate or extent of absorption and bioavailability of fenfluramine as assessed by fed vs fasted adjusted geometric mean observed plasma C max (59.1vs 56.7 ng/mL; NS) and AUC 0-∞ (1640vs 1600 ng · h/mL; NS). Additionally, there was no impact of food on systemic exposure of norfenfluramine. Seven subjects reported at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event; all treatment-emergent adverse events were mild in severity. The bioequivalence and tolerability of single 0.8-mg/kg oral doses of ZX008 in the fed and fasted states support ZX008 administration without regard to meals. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A recalculation of the dose-effect-relationship of the ''life span study'' of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with the ''single-hit model''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of this new model is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The Single-Hit Model is a further development of the Armitage-Doll Model [1] for the special case of a short exposure. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality-rate (incidence-rate) of the spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model results in a biologically based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the Relativ-Risk-Model suggested by the ICRP 60 [2]. The present model is able to describe the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the Relativ-Risk-Model. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  11. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.

  12. Single- and Multiple-Dose Study To Determine the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Food Effect of Oral MRX-I versus Linezolid in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckburg, Paul B; Ge, Yigong; Hafkin, Barry

    2017-04-01

    A multipart phase 1 study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and food effect of the novel oral oxazolidinone, MRX-I, in healthy adults, as well as the tolerability of longer-term exposure of both oral MRX-I and linezolid. Thirty subjects in part 1 received single ascending doses of MRX-I or placebo under fasting or fed condition in a double-blind crossover design. Twelve subjects in part 2 received MRX-I at 800 mg every 12 h (q12h) for 14 days in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. In part 3, 24 subjects were randomized to receive 28 days of MRX-I at 800 mg q12h or oral linezolid at 600 mg q12h for 28 days in a double-blind, double-dummy design. Oral MRX-I was associated with a greater bioavailability and exposure when administered with food, and minimal accumulation of MRX-I occurred after multiple-dose administration. Oral MRX-I was well tolerated at single doses of up to 1,200 and 800 mg q12h for up to 28 days; all adverse events were mild to moderate in severity, and there was no drug discontinuation due to adverse events. These data support further clinical development of oral MRX-I in the treatment of resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Longitudinal effects of single-dose simulation education with structured debriefing and verbal feedback on endotracheal suctioning knowledge and skills: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Miia M; Syrjälä, Hannu P; Ohtonen, Pasi P; Meriläinen, Merja H; Kyngäs, Helvi A; Ala-Kokko, Tero I

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal effects of single-dose simulation education with structured debriefing and verbal feedback on critical care nurses' endotracheal suctioning knowledge and skills. To do this we used an experimental design without other competing intervention. Twenty-four months after simulation education, no significant time and group differences or time × group interactions were identified between the study groups. The need for regularly repeated educational interventions with audiovisual or individualized performance feedback and repeated bedside demonstrations is evident. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECTS OF PREANESTHETIC SINGLE DOSE INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE VERSUS FENTANYL ON HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION-A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Many pharmacological agents have been evaluated in regards to their efficacy of blunting the adverse cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine compared to fentanyl in blunting the haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. METHOD Sixty patients were randomly allocated into two groups (30 patients in each group. The group D received intravenously 1 µgm/kg dexmedetomidine infusion and group F received 2µgm/kg fentanyl infusion. The study drugs were prepared in an identical looking container and were infused fifteen minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia. The study drugs were infused over a period of ten minutes and all the patients underwent a similar anaesthetics technique. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure were noted at baseline, at the end of infusion of the study drugs, after induction of anaesthesia, immediately after laryngoscopy and intubation and at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 minutes after laryngoscopy and intubation. RESULTS HR significantly decreased in the group D when compared to group F immediately after study drug infusion and there was statistically significant reduction in heart rate for up to 5 min after intubation in both the groups. Although HR increased after intubation in both the groups, the magnitude was lower in the group D. In both the groups, laryngoscopy and intubation led to an increase in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure; the magnitude was lower in the group D. CONCLUSION Dexmeditomidine (1µ/kg attenuates these untoward responses of laryngoscopy and intubation more effectively than fentanyl (2 µ/kg when administered as bolus dose in the pre-induction period of general anaesthesia.

  15. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on blood glucose concentrations in the perioperative period: a randomized, placebo-controlled investigation in gynecologic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.

  16. Accuracy of effective dose estimation in personal dosimetry: a comparison between single-badge and double-badge methods and the MOSFET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januzis, Natalie; Belley, Matthew D; Nguyen, Giao; Toncheva, Greta; Lowry, Carolyn; Miller, Michael J; Smith, Tony P; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was three-fold: (1) to measure the transmission properties of various lead shielding materials, (2) to benchmark the accuracy of commercial film badge readings, and (3) to compare the accuracy of effective dose (ED) conversion factors (CF) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission methods to the MOSFET method. The transmission properties of lead aprons and the accuracy of film badges were studied using an ion chamber and monitor. ED was determined using an adult male anthropomorphic phantom that was loaded with 20 diagnostic MOSFET detectors and scanned with a whole body CT protocol at 80, 100, and 120 kVp. One commercial film badge was placed at the collar and one at the waist. Individual organ doses and waist badge readings were corrected for lead apron attenuation. ED was computed using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors, and ED CFs were calculated by taking the ratio of ED and badge reading. The measured single badge CFs were 0.01 (±14.9%), 0.02 (±9.49%), and 0.04 (±15.7%) for 80, 100, and 120 kVp, respectively. Current regulatory ED CF for the single badge method is 0.3; for the double-badge system, they are 0.04 (collar) and 1.5 (under lead apron at the waist). The double-badge system provides a better coefficient for the collar at 0.04; however, exposure readings under the apron are usually negligible to zero. Based on these findings, the authors recommend the use of ED CF of 0.01 for the single badge system from 80 kVp (effective energy 50.4 keV) data.

  17. Intensification of antitumor radiation effect by metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia and dependence of therapeutic effect on schedules of fractionation and value of single dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkhvadze, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Combined application of metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia under fractionated irradiation of sarcoma-45, 340 in white rats-males is studied. Tumors were γ-irradiated with 60 Co threefold in 48 hours at 15 Gy single dose or irradiated threefold in a week at 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses. Efficiency of experimental therapy is cheked by dynamics of tumor regression, a number of animals with tumors reabsorbed temporarily, a number of animals recovered and time of tumor grouth up to the initial volume. It is established that combined application of metronidazole and short-term hyperglycemia under fractionated irradiation increases essentially the efficiency of radiotherapy carried out by large fractions with great time intervals. 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  18. The stimulatory effect of single-dose pre-irradiation administration of indomethacin and diclofenac on haemopoietic recovery in the spleen of gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubik, A.; Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of the single-dose pre-irradiation administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e. indomethacin (0.15 mg/mouse) and diclofenac (0.6 mg/mouse) on the recovery of haemopoiesis in the spleen of whole-body irradiated male mice (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 . It was shown that the administation of these substances 1-24 h prior to sublethal irradiation stimulates the recovery of the proliferation activity of the spleen and the formation of endogenous spleen colonies. These results can be explained as the inhibitory effect of the substances administered on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  19. Vaxchora: A Single-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Adriana; Lepage, Jayne E; Sullivan, Karyn M; Seed, Sheila M

    2017-07-01

    To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010. ClinicalTrials.gov was used as a source for unpublished data. Additional data sources were obtained through bibliographic review of selected articles. Studies that addressed the safety and efficacy of Vaxchora, the reformulated, single-dose oral CVD 103-HgR cholera vaccine, were selected for analysis. Approval of Vaxchora, was based on efficacy of the vaccine in human trials demonstrating 90.3% protection among those challenged with V cholerae 10 days after vaccination and in immunogenicity studies with 90% systemic vibriocidal antibody conversion at 6 months after a single-dose of vaccine. Tolerability was acceptable, with the most common adverse effects reported to be fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. Vaxchora is the only FDA-approved, single-dose oral vaccine for the prevention of cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1 in adult travelers from the United States going to cholera-affected areas. Safety and efficacy has not been established in children, immunocompromised persons, and pregnant or breastfeeding women or those living in cholera-endemic areas.

  20. A phase I study to assess the effect of food on the single dose bioavailability of the THC/CBD oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, C G; White, L; Wright, S; Wilbraham, D; Guy, G W

    2013-04-01

    To assess the effect of food on the single-dose bioavailability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, when administered to healthy male subjects. Twelve subjects took part in this fed-fasted cross-over study and received a single dose of THC/CBD spray (4 sprays = 10.8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) in the fasted then fed state (or vice versa) with a 3-day wash-out period between treatments. Plasma samples were collected at designated time-points for analysis of CBD, THC, and its active metabolite, 11-hydroxy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC). Statistically significant increases in the mean area under the curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were observed in subjects during fed conditions. Mean AUC and Cmax were one to three-fold higher for THC and 11-OH-THC, and five and three-fold higher for CBD respectively during fed conditions. A large inter-subject variability in exposure from the same dose was observed, particularly for THC. The Cmax for THC in fed versus fasted subjects was higher in 7 subjects (4.80-14.91 ng/ml) and lower in 5 subjects (2.81-3.51 ng/ml) compared with the mean Cmax of 3.98 ng/ml (range 0.97-9.34 ng/ml) observed in the fasted state. Increases in mean AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf), and Cmax for THC, CBD, and 11-OH-THC in the fed state were within the range of inter-subject variability, which was considerable. Food also appeared to delay the time to peak concentration (Tmax) of all analytes by approximately 2-2.5 h. Only mild adverse events were reported. The THC/CBD spray was well tolerated in male subjects at a single dose of four sprays. The large inter-subject variability in exposure suggests that the changes observed are unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  1. Effects of single-dose atorvastatin on interleukin-6, interferon gamma, and myocardial no-reflow in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.J.; Liu, X.L.; He, G.X.; Xu, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of statins relieving the no-reflow phenomenon and the effects of single-dose statins on it are not well known. This study sought to investigate the effects of inflammation on the no-reflow phenomenon in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion (AMI/R) and to evaluate the effects of single-dose atorvastatin on inflammation and myocardial no-reflow. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits (5-6 months old) were randomized to three groups of eight: a sham-operated group, an AMI/R group, and an atorvastatin-treated group (10 mg/kg). Animals in the latter two groups were subjected to 4 h of coronary occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in normal and infarcted (reflow and no-reflow) myocardial tissue was determined by immunohistochemical methods. The area of no-reflow and necrosis was evaluated pathologically. Levels of serum IL-6 were significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group (P<0.01). Expression of IFN-γ in infarcted reflow and no-reflow myocardial tissue was also significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group. The mean area of no-reflow [47.01% of ligation area (LA)] was significantly smaller in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group (85.67% of LA; P<0.01). The necrosis area was also significantly smaller in the atorvastatin group (85.94% of LA) than in the AMI/R group (96.56% of LA; P<0.01). In a secondary analysis, rabbits in the atorvastatin and AMI/R groups were divided into two groups based on necrosis area (90% of LA): a small group (<90% of LA) and a large group (>90% of LA). There was no significant difference in the area of no-reflow between the small (61.40% of LA) and large groups (69.87% of LA; P>0.05). Single-dose atorvastatin protected against inflammation and myocardial no-reflow and reduced infarct size during AMI/R in

  2. Effects of single-dose atorvastatin on interleukin-6, interferon gamma, and myocardial no-reflow in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X. J. [Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Binzhou, China, Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou (China); Liu, X. L. [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Department of Cardiology, Jinan, China, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); He, G. X. [Third Military Medical University, Southwest Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Chongqing, China, Department of Cardiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xu, H. P. [Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Binzhou, China, Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou (China)

    2014-03-03

    The mechanisms of statins relieving the no-reflow phenomenon and the effects of single-dose statins on it are not well known. This study sought to investigate the effects of inflammation on the no-reflow phenomenon in a rabbit model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion (AMI/R) and to evaluate the effects of single-dose atorvastatin on inflammation and myocardial no-reflow. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits (5-6 months old) were randomized to three groups of eight: a sham-operated group, an AMI/R group, and an atorvastatin-treated group (10 mg/kg). Animals in the latter two groups were subjected to 4 h of coronary occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in normal and infarcted (reflow and no-reflow) myocardial tissue was determined by immunohistochemical methods. The area of no-reflow and necrosis was evaluated pathologically. Levels of serum IL-6 were significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group (P<0.01). Expression of IFN-γ in infarcted reflow and no-reflow myocardial tissue was also significantly lower in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group. The mean area of no-reflow [47.01% of ligation area (LA)] was significantly smaller in the atorvastatin group than in the AMI/R group (85.67% of LA; P<0.01). The necrosis area was also significantly smaller in the atorvastatin group (85.94% of LA) than in the AMI/R group (96.56% of LA; P<0.01). In a secondary analysis, rabbits in the atorvastatin and AMI/R groups were divided into two groups based on necrosis area (90% of LA): a small group (<90% of LA) and a large group (>90% of LA). There was no significant difference in the area of no-reflow between the small (61.40% of LA) and large groups (69.87% of LA; P>0.05). Single-dose atorvastatin protected against inflammation and myocardial no-reflow and reduced infarct size during AMI/R in

  3. The effect of a single dose of multivitamin and mineral combinations with and without guaraná on functional brain activity during a continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Camfield, David A; Maggini, Silvia; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Relatively few studies have explored the possibility of acute cognitive effects of multivitamin ingestion. This report explores the acute brain electrophysiological changes associated with multivitamin and mineral supplementation, with and without guaraná, using the steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP). Based on the known SSVEP correlates of A-X continuous performance task (CPT) performance, and sensitivity to acute psychopharmacological manipulations, the A-X CPT was adopted as a task paradigm to explore treatment-related neurophysiological changes in attentional processing. Twenty healthy non-smoking adults aged 21-39 years (mean age = 28.35 years, SD = 5.52) took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced crossover design study. The study demonstrated both transient and tonic changes in the SSVEP response during completion of the A-X CPT following multivitamin and mineral treatment both with and without guaraná. Transient changes in SSVEP response in prefrontal regions were observed after a single dose of a multivitamin and mineral preparation indicative of enhanced activity within brain regions engaged by the attentional demands of the task. This pattern of change in frontal regions was correlated with improved behavioural performance after treatment with the multivitamin and mineral combination. Where tonic shifts in SSVEP response were investigated, multivitamin and mineral treatment was associated with a pattern of increased inhibition across posterior regions, with enhanced excitatory processing in prefrontal regions. In contrast, multivitamin and mineral treatment with additional guaraná showed a tonic shift towards greater excitatory processes after a single treatment, consistent with the caffeine content of this treatment. While preliminary in nature, these findings suggest a single multivitamin/mineral dose is sufficient to impact on functional brain activity in task-related brain regions.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol and effects on serum enterolactone and clinical symptoms in postmenopausal women: a single-blinded, parallel, dose-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Brown, Donald J; Tan, Maria Olivia C; Hardy, Mary

    2013-01-01

    7-Hydroxymaitairesinol (7-HMR) is a naturally occurring plant lignan found in whole grains and the Norway spruce (Piciea abies). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of a proprietary 7-HMR product (HMRlignan, Linnea SA, Locarno, Switzerland) through measurement of lignan metabolites and metabolic precursors. A single-blind, parallel, pharmacokinetic and dose-comparison study was conducted on 22 postmenopausal females not receiving hormone replacement therapy. Subjects were enrolled in either a 36 mg/d (low-dose) or 72 mg/d dose (high-dose) regimen for 8 weeks. Primary measured outcomes included plasma levels of 7-HMR and enterolactone (ENL), and single-dose pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on a subset of subjects in the low-dose group. Safety data and adverse event reports were collected as well as data on hot flash frequency and severity. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated 7-HMR C max = 757.08 ng/ml at 1 hour and ENL C max = 4.8 ng/ml at 24 hours. From baseline to week 8, plasma 7-HMR levels increased by 191% in the low-dose group (p < 0.01) and by 1238% in the high-dose group (p < 0.05). Plasma ENL levels consistently increased as much as 157% from baseline in the low-dose group and 137% in the high-dose group. Additionally, the mean number of weekly hot flashes decreased by 50%, from 28.0/week to 14.3/week (p < 0.05) in the high-dose group. No significant safety issues were identified in this study. The results demonstrate that HMRlignan is quickly absorbed into the plasma and is metabolized to ENL in healthy postmenopausal women. Clinically, the data demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in hot flash frequency. Doses up to 72 mg/d HMRlignan for 8 weeks were safe and well tolerated in this population.

  5. single dose pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in healthy nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Mefloquine 500mg single dose was administered and blood samples were collected ... particle size ODS Hypersil (HETP, Macclesfield, UK) at a pressure of 55 Mpa .... dose to area under the plasma drug concentration - time curve, assuming ...

  6. Effect of the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Schuehly, Uwe; Pal, Parasar; Chen, Fabian; Zhou, Wei; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Langenickel, Thomas H

    2018-05-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan is indicated for the treatment of heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Furosemide, a loop diuretic commonly used for the treatment of HFrEF, may be coadministered with sacubitril/valsartan in clinical practice. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of furosemide was evaluated in this open label, two-period, single-sequence study in healthy subjects. All subjects (n = 28) received 40 mg oral single-dose furosemide during period 1, followed by a washout of 2 days. In period 2, sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg (97/103 mg) was administered twice daily for 5 days and a single dose of 40 mg furosemide was coadministered on day 6. Serial plasma and urine samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetics of furosemide and sacubitril/valsartan and the pharmacodynamics of furosemide. The point estimates and the associated 90% confidence intervals for pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. Coadministration of furosemide with sacubitril/valsartan decreased the maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ) [estimated geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval): 0.50 (0.44, 0.56)], area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity [0.72 (0.67, 0.77)] and 24-h urinary excretion of furosemide [0.74 (0.69, 0.79)]. When coadministered with sacubitril/valsartan, 0-4-h, 4-8-h and 0-24-h diuresis in response to furosemide was reduced by ~7%, 21% and 0.2%, respectively, while natriuresis was reduced by ~ 28.5%, 7% and 15%, respectively. Post hoc analysis of the pivotal phase III Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM-HF) indicated that the median furosemide dose was similar at baseline and at the end of the study in the sacubitril/valsartan group. Sacubitril/valsartan reduced plasma C max and AUC and 24-h urinary excretion of furosemide, while not significantly affecting its

  7. Effects of a Single Dose of Erythropoietin on Motor Function and Cognition after Focal Brain Ischemia in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hralová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the influence of erythropoietin (EPO, a basic cytokine in erythropoiesis regulation, on the process of motor function and cognition after focal brain ischemia induced by a local application of endothelin. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 induced short lasting strong vasoconstriction, with described impact on the structure and on the function of neuronal cells. Neurological description of motor function and Morris water maze test (the swimming test is one of most widely used methods for studying cognitive functions in rodents were used to study the process of learning and memory in three-month-old male albino Wistar rats (n=52. Both tests were performed one week before, and three weeks after ischemia induction (endothelin application on the cortex in the area of a. cerebri media dx.. Experimental group received i.p. injection of EPO (5,000 IU/kg body weight, 10 min before endothelin application. Control group of animals received one i.p. injection of saline at the dose of 1 ml/kg body weight at the same time. Only sham surgery was performed in the third group of animals. Rats with EPO pretreatment before the experimental lesion exhibited significantly better motor and cognitive function then those with saline injection. No significant changes in the motor and cognitive function were found in the third group of rats (sham operated controls.

  8. Effects of local single and fractionated X-ray doses on rat bone marrow blood flow and red blood cell volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Time and dose dependent changes in blood flow and red blood cell volume were studied in the locally irradiated bone marrow of the rat femur after single and fractionated doses of X-rays. With the single dose of 10 Gy the bone marrow blood flow although initially reduced returned to the control levels by seven months after irradiation. With doses >=15 Gy the blood flow was still significantly reduced at seven months. The total dose levels predicted by the nominal standard dose equation for treatments in three, six or nine fractions produced approximately the same degree of reduction in the bone marrow blood flow seven months after the irradiation. However, the fall in the red blood cell volume was from 23 to 37% greater in the three fractions groups compared with that in the nine fractions groups. Using the red blood cell volume as a parameter the nominal standard dose formula underestimated the severity of radiation damage in rat bone marrow at seven months for irradiation with small numbers of large dose fractions. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of a single intraoperative high-dose ATG-Fresenius on delayed graft function in donation after cardiac-death donor renal allograft recipients: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Martijn W F; Kho, Marcia M L; Abrahams, Alferso C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; van Dijk, Marja; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2013-04-01

    Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting anti-T-lymphocyte antibodies is coupled with a reduction of the dosage of the calcineurin inhibitor. The separate effect of anti-T-cell therapy on the incidence and duration of delayed graft function is therefore difficult to assess. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of a single intraoperative high-dose of anti-T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG)-Fresenius (9 mg/kg body weight) on the incidence of delayed graft function. Eligible adult recipients of a first donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft were randomly assigned to ATG-Fresenius or no induction therapy. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, in an unadjusted dose, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The study was prematurely terminated because of a lower-than-anticipated inclusion rate. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the ATG-Fresenius group (n=28) and the control group (n=24). Twenty-two patients in the ATG-Fresenius group (79%) had delayed graft function, compared with 13 in the control group (54%; P = .06). Allograft and patient survival were comparable in both groups. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the ATG-Fresenius group than they did in the control group (57% vs 29%; P Fresenius in donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft recipients, followed by triple immunosuppression with an unadjusted tacrolimus dose, seems ineffective to reduce the incidence of delayed graft function. Moreover, this was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events (EudraCT-number, 2007-000210-36.).

  10. A single pre-operative antibiotic dose is as effective as continued antibiotic prophylaxis in implant-based breast reconstruction: A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, William A; Baluch, Narges; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Maass, Saskia W M C; O'Neill, Anne; Zhong, Toni; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2015-05-01

    Infections following implant-based breast reconstruction can lead to devastating consequences. There is currently no consensus on the need for post-operative antibiotics in preventing immediate infection. This study compared two different methods of infection prevention in this group of patients. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on consecutive women undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction at University Health Network, Toronto (November 2008-December 2012). All patients received a single pre-operative intravenous antibiotic dose. Group A received minimal interventions and Group B underwent maximal prophylactic measures. Patient (age, smoking, diabetes, co-morbidities), oncologic and procedural variables (timing and laterality) were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to compare outcomes between the two groups. Two hundred and eight patients underwent 647 implant procedures. After matching the two treatment groups by BMI, 94 patients in each treatment group yielding a total of 605 implant procedures were selected for analysis. The two groups were comparable in terms of patient and disease variables. Post-operative wound infection was similar in Group A (n = 11, 12%) compared with Group B (n = 9, 10%; p = 0.8). Univariate analysis revealed only pre-operative radiotherapy to be associated with the development of infection (0.004). Controlling for the effect of radiotherapy, multivariate analysis demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between the two methods for infection prevention. Our findings suggest that a single pre-operative dose of intravenous antibiotics is equally as effective as continued antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing immediate infection in patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstructions. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single dose planning for radioiodine-131 therapy of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Kinuya, Seigo; Taki, Junichi; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2004-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied one year after radioiodine-131 therapy to assess the relationship between the effectiveness of the therapy and the radioiodine doses used. Patients were classified into three groups according to thyroid function as hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism and hypothyroidism at one year after I-131 therapy. In these groups we compared the mean values of dose, dose per thyroid weight calculated with I-123 uptake before the therapy (pre D/W), dose per thyroid weight calculated with therapeutic I-131 uptake (post D/W), and absorbed dose. No significant differences were found between the three groups in terms of dose or pre D/W. The mean values of post D/W and absorbed dose in the non-hyperthyroid (euthyroid and hypothyroid) group were significantly greater than those in the hyperthyroid group. Post D/W of 6.3 MBq/g was a threshold separating the non-hyperthyroid group from the hyperthyroid group. There was no correlation between pre D/W and post D/W; however, the mean post D/W was significantly greater than the mean pre D/W. All patients with pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g showed non-hyperthyroidism at one year after the radioiodine treatment. No indicators before the radioiodine therapy had significant relationships with the effectiveness of the therapy at one year after the treatment. However, the single therapy planned for setting the pre D/W above 6.3 MBq/g will certainly make the patients non-hyperthyroid. As this proposal of dose planning is based on a small number of patients, further study is needed. (author)

  12. The effect of eight half-yearly single-dose treatments with DEC on Wuchereria bancrofti circulating antigenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Magesa, Stephen M; Meyrowitsch, Dan W

    2005-01-01

    The effect of eight half-yearly treatment rounds with diethylcarbamazine (DEC; 6mg/kg bodyweight) on Wuchereria bancrofti-specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA), a marker of adult worm infection, was followed in 79 individuals who were CFA-positive before start of treatment. Half of these we...... values. Repeated DEC therapy thus appears to have a slow but profound and persistent macrofilaricidal effect, which in the long run may be beneficial to populations undergoing DEC-based control interventions by reducing the probability of future morbidity development....

  13. Stability in the rumen and effect on plasma status of single oral doses of vitamin D and vitamin E in high-yielding dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    The ruminal fate of the fat-soluble vitamins D and E was studied in dairy cows. Ten to 15 kg of ruminal contents was taken from each cow through a ruminal fistula. A sample was taken out (0-h sample) and the rest of the contents were mixed with 4,360 mg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E;...... a single dose of α-tocopheryl acetate led to the conclusion that oral single dose therapy with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate is of limited physiological value....

  14. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  15. Effects of diazepam and levodopa single doses on motor cortex plasticity modulation in healthy human subjects: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nela V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Administration of pharmacological agents with specific actions on neurotransmitter systems is a powerful driver of functional cortical reorganization. Plastic reorganization of the motor cortex in humans studies by the use of non-invasive stimulation protocols, which mimic the Hebbian model of associative plasticity. Objective. Aiming to explore pharmacological modulation on human motor cortex plasticity, we tested healthy subjects after each dosage of diazepam, levodopa i placebo administration, using paired associative stimulation protocol (PAS that induce fenomena similar to a long-term potentiation and depression, as defined on the synaptic level. Methods. We analyzed effects of benzodiazepines (10 mg, levodopa (200 mg and placebo on PAS protocol in 14 healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. PAS consisted of electrical stimuli pairs at n.medianus and magnetic pulses over the scalp (transcranial magnetic stimulation in precisely defined intervals (ISI was 10 and 25 ms for a total of about 15 minutes (200 pairs. MEP amplitudes before and after (0, 10, 20 and 30 minutes later interventional protocols were compared. Results. When protocols were applied with placebo depending on ISI (10 ms - inhibitory, 25 ms - facilitatory effects, MEP amplitudes decreased or increased, while values in the postinterventional period (0, 10, 20 and 30 min were compared with initial values before the use of SAS. The use of benzodiazepines caused the occlusion of LTP-like effect, in contrast to amplification effects recorded after the administration of levodopa. With respect to the LTD-like protocol, the reverse was true (ANOVA for repeat measurements p<0.001. Conclusion. Administration of GABA-ergic agonist diazepam interferes with the induction of associative plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, as opposed to the use of levodopa, which stimulates these processes. The observed effects point at a

  16. Total Ionizing Dose Influence on the Single Event Effect Sensitivity in Samsung 8Gb NAND Flash Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Larry D.; Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    A recent model provides risk estimates for the deprogramming of initially programmed floating gates via prompt charge loss produced by an ionizing radiation environment. The environment can be a mixture of electrons, protons, and heavy ions. The model requires several input parameters. This paper extends the model to include TID effects in the control circuitry by including one additional parameter. Parameters intended to produce conservative risk estimates for the Samsung 8 Gb SLC NAND flash memory are given, subject to some qualifications.

  17. The effects of single dose TBI on hepatic and renal function in non-human primates and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bakker, B.; Davelaar, J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Niemer-Tucker, M.M.B.; Noordijk, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are common procedures in the treatment of severe combined immune deficiency syndromes, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other hematological disorders. Improved results following TBI and BMT have increased the number of patients in long term follow up. Late detrimental effects of TBI have been investigated in non-human primates and patients with emphasis on vital organs like liver and kidney. The response of monkeys to radiation is not significantly different from that in man. Long term effects of TBI could be studied by keeping 84 monkeys of different ages under continuous observation for a period up to 25 years. Effects on hepatic and renal function were demonstrated using serological and histological parameters. The values of the liver function parameters such as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the irradiated group are significantly increased after TBI. Also the parameters of kidney dysfunction, e.g., Ht and urea show a significant change in the irradiated old aged cohort with respect to the controls. Between 1967 and 1993, 336 bone marrow transplantations were performed at the University Hospital Leiden. The present Study was restricted to those patients who survived at least 18 months after transplantation. This retrospective analysis consequently amounts to 120 patients. The monkey data indicated subclinical organ damage for postirradiation intervals exceeding 15 years. However, up to the present time, the human data do not support these findings since the follow up time is still restricted to a median survival of 4,5 years. Detrimental effects in liver and kidney function at a later stage can not be excluded yet, and careful examinations of the patients remain indicated

  18. Effects of a single preappointment dose of gabapentin on signs of stress in cats during transportation and veterinary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, Karen A; Forsythe, Lauren R Eichstadt; Stelow, Elizabeth A; Bain, Melissa J

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of oral gabapentin administration prior to veterinary examination on signs of stress in cats. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, crossover clinical trial. ANIMALS 20 healthy pet cats with a history of fractious behavior or signs of stress during veterinary examination. PROCEDURES Cats were scheduled for 2 veterinary visits 1 week apart and randomly assigned to receive a capsule containing 100 mg of gabapentin (13.0 to 29.4 mg/kg [5.9 to 13.4 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose powder) prior to the first visit and the opposite treatment prior to the second visit. Owners were instructed to administer the assigned capsule orally 90 minutes prior to placing the cat into a carrier and transporting it to the veterinary hospital. Standardized physical examinations and blood pressure readings were performed. Owners assigned a cat stress score during transportation and examination, and the veterinarian assigned a compliance score at the visit. Scores were compared between treatments, controlling for various factors. RESULTS Owner-assessed cat stress scores during transportation and veterinary examination and veterinarian-assessed compliance scores were significantly lower when cats received gabapentin than when they received the placebo. Sedation was a common effect of gabapentin administration, and ataxia, hypersalivation, and vomiting were also reported. All effects resolved within 8 hours after gabapentin administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Owners' perception of stress in their cats is a primary reason for failing to seek veterinary care. Results of this study suggested that gabapentin is a safe and effective treatment for cats to help reduce stress and aggression and increase compliance for transportation and veterinary examination.

  19. Effect of single intraoperative dose of amiodarone in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease and atrial fibrillation undergoing valve replacement surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Thiruvenkadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of sinus rhythm (SR is superior to rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF. In order to achieve SR, we administered single-dose intravenous amiodarone intraoperatively and evaluated its effect on conversion of rheumatic AF to SR in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to amiodarone ( n = 42 or control ( n = 40 group in a double blind manner. The amiodarone group received amiodarone (3 mg/kg intravenously prior to the institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and the control group received the same volume of normal saline. In the amiodarone group, the initial rhythm after the release of aortic cross clamp was noted to be AF in 14.3% ( n = 6 and remained so in 9.5% ( n = 4 of patients till the end of surgery. In the control group, the rhythm soon after the release of aortic cross clamp was AF in 37.5% ( n = 15 ( p = 0.035 and remained so in 32.5% ( n = 13 of patients till the end of surgery ( p = 0.01. At the end of first post-operative day 21.4% ( n = 9 of patients in amiodarone group and 55% ( n = 22 of patients in control group were in AF ( p = 0.002. The requirement of cardioversion/defibrillation was 1.5 (±0.54 in amiodarone group and 2.26 (±0.73 in the control group ( p = 0.014, and the energy needed was 22.5 (±8.86 joules in the amiodarone group and 40.53 (±16.5 in the control group ( p = 0.008. A single intraoperative dose of intravenous amiodarone increased the conversion rate of AF to normal sinus rhythm, reduced the need and energy required for cardioversion/defibrillation and reduced the recurrence of AF within one day.

  20. Comparison of the Effects of Daily Single-Dose Use of Flurbiprofen, Diclofenac Sodium, and Tenoxicam on Postoperative Pain, Swelling, and Trismus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Volkan; Eroğlu, Cennet Neslihan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of daily single-dose use of flurbiprofen, diclofenac sodium, and tenoxicam on pain, swelling, and trismus that occur after surgical extraction of impacted wisdom teeth using local anesthesia. The present study included 3 groups with 30 patients in each group. Those volunteering to participate in this double-blind randomized study (n = 90) were selected from a patient population with an indication for extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. Group 1 patients received 200 mg flurbiprofen, group 2 patients received 100 mg diclofenac sodium, and group 3 patients received 20 mg tenoxicam. All doses were once a day, starting preoperatively. Pain was evaluated postoperatively at 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hours and at 2 and 7 days using a visual analog scale (VAS). For comparison with the preoperative measurements, the patients were invited to postoperative follow-up visits 2 and 7 days after extraction to evaluate for swelling and trismus. The statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics in SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), software. Statistical analysis of the pain, swelling, and trismus data was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U tests. The statistical level of significance was accepted at P = .05 and power of 0.80. Clinically, tenoxicam showed better analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy compared with diclofenac sodium and, in particular, flurbiprofen. Although the VAS scores in the evaluation of pain showed statistically significant differences at 2 days, no statistically significant difference was found for swelling and trismus. Our study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects with a daily single dose of flurbiprofen, diclofenac sodium, and tenoxicam. Daily 20 mg tenoxicam can be accepted as an adequate and safe option for patients after a surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of a Preoperative Single Dose of Gabapentin on Emergence Agitation in Patients Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Azemati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergence agitation is a transient confusional state that usuallyoccurs within 10 to 30 minutes of recovery from general anesthesia. It may lead to seriousconsequences and increasing hospital costs. This study evaluates the effect of gabapentinon emergence agitation in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.Methods: This randomized, double blind controlled trial enrolled 100 femalepatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists' classifications I and II who werecandidates for breast cancer surgery. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups(n=50 that received either oral gabapentin 600 mg or placebo. Induction andmaintenance of anesthesia were similar in both groups. At the end of surgery, patient'sagitation score, pain score, and presence of nausea or vomiting were reported. In theward, the presence of headache or dizziness was checked during the first 8 h. Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of agitation and pain scores between two groups.Chi-square test was used for comparing occurrence of nausea, vomiting and qualitative.The qualitative demographic variable and t-test compared quantitative demographicvariables.Results: There was a significantly lower incidence of emergence agitation in thegabapentin group before (P<0.001 and after (P=0.029 extubation. There weresignificantly lower mean agitation scores before (P<001 and after (P=0.006 extubationand in the pain score (P=0.005 in the gabapentin group. The need for remifentanilinfusion (P<0.05 during surgery was significantly lower in the gabapentin groupcompared with the placebo group. Occurrence of nausea and vomiting and gabapentinside effects that included headache or dizziness did not significantly differ between twogroups (P=0.126, P=1, P=0.629 respectively.Conclusion: Gabapentin not only decreased postoperative pain but also effectivelyreduced emergence agitation without any significant side effects in patients undergoingbreast cancer surgery.

  2. Ocular Pharmacokinetics of Dorzolamide and Brinzolamide After Single and Multiple Topical Dosing: Implications for Effects on Ocular Blood FlowS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Rajendra S.; Jadhav, Gajanan; Ogidigben, Miller

    2011-01-01

    Ophthalmic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been shown to improve retinal and optic nerve blood flow. However, the relative tissue distributions of commercially available carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to the optic nerve are not known. The objective of this study was to compare the ocular pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of dorzolamide and brinzolamide after single and multiple topical applications. Pigmented rabbits were treated with single or multiple topical administrations of 30 μl of Trusopt (dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution, 2%) to one eye and 30 μl of Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension, 1%) to the other eye. Rabbits were euthanized at 10 predetermined time intervals over a period of 24 h, and ocular tissues and plasma samples were collected. For multiple dosing, rabbits were dosed twice per day with an 8-h interval between two doses, groups of rabbits were euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 days at 1 h after the last dose, and ocular tissues and plasma samples were collected. Drug levels in tissue samples were measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0–24) were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. After a single dose, dorzolamide delivery (AUC0–24) to the aqueous humor, anterior sclera, posterior sclera, anterior retina, posterior retina, anterior vitreous, and optic nerve was 2-, 7-, 2.6-, 1.4-, 1.9-, 1.2-, and 9-fold higher than those of brinzolamide. Cmax was 2- to 5-fold higher for dorzolamide than that of brinzolamide in all of the ocular tissue. After multiple dosing, dorzolamide levels in the aqueous humor, sclera, retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve were higher than those of brinzolamide, but statistical significance was achieved only with aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and optic nerve. Dorzolamide levels in the aqueous humor, anterior vitreous, posterior vitreous, and optic nerve were 1.4- to 3.2-, 2.4- to 2.7-, 2.2- to 4.5-, and 2.4- to

  3. Single-dose radiotherapy for painful bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    Background: External beam radiotherapy is frequently applied for palliative treatment of painful bone lesions with a variety of fractionation schemes. There is a continuous interest to administer only 1 or a few dose fractions for inducing pain relief. Methods: A review of the literature was made with the aim to determine whether a treatment can be deduced that is simple and effective. The linear-quadratic (L-Q) concept was applied to compare reported therapy schemes which each other for the iso-effect pain relief. Results: Single-dose and fractionated radiotherapy resulted in partial or complete pain relief in about 80% of the patients. Complete responses have been observed in about 43% of the patients. For patients responding to treatment, the duration of pain relief is at least 3 to 4 months with reported duration of up to 1 year or even longer. Conclusion: Based on this review of literature data concerning randomized trials a treatment with a single dose of 8 Gy is effective for inducing pain relief. (orig.) [de

  4. The concept of the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of the human body by external or internal sources leads mostly to a simultaneous exposure of several organs. However, so far no clear and consistent recommendations for the combination of organ doses and the assessment of an exposure limit under such irradiation conditions are available. Following a proposal described in ICRP-publication 14 one possible concept for the combination of organ doses is discussed in this paper. This concept is based on the assumption that at low doses the total radiation detriment to the exposed person is given by the sum of radiation detriments to the single organs. Taking into account a linear dose-risk relationship, the sum of weighted organ doses leads to the definition of an 'Effective Dose'. The applicability and consequences of this 'Effective Dose Concept' are discussed especially with regard to the assessment of the maximum permissible intake of radionuclides into the human body and the combination of external and internal exposure. (orig.) [de

  5. Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies of [18F] fluorocholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Danielle C.; Santos, Priscilla F.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B. da; Souza, Cristina M.; Campos, Liliane C.; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo, Marina R.; Cassali, Geovanni D.

    2013-01-01

    [ 18 F]Fluorocholine ( 18 FCH) is a valuable tool for non-invasive diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET). This radiotracer has been proven to be highly effective in detecting recurrences and staging prostate cancer, diagnoses brain, breast, and esophageal tumors and also hepatocellular carcinoma. The higher uptake of fluorocholine by malignant tumors results from increased choline kinase activity due to accelerated cell multiplication and membrane formation. According to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), radiopharmaceuticals have to be registered before commercialization. The aim of this work was to evaluate single dose toxicity and biodistribution of 18 FCH in mice, since preclinical safety studies are required for register. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA-IPEN/SP). Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies were conducted in Swiss mice. No signs of toxicity were observed during clinical trial. No changes in the parameters which were examined, such as: body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters or lesions microscopic were noted. Biodistribution results indicated high physiological tracer uptake in kidney, liver and heart 30 min after injection. Lower activities were recorded in other organs/tissues: pancreas, intestine, spleen, bone, bladder, muscle, brain and blood. Initial preclinical investigations showed no toxic effects of 18 FCH at investigated doses and a biodistribution profile very similar to other reports in literature. This information is essential to support future human trials. (author)

  6. Effect of the angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of furosemide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Schuehly, Uwe; Pal, Parasar; Chen, Fabian; Zhou, Wei; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2018-01-01

    Aims Sacubitril/valsartan is indicated for the treatment of heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Furosemide, a loop diuretic commonly used for the treatment of HFrEF, may be coadministered with sacubitril/valsartan in clinical practice. The effect of sacubitril/valsartan on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of furosemide was evaluated in this open label, two‐period, single‐sequence study in healthy subjects. Methods All subjects (n = 28) received 40 mg oral single‐dose furosemide during period 1, followed by a washout of 2 days. In period 2, sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg (97/103 mg) was administered twice daily for 5 days and a single dose of 40 mg furosemide was coadministered on day 6. Serial plasma and urine samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetics of furosemide and sacubitril/valsartan and the pharmacodynamics of furosemide. The point estimates and the associated 90% confidence intervals for pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. Results Coadministration of furosemide with sacubitril/valsartan decreased the maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) [estimated geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval): 0.50 (0.44, 0.56)], area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity [0.72 (0.67, 0.77)] and 24‐h urinary excretion of furosemide [0.74 (0.69, 0.79)]. When coadministered with sacubitril/valsartan, 0–4‐h, 4–8‐h and 0–24‐h diuresis in response to furosemide was reduced by ~7%, 21% and 0.2%, respectively, while natriuresis was reduced by ~ 28.5%, 7% and 15%, respectively. Post hoc analysis of the pivotal phase III Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM‐HF) indicated that the median furosemide dose was similar at baseline and at the end of the study in the sacubitril/valsartan group. Conclusions Sacubitril/valsartan reduced plasma Cmax and AUC and 24‐h urinary excretion

  7. Dose-dependent effect of a single GnRHa injection on the spawning of meagre (Argyrosomus regius broodstock reared in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito Fernandez-Palacios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the spawning efficacy, egg quality and quantity of captive breed meagre induced with a single gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa injection of 0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 or 50 µg kg-1 to determine a recommended optimum dose to induce spawning. The doses 10, 15 and 20 μg kg-1 gave eggs with the highest quality (measured as: percentage of viability, floating, fertilisation and hatch and quantity (measured as: total number of eggs, number of viable eggs, number of floating eggs, number of hatched larvae and number of larvae that reabsorbed the yolk sac. All egg quantity parameters were described by Gaussian regression analysis with R2=0.89 or R2=0.88. The Gaussian regression analysis identified that the optimal dose used was 15 μg kg-1. The regression analysis highlighted that this comprehensive study examined doses that ranged from low doses insufficient to stimulate a high spawning response (significantly lower egg quantities, p<0.05 compared to 15 μg kg-1 through to high doses that stimulated the spawning of significantly lower egg quantities and eggs with significantly lower quality (egg viability. In addition, the latency period (time from hormone application to spawning decreased with increasing doses to give a regression (R2=0.93 which suggests that higher doses accelerated oocyte development that in turn reduced egg quality and quantity. The identification of an optimal dose for the spawning of meagre, which has high aquaculture potential, represents an important advance for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry.

  8. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of omeprazole or lansoprazole on intragastric pH in Japanese participants: a two-way crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Yasushi; Tokudome, Kentaro; Izawa, Shinya; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Iida, Akihito; Mizuno, Mari; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2013-03-01

    It is known that the pharmacokinetic profile of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after postprandial administration may differ among PPIs. The purpose of this study was to compare the inhibitory effects of gastric acid secretion by PPIs administered after a meal, based on a 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring. Ten healthy men who provided written informed consent participated in the study. They were given a 20-mg omeprazole tablet and a 30-mg lansoprazole orally dispersing tablet in a two-way crossover manner. At baseline, the anti-HP-IgG antibody levels in blood and the pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio were measured. Participants were given a standardized meal and 200 mL of water at 9:30 am, 13:30 pm, and 18.30 pm. Participants took the PPI after breakfast. Two of the ten participants tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection. The PG I/II ratio indicated negative gastric atrophy in all the participants. The percentage 24-hour intragastric pH > 4 holding times (median, range) with omeprazole and lansoprazole were 29.3, 19.3-50.0% and 27.8, 13.0-42.3%, respectively, which shows that with the administration of omeprazole, the pH was maintained at >4 for a longer period (p lansoprazole (p lansoprazole, a single postprandial dose of omeprazole showed a more rapid and sustained acid-inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Tolerance of the human spinal cord to single dose radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Zhu, G.; Yin, F.-F.; Ajlouni, M.; Kim, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance of the spinal cord to the single dose of radiation is not well defined. Although there are cases of human spinal cord tolerance from re-irradiation to the same cord level, the information about the tolerance of human spinal cord to single large dose of radiosurgery is not available. We carried out spinal radiosurgery to treat spinal metastasis and studied the single dose tolerance of the human spinal cord in an ongoing dose escalation paradigm. A total of 39 patients with 48 lesions of spinal metastasis were treated with single dose radiosurgery at Henry Ford Hospital. The radiosurgery dose was escalated from 8 Gy to 16 Gy at 2 Gy increment. The radiation dose was prescribed to periphery of the spinal tumor. The radiation dose to the spinal cord was estimated by computerized dosimetry. The median follow-up time was 10 months (range 6-18 months) from the radiosurgery. The endpoint of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the spinal radiosurgery and to determine the tolerance of human spinal cord to single dose radiosurgery. The dose to the spinal cord was generally less than 50 % of the prescribed radiation dose. The volume of the spinal cord that received higher than this dose was less than 20 % of the anterior portion of the spinal cord. Maximum single dose of 8 Gy was delivered to the anterior 20 % of the spinal cord in this dose escalation study. The dose volume histogram will be presented. There was no acute or subacute radiation toxicity detected clinically and radiologically during the maximum follow-up of 20 months. Further dose escalation is in progress. The single tolerance dose of the human spinal cord appears to be at least 8 Gy when it was given to the 20 % of the cord volume, although the duration of follow up is not long enough to detect severe late cord toxicity. This study offers a valuable radiobiological basis of the normal spinal cord tolerance, and opens spinal radiosurgery as a safe treatment for spinal metastasis

  10. Effect of single varied doses of UV-C radiation on photosynthesis, traspiration and chlorophyll content in the leaves of two varieties of faba bean and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, J.; Pszczolkowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of single, varied (75, 120 and 165 min) UV-C radiation on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves of two morphotypes of faba bean and pea was determined in a pot experiment. The SPAD leaf greenness index, which characterises the a and b chlorophyll contents (as well as changes in its content caused by radiation) were analysed. The experimental results indicated that the intensity of photosynthesis and transpiration in faba bean leaves was higher in the plants treated with the UV-C radiation. In addition, the intensity of photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content were higher in the Neptun variety than in the self-terminating faba bean variety. The Rola pea variety plants showed a significant decrease in photsynthesis intensity under radiation in the 3rd leaf phase and a slight decrease in later developmental phases. Moreover, transpiration was found to decrease at the beginning of the vegetation. In the case of the Ramrod variety, rather ambiguous results were obtained. The chlorophyll content in both pea varieties was high in the 3rd proper leaf phase and in the Rola plants it increased with increasing radiation doses in the stem extension phase

  11. [Effects of nasal provocation with a single-dose allergen on the explicit and implicit memory of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Margaréta; Csábi, Eszter; Kiricsi, Ágnes; Schultz, Rebeka; Molnár H, Andor; Rovó, László; Bella, Zsolt

    2018-01-30

    Allergy is an endemic disease and has a considerable impact on the quality of life. This study aimed to measure the effect of active allergic rhinitis on memory functions of physically active and inactive patients with ragweed allergy. Memory functions were assessed before and after allergen exposure. Participants in both groups were provoked nasally with 30 IR/mL ragweed allergen in each nostril. Explicit memory was measured with story-recalling and implicit memory was investigated with reaction time task. In neuropsychological assessments athletes performed significantly better, compared with the control group after allergen provocation in short-term and long-term memory functions. There was no difference between the groups in the implicit tasks. Athletes have achieved better results after provocation, comparing to the baseline test and the tests that measured short-term and long-term memory functions. Short-term disturbing factors, e.g. swollen nasal mucosa, sneezing, and watery eyes after provocation did have not caused deterioration in cognitive functions. A single-shot allergen in high doses have caused an increase of mental concentration, which was more pronounced in athletes.

  12. The D1 method: career dose estimation from a combination of historical monitoring data and a single year's dose data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sont, W.N.

    1995-01-01

    A method is introduced to estimate career doses from a combination of historical monitoring data and a single year's dose data. This method, called D1 eliminates the bias arising from incorporating historical dose data from times when occupational doses were generally much higher than they are today. Doses calculated by this method are still conditional on the preservation of the status quo in the effectiveness of radiation protection. The method takes into account the variation of the annual dose, and of the probability of being monitored, with the time elapsed since the start of a career. It also allows for the calculation of a standard error of the projected career dose. Results from recent Canadian dose data are presented. (author)

  13. Effect of single-dose low-level helium-neon laser irradiation on orthodontic pain: a split-mouth single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as a new analgesic treatment free of the adverse effects of analgesic medications. However, it is not studied thoroughly, and the available studies are quite controversial. Moreover, helium neon (He-Ne) laser has not been assessed before. This split-mouth placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on 16 male and 14 female orthodontic patients requiring bilateral upper canine retraction. The study was performed at a private clinic in Sari, Iran, in 2014. It was single blind: patients, orthodontist, and personnel were blinded of the allocations, but the laser operator (periodontist) was not blinded. Once canine retractor was activated, a randomly selected maxillary quarter received a single dose of He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm, 10 mw, 6 j/cm(2) density). The other quarter served as the placebo side, treated by the same device but powered off. In the first, second, fourth, and seventh days, blinded patients rated their pain sensed on each side at home using visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires. There was no harm identified during or after the study. Pain changes were analyzed using two- and one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and t-test (α = 0.01, β > 0.99). This trial was not registered. It was self-funded by the authors. Sixteen males and 11 females remained in the study (aged 12-21). Average pain scores sensed in all 4 intervals on control and laser sides were 4.06 ± 2.85 and 2.35 ± 1.77, respectively (t-test P < 0.0001). One-way ANOVA showed significant pain declines over time, in each group (P < 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effects for LLLT (P < 0.0001) and time (P = <0.0001). Single-dose He-Ne laser therapy might reduce orthodontic pain caused by retracting maxillary canines.

  14. Effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takeru; Hobo, Seiji; Endo, Yoshiro; Narita, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Koji

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate effects of a single dose of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV) on body temperature and tracheobronchial neutrophil count in healthy Thoroughbreds premedicated with interferon-α and undergoing long-distance transportation. 32 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses received interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, q 24 h) as an immunologic stimulant for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; enrofloxacin group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (50 mL, IV, once; control group) ≤ 1 hour before being transported 1,210 km via commercial vans (duration, approx 26 hours). Before and after transportation, clinical examination, measurement of temperature per rectum, and hematologic analysis were performed for all horses; a tracheobronchial aspirate was collected for neutrophil quantification in 12 horses (6/group). Horses received antimicrobial treatment after transportation if deemed necessary by the attending clinician. No adverse effects were associated with treatment. After transportation, WBC count and serum amyloid A concentration in peripheral blood samples and neutrophil counts in tracheobronchial aspirates were significantly lower in horses of the enrofloxacin group than in untreated control horses. Fever (rectal temperature, ≥ 38.5°C) after transportation was detected in 3 of 16 enrofloxacin group horses and 9 of 16 control horses; additional antimicrobial treatment was required in 2 horses in the enrofloxacin group and 7 horses in the control group. In horses premedicated with interferon-α, enrofloxacin appeared to provide better protection against fever and lower respiratory tract inflammation than did saline solution.

  15. Fast Track Liver Resection: The Effect of a Comprehensive Care Package and Analgesia with Single Dose Intrathecal Morphine with Gabapentin or Continuous Epidural Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Koea

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A comprehensive care package for patients undergoing hepatectomy was developed with the aim of minimal physiological disturbance in the peri-operative period. Peri-operative analgesia with few gastrointestinal effects and reduced requirement for intravenous (IV fluid therapy was central to this plan. Methods. Data on 100 consecutive patients managed with continuous epidural infusion (n = 50; bupivicaine 0.125% and fentanyl 2 g/mL at 0.1 mL/kg/hr or intrathecal morphine (n = 50; 300 g in combination with oral gabapentin 1200 mg preoperatively and 400 mg bd postoperatively was compared. Results. The epidural and intrathecal morphine groups were equivalent in terms of patient demographics, procedures and complications. Patients receiving intrathecal morphine received less intra-operative IV fluids (median 1500 mL versus 2200 mL, =.06, less postoperative IV fluids (median 1200 mL versus 4300 mL, =.03 than patients receiving epidural infusion. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine established a normal dietary intake sooner (16 hours versus 20 hours, =.05 and had shorter hospital stays than those managed with epidural infusions (4.7 ± 0.9 days versus 6.8 ± 1.2 days, =.02. Conclusions. Single dose intrathecal morphine is a safe and effective means of providing peri-operative analgesia. Patients managed with intrathecal morphine have reduced peri-operative physiological disturbance and return home within a few days of hepatic resection.

  16. Effect of a single dose of green tea polyphenols on the blood markers of exercise-induced oxidative stress in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasinska, Bozena; Wilczak, Jacek; Charmas, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Robert

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute ingestion of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer players exposed to intense exercise. This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 16 players during a general preparation period, when all athletes participated in a strength-training program focused on the development of strength endurance. After ingestion of a single dose of GTP (640 mg) or placebo, all athletes performed an intense muscle-endurance test consisting of 3 sets of 2 strength exercises (bench press, back squat) performed to exhaustion, with a load at 60% 1-repetition maximum and 1-min rests between sets. Blood samples were collected preexercise, 5 min after the muscle-endurance test, and after 24 hr of recovery. Blood plasma was analyzed for the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA), total catechins, total antioxidant status (TAS), and activity of creatine kinase (CK); at the same time, erythrocytes were assayed for the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In both groups, plasma TBARS, UA, and TAS increased significantly postexercise and remained elevated after a 24-hr recovery period. SOD activity in erythrocytes did not change significantly in response to the muscle-endurance test, whereas in both groups plasma CK activity increased significantly after 24 hr of recovery. Acute intake of GTP cased a slight but significant increase in total plasma catechins. However, GTP was found not to exert a significant effect on measured parameters. Acute ingestion of GTP (640 mg) does not attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage.

  17. Efficacy of various single-dose regimens of ceftriaxone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The therapeutic efficacy of single intramuscular doses of ceftriaxone (Rocephin; Roche) (62,S, 125 and 250 mg), administered without probenecid, was evaluated in 167 adult males with uncomplicated acute gonococcal urethritis. Cure rates of 100% were achieved at 62,5 mg and 250 mg. In the 125 mg dose group, ...

  18. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C. (Glasgow Univ. (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Hamlet, R.; Nias, A.H.W. (Glasgow Inst. of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology (UK))

    1983-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored.

  19. Damage to the surface of the small intestinal villus: an objective scale of assessment of the effects of single and fractionated radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, K.E.; Watt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to compare damage to mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation with different doses of photons and neutrons. Various stages of the collapse of villous structure seen after radiation include the production of conical and rudimentary villi and a flattened mucosa. A scale is proposed to relate radiation to villous damage. Points from this scale are taken to produce comparative ratios for equivalent damage produced by different radiation conditions. RBE values are quoted for neutron, X and gamma radiation given as single or fractionated irradiation doses and as whole or partial body irradiation. The relationship between the stroma in intravillous pegs and that of the pericryptal compartment is explored. (author)

  20. Single dose oral piroxicam for acute postoperative pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Loke, Yoon; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties, and is used mainly for treating rheumatic disorders. Some drugs have been directly compared against each other within a trial setting to determine their relative efficacies, whereas other have not. It is possible, however, to compare analgesics indirectly by examining the effectiveness of each drug against placebo when used in similar clinical situations. Objectives To determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose piroxicam compared with placebo in moderate to severe postoperative pain. To compare the effects of piroxicam with other analgesics. Search methods Published studies were identified from systematic searching of MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, randomised placebo controlled trial, double-blind design, adult participants, postoperative pain of moderate to severe intensity at the baseline assessment, postoperative administration of oral or intramuscular piroxicam. Data collection and analysis Summed pain intensity and pain relief data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate estimates of relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Information was collected on adverse effects and estimates of relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH) were calculated. Main results In this update no further studies were found. The original search identified three studies (141 participants) which compared oral piroxicam 20 mg with placebo and

  1. The effect of a single early high-dose vitamin D supplement on fracture union in patients with hypovitaminosis D: a prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, N; Kempton, L B; Seymour, R B; Bosse, M J; Churchill, C; Hand, K; Hsu, J R; Keil, D; Kellam, J; Rozario, N; Sims, S; Karunakar, M A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single early high-dose vitamin D supplement on fracture union in patients with hypovitaminosis D and a long bone fracture. Between July 2011 and August 2013, 113 adults with a long bone fracture were enrolled in a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Their serum vitamin D levels were measured and a total of 100 patients were found to be vitamin D deficient (vitamin D 3 orally (100 000 IU) within two weeks of injury (treatment group, n = 50) or a placebo (control group, n = 50). We recorded patient demographics, fracture location and treatment, vitamin D level, time to fracture union and complications, including vitamin D toxicity. Outcomes included union, nonunion or complication requiring an early, unplanned secondary procedure. Patients without an outcome at 15 months and no scheduled follow-up were considered lost to follow-up. The t -test and cross tabulations verified the adequacy of randomisation. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out. In all, 100 (89%) patients had hypovitaminosis D. Both treatment and control groups had similar demographics and injury characteristics. The initial median vitamin D levels were 16 ng/mL (interquartile range 5 to 28) in both groups (p = 0.885). A total of 14 patients were lost to follow-up (seven from each group), two had fixation failure (one in each group) and one control group patient developed an infection. Overall, the nonunion rate was 4% (two per group). No patient showed signs of clinical toxicity from their supplement. Despite finding a high level of hypovitaminosis D, the rate of union was high and independent of supplementation with vitamin D 3 . Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1520-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Dosimetry in Interventional Radiology - Effective Dose Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miljanic, S.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Jarvinen, H.; Nikodemova, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures can lead to significant radiation doses to patients and to staff members. In order to evaluate the personal doses with respect to the regulatory dose limits, doses measured by dosimeters have to be converted to effective doses (E). Measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) using a single unshielded dosimeter above the lead apron can lead to significant overestimation of the effective dose, while the measurement with dosimeter under the apron can lead to underestimation. To improve the accuracy, measurements with two dosimeters, one above and the other under the apron have been suggested ( d ouble dosimetry ) . The ICRP has recommended that interventional radiology departments develop a policy that staff should wear two dosimeters. The aim of this study was to review the double dosimetry algorithms for the calculation of effective dose in high dose interventional radiology procedures. The results will be used to develop general guidelines for personal dosimetry in interventional radiology procedures. This work has been carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its 6th Framework Program.(author)

  3. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigations on the antioedematous and radioprotective effect of 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in the brain of rats after single dose irradiation. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, H.J.; Sauer, R.; Lierse, W.; Lehmann, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    The disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of acid phosphatases with and without protection by 0-(β-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (HR) were studied in irradiated rat brains by means of the light microscope. The histochemically demonstrable deposition of glycogen and acid mucopolysaccarides serves as a criterion for a reversible lesion of the irradiated cerebral tissue. The extent of local activation of repair processes following to irradiation can be determined by the quantity of acid phosphatases in the lysosomes. For the dose range of 1 to 5 Gy, HR seems to exert a protective effect on the cellular metasbolism of the irradiated cerebral tissue shown by ba slight decrease of glycogen and mucopolysaccharide deposits compared to the untreated animals. However, when exceeding a threshold dose of 10 Gy, the deposition of carbohydrates in the HR group is strongly increased. A slightly increased activity of acid phosphatases induced by HR can be supposed at best for the dose range of 5 to 7.5 Gy. If the dose is even more increased, the reverse effect found in the carbohydrate metabolism, too, and an increased activation of acid phosphatases in the control group will be observed. This unexpected reversion of the protective effect could be related to the assumed inhibitory effect of HR on the ATPases and thus on the anaerobic part of glycolysis or to a breakdown of the cell interaction system of endothelial cells, glia cells, and neurons. (orig.) [de

  4. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy After a Single Dose of Dexamethasone in a Preterm Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kale

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone is widely used in preterm infants with severe pulmonary disease. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a transient side effect observed after multiple doses of dexamethasone. We report a preterm infant with myocardial hypertrophy after a single dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg used to treat laryngeal edema secondary to prolonged intubation. A benign course was observed without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and with recovery within 4 weeks. Myocardial effects of dexamethasone may be independent of dose and duration of treatment. The risk/benefit ratio must be carefully considered before using even a single dose of dexamethasone in preterm infants.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Single and Double Doses of Ivermectin versus 7-Day High Dose Albendazole for Chronic Strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Premasathian, Nalinee; Bhumimuang, Kid; Waywa, Duangdao; Nilganuwong, Surasak; Karuphong, Ekkapun; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Wanachiwanawin, Darawan; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk

    2011-01-01

    Background Strongyloidiasis, caused by an intestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, is common throughout the tropics. It remains an important health problem due to autoinfection, which may result in hyperinfection and disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially patients receiving chemotherapy or corticosteroid treatment. Ivermectin and albendazole are effective against strongyloidiasis. However, the efficacy and the most effective dosing regimen are to be determined. Methods A prospective, randomized, open study was conducted in which a 7-day course of oral albendazole 800 mg daily was compared with a single dose (200 microgram/kilogram body weight), or double doses, given 2 weeks apart, of ivermectin in Thai patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. Patients were followed-up with 2 weeks after initiation of treatment, then 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year after treatment. Combination of direct microscopic examination of fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method, and modified Koga agar plate culture were used to detect strongyloides larvae in two consecutive fecal samples in each follow-up visit. The primary endpoint was clearance of strongyloides larvae from feces after treatment and at one year follow-up. Results Ninety patients were included in the analysis (30, 31 and 29 patients in albendazole, single dose, and double doses ivermectin group, respectively). All except one patient in this study had at least one concomitant disease. Diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythrematosus, nephrotic syndrome, hematologic malignancy, solid tumor and human immunodeficiency virus infection were common concomitant diseases in these patients. The median (range) duration of follow-up were 19 (2–76) weeks in albendazole group, 39 (2–74) weeks in single dose ivermectin group, and 26 (2–74) weeks in double doses ivermectin group. Parasitological cure rate were 63.3%, 96.8% and 93.1% in albendazole, single dose oral ivermectin

  6. Single dose oral flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25

  7. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy: a review with comments on single dose therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, S H

    1992-01-01

    Most investigators agree that the adverse effects of urinary tract infections in pregnancy can be abrogated by effective early detection and treatment. However, the optimal methods for screening and treatment remain controversial. Although single-dose therapy has not been applied to pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis, most but not all studies which have compared single-dose with longer courses of beta-lactam or other antibiotics in pregnant asymptomatic bacteriuric women have shown no differences in outcome. This paper reviews recent trials of single-dose treatment of bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  8. Dose and Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor (DDREF); Der Dosis- und Dosisleistungs-Effektivitaetsfaktor (DDREF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, Joachim [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    For practical radiation protection purposes it is supposed that stochastic radiation effects a determined by a proportional dose relation (LNT). Radiobiological and radiation epidemiological studies indicated that in the low dose range a dependence on dose rates might exist. This would trigger an overestimation of radiation risks based on the LNT model. OCRP had recommended a concept to combine all effects in a single factor DDREF (dose and dose-Rate effectiveness factor). There is still too low information on cellular mechanisms of low dose irradiation including possible repair and other processes. The Strahlenschutzkommission cannot identify a sufficient scientific justification for DDREF and recommends an adaption to the actual state of science.

  9. Evaluation of the sterility of single-dose medications used in a multiple-dose fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth P; Mukherjee, Jean; Sharp, Claire R; Sinnott-Stutzman, Virginia B

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial proliferation was evaluated in single-dose medications used in a multi-dose fashion and when medications were intentionally inoculated with bacteria. Of 5 experimentally punctured medications, 1 of 75 vials (50% dextrose) became contaminated. When intentionally inoculated, hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline supported microbial growth. Based on these findings, it is recommended that hydroxyethyl starch and heparinized saline not be used in a multi-dose fashion.

  10. Plutonium dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1976-01-01

    Dose in internal exposure to Pu was investigated, and dose-effect relationship was discussed. Dose-effect relationship in internal exposure was investigated by means of two methods, which were relationship between dose and its effect (relationship between μ Ci/Kg and its effect), and exposure dose and its effects (rad-effect), and merits and demerits of two methods were mentioned. Problems in a indication method such as mean dose were discussed with respect to the dose in skeleton, the liver and the lung. Pu-induced osteosarcoma in mice rats, and beagles was described, and differences in its induction between animals were discussed. Pulmonary neoplasma induced by 239 PuO 2 inhalation in beagles was reported, and description was made as to differences in induction of lung cancer between animals when Pu was inhaled and was taken into the lung. A theoretical and experimental study of a extrapolation of the results of the animal experiment using Pu to human cases is necessary. (Serizawa, K.)

  11. Hematological changes after single large dose half-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Friedrich, S.; Jochem, I.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Koch, R.; Knorr, A.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of different peripheral blood parameters aimed at the study of side effects on the hematological cellular system following a 5 - 8 Gy single large dose half-body irradiation in 20 patients. Compared to the initial values the leukocytes between the 6. and 14., the thrombocytes between the 14. and 21. postirradiation day as well as the lymphocytes between 3 hours and 4 weeks postirradiation were significantly decreased without exhibiting complications such as hemorrhages or infections. The hemoglobin, hematocrit and reticulocyte values revealed but a slight decrease normalized within a 28 days postirradiation period. Transfusions were necessary when a tumor-caused anemia was present prior to irradiation. Changes in serum activity of aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase occured during the first hours after irradiation and were due to enzyme release from destroyed tumor cells

  12. Challenging the neuronal MIBG uptake by pharmacological intervention: effect of a single dose of oral amitriptyline on regional cardiac MIBG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estorch, Montserrat; Carrio, Ignasi; Mena, Esther; Flotats, Albert; Camacho, Valle; Fuertes, Jordi [Autonomous University of Barcelona, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Kulisewsky, Jaume [Autonomous University of Barcelona, Department of Neurology, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Narula, Jagat [Irvine College of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Imaging with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is used for the assessment of neuronal dysfunction in various cardiovascular disorders. Although valuable information is obtained by resting MIBG imaging, it is conceivable that competitive interference with the re-uptake mechanism would exaggerate MIBG defects and might unmask subclinical neuronal dysfunction. Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, have been reported to significantly increase cardiac MIBG washout and inhibit uptake into presynaptic neurons. This study was undertaken to assess whether a single oral dose of amitriptyline could influence cardiac MIBG distribution. Six patients (aged 62-81 years; four males, two females) who had demonstrated a normal cardiac MIBG scan during work-up for movement disorders were studied. The patients underwent a second {sup 123}I-MIBG study after oral administration of 25 mg amitriptyline within 1 week. Single-photon emission computed tomography images were acquired at 4 h to assess the regional distribution of MIBG, after generation of polar maps and employing a 20-segment model. Mean percentage of peak activity was calculated for each segment at rest and after amitriptyline administration. After amitriptyline administration, there was a decrease in regional MIBG uptake in 10{+-}4 segments per patient [62/120 segments (52%): 37 segments with a 5-10% decrease, 25 segments with a >10% decrease]. This change was statistically significant in lateral (P=0.003), apical (P<0.0001) and inferior (P=0.03) regions. A single oral dose of amitriptyline can induce changes in the uptake and retention of cardiac MIBG, indicating the feasibility of use of pharmacological intervention in cardiac neurotransmission imaging. (orig.)

  13. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Olga; Diaconescu, Cornelia; Roca, Antoaneta

    2001-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  14. Pharmacokinetic comparison of sustained- and immediate-release oral formulations of cilostazol in healthy Korean subjects: a randomized, open-label, 3-part, sequential, 2-period, crossover, single-dose, food-effect, and multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo

    2011-12-01

    A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P food and 23 with a high

  15. Single point estimation of phenytoin dosing: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koup, J R; Gibaldi, M; Godolphin, W

    1981-11-01

    A previously proposed method for estimation of phenytoin dosing requirement using a single serum sample obtained 24 hours after intravenous loading dose (18 mg/Kg) has been re-evaluated. Using more realistic values for the volume of distribution of phenytoin (0.4 to 1.2 L/Kg), simulations indicate that the proposed method will fail to consistently predict dosage requirements. Additional simulations indicate that two samples obtained during the 24 hour interval following the iv loading dose could be used to more reliably predict phenytoin dose requirement. Because of the nonlinear relationship which exists between phenytoin dose administration rate (RO) and the mean steady state serum concentration (CSS), small errors in prediction of the required RO result in much larger errors in CSS.

  16. The dose dependency of the over-dispersion of quartz OSL single grain dose distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The use of single grain quartz OSL dating has become widespread over the past decade, particularly with application to samples likely to have been incompletely bleached before burial. By reducing the aliquot size to a single grain the probability of identifying the grain population most likely...... to have been well-bleached at deposition is maximised and thus the accuracy with which the equivalent dose can be determined is – at least in principle – improved. However, analysis of single grain dose distributions requires knowledge of the dispersion of the well-bleached part of the dose distribution....... This can be estimated by measurement of a suitable analogue, e.g. a well-bleached aeolian sample, but this requires such an analogue to be available, and in addition the assumptions that the sample is in fact a) well-bleached, and b) has a similar dose rate heterogeneity to the fossil deposit. Finally...

  17. [The effect of the inhalation of a single atrovent dose on pulmonary ventilation function and respiratory mechanics in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenev, F F; Cherniavskaia, G M

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the action of inhalation of a single atrovent dose in 20 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis. All the patients demonstrated a considerable abatement or disappearance of dyspnea, and a reduction of the number of dry rales. The vital capacity of the lungs, the volume of forced expiration, maximal pulmonary ventilation, MOCmax, MOC50, and MOC75 substantially increased. The respiratory work diminished on the average by 32.3% primarily due to the lessening of non-elastic lung resistance. The rise of pulmonary static extensibility and reduction of pulmonary elastic propulsion were recorded. In patients with and without clinical signs of bronchospasm, the action of atrovent was identical.

  18. Measurement of the equivalent dose in quartz using a regenerative-dose single-aliquot protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Roberts, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The principles behind a regenerative-dose single-aliquot protocol are outlined. It is shown for three laboratory-bleached Australian sedimentary quartz samples that the relative change in sensitivity of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) during a repeated measurement cycle (consisting of a dose followed by a 10 s preheat at a given temperature and then a 100 s exposure to blue/green light at 125 deg. C) is very similar to that of the 110 deg. C thermoluminescence (TL) peak measured during the preheat cycle. The absolute change in the TL sensitivity with preheat temperature is different for samples containing a natural or a regenerative dose. Furthermore, the absolute change in sensitivity in both the OSL and TL signals is non-linear with regeneration cycle, but the relative change in the OSL signal compared to the following 110 deg. C TL measurement is well approximated by a straight line. Both signals are thought to use the same luminescence centres, and so some common behaviour is not unexpected. A new regenerative-dose protocol is presented which makes use of this linear relationship to correct for sensitivity changes with regeneration cycle, and requires only one aliquot for the estimation of the equivalent dose (D e ). The protocol has been applied to quartz from nine Australian sites. To illustrate the value of the regenerative-dose single-aliquot approach, the apparent values of D e for 13 samples, containing doses of between 0.01 and 100 Gy, have been measured at various preheat temperatures of between 160 and 300 deg. C, using a single aliquot for each D e measurement. Excellent agreement is found between these single-aliquot estimates of D e and those obtained from additive-dose multiple-aliquot and single-aliquot protocols, over the entire dose range

  19. Effects of formulation on the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, comparative, single-dose study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Beck, Mareike; Elliott, James; Etheve, Stephane; Roberts, Richard; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments with a protective function in the retina. These xanthophylls must be obtained from the diet or added to foods or supplements via easy-to-use, stable formulations. The technique employed to produce these formulations may affect the bioavailability of the xanthophylls. Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomized into this double-blind, cross-over study investigating the plasma kinetics of lutein provided as two different beadlet formulations. Subjects (n = 48) received a single dose of 20 mg of lutein as either a starch-matrix ("SMB", FloraGLO® Lutein 5 %) or as a cross-linked alginate-matrix beadlet ("AMB", Lyc-O-Lutein 20 %) formulation. Plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 14, 24, 26, 28, 32, 36, 48, 72, 168, and 672 h. The mean plasma AUC(0-72h), AUC(0-672h), and C(max) for total lutein and zeaxanthin and their all-E-isomers were significantly increased (p < 0.001) from pre-dose concentrations in response to SMB and AMB. There was no difference in lutein T max between the two test articles. However, by 14 h post-dose, total plasma lutein increased by 7 % with AMB and by 126 % with SMB. Total lutein AUC(0-72h) and AUC(0-672h) were 1.8-fold and 1.3-fold higher, respectively, for SMB compared to AMB. Both formulations were well tolerated by subjects in this study. These findings confirm that the bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin critically depends on the formulation used and document a superiority of the starch-based over the alginate-based product in this study.

  20. A prospective cohort study comparing the effect of single-dose 2 g metronidazole on Trichomonas vaginalis infection in HIV-seropositive versus HIV-seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Mochache, Vernon; Chohan, Vrasha; Chan, Jeannie D; Masese, Linnet; Shafi, Juma; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R Scott

    2013-06-01

    This analysis compared the frequency of persistent Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Data were obtained from women enrolled in an open cohort study of sex workers in Kenya. Participants were examined monthly, and those diagnosed as having TV by saline microscopy were treated with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole. All women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) used nevirapine-based regimens. Generalized estimating equations with a logit link were used to compare the frequency of persistent TV (defined as the presence of motile trichomonads by saline microscopy at the next examination visit within 60 days) by HIV status. Three-hundred sixty participants contributed 570 infections to the analysis (282 HIV-seropositive and 288 HIV-seronegative). There were 42 (15%) persistent infections among HIV-seropositive participants versus 35 (12%) among HIV-seronegative participants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.87). Persistent TV was highest among HIV-seropositive women using ART (21/64 [33%]) compared with HIV-seropositive women not using ART (21/217 [10%]). Concurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) at TV diagnosis was associated with an increased likelihood of persistent TV (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.09). The frequency of persistent TV infection after treatment with single-dose 2 g oral metronidazole was similar by HIV status. Alternative regimens including multiday antibiotic treatment may be necessary to improve cure rates for women using nevirapine-based ART and women with TV and concurrent BV.

  1. Efficacy of various single-dose regimens of ceftriaxone in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-18

    Aug 18, 1990 ... The therapeutic efficacy of single intramuscular doses of ceftriaxone (Rocephin; Roche) (62,S, 125 and 250 mg), admini- stered without probenecid, was evaluated in 167 adult males with uncomplicated acute gonococcal urethritis. Cure rates of 100% were achieved at 62,5 mg and 250 mg. In the 125 mg.

  2. Radiation. Doses, effect, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Todorov, P.

    1994-12-01

    This book outlines in a popular form the topic of ionizing radiation impacts on living organisms. It contains data gathered by ICRP for a period of 35 years. The essential dosimetry terms and units are presented. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are described. Possible biological radiation effects and diseases as a consequence of external and internal irradiation at normal and accidental conditions are considered. An assessment of genetic risk for human populations is presented and the concept of 'acceptable risk' is discussed

  3. A simulation study on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-cheng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Lee, Chung-chi; Shiau, Cheng-Ying

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the tissue heterogeneity on the dose distribution for a single beam of the gamma knife. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate both depth and radial profiles of the radiation dose in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms, respectively. The results are compared with the dose distribution calculated using the mathematical model of Gamma Plan, the treatment planning system of the gamma knife. The skull and sinus heterogeneity were simulated by a Teflon shell and an air shell, respectively. It was found that the tissue heterogeneity caused significant perturbation on the absolute depth dose at the focus as well as on the depth-dose distribution near the phantom surface and/or at the interface but little effect on the radial dose distribution. The effect of the beam aperture on the depth-dose distribution was also investigated in this study. (author)

  4. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of erythromycin with pantoprazole on gastric content volume and acidity in elective general surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nidhi; Palta, Sanjeev; Arora, Kanika

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents remains one of the most feared complications of anesthesia. A gastric pH of 2.5 or less and a volume of 25 ml (0.4 ml/kg body weight) or more in average adult patients are considered critical factors for the development of pulmonary damage in adults. Materials and Methods: This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of erythromycin (a macrolide antibiotic) with oral pantoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) on pre-operative gastric fluid volume and pH in a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled fashion in 80 adult patients (of ASA physical status I and II) planned for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 patients each. The pantoprazole group (Group I) received oral pantoprazole 40 mg and the erythromycin group (Group II) received oral erythromycin 250 mg at least 1 h prior to the induction of anesthesia. After tracheal intubation, gastric fluid was aspirated via a Salem Sump tube and its volume and pH were measured. Results: Although both erythromycin and pantoprazole decreased the gastric fluid volume to a similar extent, the decrease in gastric fluid acidity by pantoprazole was significantly greater than that by erythromycin. The proportion of patients at risk of pulmonary aspiration according to traditional criteria, i.e. pH ≤2.5 and volume ≥25ml, was lower in the pantoprazole group. Conclusion: Administration of pantoprazole was found to be more useful than a sub-therapeutic dose of erythromycin in decreasing both volume and acidity of gastric content. PMID:21772679

  5. Comparison of the effect of a single dose of erythromycin with pantoprazole on gastric content volume and acidity in elective general surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents remains one of the most feared complications of anesthesia. A gastric pH of 2.5 or less and a volume of 25 ml (0.4 ml/kg body weight or more in average adult patients are considered critical factors for the development of pulmonary damage in adults. Materials and Methods: This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of erythromycin (a macrolide antibiotic with oral pantoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor on pre-operative gastric fluid volume and pH in a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled fashion in 80 adult patients (of ASA physical status I and II planned for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 patients each. The pantoprazole group (Group I received oral pantoprazole 40 mg and the erythromycin group (Group II received oral erythromycin 250 mg at least 1 h prior to the induction of anesthesia. After tracheal intubation, gastric fluid was aspirated via a Salem Sump tube and its volume and pH were measured. Results: Although both erythromycin and pantoprazole decreased the gastric fluid volume to a similar extent, the decrease in gastric fluid acidity by pantoprazole was significantly greater than that by erythromycin. The proportion of patients at risk of pulmonary aspiration according to traditional criteria, i.e. pH ≤2.5 and volume ≥25ml, was lower in the pantoprazole group. Conclusion: Administration of pantoprazole was found to be more useful than a sub-therapeutic dose of erythromycin in decreasing both volume and acidity of gastric content.

  6. A single-dose, crossover, placebo- and moxifloxacin-controlled study to assess the effects of neratinib (HKI-272) on cardiac repolarization in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Bruce; Abbas, Richat; Leister, Cathie; Burns, Jaime; Sonnichsen, Daryl

    2010-08-01

    Neratinib is an orally administered, small-molecule, irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor in development for the treatment of ErbB2-positive breast cancer. This study assessed the effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic neratinib concentrations on cardiac repolarization, in accordance with current regulatory guidance. This was a two-part study in healthy subjects. In part 1, subjects were randomized to receive placebo, 400 mg moxifloxacin, or 240 mg neratinib (therapeutic dose) following a high-fat meal. In part 2, after a washout period, subjects received placebo plus 400 mg ketoconazole or 240 mg neratinib plus ketoconazole (supratherapeutic dose). ANOVA was used to compare the baseline-adjusted QTc interval for neratinib with that of placebo (reference), and for neratinib plus ketoconazole with that of placebo plus ketoconazole (reference). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses and categorical summaries of interval data were done. Assay sensitivity was evaluated by the effect of moxifloxacin on QTc compared with placebo. Sixty healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. The upper bounds of the 90% confidence interval for baseline-adjusted QTcN (population-specific corrected QT) were neratinib. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed no relationship between neratinib concentrations and QTc interval. No subjects had QTcI, QTcF, or QTcN intervals >450 milliseconds or change from baseline >30 milliseconds. Moxifloxacin produced a significant increase in QTcN compared with placebo (P neratinib do not prolong the QTc interval in healthy subjects. (c) 2010 AACR.

  7. The dose dependency of the over-dispersion of quartz OSL single grain dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Kristina J.; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    The use of single grain quartz OSL dating has become widespread over the past decade, particularly with application to samples likely to have been incompletely bleached before burial. By reducing the aliquot size to a single grain the probability of identifying the grain population most likely to have been well-bleached at deposition is maximised and thus the accuracy with which the equivalent dose can be determined is – at least in principle – improved. However, analysis of single grain dose distributions requires knowledge of the dispersion of the well-bleached part of the dose distribution. This can be estimated by measurement of a suitable analogue, e.g. a well-bleached aeolian sample, but this requires such an analogue to be available, and in addition the assumptions that the sample is in fact a) well-bleached, and b) has a similar dose rate heterogeneity to the fossil deposit. Finally, it is an implicit assumption in such analysis that any over-dispersion is not significantly dose dependent. In this study we have undertaken laboratory investigations of the dose dependency of over-dispersion using a well-bleached modern sample with an average measured dose of 36 ± 3 mGy. This sample was prepared as heated (750 °C for 1 h), bleached and untreated portions which were then given uniform gamma doses ranging from 100 mGy to 208 Gy. We show that for these samples the relative laboratory over-dispersion is not constant as a function of dose and that the over-dispersion is smaller in heated samples. We also show that the dim grains in the distributions have a greater over-dispersion than the bright grains, implying that insensitive samples will have greater values of over-dispersion than sensitive samples.

  8. Determination of organ doses and effective doses in radiooncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.; Martinez, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With an increasing chance of success in radiooncology, it is necessary to estimate the risk from radiation scatter to areas outside the target volume. The cancer risk from a radiation treatment can be estimated from the organ doses, allowing a somewhat limited effective dose to be estimated and compared. Material and Methods: The doses of the radiation-sensitive organs outside the target volume can be estimated with the aid of the PC program PERIDOSE developed by van der Giessen. The effective doses are determined according to the concept of ICRP, whereby the target volume and the associated organs related to it are not taken into consideration. Results: Organ doses outside the target volume are generally < 1% of the dose in the target volume. In some cases, however, they can be as high as 3%. The effective doses during radiotherapy are between 60 and 900 mSv, depending upon the specific target volume, the applied treatment technique, and the given dose in the ICRU point. Conclusion: For the estimation of the radiation risk, organ doses in radiooncology can be calculated with the aid of the PC program PERIDOSE. While evaluating the radiation risk after ICRP, for the calculation of the effective dose, the advanced age of many patients has to be considered to prevent that, e.g., the high gonad doses do not overestimate the effective dose. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics of Single- and Multiple-dose Buprenorphine Buccal Film in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Stephen A; Xiang, Qinfang; Finn, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Buprenorphine, a partial μ-receptor agonist, is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain, but it has low oral bioavailability. Two open-label studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of buprenorphine from buccal film formulations of buprenorphine. Both studies enrolled healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years, who received concurrent oral naltrexone to reduce adverse events (AEs); subjects with a history or evidence of substance abuse or current use of any product affecting cytochrome P450 3A4 activity were excluded. The first study (n = 25) was a 5-period crossover trial with 4 single doses (75 and 300 and 300 and 1200 μg) of 2 formulations (F14 and F24) of buccal buprenorphine (BBUP) and a 300-μg intravenous dose of buprenorphine with a 7-day washout between periods. In the second study, each subject (n = 10) received 6 doses of 4 BBUP strengths (60, 120, 180, and 240 μg BID) in a dose-escalation design. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine were assayed, and pharmacokinetics were summarized with descriptive statistics and analyzed by using a linear mixed effects model (single-dose study). AEs were recorded. In the single-dose study, the 2 formulations exhibited comparable bioavailability of 46% to 51% that was independent of dose, with a single buprenorphine peak concentration from each BBUP dose occurring at 2.5 to 3 hours. The mean buprenorphine Cmax across the doses ranged from 0.17 ng/mL for the 75-µg dose to 1.43 ng/mL for the 1200-µg dose. AUC0-∞, AUC0-last, and Cmax were proportional to the dose of BBUP administered. Cmax of norbuprenorphine after BBUP administration was approximately one tenth that of buprenorphine Cmax. In the multiple-dose study, steady state was reached within 3 days of BID dosing. There was a linear increase in exposure across the dose range from 60 to 240 μg BID. Treatment-emergent AEs in both studies were consistent with those reported with opiate administration to

  10. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  11. A single-aliquot OSL protocol using bracketing regenerative doses to accurately determine equivalent doses in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folz, Elise; Mercier, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    In most cases, sediments show inherent heterogeneity in their luminescence behaviours and bleaching histories, and identical aliquots are not available: single-aliquot determination of the equivalent dose (ED) is then the approach of choice and the advantages of using regenerative protocols are outlined. Experiments on five laboratory bleached and dosed quartz samples, following the protocol described by Murray and Roberts (1998. Measurement of the equivalent dose in quartz using a regenerative-dose single aliquot protocol. Radiation Measurements 27, 171-184), showed the hazards of using a single regeneration dose: a 10% variation in the regenerative dose yielded some equivalent dose estimates that differed from the expected value by more than 5%. A protocol is proposed that allows the use of different regenerative doses to bracket the estimated equivalent dose. The measured ED is found to be in excellent agreement with the known value when the main regeneration dose is within 10% of the true equivalent dose

  12. A single-aliquot OSL protocol using bracketing regenerative doses to accurately determine equivalent doses in quartz

    CERN Document Server

    Folz, E

    1999-01-01

    In most cases, sediments show inherent heterogeneity in their luminescence behaviours and bleaching histories, and identical aliquots are not available: single-aliquot determination of the equivalent dose (ED) is then the approach of choice and the advantages of using regenerative protocols are outlined. Experiments on five laboratory bleached and dosed quartz samples, following the protocol described by Murray and Roberts (1998. Measurement of the equivalent dose in quartz using a regenerative-dose single aliquot protocol. Radiation Measurements 27, 171-184), showed the hazards of using a single regeneration dose: a 10% variation in the regenerative dose yielded some equivalent dose estimates that differed from the expected value by more than 5%. A protocol is proposed that allows the use of different regenerative doses to bracket the estimated equivalent dose. The measured ED is found to be in excellent agreement with the known value when the main regeneration dose is within 10% of the true equivalent dose.

  13. Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averbeck, D.

    1999-01-01

    This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

  14. Experimentally induced, synergistic late effects of a single dose of radiation and aging: significance in LKS fraction as compared with mature blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Isao; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Inoue, Tohru

    2015-03-01

    The number of murine mature blood cells recovered within 6 weeks after 2-Gy whole-body irradiation at 6 weeks of age, whereas in the case of the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) compartment [cells in the lineage-negative, c-kit-positive and stem-cell-antigen-1-positive (LKS) fraction], the numerical differences between mice with and without irradiation remained more than a year, but conclusively the cells showed numerical recovery. When mice were exposed to radiation at 6 months of age, acute damages of mature blood cells were rather milder probably because of their maturation with age; but again, cells in the LKS fraction were specifically damaged, and their numerical recovery was significantly delayed probably as a result of LKS-specific cellular damages. Interestingly, in contrast to the recovery of the number of cells in the LKS fraction, their quality was not recovered, which was quantitatively assessed on the basis of oxidative-stress-related fluorescence intensity. To investigate why the recovery in the number of cells in the LKS fraction was delayed, expression levels of genes related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis of cells in the bone marrow and LKS fraction were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the case of 21-month-old mice after radiation exposure, Ccnd1, PiK3r1 and Fyn were overexpressed solely in cells in the LKS fraction. Because Ccnd1and PiK3r1 upregulated by aging were further upregulated by radiation, single-dose radiation seemed to induce the acceleration of aging, which is related to the essential biological responses during aging based on a lifetime-dependent relationship between a living creature and xenobiotic materials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  16. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Coleman, Christy A; Holland, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the sustained effect (up to 1 year) of a single, 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in improving meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. The prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical trial included 200 subjects (400 eyes) who were randomized to a single VTP treatment (treatment group) or twice-daily, 3-month, conventional warm compress and eyelid hygiene therapy (control group). Control group subjects received crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover group). Effectiveness measures of meibomian gland secretion (MGS) and dry eye symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Subjects with inadequate symptom relief could receive additional meibomian gland dysfunction therapy after 3 (treatment group) and 6 months (crossover group). At 3 months, the treatment group had greater mean improvement in MGS (Pdry eye symptoms (P=0.0068), compared to controls. At 12 months, 86% of the treatment group had received only one VTP treatment, and sustained a mean improvement in MGS from 6.4±3.7 (baseline) to 17.3±9.1 (Pdry eye symptoms from 44.1±20.4 to 21.6±21.3 (Pdry eye symptoms from 49.1±21.0 to 24.0±23.2 (Pdry eye symptoms, over 12 months. A single VTP treatment provides significantly greater mean improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms as compared to a conventional, twice-daily, 3-month regimen. Early VTP intervention for meibomian gland dysfunction is associated with improved treatment outcomes.

  17. Normal tissue dose-effect models in biological dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alber, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated radiotherapy techniques like intensity modulated radiotherapy with photons and protons rely on numerical dose optimisation. The evaluation of normal tissue dose distributions that deviate significantly from the common clinical routine and also the mathematical expression of desirable properties of a dose distribution is difficult. In essence, a dose evaluation model for normal tissues has to express the tissue specific volume effect. A formalism of local dose effect measures is presented, which can be applied to serial and parallel responding tissues as well as target volumes and physical dose penalties. These models allow a transparent description of the volume effect and an efficient control over the optimum dose distribution. They can be linked to normal tissue complication probability models and the equivalent uniform dose concept. In clinical applications, they provide a means to standardize normal tissue doses in the face of inevitable anatomical differences between patients and a vastly increased freedom to shape the dose, without being overly limiting like sets of dose-volume constraints. (orig.)

  18. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval--A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täubel, Jörg; Ferber, Georg; Lorch, Ulrike; Wang, Duolao; Sust, Mariano; Camm, A John

    2015-01-01

    E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG) measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK) samples on Day 1 (dosing day). In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms) for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms) for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms) for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis. The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9) one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0) three hours after a standardised meal. EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13.

  19. Effective dose and dose to crystalline lens during angiographic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, J.

    1998-01-01

    The highest radiation doses levels received by radiologists are observed during interventional procedures. Doses to forehead and neck received by a radiologist executing angiographic examinations at the department of radiology at the academic hospital (AZ-VUB) have been measured for a group of 34 examinations. The doses to crystalline lens and the effective doses for a period of one year have been estimated. For the crystalline lens the maximum dose approaches the ICRP limit, that indicates the necessity for the radiologist to use leaded glasses. (N.C.)

  20. Developing a single-aliquot protocol for measuring equivalent dose in biogenic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, R.J.; Duller, G.A.T.; Roberts, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Exploiting biogenic carbonates as thermoluminescence dosimeters requires an understanding of trap kinetics and an appropriate sequence with which to measure equivalent dose. The trap kinetics of two high temperature peaks (peaks II and III) from calcitic snail opercula have been investigated resulting in the calculation of lifetimes of 7.4 × 10 7 and 1.4 × 10 11 years for the two peaks respectively. Two measurement sequences, based upon changes in the application and measurement of a test dose, have been applied to peaks II and III, and though both methods were equally successful in dose recovery and production of a dose response curve some differences were observed. Primarily, the use of method 1 lead to dose dependant sensitivity change implying competition effects occurring during irradiation; method 2 did not experience this phenomenon. As a consequence method 2 was chosen as the most appropriate protocol for single-aliquot dating of this material. When assessing the TL behaviour of the two peaks, peak II performed poorly in dose recovery experiments recovering a dose 60–100% larger than that applied. Disproportionate growth of peak II in response to a beta dose applied prior to measurement, compared to growth following regeneration doses indicated that peak II was not suitable for use in single-aliquot protocols. However, dose recovery results for peak III were all within errors of unity of the given dose, and peak III was therefore chosen as the most appropriate peak for TL dosimetry in these single-aliquot procedures. The lifetime of charge in peak III is sufficient to date over many millions of years, and furthermore using the chosen method 2 the dose response curve has a D 0 of 3,250 ± 163 Gy allowing dating to over 3 million years.

  1. Effect of different single-session educational modalities on improving medical students' ability to demonstrate proper pressurized metered dose inhaler technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Giulio S; Dominelli, Paolo B; Rathgeber, Steven L; Webster, Sheila B

    2012-05-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) remain important therapeutic options for obstructive lung diseases. The ability to instruct and evaluate inhaler technique is a crucial skill that all medical professionals should possess; unfortunately, many professionals lack proficiency with pMDIs. We aimed to determine if brief education interventions of differing modalities can positively affect medical students' skills over the long term. The baseline ability of medical students and first year residents to use pMDIs was scored via a 10-point scoring system. Students were randomized to receive no education, one-on-one instruction, or video instruction. Students were then retested immediately after the education and at the 3-month mark for retention of acquired skills. Video, one-on-one and the placebo groups modalities statistically improved the average medical student's score in the immediate retesting (7.5 and 7.4 vs. 4.7, p grades at the immediate recall significantly improved for both modalities. During retention testing, only video education had a statistically significant improvement in pass rate over the control group, as defined by an average score of 7 or better (8 vs. 1, p improve medical students' ability to use pMDIs in short-term testing. However, only video education retained significant improvement compared with control after 3 months. This suggests that compared with traditional one-on-one teaching, video education is an effective means of teaching medical students how to improve their pMDI technique.

  2. Vaginal bleeding following the use of a single dose of 1.5mg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Recent studies have shown that a single dose of 1.5 mg levonorgestrel is an effective and safe emergency contraceptive but detailed information on its menstrual side effects is lacking. This study assessed the vaginal bleeding patterns in healthy women who used the medication for emergency contraception.

  3. Single-shot, high-dose rabbit ATG for rejection prophylaxis after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zietse (Bob); E.P.M. van Steenberge (E. P M); C.J. Hesse (Cees); L.B. Vaessen (L.); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); W. Weimar (Willem)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the effects of a single intravenous injection of rabbit ATG (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands) in a dose of 8 mg/kg body weight administered 6 h after kidney transplantation on graft survival, rejection incidence, T-cell subsets, and cost-effectiveness. A total of 58 (37

  4. The effects of an intraperitoneal single low dose of ketamine in attenuating the postoperative skin/muscle incision and retraction-induced pain related to the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Xu, Li; Liu, Ming; Lei, Yishan; Gu, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhengliang

    2016-03-11

    Chronic postoperative pain (CPOP) is a common clinical problem which might be related to central sensitization. It has been widely accepted that NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are among the triggers of central sensitization. Ketamine is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is widely used in alleviating postoperative pain, but its effect on CPOP has been rarely reported. In the present study, the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model was used to investigate the role of NMDARs in chronic postoperative pain and the effect of an intraperitoneal single low dose ketamine (10mg/kg) of attenuating SMIR-induced CPOP. We assessed pain behaviours after a SMIR operation by paw withdrawal threshold (PWMT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWMTL). Western blotting were performed to examine the role of NMDARs in SMIR-induced CPOP and the effect of ketamine on the expression and phosphorylation of NMDARs. The SMIR operation induced long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia, and the up-regulation of phosphorylated NMDARs and total NMDARs at the spinal level. A single intraperitoneal administration of low dose ketamine (10mg/kg) during surgery alleviated pain behaviors and inhibited the up-regulation of phosphorylated NMDARs and total NMDARs. Our datas suggested that NMDARs play important roles in SMIR-induced CPOP. A single intraperitoneal low dose of ketamine could attenuate SMIR-induced CPOP, which might be associated with the inhibition of NMDARs. Our finding might provide a new, simple method of addressing CPOP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of three different doses of arginine enhanced enteral nutrition on nutritional status and outcomes in well nourished postsurgical cancer patients: a randomized single blinded prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, D A; Izaola, O; Terroba, M C; Cuellar, L; Ventosa, M; Martin, T

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high occurrence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients, using an enhanced enteral formula with three different doses of arginine could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcome, depending of arginine dose. A population of 84 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups, each one containing at less 28 patients. Group I (28 patients) received an enteral diet supplements with a low physiological dose of arginine (5.7 g per day), group II (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a medium dose of arginine (12.3 g per day) and group III (28 patients) received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous enteral formula with a high dose of arginine (18.9 g per day). The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). No differences were detected in postoperative infections complications and diarrhea. Fistula was less frequent in groups II and III than I (10.7% group I vs 3.6% group II vs 3.6% group III: p = 0.033), The length of postoperative stay had a trend to be better with high dose of arginine received (31.9 ± 17.2 days in group I vs 27.8 ± 15.2 days in group II vs 24.8 ± 18.3 days in group III: p = 0.034). Our results suggest that these patients could benefit from a high dose of arginine enhanced enteral formula to decrease length of hospital stay and fistula wound complications.

  6. Response of mouse tongue epithelium to single doses of bleomycin and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, W.; Hirler, E.; Honig, M.

    1993-01-01

    Both bleomycin (BLM) and local X-irradiation (25 kV) induce denudation in the tongue epithelium of the C3H-Neuherberg mouse in a dose-dependent manner. In the present study the effect of BLM alone and of combined single doses of drug and radiation were studied using the incidence of epithelial denudation as the end-point. In 'time-line' experiments, 8 mg/kg BLM were given before or after graded doses of X-rays. BLM treatment required a reduction of the radiation dose (ED 50 ) from 15 Gy to 5-7 Gy, independent of sequence or time interval. In contrast, the time course of the response was clearly dependent on the treatment interval. Latency decreased when the drug was injected less than 2 h before irradiation with minimum latency observed at 30 min. Isobologram analysis of experiments with varying combinations of X-rays and BLM demonstrated that small drug doses were relatively more effective than larger doses, suggesting an upward concavity of the BLM dose-effective curve in vivo, i.e. a 'negative shoulder' of the curve in the low dose region. In contrast to the response to X-rays alone, which has a constant latent time to ulcer of 10 days, the latency in combined treatment was clearly shortened with increasing drug dose and at high doses eventually approximated the epithelial turnover time of 5 days. The data suggest that BLM both as a single agent and in combination with X-rays reduced the probability of abortive divisions and through this effect shortened the latent time to epithelial denudation. (author)

  7. Notes on the effect of dose uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The apparent dose-response relationship between amount of exposure to acute radiation and level of mortality in humans is affected by uncertainties in the dose values. It is apparent that one of the greatest concerns regarding the human data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the unexpectedly shallow slope of the dose response curve. This may be partially explained by uncertainty in the dose estimates. Some potential effects of dose uncertainty on the apparent dose-response relationship are demonstrated

  8. Control of hypertension with single daily doses of sotalol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R

    A study was carried out in 12 previously untreated hypertensive patients to assess the efficacy of sotalol given in a once-daily dosage regimen. After an initial dosage titration period (mean 3 weeks) during which diastolic pressure was stabilized at less than 100 mmHg, all patients were satisfactorily maintained on a constant once-daily dose of sotalol for 3 months. Eight of the 12 patients required 320 mg or less daily (mean dose 190 mg). Whilst blood pressure remained controlled for at least 26 hours after daily doses the pulse rate, counted at the same time, showed escape from beta-blockade. Side-effects (vivid dreams) were reported in only 1 patient.

  9. Randomized controlled trial comparing different single doses of intravenous paracetamol for placement of peripherally inserted central catheters in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.E. Roofthooft (Daniella); S.H. Simons (Sinno); R.A. Lingen (Richard); D. Tibboel (Dick); J.N. van den Anker (John); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); M. van Dijk (Monique)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ The availability of a safe and effective pharmacological therapy to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants is limited. The effective analgesic single dose of intravenous paracetamol in preterm infants is unknown. Comparative studies on efficacy of different

  10. Single-Dose Lignocaine-Based Blood Cardioplegia in Single Valve Replacement Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Ramani

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: Myocardial protection is the most important in cardiac surgery. We compared our modified single-dose long-acting lignocaine-based blood cardioplegia with short-acting St Thomas 1 blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing single valve replacement. METHODS: A total of 110 patients who underwent single (aortic or mitral valve replacement surgery were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups based on the cardioplegia solution used. In group 1 (56 patients, long-acting lignocaine based-blood cardioplegia solution was administered as a single dose while in group 2 (54 patients, standard St Thomas IB (short-acting blood-based cardioplegia solution was administered and repeated every 20 minutes. All the patients were compared for preoperative baseline parameters, intraoperative and all the postoperative parameters. RESULTS: We did not find any statistically significant difference in preoperative baseline parameters. Cardiopulmonary bypass time were 73.8±16.5 and 76.4±16.9 minutes (P=0.43 and cross clamp time were 58.9±10.3 and 66.3±11.2 minutes (P=0.23 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean of maximum inotrope score was 6.3±2.52 and 6.1±2.13 (P=0.65 in group 1 and group 2, respectively. We also did not find any statistically significant difference in creatine-phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB, Troponin-I levels, lactate level and cardiac functions postoperatively. CONCLUSION: This study proves the safety and efficacy of long-acting lignocaine-based single-dose blood cardioplegia compared to the standard short-acting multi-dose blood cardioplegia in patients requiring the single valve replacement. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish this non-inferiority in situations of complex cardiac procedures especially in compromised patients.

  11. Single and 30 fraction tumor control doses correlate in xenografted tumor models: implications for predictive assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerweck, Leo E.; Dubois, Willum; Baumann, Michael; Suit, Herman D.

    1995-01-01

    , the rank-order correlation coefficient between the single dose hypoxic versus fractionated dose TCD50s under hypoxic or aerobic conditions was 1.0. For all 5 tumors examined, a trend for rank correlation was observed between the single dose and the fractionated dose TCD50s performed under normal or clamp hypoxic conditions (r=0.7, p=0.16 in both cases). The linear correlation coefficients were 0.83, p=0.08 and 0.72, p=0.17, respectively. Failure to attain a rank correlation of 1.0 was due to one tumor exhibiting an insignificant fractionation effect. The rank correlation between the TCD50s for fractionated treatments under normal versus the extrapolated TCD50s under clamp hypoxic conditions was 1.00; the linear correlation coefficient was 0.97 (p=0.01). Conclusions: In the tumor models examined, factors controlling the single fraction tumor control dose, also impact the response to fractionated treatments. These results suggest that laboratory estimates of intrinsic radiosensitivity and tumor clonogen number at the onset of treatment, will be of use in predicting radiocurability for fractionated treatments, as has been observed for single dose treatments

  12. Single-dose monomeric HA subunit vaccine generates full protection from influenza challenge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mallajosyula, JK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 50% survival, or 100% survival with adjuvant, compared with 10% survival after vaccination with a commercially available H 1 N 1 vaccine. TMV-HA is an effective dose-sparing influenza vaccine, using a single-step process to rapidly generate large...

  13. SINGLE-DOSE VERSUS 3-DAY PROPHYLAXIS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN IN TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY - A CLINICAL-TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJL, W; JANKNEGT, RA

    1993-01-01

    in 235 patients who underwent transurethral surgery, perioperative oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was given as a single dose 500 mg versus a 3-day regimen. Out of 180 evaluable patients, 84 received a single dose and 96 received a 3-day course. In the single dose prophylaxis group there were 5

  14. Gamma dose rate effect on JFET transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, J.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Gamma dose rate on JFET transistors is presented. The irradiation was accomplished at the following available dose rates: 1, 2.38, 5, 10 , 17 and 19 kGy/h at a constant dose of 600 kGy. A non proportional relationship between the noise and dose rate in the medium range (between 2.38 and 5 kGy/h) was observed. While in the low and high ranges, the noise was proportional to the dose rate as the case of the dose effect. This may be explained as follows: the obtained result is considered as the yield of a competition between many reactions and events which are dependent on the dose rate. At a given values of that events parameters, a proportional or a non proportional dose rate effects are generated. No dependence effects between the dose rate and thermal annealing recovery after irradiation was observed . (author)

  15. Single-dose Rituximab Therapy for Refractory Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Single-center Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuno, Takayuki; Ozaki, Takenori; Kim, Hangsoo; Kato, Noritoshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Akiyama, Shinichi; Ishimoto, Takuji; Kosugi, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Ito, Yasuhiko; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2017-01-01

    To date, a recognized treatment for refractory membranous nephropathy (MN) has not been established. Recently, several reports have indicated the efficacy of rituximab as a novel treatment option. However, only a few published accounts exist of rituximab therapy for idiopathic MN (IMN) in the Asian population. We present the cases of three IMN patients who were treated with single-dose rituximab after they showed no response to conventional therapies, including corticosteroids, cyclosporine, ...

  16. Single dose pharmacokinetics of fenspiride hydrochloride: phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, B; Catalan, M; Roces, A; Jeanniot, J P; Honorato, J M

    1993-01-01

    The absolute bioavailability of fenspiride has been studied in twelve healthy volunteers. It was administered IV and orally in single doses of 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride according to a randomised crossover pattern. Following IV administration, the plasma clearance of fenspiride was about 184 ml.min-1, and its apparent volume of distribution was moderately large (215 l). When given orally as a tablet, fenspiride exhibited fairly slow ab- sorption; the maximum plasma concentration (206 ng.ml-1) was achieved 6 h after administration. The absolute bioavailability was almost complete (90%). The tablet had slow release characteristics. The elimination half-life obtained from the plasma data was 14 to 16 h independent of the route of administration.

  17. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  18. Late effects of low doses and dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper outlines the spectrum of problems and approaches used in work on the derivation of quantitative prognoses of late effects in man of low doses and dose rates. The origins of principal problems encountered in radiation risks assessments, definitions and explanations of useful quantities, methods of deriving risk factors from biological and epidemiological data, and concepts of risk evaluation and problems of acceptance are individually discussed

  19. Effects of low doses; Effet des faibles doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-LAM-SCAST), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  20. The relative biological effectiveness of out-of-field dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderson, Michael; Koger, Brandon; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: using simulations and models derived from existing literature, this work investigates relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for out-of-field radiation and attempts to quantify the relative magnitudes of different contributing phenomena (spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects). Specific attention is paid to external beam radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: using different biological models that account for spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects, the RBE was calculated for different points moving radially out from isocentre for a typical single arc VMAT prostate case. The RBE was found by taking the ratio of the equivalent dose with the physical dose. Equivalent doses were calculated by determining what physical dose would be necessary to produce the same overall biological effect as that predicted using the different biological models. Results: spectral effects changed the RBE out-of-field less than 2%, whereas response models incorporating low dose hypersensitivity and bystander effects resulted in a much more profound change of the RBE for out-of-field doses. The bystander effect had the largest RBE for points located just outside the edge of the primary radiation beam in the cranial caudal (z-direction) compared to low dose hypersensitivity and spectral effects. In the coplanar direction, bystander effect played the largest role in enhancing the RBE for points up to 8.75 cm from isocentre. Conclusions: spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects can all increase the RBE for out-of-field radiation doses. In most cases, bystander effects seem to play the largest role followed by low dose hypersensitivity. Spectral effects were unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Bystander, low dose hypersensitivity, and spectral effect increased the RBE much more in the cranial caudal direction (z-direction) compared with the coplanar directions. (paper)

  1. Radiation dose in cardiac SPECT/CT: An estimation of SSDE and effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, Hamid; Shiri, Isaac; Salimi, Yazdan; Sarebani, Maghsoud; Mehdinia, Reza; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Mahdavi, Seied Rabi; Sohrabi, Ahmad; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The dose levels for Computed Tomography (CT) localization and attenuation correction of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are limited and reported as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose-Length Product (DLP). This work presents CT dose estimation from Cardiac SPECT/CT based on new American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Size Specific Dose Estimation (SSDE) parameter, effective dose, organ doses and also emission dose from nuclear issue. Material and methods: Myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT for 509 patients was included in the study. SSDE, effective dose and organ dose were calculated using AAPM guideline and Impact-Dose software. Data were analyzed using R and SPSS statistical software. Spearman-Pearson correlation test and linear regression models were used for finding correlations and relationships among parameters. Results: The mean CTDIvol was 1.34 mGy ± 0.19 and the mean SSDE was 1.7 mGy ± 0.16. The mean ± SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5 ± 1.4, 0.49 ± 0.11 and 12.67 ± 1.73 (mSv) respectively. The mean ± SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5 ± 1.4, 0.49 ± 0.11 and 12.67 ± 1.73 (mSv) respectively. The spearman test showed that correlation between body size and organ doses is significant except thyroid and red bone marrow. CTDIvol was strongly dependent on patient size, but SSDE was not. Emission dose was strongly dependent on patient weight, but its dependency was lower to effective diameter. Conclusion: The dose parameters including CTDIvol, DLP, SSDE, effective dose values reported here are very low and below the reference level. This data suggest that appropriate CT acquisition parameters in SPECT/CT localization and attenuation correction are very beneficial for patients and lowering cancer risks.

  2. Radiation dose in cardiac SPECT/CT: An estimation of SSDE and effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: Hamid_rbp@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiri, Isaac [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Yazdan [Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarebani, Maghsoud; Mehdinia, Reza [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Deevband, Mohammad Reza [Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seied Rabi [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Radiation Biology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabi, Ahmad [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad, E-mail: bitarafan@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rajaei Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Aims: The dose levels for Computed Tomography (CT) localization and attenuation correction of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) are limited and reported as Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and Dose-Length Product (DLP). This work presents CT dose estimation from Cardiac SPECT/CT based on new American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Size Specific Dose Estimation (SSDE) parameter, effective dose, organ doses and also emission dose from nuclear issue. Material and methods: Myocardial perfusion SPECT/CT for 509 patients was included in the study. SSDE, effective dose and organ dose were calculated using AAPM guideline and Impact-Dose software. Data were analyzed using R and SPSS statistical software. Spearman-Pearson correlation test and linear regression models were used for finding correlations and relationships among parameters. Results: The mean CTDIvol was 1.34 mGy ± 0.19 and the mean SSDE was 1.7 mGy ± 0.16. The mean ± SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5 ± 1.4, 0.49 ± 0.11 and 12.67 ± 1.73 (mSv) respectively. The mean ± SD of effective dose from emission, CT and total dose were 11.5 ± 1.4, 0.49 ± 0.11 and 12.67 ± 1.73 (mSv) respectively. The spearman test showed that correlation between body size and organ doses is significant except thyroid and red bone marrow. CTDIvol was strongly dependent on patient size, but SSDE was not. Emission dose was strongly dependent on patient weight, but its dependency was lower to effective diameter. Conclusion: The dose parameters including CTDIvol, DLP, SSDE, effective dose values reported here are very low and below the reference level. This data suggest that appropriate CT acquisition parameters in SPECT/CT localization and attenuation correction are very beneficial for patients and lowering cancer risks.

  3. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  4. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  5. Effect of a single prophylactic preoperative oral antibiotic dose on surgical site infection following complex dermatological procedures on the nose and ear: a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Helena; Heal, Clare F; Buttner, Petra G

    2018-04-19

    There is limited published research studying the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) in dermatological surgery, and there is no consensus for its use in higher-risk cases. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a single oral preoperative 2 g dose of cephalexin in preventing SSI following flap and graft dermatological closures on the nose and ear. Prospective double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial testing for difference in infection rates. Primary care skin cancer clinics in North Queensland, Australia, were randomised to 2 g oral cephalexin or placebo 40-60 min prior to skin incision. 154 consecutive eligible patients booked for flap or graft closure following skin cancer excision on the ear and nose. 2 g dose of cephalexin administered 40-60 min prior to surgery. Overall 8/69 (11.6%) controls and 1/73 (1.4%) in the intervention group developed SSI (p=0.015; absolute SSI reduction 10.2%; number needed to treat (NNT) for benefit 9.8, 95% CI 5.5 to 45.5). In males, 7/44 controls and 0/33 in the intervention group developed SSI (p=0.018; absolute SSI reduction 15.9%; NNT for benefit 6.3, 95% CI 3.8 to 19.2). SSI was much lower in female controls (1/25) and antibiotic prophylaxis did not further reduce this (p=1.0). There was no difference between the study groups in adverse symptoms attributable to high-dose antibiotic administration (p=0.871). A single oral 2 g dose of cephalexin given before complex skin closure on the nose and ear reduced SSI. ANZCTR 365115; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Dose performance and image quality: Dual source CT versus single source CT in cardiac CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Min; Qi Hengtao; Wang Ximing; Wang Tao; Chen, Jiu-Hong; Liu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dose performance and image quality of 64-slice dual source CT (DSCT) in comparison to 64-slice single source CT (SSCT) in cardiac CT angiography (CTA). Methods: 100 patients examined by DSCT and 60 patients scanned by SSCT were included in this study. Objective indices such as image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio were analyzed. Subjective image quality was assessed by two cardiovascular radiologists in consensus using a four-point scale (1 = excellent to 4 = not acceptable). Estimation of effective dose was performed on the basis of dose length product (DLP). Results: At low heart rates ( 0.05), but, at high heart rates (>70 bpm), DSCT provided robust image quality (P 70 bpm), DSCT is able to provide robust diagnostic image quality at doses far below that of SSCT.

  7. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of low-dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Booz, J.; Muehlensiepen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The question of health effects from small radiation doses remains open. Individual cells, when being hit by single elemental doses - in low-dose irradiation - react acutely and temporarily by altering control of enzyme activity, as is demonstrated for the case of thymidine kinase. This response is not constant in that it provides a temporary protection of enzyme activity against a second irradiation, by a mechanism likely to be via improved detoxification of intracellular radicals. It must be considered that in the low-dose region radiation may also exert protection against other challenges involving radicals, causing a net beneficial effect by temporarily shielding the hit cell against radicals produced by metabolism. Since molecular alterations leading to late effects are considered a consequence of the initial cellular response, late effects from small radiation doses do not necessarily adhere to a linear dose-effect relationship. The reality of the linear relationship between the risk of late effects from high doses to small doses is an assumption, for setting dose limits, but it must not be taken for predicting health detriment from low doses. (author)

  8. Single-dose radiation therapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, W.L.; Lo, T.C.; Covall, D.J.; Pfeifer, B.A.; Wasilewski, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Single-dose radiation therapy was prospectively evaluated for its efficacy in prevention of heterotopic ossification in patients at high risk after total hip arthroplasty. Thirty-one patients (34 hips) were treated between 1981 and 1988. Risk factors for inclusion in the protocol included prior evidence of heterotopic ossification, ankylosing spondylitis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Patients with hypertrophic osteoarthritis or traumatic arthritis with osteophytes were not included. Operations on 34 hips included 19 primary total and 11 revision total hip arthroplasties and 4 excisions of heterotopic ossification. All patients received radiotherapy to the hip after operation with a single dose of 700 centigray. Radiotherapy is recommended on the first postoperative day. After this single-dose radiation treatment, no patient had clinically significant heterotopic ossification. Recurrent disease developed in two hips (6%), as seen on radiography (grades 2 and 3). This series documents a 100% clinical success rate and a 94% radiographic success rate in preventing heterotopic ossification in patients at high risk after total hip arthroplasty. Single-dose radiotherapy is as effective as other radiation protocols in preventing heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. It is less expensive and easier to administer than multidose radiotherapy

  9. Bayesian estimation of dose rate effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.J.; Groer, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    A Bayesian statistical method was used to quantify the effectiveness of high dose rate 137 Cs gamma radiation at inducing fatal mammary tumours and increasing the overall mortality rate in BALB/c female mice. The Bayesian approach considers both the temporal and dose dependence of radiation carcinogenesis and total mortality. This paper provides the first direct estimation of dose rate effectiveness using Bayesian statistics. This statistical approach provides a quantitative description of the uncertainty of the factor characterising the dose rate in terms of a probability density function. The results show that a fixed dose from 137 Cs gamma radiation delivered at a high dose rate is more effective at inducing fatal mammary tumours and increasing the overall mortality rate in BALB/c female mice than the same dose delivered at a low dose rate. (author)

  10. Single high dose intraoperative electrons for advanced stage pancreatic cancer: Phase I pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldson, A.L.; Ashaveri, E.; Espinoza, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Phase I toxicity studies with intraoperative radiotherapy proved to be a feasible adjunct to surgery for unresectable malignancies of the pancreas at Howard University Hospital. There have been minimal side effects or complications related to the combination of limited surgical decompression and intraoperative radiotherapy alone. The toxic effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on normal tissues is being assessed on a dose volume basis. Doses of 2000 to 2500 rad in a single exposure to include the pancreas, regional nodes and duodenum are acceptable if the total treatment volume is less than or equal to 100 cm. The tumoricidal effects on the cancer are demonstratable when one reviews the pathological specimens that illustrate massive tumor necrosis and fibros replacement, but in all cases reviewed, viable cancer was noted. Intraoperative radiotherapy, therefore, represents a significant boost dose for resectable, partially resectable or non-resectable tumors when added to conventional external beam irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Preliminary clinical data and minimal toxicity justifies further investigation

  11. Effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  12. A single 2 g oral dose of extended-release azithromycin for treatment of gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin; Kido, Akira; Hamano, Kiminari; Uchijima, Yutaka; Uwatoko, Noriyasu; Kusuyama, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Akiko; Miyamura, Ryuzou; Miyata, Kazutoyo; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    We treated gonococcal urethritis in men with a single 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release formulation (azithromycin-SR) to determine its microbiological outcomes and tolerability. We enrolled 189 Japanese men with gonococcal urethritis between April 2009 and December 2013. The patients were given a single 2 g dose of azithromycin-SR. Microbiological efficacy was evaluated by the results of the post-treatment molecular testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. MIC testing was performed only for pretreatment isolates of N. gonorrhoeae collected from the patients. We evaluated 130 patients for microbiological outcomes. Of these patients, 122 (93.8%) were judged to be microbiologically cured on the basis of negative test results. All isolates for which the azithromycin MICs were ≤0.25 mg/L were eradicated, whereas 5 of 12 isolates for which the MICs were 1 mg/L persisted after the treatment. Forty-six adverse events occurred in 41 patients. However, all adverse events were classified as mild. The eradication rate of N. gonorrhoeae was 93.8% in men with gonococcal urethritis treated with a single 2 g dose of azithromycin-SR. The breakpoint MIC of a 2 g dose of azithromycin-SR for gonococcal urethritis associated with clinical treatment failures appeared to be 1 mg/L. With regard to side effects of higher doses of azithromycin, the 2 g dose of azithromycin-SR appeared to improve tolerability. However, the widespread use of a high-dose regimen of azithromycin might lead to the development of further resistance to azithromycin. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Feasibility of optimizing the dose distribution in lung tumors using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography guided dose prescriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Miften, M.M.; Zhou, S.; Bell, M.; Munley, M.T.; Whiddon, C.S.; Craciunescu, O.; Baydush, A.H.; Wong, T.; Rosenman, J.G.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Marks, L.B.

    2004-01-01

    The information provided by functional images may be used to guide radiotherapy planning by identifying regions that require higher radiation dose. In this work we investigate the dosimetric feasibility of delivering dose to lung tumors in proportion to the fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose activity distribution from positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The rationale for delivering dose in proportion to the tumor FDG-PET activity distribution is based on studies showing that FDG uptake is correlated to tumor cell proliferation rate, which is shown to imply that this dose delivery strategy is theoretically capable of providing the same duration of local control at all voxels in tumor. Target dose delivery was constrained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) maps of normal lung perfusion, which restricted irradiation of highly perfused lung and imposed dose-function constraints. Dose-volume constraints were imposed on all other critical structures. All dose-volume/function constraints were considered to be soft, i.e., critical structure doses corresponding to volume/function constraint levels were minimized while satisfying the target prescription, thus permitting critical structure doses to minimally exceed dose constraint levels. An intensity modulation optimization methodology was developed to deliver this radiation, and applied to two lung cancer patients. Dosimetric feasibility was assessed by comparing spatially normalized dose-volume histograms from the nonuniform dose prescription (FDG-PET proportional) to those from a uniform dose prescription with equivalent tumor integral dose. In both patients, the optimization was capable of delivering the nonuniform target prescription with the same ease as the uniform target prescription, despite SPECT restrictions that effectively diverted dose from high to low perfused normal lung. In one patient, both prescriptions incurred similar critical structure dosages, below dose-volume/function limits

  14. SU-D-207A-07: The Effects of Inter-Cycle Respiratory Motion Variation On Dose Accumulation in Single Fraction MR-Guided SBRT Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemkens, B; Glitzner, M; Kontaxis, C; Prins, F; Crijns, SPM; Kerkmeijer, L; Lagendijk, J; Berg, CAT van den; Tijssen, RHN [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Denis de Senneville, B [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); IMB, UMR 5251 CNRS/University of Bordeaux (France)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the dose deposition in simulated single-fraction MR-Linac treatments of renal cell carcinoma, when inter-cycle respiratory motion variation is taken into account using online MRI. Methods: Three motion characterization methods, with increasing complexity, were compared to evaluate the effect of inter-cycle motion variation and drifts on the accumulated dose for an SBRT kidney MR-Linac treatment: 1) STATIC, in which static anatomy was assumed, 2) AVG-RESP, in which 4D-MRI phase-volumes were time-weighted, based on the respiratory phase and 3) PCA, in which 3D volumes were generated using a PCA-model, enabling the detection of inter-cycle variations and drifts. An experimental ITV-based kidney treatment was simulated in a 1.5T magnetic field on three volunteer datasets. For each volunteer a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI (ten respiratory phases) and fast 2D cine-MR images (temporal resolution = 476ms) were acquired to simulate MR-imaging during radiation. For each method, the high spatio-temporal resolution 3D volumes were non-rigidly registered to obtain deformation vector fields (DVFs). Using the DVFs, pseudo-CTs (generated from the 4D-MRI) were deformed and the dose was accumulated for the entire treatment. The accuracies of all methods were independently determined using an additional, orthogonal 2D-MRI slice. Results: Motion was most accurately estimated using the PCA method, which correctly estimated drifts and inter-cycle variations (RMSE=3.2, 2.2, 1.1mm on average for STATIC, AVG-RESP and PCA, compared to the 2DMRI slice). Dose-volume parameters on the ITV showed moderate changes (D99=35.2, 32.5, 33.8Gy for STATIC, AVG-RESP and PCA). AVG-RESP showed distinct hot/cold spots outside the ITV margin, which were more distributed for the PCA scenario, since inter-cycle variations were not modeled by the AVG-RESP method. Conclusion: Dose differences were observed when inter-cycle variations were taken into account. The increased inter

  15. The age-dependent effects of a single-dose methylphenidate challenge on cerebral perfusion in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Mutsaerts, H.J.M.M.; Bouziane, C.; Tamminga, H.G.H.; Bottelier, M.A.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant drug and an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Pre-clinical studies suggest that the response to stimulants is dependent on age, which may reflect the ontogeny of the dopamine (DA) system, which

  16. Organ or tissue doses, effective dose and collective effective dose from X-ray diagnosis, in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Noda, Yutaka; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo.

    1996-01-01

    Effective doses and collective effective doses from X-ray diagnostic examinations were calculated on the basis of the frequency of examinations estimated by a nationwide survey and the organ or tissue doses experimentally determined. The average organ or tissue doses were determined with thermoluminescence dosimeters put at various sites of organs or tissues in an adult and a child phantom. Effective doses (effective dose equivalents) were calculated as the sum of the weighted equivalent doses in all the organs or tissues of the body. As the examples of results, the effective doses per radiographic examination were approximately 7 mGy for male, and 9 mGy for female angiocardiography, and about 3 mGy for barium meal. Annual collective effective dose from X-ray diagnostic examinations in 1986 were about 104 x 10 3 person Sv from radiography and 118 x 10 3 person Sv from fluoroscopy, with the total of 222 x 10 3 person Sv. (author)

  17. Estimating skin sensitization potency from a single dose LLNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W

    2015-04-01

    Skin sensitization is an important aspect of safety assessment. The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) developed in the 1990 s is an in vivo test used for skin sensitization hazard identification and characterization. More recently a reduced version of the LLNA (rLLNA) has been developed as a means of identifying, but not quantifying, sensitization hazard. The work presented here is aimed at enabling rLLNA data to be used to give quantitative potency information that can be used, inter alia, in modeling and read-across approaches to non-animal based potency estimation. A probit function has been derived enabling estimation of EC3 from a single dose. This has led to development of a modified version of the rLLNA, whereby as a general principle the SI value at 10%, or at a lower concentration if 10% is not testable, is used to calculate the EC3. This version of the rLLNA has been evaluated against a selection of chemicals for which full LLNA data are available, and has been shown to give EC3 values in good agreement with those derived from the full LLNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serial Myocardial Imaging after a Single Dose of Thallium-201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Kamata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although thallium-201 exercise scintigraphy has been established for the detection of myocardial ischemia and viability, little is known regarding the myocardial thallium-201 kinetics during angioplasty. Herein, we report a 77-year old man with angina pectoris, in whom serial myocardial imaging after a single dose of thallium-201 was helpful in identifying not only the culprit lesion and myocardial viability, but also the dynamic changes in myocardial perfusion during angioplasty. Thallium-201 images after exercise showed a perfusion defect in the inferior wall, with a trivial redistribution 3 hours after the exercise and a marked improvement 24 hours later. Coronary angiography, performed 27 hours after exercise scintigraphy, showed severe stenosis in the right coronary artery. Guidewire crossing of the lesion interrupted the antegrade flow, which was restored after balloon dilation and stent implantation. Thallium-201 images, 2 hours after angioplasty (i.e., 30 hours after exercise, showed a decreased tracer uptake in the inferior wall, which improved the next day (i.e., 48 hours after exercise. Cardiac biomarkers were negative in the clinical course.

  19. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  20. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is reabsorbed...

  1. Universal Survival Curve and Single Fraction Equivalent Dose: Useful Tools in Understanding Potency of Ablative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Clint; Papiez, Lech; Zhang Shichuan; Story, Michael; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Overprediction of the potency and toxicity of high-dose ablative radiotherapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by the linear quadratic (LQ) model led to many clinicians' hesitating to adopt this efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to offer an alternative method of analyzing the effect of SBRT by constructing a universal survival curve (USC) that provides superior approximation of the experimentally measured survival curves in the ablative, high-dose range without losing the strengths of the LQ model around the shoulder. Methods and Materials: The USC was constructed by hybridizing two classic radiobiologic models: the LQ model and the multitarget model. We have assumed that the LQ model gives a good description for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) for the dose to the shoulder. For ablative doses beyond the shoulder, the survival curve is better described as a straight line as predicted by the multitarget model. The USC smoothly interpolates from a parabola predicted by the LQ model to the terminal asymptote of the multitarget model in the high-dose region. From the USC, we derived two equivalence functions, the biologically effective dose and the single fraction equivalent dose for both CFRT and SBRT. Results: The validity of the USC was tested by using previously published parameters of the LQ and multitarget models for non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. A comparison of the goodness-of-fit of the LQ and USC models was made to a high-dose survival curve of the H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Conclusion: The USC can be used to compare the dose fractionation schemes of both CFRT and SBRT. The USC provides an empirically and a clinically well-justified rationale for SBRT while preserving the strengths of the LQ model for CFRT

  2. Cytogenetic effects of low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, P.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on chromosomes have been known for several decades and dose-effect relationships are also fairly well established in the mid- and high-dose and dose-rate range for chromosomes of mammalian cells. In the range of low doses and dose rates of different types of radiation few data are available for direct analysis of the dose-effect relationships, and extrapolation from high to low doses is still the unavoidable approach in many cases of interest for risk assessment. A review is presented of the data actually available and of the attempts that have been made to obtain possible generalizations. Attention is focused on some specific chromosomal anomalies experimentally induced by radiation (such as reciprocal translocations and aneuploidies in germinal cells) and on their relevance for the human situation. (author)

  3. Effect of combination vitamin E and single long-acting progesterone dose on enhancing pregnancy outcomes in the first two parities of young rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Anas A; Gomaa, Yasmin A

    2014-11-10

    Vitamin E (Vit. E) is needed for young rabbits to prevent reproductive abnormalities, abortion and poor survivability of kits. Also, exogenous progesterone (P4) is needed for rabbits to enhance early embryonic development because of inadequate corpus luteum (CL) development at this age. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of injecting Vit. E and the combination Vit. E+P4 in young does on live body weight (LBW) gain, gestation length (GL), numbers of services/conception (NS), conception rate (CR), abortion rate (AR), litter size (LS), kit weight (KW), total litter weight (TLW), mortality rate (MR) and progesterone (P4) concentration. The group treated with Vit. E+P4 had a greater LBW gain and lesser AR at first and second pregnancy. Treatments did not have significant impact on GL and LS in the first two parities. Treatments resulted in a significantly lesser MR and greater TLW at the second parity. The Vit. E+P4 treatment resulted in a significantly lesser NS at the first parity, while Vit. E alone resulted in a significant reduction in NS at the second parity. Vit. E+P4 had a positive effect on CR at the first parity compared with controls. Vit. E alone increased CR at the second parity compared with that of the control group. The mean P4 concentration from mating to mid-pregnancy at first parity was significantly greater in the Vit. E+P4 than Vit. E and control groups. In conclusion, treatment with Vit. E+P4 at the first parity may be economically applied on rabbit farms because this treatment resulted in a greater maintenance of the first pregnancy and improved reproductive performance at the second parity as compared with results from the Vit. E treated and control groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of a single dose of a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink on memory in 8 to 10 y old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Adrian R; Williams, Claire M

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence from animals and adult humans has demonstrated potential benefits to cognition from flavonoid supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these cognitive benefits extended to a sample of school-aged children. Using a crossover design, with a washout of at least 7 d between drinks, 14 children ages 8 to 10 y consumed either a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched vehicle. Two h after consumption, the children completed a battery of five cognitive tests comprising the Go-NoGo, Stroop, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Object Location Task, and a Visual N-back. In comparison to the vehicle, the blueberry drink produced significant improvements in the delayed recall of a previously learned list of words, showing for the first time a cognitive benefit for acute flavonoid intervention in children. However, performance on a measure of proactive interference indicated that the blueberry intervention led to a greater negative impact of previously memorized words on the encoding of a set of new words. There was no benefit of our blueberry intervention for measures of attention, response inhibition, or visuospatial memory. Although findings are mixed, the improvements in delayed recall found in this pilot study suggest that, following acute flavonoid-rich blueberry interventions, school-aged children encode memory items more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low dose radiation enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation on human glioma cell U251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Wang Guanjun; Tan Yehui; Jiang Hongyu; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect on the growth of human glioma cell U251 induced by low dose irradiation and low dose irradiation combined with large dose irradiation. Methods: Human glioma cell line U251 and nude mice carried with human glioma were used. The tumor cells and the mice were treated with low dose, high dose, and low dose combined high dose radiation. Cells growth curve, MTT and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the cells; and the tumor inhibition rate was used to assess the growth of tumor in vivo. Results: After low dose irradiation, there was no difference between experimental group and control group in cell count, MTT and flow cytometry. Single high dose group and low dose combined high dose group both show significantly the suppressing effect on tumor cells, the apoptosis increased and there was cell cycle blocked in G 2 period, but there was no difference between two groups. In vivo apparent anti-tumor effect in high dose radiation group and the combining group was observed, and that was more significant in the combining group; the prior low dose radiation alleviated the injury of hematological system. There was no difference between single low dose radiation group and control. Conclusions: There is no significant effect on human glioma cell induced by low dose radiation, and low dose radiation could not induce adaptive response. But in vivo experience, low dose radiation could enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation and alleviated the injury of hematological system. (authors)

  7. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  8. Effect of simultaneous, single oral doses of beta-carotene with lutein or lycopene on the beta-carotene and retinyl ester responses in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Vliet, T. van

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lutein and lycopene on β-carotene absorption and cleavage were investigated in 12 male subjects. Responses of carotenoids and retinyl palmitate in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction after a separate 15-mg β-carotene dose were compared with those after a dose of 15 mg

  9. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  10. The dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents calculations that illustrate two conclusions; for any particular cell type there will be a critical radius at which tumor control breaks down, and the radius at which this occurs is strongly dependent upon the low-dose-rate radiosensitivity of the cells

  11. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  12. Single Audit: Single Audit Act Effectiveness Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Sally

    2002-01-01

    As discussed in the report we are releasing today, our work to review agency actions to ensure that recipients take timely and appropriate corrective actions to fix audit findings contained in single...

  13. Fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for Caparinia tripilis in a pygmy African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camilo; Sheinberg Waisburd, Galia; Pineda, Jocelyn; Heredia, Rafael; Yarto, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto M

    2017-12-01

    African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are popular pets belonging to the Erinaceidae family of spined mammals. Amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite Caparinia spp. Due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. This may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma. Multiple therapies have been used in the treatment of this skin condition including ivermectin, amitraz, fipronil and selamectin. A drug which could be administered as a single oral dose would be advantageous to these pets and their owners. To evaluate the effect of a single oral dose (15 mg/kg) of fluralaner on Caparinia tripilis infestation in the African pygmy hedgehog. A 10-month-old African pygmy hedgehog weighing 184 g. Response to treatment was monitored by dermatological examination and superficial skin scrapings repeated at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days following fluralaner administration. On Day 7 after treatment, adult mites were observed exhibiting normal movement. On Day 14, only dead mites were observed. No life stages of the mites were found after Day 21. A single oral dose at 15 mg/kg of fluralaner was effective within 21 days after treatment for capariniasis in this case. Further studies are required to evaluate the drug's safety and toxicology in hedgehogs, and to confirm efficacy. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  15. Single dose oral ketoprofen and dexketoprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Jodie; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2009-10-07

    hours of 2.4 to 3.3. For dental studies only there was a trend to more efficacy at higher doses, with NNT decreasing from 2.4 at 12.5 mg to 1.6 at 100 mg. Dexketoprofen at doses of 10/12.5 mg and 20/25 mg produced NNTs for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours of 3.2 and 3.6, with no obvious dose response. Significantly fewer participants used rescue medication with ketoprofen and dexketoprofen than placebo. The median time to remedication was about 5 hours with ketoprofen and 4 hours with dexketoprofen. The expected equivalent efficacy with a half dose of dexketoprofen compared to ketoprofen was not demonstrated.Adverse events were uncommon with both drugs, and not significantly different from placebo. Ketoprofen at doses of 25 mg to 100 mg is an effective analgesic in moderate to severe acute postoperative pain with an NNT for at least 50% pain relief of 3.3 with a 50 mg dose. This is similar to that of commonly used NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (NNT 2.5 for 400 mg dose) and diclofenac (NNT 2.7 at 50 mg dose). Duration of action is about 5 hours. Dexketoprofen is also effective with NNTs of 3.2 to 3.6 in the dose range 10 mg to 25 mg. Both drugs were well tolerated in single doses.

  16. Study on children patient dose in single-detector and multi-detector row helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Heqing; Zhu Guoying; Zhuo Weihai; Liu Haikuan; Guo Changyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study and evaluate the radiation dose of children patient in single-detector and multi-detector row helical CT scan. Methods: The head and body CT dose index of 21 CT scanners were tested. Then the values of CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP were calculated combining with the parameters of routine head and chest scan for children of 0-1 year old group, 5 years old group, 10 years old group and adults. The effective doses of children of every age group and adults in routine head and chest scan were subsequently estimated from effective dose per DLP by age and the calculated values of DLP. Results: CTDI per mAs is greater in the head than that in the body. In head routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 year old group were 2.2, 1.3 and 1.1 mSv, respectively. In chest routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 years old group were 5.3, 3.1 and 3.4 mSv, respectively. Effective doses to children per mAs are equally 1.8 times higher than corresponding values for adults. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in head routine scan for MDCT were greater those that for single-detector CT and dual- detector CT. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in chest routine scan for MDCT and dual-detector row CT were smaller than that for single-detector row CT. Conclusions: Children me more radiation risk in CT examination as compared with adults. So we should strictly abide by justification of children CT examination, and optimize the parameters of CT scan rationally in order to reduce the radiation dose to children patient as much as possible. (authors)

  17. Treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria with a single dose of omalizumab: A study of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Subramaniyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU has a detrimental effect on patients′ emotional and physical quality of life. Omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E humanized monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be very effective in the treatment of refractory chronic urticaria patients but may not be an economically viable option for all CSU patients. However, we present a case series where a single dose of omalizumab gave sustained relief of symptoms in patients with CSU, which may be an economical option. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a single dose of omalizumab in the treatment of CSU. Materials and Methods: Four patients of CSU whose disease was not controlled with four times the licensed dose of tablet fexofenadine 180 mg were exhibited one subcutaneous injection of omalizumab and were followed up at 4 weekly intervals for 24 weeks for Weekly Urticaria Activity Score 7 (UAS7 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI. Results: A sharp decline in UAS7 and DLQI was documented in 7-10 days. The decline was maintained up to 16 weeks in one case and 20 weeks in the other three cases. Both the scores at the end of the follow-up period of 24 weeks were better than the pre-omalizumab scores. Conclusion: The results of this case series indicate the efficacy of a single-dose omalizumab in treating moderate to severe refractory CSU. Further studies are required to identify the minimum frequency of administering omalizumab to effectively control CSU. This would greatly reduce the cost of this novel therapy.

  18. Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Komochkov, M M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

  19. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  20. Concentrations of amoxicillin and clindamycin in teeth following a single dose of oral medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssl, Yvonne; Pelz, Klaus; Kempf, Jürgen; Otten, Jörg-Elard

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is the detection of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in teeth. Eleven patients received 2 g of amoxicillin, and 11 patients received 600 mg of clindamycin in a single dose of oral medication at least 60 min prior to tooth extraction due to systemic diseases. The concentrations were determined in crowns and roots separately using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Amoxicillin (13 samples) and clindamycin (12 samples) were detected in the samples of the root and crown preparations of the extracted teeth. The mean concentration of amoxicillin was 0.502 μg/g in the roots and 0.171 μg/g in the crowns. The mean concentration of clindamycin was 0.270 μg/g in the roots and 0.064 μg/g in the crowns. A single dose of oral amoxicillin and clindamycin leads to concentrations of both antibiotics in teeth which exceed the minimal inhibition concentration of some oral bacteria. The proof of antibacterial activity in dental hard tissue after oral single-dose application is new. The antimicrobial effect of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in roots of teeth may be of clinical relevance to bacterial reinfection from dentinal tubules.

  1. A single-dose of oral nattokinase potentiates thrombolysis and anti-coagulation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Yuko; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Homma, Toshiyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Clark, Joseph F; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2015-06-25

    Our aim was to determine the quantitative effects of a single-dose of Nattokinase (NK) administration on coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters comprehensively in healthy male subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over NK intervention study was carried out in 12 healthy young males. Following the baseline blood draw, each subject was randomized to receive either a single-dose of 2,000 FU NK (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd) or placebo with subsequent cross-over of the groups. Subjects donated blood samples at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following administration for analysis of coagulation/fibrinolysis parameters. As a result, D-dimer concentrations at 6, and 8 hours, and blood fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products at 4 hours after NK administration elevated significantly (p < 0.05, respectively). Factor VIII activity declined at 4 and 6 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), blood antithrombin concentration was higher at 2 and 4 hours (p < 0.05, respectively), and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged significantly at 2 and 4 hours following NK administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). All the changes, however, were within the normal range. In conclusion, thus, a single-dose of NK administration appears enhancing fibrinolysis and anti-coagulation via several different pathways simultaneously.

  2. Frequency of wound infection in non-perforated appendicitis with use of single dose perforative antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Latif, H.; Ahmad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are used both pre and post-operatively in acute appendicitis for preventing wound infection. It has been observed that the routine use of post-operative antibiotics is not necessary in cases of non-perforated appendicitis as only prophylactic antibiotics are sufficient to prevent wound infection. The aim of this study was to see the frequency of wound infection in non-perforated appendicitis with single dose preoperative antibiotics only. Method: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from May to November 2014. A total of 121 patients with non-perforated appendicitis were included in the study. Only single dose preoperative antibiotics were used. The patients were followed for wound infection till 8th post-operative day. Results: 121 patients, 56(46.28%) male and 65(53.72%) female were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 27.41 ± 7.12 years with an age range of 18 to 45 years. In the entire series, 7(5.78%) patients developed wound infection. The infection was minor which settled with conservative therapy. Prophylactic antibiotics were found efficacious in 114(94.21%) patients. There was no significant association between wound infection and age and gender. Conclusion: Single dose preoperative antibiotics were found effective in controlling post-operative wound infection without the need of extending the antibiotics to post-operative period in cases of non-perforated appendicitis. (author)

  3. Comparison of the Effect of Pre-operative Single Oral Dose of Tramadol and Famotidine on Gastric Secretions pH and Volume in Patients Scheduled for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. U.; Aqil, M.; Hussain, A.; Zahrani, T. A.; Hillis, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol and famotidine on gastric secretions pH and volume in patients electively scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anaesthesia, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from August 2011 to June 2013. Methodology: Ninety adult, ASA-I and II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive pre-operatively either placebo (Group-C, n=30), oral tramadol 100 mg (Group-T, n=30) or famotidine 40 mg (Group-F, n=30). After induction of general anaesthesia, gastric fluid was aspirated through orogastric tube. The gastric secretions volume and pH was measured using pH meter. Results:There was no statistically difference between groups in age, weight and gender. The gastric secretions mean pH was 2.06 ± 0.22,2.04 ± 0.20, 5.79 ± 0.77 and volume was 0.59 ± 0.17, 0.59 ± 0.14 and 0.28 ± 0.16 ml/kg in Group-C, Group-T and Group-F respectively. There was a significant statistical difference in the mean pH values between Group-C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). Statistically significant difference was also found in the mean gastric secretions volume between Group - C vs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001) and Group-Tvs. Group-F (p greater than 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean gastric fluid pH values (p=0.99) and mean gastric secretions volume (p=0.99) between Group-Tand Group-C. Conclusion:As compared to famotidine, pre-operative single oral dose of tramadol was unable to elevate the desired level of gastric fluid pH (less than 2.5) and decrease in gastric secretions volume (greater than 0.4ml/kg). (author)

  4. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  5. Dose formation and hematologic effects with prolonged internal exposure of rats by isotope 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sova, O.A.; Drozd, Yi.P.

    2013-01-01

    Processes in single dose formation and long-term domestic revenue 131 I in rats was investigated. Original method of estimating absorbed doses in hemacyte for macro-dosemeters indicators was proposed. Dose factors for hemacyte and the dynamics of the blood-forming organs doses for prolonged two cases of prolonged exposure was calculated. Hematologic effects were studied for two variants of entry of the isotope. Peculiarities of doses formation and identified hematological effects are discussed

  6. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Hyun

    2003-02-01

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  7. Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies of [{sup 18}F] fluorocholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Danielle C.; Santos, Priscilla F., E-mail: dcc@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gereais (INCT-MM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Medicina Molecular; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Malamut, Carlos; Silva, Juliana B. da, E-mail: radiofarmacoscdtn@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos; Souza, Cristina M.; Campos, Liliane C.; Ferreira, Enio; Araujo, Marina R.; Cassali, Geovanni D., E-mail: cassalig@icb.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (LPC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Patologia Comparada

    2013-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine ({sup 18}FCH) is a valuable tool for non-invasive diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET). This radiotracer has been proven to be highly effective in detecting recurrences and staging prostate cancer, diagnoses brain, breast, and esophageal tumors and also hepatocellular carcinoma. The higher uptake of fluorocholine by malignant tumors results from increased choline kinase activity due to accelerated cell multiplication and membrane formation. According to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), radiopharmaceuticals have to be registered before commercialization. The aim of this work was to evaluate single dose toxicity and biodistribution of {sup 18}FCH in mice, since preclinical safety studies are required for register. Experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA-IPEN/SP). Single dose toxicity and biodistribution studies were conducted in Swiss mice. No signs of toxicity were observed during clinical trial. No changes in the parameters which were examined, such as: body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters or lesions microscopic were noted. Biodistribution results indicated high physiological tracer uptake in kidney, liver and heart 30 min after injection. Lower activities were recorded in other organs/tissues: pancreas, intestine, spleen, bone, bladder, muscle, brain and blood. Initial preclinical investigations showed no toxic effects of {sup 18}FCH at investigated doses and a biodistribution profile very similar to other reports in literature. This information is essential to support future human trials. (author)

  8. Effects of small doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, R.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainty remains about the quantitative effects of doses of ionising radiation less than 0.2 Sv. Estimates of hereditary effects, based on the atomic bomb survivors, suggest that the mutation doubling dose is about 2 Sv for acute low LET radiation, but the confidence limits are wide. The idea that paternal gonadal irradiation might explain the Seascale cluster of childhood leukaemia has been disproved. Fetal irradiation may lead to a reduction in IQ and an increase in seizures in childhood proportional to dose. Estimates that doses to a whole population cause a risk of cancer proportional to dose, with 0.1 Sv given acutely causing a risk of 1%, will need to be modified as more information is obtained, but the idea that there is a threshold for risk above this level is not supported by observations on the irradiated fetus or the effect of fallout. The idea, based on ecological observations, that small doses protect against the development of cancer is refuted by the effect of radon in houses. New observations on the atomic bomb survivors have raised afresh the possibility that small doses may also have other somatic effects. (author)

  9. Optimizing a single fixed dose of Iodine-131 in Graves' Disease (An Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    low fixed dose of 185 MBq of I-131 was found to be significantly lower at 59.37%. On further analysis it was observed that the higher single fixed dose yielded a significantly higher cure rates irrespective of age, sex, thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake and pre-treatment hormonal status. There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of post-131 hypothyroidism at the end of 1 and 5 yeas following I-131 low or high single fixed dose of I-131. A steady rise in the percentage of patients becoming hypothyroid was noted between the 1 and 5 year period. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism at one and five years following I-131 therapy was found to be 48.76% and 82.64% respectively. The incidence of hypothyroidism appears to be higher in the present study, in comparison to several results reported in literature. This could be attributed to increased avidity of radioiodine to the available body iodine pool in the people living in the endemic area of iodine deficiency. Based on the results of this study we conclude that in an endemic area of iodine deficiency, a high single fixed dose of I-131 yields a higher cure rate as in non- endemic areas but the incidence of post I-131 hypothyroidism appears to be higher. However, this should not discourage physicians from choosing-I-131 as the first line of therapy for hyperthyroidism, considering the fact that hypothyroidism is easily managed by thyroid hormone supplementation, is cost effective and lastly, it (hypothyroidism) is part of the natural history of Graves' disease. (author)

  10. Single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy: a dose-response analysis of arteriovenous malformation obliteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, Emmanuel; Al Halabi, Assem; Buffat, Laurent; Merienne, Louis; Huart, Judith; Schlienger, Michel; Lefkopoulos, Dimitrios; Mammar, Hamid; Missir, Odile; Meder, Jean-Francois; Laurent, Alex; Housset, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy delivered in a high-dose single fraction is an effective technique to obliterate intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM). To attempt to analyze the relationships between dose, volume, and obliteration rates, we studied a group of patients treated using single-isocenter treatment plans. Methods and Materials: From May 1986 to December 1989, 100 consecutive patients with angiographically proven AVM had stereotactic radiotherapy delivered as a high-dose single fraction using a single-isocenter technique. Distribution according to Spetzler-Martin grade was as follows: 79 grade 1-3, three grade 4, 0 grade 5, and 18 grade 6. The target volume was spheroid in 74 cases, ellipsoid in 11, and large and irregular in 15. The targeted volume of the nidus was estimated using two-dimensional stereotactic angiographic data and, calculated as an ovoid-shaped lesion, was 1900 ± 230 mm 3 (median 968 mm 3 ; range 62-11, 250 mm 3 ). The mean minimum target dose (D min ) was 19 ± 0.6 Gy (median 20 Gy; range: 3-31.5). The mean volume within the isodose which corresponded to the minimum target dose was 2500 ± 300 mm 3 (median 1200 mm 3 ; range 75-14 900 mm 3 ). The mean maximum dose (D max ) was 34.5 ± 0.5 Gy (median 35 Gy; range 15-45). The mean angiographic follow-up was 42 ± 2.3 months (median 37.5; range 7-117). Results: The absolute obliteration rate was 51%. The 5-year actuarial obliteration rate was 62.5 ± 7%. After univariate analysis, AVM obliteration was influenced by previous surgery (p = 0.0007), D min by steps of 5 Gy (p = 0.005), targeted volume of the nidus (≤968 mm 3 vs. >968 mm 3 ; p = 0.015), and grade according to Spetzler-Martin (grade 1-3 vs. grade 4-6; p = 0.011). After multivariate analysis, the independent factors influencing AVM obliteration were the D min [relative risk (RR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.5; p min but does not seem to be influenced by D max and the targeted volume of the nidus

  11. Low-dose effect on blood chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.

    1992-01-01

    Linear dose response relationships of biological effects at low doses are experimentally and theoretically disputed. Structural chromosome aberration rates at doses ranging from normal background exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr in vivo and up to 50 mGy in vitro were investigated by the author and other scientists. Results are comparable and dose effect curves reveal following shapes; within the normal burden and up to 2-10 mGy/yr in vivo rates they increase sharply to about 3-6 times the lowest values; subsequent doses either from natural, occupational or accidental exposures up to about 30 mGy/yr yield either constant aberration rates, assuming a plateau, or perhaps even a decrease. In vitro experiments show comparable results up to 50 mGy. Other biological effects seem to have similar dose dependencies. The non-linearity of low-dose effects can be explained by induction of repair enzymes at certain damage to the DNA. This hypothesis is sustained experimentally and theoretically by several papers in literature. (author). 14 refs., 5 figs

  12. Radiotherapy for calcaneodynia. Results of a single center prospective randomized dose optimization trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Jeremias, C.; Gaipl, U.S.; Frey, B.; Schmidt, M.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two different dose fractionation schedules for radiotherapy of patients with calcaneodynia. Between February 2006 and April 2010, 457 consecutive evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. All patients received radiotherapy using the orthovoltage technique. One radiotherapy series consisted of 6 single fractions/3 weeks. In case of insufficient remission of pain after 6 weeks a second radiation series was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either single doses of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. Endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after radiotherapy using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). The overall response rate for all patients was 87 % directly after and 88 % 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The mean VAS values before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after treatment for the 0.5 and 1.0 Gy groups were 65.5 {+-} 22.1 and 64.0 {+-} 20.5 (p = 0.188), 34.8 {+-} 24.7 and 39.0 {+-} 26.3 (p = 0.122), and 25.1 {+-} 26.8 and 28.9 {+-} 26.8 (p = 0.156), respectively. The mean CPS before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after treatment was 10.1 {+-} 2.7 and 10.0 {+-} 3.0 (p = 0.783), 5.6 {+-} 3.7 and 6.0 {+-} 3.9 (p = 0.336), 4.0 {+-} 4.1 and 4.3 {+-} 3.6 (p = 0.257), respectively. No statistically significant differences between the two single dose trial arms for early (p = 0.216) and delayed response (p = 0.080) were found. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for the management of calcaneodynia. For radiation protection reasons, the dose for a radiotherapy series is recommended not to exceed 3-6 Gy. (orig.)

  13. Radiation effects of high and low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive proliferation of the uses and applications of atomic and nuclear energy resulted in possible repercussions on human health. The prominent features of the health hazards that may be incurred after exposure to high and low radiation doses are discussed. The physical and biological factors involved in the sequential development of radiation health effects and the different cellular responses to radiation injury are considered. The main criteria and features of radiation effects of high and low doses are comprehensively outlined

  14. Response of rat spinal cord to single and fractionated doses of accelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, J.T.; McDonald, M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Bliven, S.F.; Howard, J.

    1982-01-01

    The thoraco-lumbar (T12-L1) region of the spinal cord of rats was exposed to either single or fractionated (four daily exposures) doses of X rays (230 kVp) or heavy ions. The heavy ions used were carbon and neon, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both the plateau ionization region and the midpeak region of 4-cm spread-out Bragg peaks of each heavy ion were investigated. For single doses of carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, RBE values of 1.45 +/- 0.25 (propagated 95% confidence limits) and 1.46 +/- 0.33, respectively, were obtained. In the spread peak regions for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.48 +/- 0.18 and 1.86 +/- 0.42, respectively. These values were obtained using the dose needed to produce 50% paralysis in a group of irradiated rats as the isoeffect comparison dose (ED 50 dose). Similarly, in groups of rats receiving four daily exposures, the RBE values for carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region were 1.31 +/- 0.27 and 1.80 +/- 0.24, respectively. In the spread peak regions of ionization for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.95 +/- 0.19 and 2.18 +/- 0.23, respectively. Similar values for RBE were obtained using changes in the activity of enzymes in spinal cord tissue (cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase). Also, it was estimated that, for X irradiation, the fractional amount of dose repaired (at the ED 50 dose) was 0.64 +/- 0.10 (95% confidence limits). For carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, the values for the fractional amount of dose repaired were 0.70 +/- 0.27 and 0.48 +/- 0.20, and for carbon and neon ions in the spread peak region of ionization, the fractional repair values were 0.40 +/- 0.10 and 0.52 +/- 0.17. Spinal cord tissue therefore shows a high capacity for subeffective damage repair

  15. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  16. Fixed-dose combinations of drugs versus single-drug formulations for treating pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmen R; Rigau Comas, David; Valderrama Rodríguez, Angélica; Roqué i Figuls, Marta; Parker, Lucy Anne; Caylà, Joan; Bonfill Cosp, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) typically receive a standard first-line treatment regimen that consists of two months of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of these drugs are widely recommended. Objectives To compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of anti-tuberculosis regimens given as fixed-dose combinations compared to single-drug formulations for treating people with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 11 2015); MEDLINE (1966 to 20 November 2015); EMBASE (1980 to 20 November 2015); LILACS (1982 to 20 November 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials; and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), without language restrictions, up to 20 November 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that compared the use of FDCs with single-drug formulations in adults (aged 15 years or more) newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. We used risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We attempted to assess the effect of treatment for time-to-event measures with hazard ratios and their 95% CIs. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' assessment tool to determine the risk of bias in included trials. We used the fixed-effect model when there was little heterogeneity and the random-effects model with moderate heterogeneity. We used an I² statistic value of 75% or greater to denote significant heterogeneity, in which case we did not perform a

  17. The effect of dosing regimen on the pharmacokinetics of risedronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David Y; Heise, Mark A; Pallone, Karen A; Clay, Marian E; Nesbitt, John D; Russell, Darrell A; Melson, Chad W

    1999-01-01

    Aims To examine the effect of timing of a risedronate dose relative to food intake on the rate and extent of risedronate absorption following single-dose, oral administration to healthy male and female volunteers. Methods A single-dose, randomized, parallel study design was conducted with volunteers assigned to four treatment groups (31 or 32 subjects per group, 127 subjects total). Each subject was orally administered 30 mg risedronate. Group 1 was fasted for 10 h prior to and 4 h after dosing (fasted group); Groups 2 and 3 were fasted for 10 h and were dosed 1 and 0.5 h, respectively, before a high-fat breakfast; and Group 4 was dosed 2 h after a standard dinner. Blood and urine samples were collected for 168 h after dosing. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by simultaneous analysis of risedronate serum concentration and urinary excretion rate-time data. Results Extent of risedronate absorption (AUC and Ae) was comparable (P = 0.4) in subjects dosed 2 h after dinner and 0.5 h before breakfast; however, a significantly greater extent of absorption occurred when risedronate was given 1 or 4 h prior to a meal (1.4- to 2.3-fold greater). Administration 0.5, 1, or 4 h prior to a meal resulted in a significantly greater rate of absorption (Cmax 2.8-, 3.5-, and 4.1-fold greater, respectively) when compared with 2 h after dinner. Conclusions The comparable extent of risedronate absorption when administered either 0.5–1 h before breakfast or 2 h after an evening meal support previous clinical studies where risedronate was found to have similar effectiveness using these dosing regimens. This flexibility in the timing of risedronate administration may provide patients an alternative means to achieve the desired efficacy while maintaining their normal daily routine. PMID:10583024

  18. Hardening of single crystals of magnesium by low neutron doses at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation hardening in Mg single crystals at 77 K is studied with a microtensile machine operating in-situ in the CNEA reactor facility RA1. Experimental results show that the dose dependence of the yield stress is similar to that previously observed in irradiated Cu and Zn. The radiation-induced yield stress, due to the presence of radiation obstacles operating alone, increases according to a 0.5 power law. It adds algebraically to the athermal component of the initial yield stress, but is not exactly additive to the other thermally activated mechanisms. For doses higher than 4.5 x 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 , a strong instability in the deformation is observed. Post irradiation experiments in tensile tests performed with a hard machine show a continuous stress drop. This effect is attributed to the dislocation channeling phenomenon which takes place during the tensile test. (author)

  19. Single fixed-dose oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Cooper, Tess E; Phillips, Tudor

    2016-09-22

    Combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief than either drug alone in acute pain. This appears to be broadly true across a range of different drug combinations, in postoperative pain and migraine headache. A new combination of dexketoprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) plus tramadol (an opioid) has been tested in acute postoperative pain conditions. It is not yet licensed for use. This review is one of a series on oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain. Individual reviews have been brought together in two overviews to provide information about the relative efficacy and harm of the different interventions. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single fixed-dose of oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol, compared with placebo, for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults, using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. A secondary objective was to compare the combination with the individual analgesics alone. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via CRSO, MEDLINE via Ovid, and Embase via Ovid from inception to 31 May 2016. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and two online clinical trial registries. Randomised, double-blind trials of oral dexketoprofen plus tramadol administered as a single oral dose, for the relief of acute postoperative pain in adults, and compared to placebo. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, examined issues of study quality and potential bias, and extracted data. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for dexketoprofen plus tramadol, compared with placebo with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We collected information on the number of participants with at least 50% of

  20. Attention benefits after a single dose of metadoxine extended release in adults with predominantly inattentive ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Iris; Rubin, Jonathan; Daniely, Yaron; Adler, Lenard A

    2014-09-01

    To assess the first-dose effectiveness and tolerability of metadoxine extended release (MDX) in adults with predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, adults with ADHD-PI were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single dose of MDX 1400 mg, MDX 700 mg, and placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01685281). The primary efficacy end point was the mean change in the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) ADHD score from baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration. Secondary assessments included TOVA subscores, TOVA response rates (defined as an increase of 0.8 points in the TOVA ADHD score), and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery. Safety assessments included adverse events and vital signs. The intention-to-treat population included 36 patients (52.8% men; mean age, 32 years). The efficacy of MDX 1400 mg was demonstrated by a statistically significant difference in the mean (± SD) change in the TOVA ADHD score at baseline to 3 to 5 hours after drug administration compared with placebo (2.0 [4.2]; P = 0.009). The TOVA response time variability subscore was significantly different between MDX 1400 mg and placebo (mean difference, 7.9 [19.2] points; P = 0.022). Significantly more adults responded to single-dose MDX 1400 mg versus placebo (97.1% vs 71.4%, P = 0.006). There were no statistically significant differences between MDX 700 mg and placebo on any measures. Exploratory analyses of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test Battery did not yield significant findings. Fatigue and headache were the 2 most frequently reported adverse events. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory values, vital signs measurements, Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale scores, or electrocardiographic parameters. Single-dose MDX 1400 mg significantly improved sustained and selective attention in adults with ADHD-PI as measured by the TOVA

  1. In vivo assessment of catheter positioning accuracy and prolonged irradiation time on liver tolerance dose after single-fraction 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropf Siegfried

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess brachytherapy catheter positioning accuracy and to evaluate the effects of prolonged irradiation time on the tolerance dose of normal liver parenchyma following single-fraction irradiation with 192 Ir. Materials and methods Fifty patients with 76 malignant liver tumors treated by computed tomography (CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT were included in the study. The prescribed radiation dose was delivered by 1 - 11 catheters with exposure times in the range of 844 - 4432 seconds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets for assessing irradiation effects on normal liver tissue, edema, and hepatocyte dysfunction, obtained 6 and 12 weeks after HDR-BT, were merged with 3D dosimetry data. The isodose of the treatment plan covering the same volume as the irradiation effect was taken as a surrogate for the liver tissue tolerance dose. Catheter positioning accuracy was assessed by calculating the shift between the 3D center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume for 38 irradiation effects in 30 patients induced by catheters implanted in nearly parallel arrangement. Effects of prolonged irradiation were assessed in areas where the irradiation effect volume and tolerance dose volume did not overlap (mismatch areas by using a catheter contribution index. This index was calculated for 48 irradiation effects induced by at least two catheters in 44 patients. Results Positioning accuracy of the brachytherapy catheters was 5-6 mm. The orthogonal and axial shifts between the center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume in relation to the direction vector of catheter implantation were highly correlated and in first approximation identically in the T1-w and T2-w MRI sequences (p = 0.003 and p p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively. There was a significant shift of the irradiation effect towards the catheter entry site compared with the planned dose

  2. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed. Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients. New molecular entities (NMEs), new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs) and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC) and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC). Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed. During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs) and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31) after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39) before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24) years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination. FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  3. Fixed-Dose Combination Drug Approvals, Patents and Market Exclusivities Compared to Single Active Ingredient Pharmaceuticals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hao

    Full Text Available Fixed-dose combinations (FDC contain two or more active ingredients. The effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC compared to single active ingredient has not been assessed.Trends in FDA approved FDC in the period 1980-2012 and time lag between approval of FDC and single active ingredients in the combination were assessed, and the effective patent and exclusivity life of FDC was compared with their single active ingredients.New molecular entities (NMEs, new therapeutic biologics license applications (BLAs and FDC data were collected from the FDA Orange Book and Drugs@FDA. Analysis included FDC containing one or more NMEs or BLAs at first FDA approval (NMEs-FDC and only already marketed drugs (Non-NMEs-FDC. Descriptive, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum analyses were performed.During the study period, the FDA approved 28 NMEs-FDC (3.5% of NMEs and 117 non-NMEs-FDC. FDC approvals increased from 12 in the 1980s to 59 in the 2000s. Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 5.43 years (interquartile range 1.74, 10.31 after first FDA approval of single active ingredients in the combination. The Non-NMEs-FDC entered the market at a median of 2.33 years (-7.55, 2.39 before approval of generic single active ingredient. Non-NME-FDC added a median of 9.70 (2.75, 16.24 years to the patent and exclusivity life of the single active ingredients in the combination.FDC approvals significantly increased over the last twenty years. Pharmaceutical companies market FDC drugs shortly before the generic versions of the single ingredients enter the market extending the patent and exclusivity life of drugs included in the combination.

  4. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A single-blind cross over study investigating the efficacy of standard and controlled release levodopa in combination with entacapone in the treatment of end-of-dose effect in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansek, R; Danoudis, M

    2011-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of standard levodopa combined with controlled release levodopa and entacapone in controlling end-of-dose symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A single-blind cross over design was used to compare the duration of action for three pharmacological combinations: standard levodopa (L/DDC); standard levodopa combined with entacapone (L/DDC/E); and standard levodopa combined with controlled release levodopa (CR) and entacapone (L/DDC/CR/E). Thirty two participants with wearing-off symptoms and inadequate symptom control with L/DDC/E had their optimum dose of L/DDC determined at base line. Entacapone was added to the optimal L/DDC dose and duration of action determined. Levodopa CR dosage was adjusted to match the optimal L/DDC dose for each participant. All participants were then trialed on L/DDC/CR/E and duration of response calculated. Timed Up and Go (TUG) times and magnitude of extra movements were recorded hourly throughout the day over several days to determine the optimum interval between doses for each combination. The UPDRS (Sections 2 and 3), PDQ39 and fatigue scale, the PDF-16, were recorded at base line and when dosage intervals had stabilized on L/DDC/CR/E. Duration of response was greatest with L/DDC/CR/E compared to L/DDC/E (p DDC/CR/E compared to L/DDC/E (p DDC/CR/E compared to L/DDC (p DDC/CR/E (p = 0.001) however magnitude was mild. Combining standard levodopa and levodopa CR preparations with entacapone is an additional treatment strategy to manage motor fluctuations in advanced PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    We combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of Silicon. We obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, we study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates.

  7. Dose rate effects during damage accumulation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caturla, M.J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1997-01-01

    The authors combine molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations to study damage accumulation and dose rate effects during irradiation of silicon. They obtain the initial stage of the damage produced by heavy and light ions using classical molecular dynamics simulations. While heavy ions like As or Pt induce amorphization by single ion impact, light ions like B only produce point defects or small clusters of defects. The amorphous pockets generated by heavy ions are stable below room temperature and recrystallize at temperatures below the threshold for recrystallization of a planar amorphous-crystalline interface. The damage accumulation during light ion irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo model for defect diffusion. In this approach, the authors study the damage in the lattice as a function of dose and dose rate. A strong reduction in the total number of defects left in the lattice is observed for lower dose rates

  8. PHARMACOKINETICS OF SINGLE-DOSE ORALLY ADMINISTERED CIPROFLOXACIN IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lorraine; Johnson, Shawn P; Papich, Mark G; Gulland, Frances

    2015-06-01

    Ciprofloxacin is commonly selected for clinical use due to its broad-spectrum efficacy and is a frequently administered antibiotic at The Marine Mammal Center, a marine mammal rehabilitation facility. Ciprofloxacin is used for treatment of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) suffering from a variety of bacterial infections at doses extrapolated from other mammalian species. However, as oral absorption is variable both within and across species, a more accurate determination of appropriate dosage is needed to ensure effective treatment and avoid emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains. A pharmacokinetic study was performed to assess plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin in California sea lions after a single oral dose. Twenty healthy California sea lions received a single 10-mg/kg oral dose of ciprofloxacin administered in a herring fish. Blood was then collected at two of the following times from each individual: 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 18, and 24 hr postingestion. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentration was assessed via high-performance liquid chromatography. A population pharmacokinetics model demonstrated that an oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg achieved an area under the concentration vs. time curve of 6.01 μg hr/ml. Absorption was rapid, with ciprofloxacin detectable in plasma 0.54 hr after drug administration; absorption half-life was 0.09 hr. A maximum plasma concentration of 1.21 μg/ml was observed at 1.01 hr, with an elimination half-life of 3.09 hr. Ciprofloxacin administered orally at 10 mg/kg produced therapeutic antibacterial exposure for only some of the most susceptible bacterial organisms commonly isolated from California sea lions.

  9. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion or oral iron for treatment of fatigue after postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single-dose intravenous infusion of iron isomaltoside compared with current treatment practice with oral iron measured by physical fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre, open-label, ran......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a single-dose intravenous infusion of iron isomaltoside compared with current treatment practice with oral iron measured by physical fatigue in women after postpartum haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre, open...

  10. A Dose–Response Analysis of the Reproductive Effects of a Single Gestational Dose of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Male Long Evans Hooded Rat Offspring,

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, L. E.; Ostby, J. S.; Kelce, W. R.

    1997-01-01

    Male rats exposedin uteroto 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) display reduced fertility as a consequence of the direct action of TCDD on the epididymides, as well as delayed puberty and altered reproductive organ weights. The current study provides dose–response data for the reproductive effects of TCDD, administered during pregnancy, with an emphasis on the effects of TCDD on testicular, epididymal, and ejaculated sperm numbers. Long Evans Hooded rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 0....

  11. Radiation dose effects, hardening of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Nivet, E.

    1991-01-01

    This course reviews the mechanism of interaction between ionizing radiation and a silicon oxide type dielectric, in particular the effect of electron-hole pairs creation in the material. Then effects of cumulated dose on electronic components and especially in MOS technology are examined. Finally methods hardening of these components are exposed. 93 refs

  12. Palonosetron-A Single-Dose Antiemetic Adjunct for Hepatic Artery Radioembolization: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, Nasir H.; Khan, Atif J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2009-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting may occur in a significant minority of patients following hepatic artery embolization with yttrium-90 spheres (K. T. Sato et al. Radiology 247:507-515, 2008). This encumbers human and economic resources and undercuts the assertion that it is as a well-tolerated outpatient treatment. A single intravenous dose of palonosetron HCl was administered before hepatic artery embolization with yttrium-90 spheres to ameliorate posttreatment nausea and vomiting, in 23 consecutive patients. The patients were discharged the day of procedure on oral antiemetics, steroids, and blockers of gastric acid release. All patients had clinical and laboratory evaluation at 2 weeks after the procedure. The data were gathered and reviewed retrospectively. At 2-week follow-up, none reported significant nausea, vomiting, additional antiemetic use, need for parenteral therapy, hospital readmission, or palonosetron-related side effects. All patients recovered from postembolization symptoms within a week after treatment. In conclusion, this retrospective study suggests that single-dose palonosetron is feasible, safe, and effective for acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in this group of patients. The added cost may be offset by benefits.

  13. Therapeutic effects of low radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, K.R. (Dept. of Radiation Biology, St. Bartholomew' s Medical College, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This editorial explores the scientific basis of radiotherapy with doses of < 1 Gy for various non-malignant conditions, in particular dose-effect relationships, risk-benefit considerations and biological mechanisms. A review of the literature, particularly clinical and experimental reports published more than 50 years ago was conducted to clarify the following problems. 1. The dose-response relationships for the therapeutic effects on three groups of conditions: non-malignant skin disease, arthrosis and other painful degenerative joint disorders and anti-inflammatory radiotherapy; 2. risks after radiotherapy and after the best alternative treatments; 3. the biological mechanisms of the different therapeutic effects. Radiotherapy is very effective in all three groups of disease. Few dose-finding studies have been performed, all demonstrating that the optimal doses are considerable lower than the generally recommended doses. In different conditions, risk-benefit analysis of radiotherapy versus the best alternative treatment yields very different results: whereas radiotherapy for acute postpartum mastitis may not be justified any more, the risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy of other conditions and particularly so in dermatology and some anti-inflammatory radiotherapy appears to be more favourable than the risk-benefit ratio of the best alternative treatments. Radiotherapy can be very effective treatment for various non-malignant conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, epicondylitis, knee arthrosis, hydradenitis, parotitis and panaritium and probably be associated with less acute and long-term side effects than similarly effective other treatments. Randomized clinical studies are required to find the optimal dosage which, at present, may be unnecessarily high.

  14. A Cohort Study of Preoperative Single Dose Versus Four Doses of Antibiotics for Patients With Non-Complicated Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah H. Al Janaby

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To Test the efficacy of single preoperative dose of Cefotaxime 1gm and Metronidazole 500mg in reducing the surgical site infections (SSIs after open appendectomy in patients with non-complicated appendicitis (NCA Place and Duration of Study: Al Hilla General Teaching Hospital, Babel Governorate-Iraq, from January 2013 to January 2014. Patients & Methods: 100 patients, who underwent appendectomy for NCA and fulfilled the selection criteria, were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A received a single dose of pre-operative antibiotics (Cefotaxime sodium and metronidazole, while the group B patients received three more dose of the same antibiotics postoperatively. Patients of both groups were followed-up for 30 days to assess the postoperative infective complications. Results: Group A had 48, while group B comprised of 52 patients. The groups were comparable in the baseline characteristics. Statistically, P value in rates of SSIs between both the groups was 0.9182. None of the patients developed intra-abdominal collection. Conclusion: Single dose of pre-operative antibiotics (Cefotaxime and metronidazole was sufficient in reducing the SSIs after appendectomy for NPA. Postoperative antibiotics did not add an appreciable clinical benefit in these patients. Key words: Preoperative antibiotics, Appendectomy, Surgical site infection, Non-complicated appendicitis Abbreviations: SSI: Surgical Site Infection, NCA: non-complicated appendicitis CDC Center of Disease Control.

  15. Protect Patients by Using Single- and Multi-Dose Vials Correctly

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-10

    CDC’s One & Only Campaign urges healthcare providers to recognize the differences between single-dose and multi-dose vials, and to understand appropriate use of each container type.  Created: 7/10/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/10/2014.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus timneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Keven; Nettifee Osborne, Julie A; Webb, Donna J; Foster, Laura E; Dillard, Stacy L; Davis, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of orally administered voriconazole in African grey parrots. 20 clinically normal Timneh African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus timneh). In single-dose trials, 12 parrots were each administered 6, 12, and 18 mg of voriconazole/kg orally and plasma concentrations of voriconazole were determined via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) was administered orally to 6 birds every 12 hours for 9 days; a control group (2 birds) received tap water. Treatment effects were assessed via observation, clinicopathologic analyses (3 assessments), and measurement of trough plasma voriconazole concentrations (2 assessments). Voriconazole's elimination half-life was short (1.1 to 1.6 hours). Higher doses resulted in disproportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration and area under the curve. Trough plasma voriconazole concentrations achieved in the multiple-dose trial were lower than those achieved after administration of single doses. Polyuria (the only adverse treatment effect) developed in treated and control birds but was more severe in the treatment group. In African grey parrots, voriconazole has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and may induce its own metabolism. Oral administration of 12 to 18 mg of voriconazole/kg twice daily is a rational starting dose for treatment of African grey parrots infected with Aspergillus or other fungal organisms that have a minimal inhibitory concentration for voriconazole treatment. Safety and efficacy of various voriconazole treatment regimens in this species require investigation.

  17. Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

    2010-01-01

    Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears

  18. Experience of micromultileaf collimator linear accelerator based single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery: Tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Linda X.; Garg, Madhur; Lasala, Patrick; Kim, Mimi; Mah, Dennis; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Mynampati, Dinesh; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Sharp dose fall off outside a tumor is essential for high dose single fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) plans. This study explores the relationship among tumor dose inhomogeneity, conformity, and dose fall off in normal tissues for micromultileaf collimator (mMLC) linear accelerator (LINAC) based cranial SRS plans. Methods: Between January 2007 and July 2009, 65 patients with single cranial lesions were treated with LINAC-based SRS. Among them, tumors had maximum diameters {<=}20 mm: 31; between 20 and 30 mm: 21; and >30 mm: 13. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons on a Trilogy linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a tertiary m3 high-resolution mMLC (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany), using either noncoplanar conformal fixed fields or dynamic conformal arcs. The authors also created retrospective study plans with identical beam arrangement as the treated plan but with different tumor dose inhomogeneity by varying the beam margins around the planning target volume (PTV). All retrospective study plans were normalized so that the minimum PTV dose was the prescription dose (PD). Isocenter dose, mean PTV dose, RTOG conformity index (CI), RTOG homogeneity index (HI), dose gradient index R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} (defined as the difference between equivalent sphere radius of 50% isodose volume and prescription isodose volume), and normal tissue volume (as a ratio to PTV volume) receiving 50% prescription dose (NTV{sub 50}) were calculated. Results: HI was inversely related to the beam margins around the PTV. CI had a ''V'' shaped relationship with HI, reaching a minimum when HI was approximately 1.3. Isocenter dose and mean PTV dose (as percentage of PD) increased linearly with HI. R{sub 50}-R{sub 100} and NTV{sub 50} initially declined with HI and then reached a plateau when HI was approximately 1.3. These trends also held when tumors were grouped according to their maximum diameters. The smallest tumor group

  19. Single dose oral ketoprofen or dexketoprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Helen; Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-05-25

    % pain relief over six hours with the usual dexketoprofen oral dose of 20 mg or 25 mg was 52%, compared to 27% with placebo, giving an NNT of 4.1 (95% CI 3.3 to 5.2) (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 2.2; 1177 participants; 8 studies; high quality evidence). Efficacy was significantly better in dental studies (NNT 2.7) than other surgery (NNT 5.7). The proportion of participants using rescue medication within six hours was lower with dexketoprofen (47%) than placebo (69%), giving an NNTp of 4.7 (95% CI 3.3 to 8.0); 445 participants; 5 studies; high quality evidence). Median time to remedication estimates were poorly reported. Reports of any adverse event were similar with dexketoprofen (14%) and placebo (10%) (RR 1.4, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.2; 536 participants, 6 studies; high quality evidence). No study reported any serious adverse events (very low quality evidence). Ketoprofen at doses of 25 mg to 100 mg is an effective analgesic in moderate to severe acute postoperative pain with an NNT for at least 50% pain relief of 2.9 with a 50 mg dose. This is similar to that of commonly used NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (NNT 2.5 for 400 mg dose) and diclofenac (NNT 2.7 for 50 mg dose). Dexketoprofen is also effective with an NNT of 4.1 in the dose range 10 mg to 25 mg. Differential efficacy between dental surgery and other types of surgery seen for both drugs is unusual. Both drugs were well tolerated in single doses.

  20. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  1. Single therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) do not affect cardiac repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenickel, Thomas H; Jordaan, Pierre; Petruck, Jesika; Kode, Kiran; Pal, Parasar; Vaidya, Soniya; Chandra, Priya; Rajman, Iris

    2016-08-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of single oral therapeutic (400 mg) and supratherapeutic (1200 mg) doses of LCZ696 on cardiac repolarization. This randomized double-blind crossover study in healthy male subjects compared the effect of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of LCZ696 with placebo and moxifloxacin 400 mg (open-label treatment) as positive control. The primary assessment was mean baseline- and placebo-corrected QTcF (∆∆QTcF; Fridericia correction). Additional assessments included the ∆∆QTcB (Bazett's correction), PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate (HR), LCZ696 pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships, and safety. Of the 84 subjects enrolled, 81 completed the study. The maximum upper bound of the two-sided 90 % confidence interval for ∆∆QTcF for LCZ696 400 mg and 1200 mg were <10 ms, and assay sensitivity was confirmed with moxifloxacin. No relevant treatment-emergent changes were observed in any of the ECG-derived parameters with LCZ696 or placebo, and the incidence of adverse events was comparable among the treatment groups. Single therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of LCZ696 did not affect cardiac repolarization as defined by the E14 ICH guidelines.

  2. Miltefosine Lipid Nanocapsules for Single Dose Oral Treatment of Schistosomiasis Mansoni: A Preclinical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M Eissa

    Full Text Available Miltefosine (MFS is an alkylphosphocholine used for the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer and oral therapy of visceral leishmaniasis. Recently, the drug was reported in in vitro and preclinical studies to exert significant activity against different developmental stages of schistosomiasis mansoni, a widespread chronic neglected tropical disease (NTD. This justified MFS repurposing as a potential antischistosomal drug. However, five consecutive daily 20 mg/kg doses were needed for the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. The present study aims at enhancing MFS efficacy to allow for a single 20mg/kg oral dose therapy using a nanotechnological approach based on lipid nanocapsules (LNCs as oral nanovectors. MFS was incorporated in LNCs both as membrane-active structural alkylphospholipid component and active antischistosomal agent. MFS-LNC formulations showed high entrapment efficiency (EE%, good colloidal properties, sustained release pattern and physical stability. Further, LNCs generally decreased MFS-induced erythrocyte hemolytic activity used as surrogate indicator of membrane activity. While MFS-free LNCs exerted no antischistosomal effect, statistically significant enhancement was observed with all MFS-LNC formulations. A maximum effect was achieved with MFS-LNCs incorporating CTAB as positive charge imparting agent or oleic acid as membrane permeabilizer. Reduction of worm load, ameliorated liver pathology and extensive damage of the worm tegument provided evidence for formulation-related efficacy enhancement. Non-compartmental analysis of pharmacokinetic data obtained in rats indicated independence of antischistosomal activity on systemic drug exposure, suggesting possible gut uptake of the stable LNCs and targeting of the fluke tegument which was verified by SEM. The study findings put forward MFS-LNCs as unique oral nanovectors combining the bioactivity of MFS and biopharmaceutical advantages of LNCs

  3. Dose-ranging pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) and colistin in rats following single intravenous CMS doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of colistin methanesulphonate (CMS) dose on CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in rats. Three rats per group received an intravenous bolus of CMS at a dose of 5, 15, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg. Arterial blood samples were drawn at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min. CMS and colistin plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters of CMS and colistin were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Linear relationships were observed between CMS and colistin AUCs to infinity and CMS doses, as well as between CMS and colistin C(max) and CMS doses. CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics were linear for a range of colistin concentrations covering the range of values encountered and recommended in patients even during treatment with higher doses.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Flammer, Keven; Papich, Mark G; Grooters, Amy M; Shaw, Shannon; Applegate, Jeff; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 15 clinically normal adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Single doses of voriconazole (12 or 24 mg/kg) were administered orally to 15 and 12 birds, respectively; plasma voriconazole concentrations were determined at intervals via high-pressure liquid chromatography. In a multiple-dose trial, voriconazole (18 mg/kg) or water was administered orally to 6 and 4 birds, respectively, every 8 hours for 11 days (beginning day 0); trough plasma voriconazole concentrations were evaluated on 3 days. Birds were monitored daily, and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short (0.70 to 1.25 hours). In the single-dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC). In the multiple-dose trial, C(max), AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life. With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Oral administration of 18 mg of voriconazole/kg every 8 hours would require adjustment to maintain therapeutic concentrations during long-term treatment. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

  5. Reliability of single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) for dose estimation in quartz at different burial temperatures: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, D.K.; Pagonis, V.; Patil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) is a well-established technique for estimating naturally acquired radiation doses in quartz. This simulation work examines the reliability of SAR protocol for samples which experienced different ambient temperatures in nature in the range of −10 to 40 °C. The contribution of various experimental variables used in SAR protocols to the accuracy and precision of the method is simulated for different ambient temperatures. Specifically the effects of paleo-dose, test dose, pre-heating temperature and cut-heat temperature on the accuracy of equivalent dose (ED) estimation are simulated by using random combinations of the concentrations of traps and centers using a previously published comprehensive quartz model. The findings suggest that the ambient temperature has a significant bearing on the reliability of natural dose estimation using SAR protocol, especially for ambient temperatures above 0 °C. The main source of these inaccuracies seems to be thermal sensitization of the quartz samples caused by the well-known thermal transfer of holes between luminescence centers in quartz. The simulations suggest that most of this inaccuracy in the dose estimation can be removed by delivering the laboratory doses in pulses (pulsed irradiation procedures). - Highlights: • Ambient temperatures affect the reliability of SAR. • It overestimates the dose with increase in burial temperature and burial time periods. • Elevated temperature irradiation does not correct for these overestimations. • Inaccuracies in dose estimation can be removed by incorporating pulsed irradiation procedures.

  6. Correlation between the single, high dose of ingested baclofen and clinical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sein Anand

    2017-12-01

    There is a statistically significant correlation between the dose of ingested baclofen and the presence of acute respiratory failure, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Patients who have taken a single dose of baclofen of 200 mg, or higher, should be managed in centres able to provide continuous monitoring of life functions. Those with a higher level of a single dose of baclofen ingestion (>500 mg, should be hospitalized in a Toxicology Unit or Intensive Care Unit able to provide airway support and mechanical ventilation.

  7. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of single and repeated doses of the calcium antagonist felodipine on blood pressure, renal function, electrolytes and water balance, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, G; Gradnik, R; Terzoli, L; Fruscio, M; Rupoli, L; Cuspidi, C; Sampieri, L; Zanchetti, A

    1986-01-01

    Doses of 10 mg b.i.d. of the new dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, felodipine, were tested for seven consecutive days in 11 hospitalized hypertensive patients. A significant reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with patients in both the supine and upright positions, occurred immediately after the first dose and was maintained (daily average 15%) throughout the following days. An increase in heart rate was observed after the first dose (15 and 23 beats/min, in supine and upright postures), and subsequently declined to average values of 8 and 14 beats/min on the seventh day. There was a marked natriuretic response during the first and second day, during which an average negative sodium balance of 95 mmol developed; on the following days sodium output was not significantly different from control, but a negative balance averaging 135 mmol was still present on the seventh day of felodipine administration. A moderate negative potassium balance also progressively developed and reached -48 mmol on the seventh day. Glomerular filtration rate was unchanged, but renal plasma flow increased significantly during administration of felodipine. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone were also increased very moderately by felodipine. Compared with previous observations by our group with higher doses of felodipine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg t.i.d.), 10 mg b.i.d. of this new calcium antagonist appear to exert a marked and prolonged blood pressure reduction, accompanied by a definite natriuretic instead of an antinatriuretic effect.

  9. Effect of temporal distribution of dose on oncogenic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Brenner, D.J.; Geard, C.R.; Marino, S.A.; Hall, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    Risk estimates for neutron hazards are of considerable social and economic importance. Effectiveness per unit dose of X or γ rays (low-LET radiations) has been consistently observed to be dependent on the temporal distribution of dose. In a series of comparisons, 0.5 Gy of single or fractionated (five fractions in 8 h), neutrons of 0.23, 0.35, 0.45, 5.9, or 13.7 MeV were delivered to a synchronous C3H 10T1/2 cells. Transformation frequencies per surviving cell are shown. Cells exposed to one energy (5.9 MeV) show a significant enhancement at the 95% level due to fractionated exposures, and at the 85% confidence level the 0.35- and 0.45-MeV fractionated exposures additionally result in significantly greater transformation frequencies. The frequencies of surviving cells per dish between a single or fractionated exposure vary by less than 10%. In three of five pairwise comparisons, fractionated exposures result in statistically greater frequencies of transformants per dish, and are in complete agreement with the results when induction is expressed as transformants per surviving cell. However, after 0.23-MeV neutron irradiation, the single dose resulted in a greater incidence of transformed foci than the fractionated dose

  10. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Susilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg ketoconazole and 40 mg fluconazole in combination has been tested for the treatment of VC. The results showed that from 11 women with confirmed VC, 1-2 weeks after drug administration, the mycological culture was negative in 8 women, positive in 1 woman, and 2 woman lost to follow-up. This promising result led to the present study with the objective to confirm the efficacy and safety of the above combination in a formal clinical trial.Methods: A total of 165 female patients, aged 18 years or older, with the diagnosis of VC from clinical symptoms (pruritus or burning or excessive discharge and positive microscopic smear (pseudohyphae and/or yeast cells were randomized to receive a single dose of either keto-fluco combination (n = 85 or fluconazole (n = 80, and returnedfor follow-up visit on day 8.Results: Among these patients, 39 patients had negative baseline culture, leaving 126 patients eligible for efficacy evaluation. The mycological eradication in the keto-fluco group was 74.5% (41 patients from a total of 55 patients with available mycological culture, while that in the fluconazole group was 70.2% (40 patients from 57 patients with available culture and this difference was not significant. The clinical favorable response (clinical cure and clinical improvement in the keto-fluco arm (n = 60 was 98.3%, while that in the fluconazole group (n = 66 was 100%. Adverse events were found in 5 patients, 3 patients in the keto-fluco group (3/85 = 3.5% and 2

  11. Comparison of single-dose and multiple-dose antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Taner A; Dogan, Ozgur; Ates, Ugur; Yucel, Burak; Onar, Zehra; Kaya, Erdal

    2011-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of fosfomycin trometamol, cefuroxime axetil, and amoxicillin clavulanate antibiotics, and to assess the difference in patient compliance, in the treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Between September 2007 and May 2008, 90 out of 324 pregnant women with complaints of lower urinary tract infection, who were followed at the outpatient clinic or referred to the emergency department of Vakif Gureba Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled in a prospective study. Patients were randomized into 3 equal groups for treatment with single-dose fosfomycin trometamol, or 5-day courses of amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. After follow-up, study data were obtained for 28, 27, and 29 patients, respectively. The treatment groups did not differ significantly in terms of demographics, clinical success rate, microbiological cure rate, or adverse effects. Significantly higher drug compliance was observed in the fosfomycin trometamol group than in the other 2 groups (PUTI as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. Fosfomycin trometamol may be a preferable treatment for UTI because of its simpler use and better rates of compliance. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of burial dose in incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We determine the burial dose in three known-age incompletely bleached fluvial samples using single grains of quartz. Estimation of burial dose in incompletely bleached samples requires that the characteristics of the well-bleached part of the distribution are known in order to distinguish between...... well-bleached and poorly bleached grains. It is especially important to investigate if the uncertainties assigned to individual estimates of dose adequately describe the observed variability in well-bleached dose distributions. We investigate this by quantifying the overdispersion in laboratory-bleached...

  13. Application of the luminescence single-aliquot technique for dose estimation in the Marmara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanir, Guenes; Sencan, Emine; Boeluekdemir, M. Hicabi; Tuerkoez, M. Burak; Tel, Eyuep

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain the equivalent dose, which is the important quantity for all the studies related to the use of luminescence in dating sediments. Recent advances in luminescence dating have led to increasing application of the technique to sediment from the depositional environmental samples. The sample used in this study is the active main fault sample that was collected from the Sea of Marmara in NW Turkey. Equivalent dose was measured using both the multiple-aliquots and the single-aliquot techniques. In this study single aliquot regeneration on additive dose (SARA) procedure was also used. The result obtained was not in agreement with the results evaluated from the multiple-aliquots procedure. So a simple modification was suggested for SARA procedure. In our modified procedure the calculated dose (D) values were obtained by using the additive dose protocol instead of regeneration protocol

  14. Single-dose-response curves of murine gastrointestinal crypt stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, K.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.; Chen, K.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Dose-response curves for the reproductive capacity of crypt stem cells of murine colonic, jejunal, and gastric mucosae exposed in situ to multifractionated gamma ray exposures were analyzed and single-dose-survival curves of these cells were constructed. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The single-dose-response curves bend downward over a dose range of approximately 200 to 1500 rad; (2) cell death seems to be due to nonrepairable damage at doses less than 250 rad for colon, and 220 rad for jejunum; (3) there are 21, 110, and 140 stem cells per crypt of gastric, colonic, and jejunal mucosa, respectively; and (4) jejunal stem cells are the most radiosensitive and gastric mucosal stem cells are the most resistant

  15. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Sulieman, A.; Alsafi, K.; Omer, H.

    2014-08-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  16. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of cosmic or terrestrial origin is part of the environment in which all living things have evolved since the creation of the universe. The artificial radioactivity generated by medical diagnostic and treatment techniques, some industrial activities, radioactive fallout, etc. has now been added to this natural radioactivity. This article reviews the biological effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation to which the population is thus exposed. Their carcinogenic risk cannot simply be extrapolated from what we know about high-dose exposure. (author)

  17. Controllable dose: a discussion on the control of individual doses from single sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Contaminated land is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. It arises as a result of accidental releases, as from Chernobyl, and from manmade activities including atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Contamination is also an historic liability from, for example, plants using radium, or from excessive effluent discharges. A particular issue at present is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, old reactors and weapons fabrication facilities. These liabilities require the expenditure of considerable amounts of money and some people think that too much money is being, and will be, spent to achieve low levels of residual contamination. If contaminated land is not cleaned up there is public concern and in some countries there will be litigation, charging that the environmental risk is too great. These concerns have led to an increased pressure from some individuals to propose a threshold in the dose-response relationship in order to reduce the expenditure. It is true that, increasingly, our science is judged in the courts rather than by national academies os science. Judge and jury will decide on the issue of the threshold and it is they who must be convinced as to whether there are no risks at low doses of radiation. The issue is primarily in relation to public non occupational exposure, and because of the continuing lack of definitive scientific evidence, a new approach to protection could be considered (author)

  18. Controllable dose: a discussion on the control of individual doses from single sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.

    1999-01-01

    Contaminated land is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. It arises as a result of accidental releases, as from Chernobyl, and from manmade activities including atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Contamination is also an historic liability from, for example, plants using radium, or from excessive effluent discharges. A particular issue at present is the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, old reactors and weapons fabrication facilities. These liabilities require the expenditure of considerable amounts of money and some people think that too much money is being, and will be, spent to achieve low levels of residual contamination. If contaminated land is not cleaned up these is public concern and in some countries there will be litigation, charging that the environmental risk is too great. These concerns have led to an increased pressure from some individuals to propose a threshold in the dose-responses relationship in order to reduce the expenditure. It is true that, increasingly, our science is judged in the courts rather by national academies of sciences. Judge and jury decide on the issue to the threshold and it is they who must convinced as to whether there are no risks at low doses of radiation. The issue is primarily in relation to public not occupational exposure, and because of the continuing lack of definitive scientific evidence, a new approach to protection could be considered. (author)

  19. Biological effective doses in the intracavitary high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sobita Devi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the decrease of biological equivalent dose and its correlation withlocal/loco-regional control of tumour in the treatment of cervical cancer when the strength of the Ir-192 high dose rate(HDR brachytherapy (BT source is reduced to single, double and triple half life in relation to original strength of10 Ci (~ 4.081 cGy x m2 x h–1. Material and methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 52 cervical cancer patients with stage II and IIItreated with fractionated HDR-BT following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. International Commission onRadiation Units and Measurement (ICRU points were defined according to ICRU Report 38, using two orthogonal radiographimages taken by Simulator (Simulix HQ. Biologically effective dose (BED was calculated at point A for diffe -rent Ir-192 source strength and its possible correlation with local/loco-regional tumour control was discussed. Result: The increase of treatment time per fraction of dose due to the fall of dose rate especially in HDR-BT of cervicalcancer results in reduction in BED of 2.59%, 7.02% and 13.68% with single, double and triple half life reduction ofsource strength, respectively. The probabilities of disease recurrence (local/loco-regional within 26 months are expectedas 0.12, 0.12, 0.16, 0.39 and 0.80 for source strength of 4.081, 2.041, 1.020, 0.510 and 0.347 cGy x m2 x h–1, respectively.The percentages of dose increase required to maintain the same BED with respect to initial BED were estimated as1.71, 5.00, 11.00 and 15.86 for the dose rate of 24.7, 12.4, 6.2 and 4.2 Gy/hr at point A, respectively. Conclusions: This retrospective study of cervical cancer patients treated with HDR-BT at different Ir-192 sourcestrength shows reduction in disease free survival according to the increase in treatment time duration per fraction.The probable result could be associated with the decrease of biological equivalent dose to point A. Clinical

  20. Committed effective dose from thoron daughters inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Mankind's interest in natural radiation exposure levels has increased over the past fifty years and it is now recognized that the most significant contributors to human irradiation by natural sources are the short-lived decay products of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn). Despite the thoron short half-life of 55 s, effective dose from inhalation of thoron an its progeny ( 212 Pb and 212 Bi) must be considered, owing to the high thorium background in countries like Brazil, China and India, for example. The indoor committed effective dose was assessed by air sampling at the thorium purification plant and the nuclear materials storage site of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 21 glass fiber filter samples was analyzed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry in order to obtain the 212 Pb and 212 Bi activities. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) varied from 0.3 Bq/m 3 to 6.8 Bq/m 3 for the storage site air samples and from 9.9 Bq/m 3 to 249.8 Bq/m 3 for the thorium purification plant air samples. As retention studies indicate a biological half-life of a few hours inhaled thoron progeny in the human lungs, the main fraction of the potential alpha energy (PAEC) deposited is absorbed in the lungs, meaning negligible to the effective dose the contribution of the dose in other times. The committed effective dose due thoron progeny was performed by compartimental analysis following the ICRP 66 lung compartimental model and ICRP 67 lead compartimental model. The values obtained varied from 0.03 mSv/a to 0.67 mSv/a for the storage site air samples and from 0.12 mSv/a to 6.00 mSv/a for the thorium purification plant air samples. (author)

  1. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

  2. Alteration of the systemic and microcirculation by a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodai Ingawa

    Full Text Available Several systematic reviews have reported that flow mediated dilatation (FMD was significantly increased in subjects after ingestion of chocolate that contains flavan-3-ols; however, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols on the systemic circulation and microcirculation in the cremaster muscle using intravital video microscopy in vivo. The cremaster muscle in rats was spread over a plastic chamber and a gastric tube was placed into the stomach. Blood flow in the cremasteric artery was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter, while blood pressure and heart rate were measured by the tail-cuff method. Red blood cell velocity in arterioles and blood flow in the artery were significantly increased 5 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg flavan-3-ols compared with distilled water treatment. The number of capillaries recruited in the cremaster muscle was also significantly increased 15 min after treatment. Microscopic observation confirmed that increased shear stress on endothelial cells was maintained during the measurement period. The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were also significantly elevated soon after administration and returned to baseline before the end of the observation period. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels, and NO phosphorylation of aortic tissue were significantly increased at 60 min after administration of flavan-3-ols. According to these results, a single oral dose of flavan-3-ols elevates blood pressure and flow transiently, and these effects induce NO production through increased shear stress on endothelial cells.

  3. Randomized trial of single dose versus fractionated palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Bentzen, S.M.; Sandberg, E.; Gadeberg, C.C.; Timothy, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Data in the literature suggest that for painful bone metastases a single dose is as effective as fractionated radiotherapy. In the present multicentre prospective trial, the effects of 8 Gy x1 and 5 Gy x4 were compared. Patients and methods: A total of 241 patients were randomized to 8 Gy (122 patients) or 20 Gy (119 patients). The primary tumour was in the breast in 39% of patients, in the prostate in 34% of patients, in the lung in 13% of patients and in other locations in 14% of patients. Outcome measures were pain relief as measured by VAS and in half of the patients also by a five-point categorical pain scale, global quality of life (QoL) and analgesic consumption. Evaluation was performed before and 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. Results: A total of 239 patients were evaluable for response. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, primary tumour, metastasis localization, analgesic consumption (type and dose), performance status, prior systemic treatment, degree of pain and QoL. The treatment was completed as planned in 98% of patients. The degree of pain relief did not differ between the two treatment groups. At 4 weeks the difference in pain relief was 6% (95% CI 7, 20%) and at 8 weeks the difference was 13% (95% CI 3, 28%). Neither was there any significant difference in the duration of pain relief, the number of new painful sites and the need for reirradiation and toxicity was minor. Conclusion: The present randomized study showed that a single fraction of 8 Gy was as effective as 5 Gy x4 in relieving pain from bone metastasis. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Single cell low dose studies of bystander cell killing with targeted ultrasoft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, G.; Prise, K.M.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Michael, B.D.; Wu, L.; Held, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bystander responses have attracted considerable interest in the recent years and several investigations have reported a binary behavior with the effect triggered by very small doses and immediately reaching a plateau. The Ultrasoft X-ray Microprobe in operation at the GCI is a facility designed to precisely assess the biological response of individual cells in vitro irradiated with a sub-micron size X-ray beam . Although recent improvements have upgrade the facility with AlK and TiK X-rays, most of the bystander studies have been performed using CK X-rays of 278 eV. The high sensitivity and the accurate irradiation and revisiting of the individual samples allowed us to investigate specific characteristics of the bystander phenomenon. In particular, evidences of a dose dependency of cell killing by bystander effect have been found at doses below 0.2 Gy where no differences is observed between all cell and single cell irradiation. Recent improvements have also allowed us to individually identify the phase of the cell cycle of all samples exposed. Although the G2-S phase have been found the most sensitive in responding to the bystander signal (a factor of 1.3), cells in the G1 phase also respond significantly while the phase of the irradiated cell doesn't seem to play a critical role. The time scale of the bystander effect has also been investigated by irradiating the same sample(s) twice with a few hours gap between exposures. Results indicate that the bystander signal is transmitted within a few minutes from the irradiation as replacing the medium immediately after irradiation does not influence the response, and it doesn't depend on the number of cells irradiated (up to 5). However, after a resting time of a few hours (3 h), the system seems to reset itself and a second irradiation has been shown to trigger a further bystander effect. Finally, by considering the total amount of energy deposited in to the sample population as critical parameter (instead

  5. Single-dose radiosurgical treatment for hepatic metastases - therapeutic outcome of 138 treated lesions from a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermehl, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus K; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Hof, Holger; Rieken, Stefan; Kuhn, Sabine; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2013-01-01

    Local ablative therapies such as stereotactically guided single-dose radiotherapy or helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy (tomotherapy) with high single-doses are successfully applied in many centers in patients with liver metastasis not suitable for surgical resection. This study presents results from more than 10 years of clinical experience and evaluates long-term outcome and efficacy of this therapeutic approach. From 1997 to 2009 a total of 138 intrahepatic tumors of 90 patients were irradiated with single doses of 17 to 30 Gy (median dose 24 Gy). Median age of the patients was 64 years (range 31–89 years). Most frequent underlying tumor histologies were colorectal adenocarcinoma (70 lesions) and breast cancer (27 lesions). In 35 treatment sessions multiple targets were simultaneously irradiated (up to four lesions at once). Local progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) after treatment were investigated using uni- and multiple survival regression models. Median overall survival of all patients was 24.3 months. Local PFS was 87%, 70% and 59% after 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Median time to local progression was 25.5 months. Patients with a single lesion and no further metastases at time of RT had a favorable median PFS of 43.1 months according to the Kaplan-Meier estimator. The type of tumor showed a statistical significant influence on local PFS, with a better prognosis for breast cancer histology than for colorectal carcinoma in uni- and multiple regression analysis (p = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis revealed no influence of planning target volume (PTV), patient age and radiation dose on local PFS. Treatment was well tolerated with no severe adverse events. This study confirms safety of SBRT in liver lesions, with 6- and 12 months local control of 87% and 70%. The dataset represents the clinical situation in a large oncology setting, with many competing treatment options and heterogeneous patient characteristics

  6. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  7. Ameliorative effects of low dose/low dose-rate irradiation on reactive oxygen species-related diseases model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms have developed complex biological system which protects themselves against environmental radiation, and irradiation with proper dose, dose-rate and irradiation time can stimulate their biological responses against oxidative stress evoked by the irradiation. Because reactive oxygen species are involved in various human diseases, non-toxic low dose/low dose-rate radiation can be utilized for the amelioration of such diseases. In this study, we used mouse experimental models for fatty liver, nephritis, diabetes, and ageing to elucidate the ameliorative effect of low dose/low dose-rate radiation in relation to endogenous antioxidant activity. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. The irradiation increases hepatic anti-oxidative system involving glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, suggesting that endogenous radical scavenger is essential for the ameliorative effect of low dose radiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephritis. The irradiation increases catalase and decreases superoxide dismutase in kidney. The result suggests that low dose radiation reduced generation of hydroxide radical generation by reducing cellular hydroperoxide level. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy at 12 week of age ameliorates incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice through the suppression of inflammatory activity of splenocytes, and resultant apoptosis of β-cells in pancreas. The irradiation activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which coordinately diminish intracellular reactive oxygen species. Continuous irradiation at 0.70 mGy/hr from 10 week of age elongates life span, and suppresses alopecia in type II diabetesmice. The irradiation improved glucose clearance without affecting insulin-resistance, and increased pancreatic catalase activity. The results suggest that continuous low dose-rate irradiation protect

  8. The Effect of Low‑Dose Ketamine (Preemptive Dose) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average dosage of diclofenac suppository and mean time for taking the first dosage of opioids have not statistical difference too (respectively; P = 0.76, P = 0.87). Average dose of pethidine was lesser than placebo statistically. It means, the case group did not take pethidine but this amount was 6 (20%) in the control one (P ...

  9. Tissue distribution and elimination of BDE 47 in mice following a single oral dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staskal, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Diliberto, J.; DeVito, M.; Birnbaum, L. [US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, RTP (United States)

    2004-09-15

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) is a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener which is part of a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) commonly used in a variety of highly flammable consumer goods. Concern for the effects of PBDEs has increased significantly in recent years as their presence has been detected in environmental samples and in human tissues at steadily increasing concentrations. Despite its small contribution to the PBDE global production and usage, BDE 47 is the major congener found in environmental samples and human tissue. Limited toxicology studies suggest that BDE 47 is a developmental neurotoxicant and an endocrine disruptor however, several data gaps exist and must be investigated in order to evaluate the human health risk of BDE 47. This study investigated basic toxicokinetic properties of BDE 47 in female C57BL/6J mice. Here we report the effect of time on the absorption, distribution, and excretion following a single, oral dose of 14C-labeled BDE 47. Animals were administered 1.0mg BDE 47/kg bw, a dose chosen based on previous studies. Distribution and elimination were monitored at several time points ranging from 1 hour to 21 days following exposure. Data from these basic toxicokinetic studies will be applied to studies investigating the toxicokinetics of BDE 47 in a developmental model as well as in the development of a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model.

  10. A comparison of the angular dependence of effective dose and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, M.A.; Gierga, D.P.; Xu, X.G.

    1996-01-01

    In ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) Publication 60, the set of critical organs and their weighing factors were changed, defining the quantity effective dose, E. This quantity replaced the effective dose equivalent, H E , as defined by ICRP 26. Most notably, the esophagus was added to the list of critical organs. The Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code MCNP was used to determine the effective dose to sex-specific anthropomorphic phantoms. The phantoms, developed in previous research, were modified to include the esophagus. Monte Carlo simulations were performed for monoenergetic photon beams of energies 0.08 MeV, 0.3 MeV, and 1.0 MeV for various azimuthal and polar angles. Separate organ equivalent doses were determined for male and female phantoms. The resulting organ equivalent doses were calculated from arithmetic mean averages. The angular dependence of effective dose was compared with that of effective dose equivalent reported in previous research. The differences between the two definitions and possible implications to regulatory agencies were summarized

  11. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of tedizolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Shawn; Fang, Edward; Muñoz, Kelly A; Minassian, Sonia L; Prokocimer, Philippe G

    2014-09-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is a novel antibacterial under investigation for the treatment of gram-positive infections. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of intravenous tedizolid phosphate as well as the oral bioavailability of tedizolid phosphate. Double-blind, single-ascending dose, multiple-dose pharmacokinetics study, as well as tolerability and open-label crossover studies. Single center in the United States (Covance Clinical Research Unit, Madison, WI) between September 2009 and January 2010. Ninety healthy volunteers. Single intravenous (IV) doses of tedizolid phosphate 50 mg (lead-in) and 100-400 mg. Single oral and IV dose of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg in crossover fashion. Multiple IV doses of tedizolid phosphate 200 and 300 mg for up to 7 days. A dose-dependent increase was observed in the maximum plasma concentration (1.2-5.1 μg/ml) and the area under the concentration-time curve (17.4-58.7 μg × hr/ml) of tedizolid (the microbiologically active moiety of tedizolid phosphate) after single IV doses of tedizolid phosphate 100-400 mg. Administration of IV tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once/day for 7 days resulted in minimal (28%) tedizolid accumulation. The absolute oral bioavailability of tedizolid after a single 200-mg dose of tedizolid phosphate was 91%; pharmacokinetic parameters of tedizolid were similar with oral and IV administration. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 41% of subjects. Most adverse events were related to infusion site and became more frequent with multiple dosing. In an additional 3-day tolerability study, IV tedizolid phosphate 200 mg and placebo were similarly tolerated, based on visual infusion phlebitis scores. These results from a population of healthy volunteers support once/day dosing of tedizolid phosphate 200 mg with both the oral and IV formulations, without the need for dose adjustment when switching administration routes. © 2014 Cubist Pharmaceuticals. Pharmacotherapy

  12. A single daily dose enhances the adherence to immunosuppressive treatment in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kato, Taigo; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro

    2013-04-01

    Nonadherence to treatment regimens for immunosuppressive agents is one of the major risk factors for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative effect of daily dosing on treatment adherence, not to identify how patients are non-adherent, in long-term kidney transplant recipients. In January 2009, a cross-sectional, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire survey was given to kidney transplant recipients who regularly visited Inoue Hospital. A self-reporting questionnaire underestimates nonadherence, but we reasoned that the effect of the dosing regimen should be estimated with relative accuracy by using the generalized ordered logit/partial proportional hazard odds model given that the distribution patterns in the degree of nonadherence have been shown to be similar with other measures. Of 336 eligible patients, 312 (92.9 %) participated in this study. Two hundred seventy-four patients (87.8 %) were more than 3 years post-transplant. Univariate analysis revealed that a single daily dose was significantly associated with better adherence. After controlling for age, sex, time since transplantation, and the number of prescribed drugs, the effect of a single daily dose still remained significant [odds ratio, 0.40 (95 % confidence interval, 0.19-0.81); p = 0.011]. Several sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report that, in long-term kidney transplant recipients, a single daily regimen-one of few modifiable factors-might improve treatment adherence and allograft survival.

  13. Modifying effect of low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalendo, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that irradiation of Hela cells with stimulating doses of 0,1 Gy changes the cells' response to the subsequent radiation effect of greater value: instead of DNA synthesis inhibition stimulation takes place. Modifying effect of preliminary irradiation with 0,1 Gy manifests it self only in case if there is a certain time interval not less than 3 minutes and not more than 10 minutes (3-5 minutes is optimal interval). Data on modifying effect with 0,1 Gy at subcellular and cellular-population levels are presented. 21 refs.; 6 figs

  14. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Walter; Di Chiacchio, Nilton G; Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Romiti, Ricardo; Criado, Paulo R; Velho, Paulo Eduardo N Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001). The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002) and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  15. Single-dose volume regulation algorithm for a gas-compensated intrathecal infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Kwang Gi; Sung, Mun Hyun; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Dae Hyun; Jo, Yung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The internal pressures of medication reservoirs of gas-compensated intrathecal medication infusion pumps decrease when medication is discharged, and these discharge-induced pressure drops can decrease the volume of medication discharged. To prevent these reductions, the volumes discharged must be adjusted to maintain the required dosage levels. In this study, the authors developed an automatic control algorithm for an intrathecal infusion pump developed by the Korean National Cancer Center that regulates single-dose volumes. The proposed algorithm estimates the amount of medication remaining and adjusts control parameters automatically to maintain single-dose volumes at predetermined levels. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can regulate mean single-dose volumes with a variation of 98%. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Junior

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001. The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002 and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  17. Effective dose to radon considering people's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Seki, K.; Kikuchi, I.

    1992-01-01

    The tidal volume was estimated for evaluating the effective dose due to radon concentration in the atmosphere. In this study regional population was separated to vocation and non-vocation. The occupancy time and the breathing rate for both vocation and non-vocation groups were estimated, and the annual tidal volume for both groups were calculated. Human actions were separated to 18 activities in the process for estimating the breathing rate. It was clear that the breathing rate depended on human activity and that the human activity changed with its age, so the breathing rate varied with age. Finally the effective doses due to radon and radon progeny indoors and outdoors were evaluated. The maximum annual effective dose was estimated to be 1.2 mSv, minimum 0.2 mSv, and mean 0.51 mSv for vocation. For non-vocation, the male maximum value 0.43 mSv was obtained at the 16 age and the minimum 0.12 mSv at the 70 age, whereas female maximum 0.26 mSv was obtained at the 12 age and the minimum 0.11 mSv at the 70 age. In addition in this study objective areas are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures for vocation and only Aichi prefecture for non-vocation. (author)

  18. Dose rate-dependent marrow toxicity of TBI in dogs and marrow sparing effect at high dose rate by dose fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storb, R; Raff, R F; Graham, T; Appelbaum, F R; Deeg, H J; Schuening, F G; Sale, G; Seidel, K

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the marrow toxicity of 200 and 300 cGy total-body irradiation (TBI) delivered at 10 and 60 cGy/min, respectively, in dogs not rescued by marrow transplant. Additionally, we compared toxicities after 300 cGy fractionated TBI (100 cGy fractions) to that after single-dose TBI at 10 and 60 cGy/min. Marrow toxicities were assessed on the basis of peripheral blood cell count changes and mortality from radiation-induced pancytopenia. TBI doses studied were just below the dose at which all dogs die despite optimal support. Specifically, 18 dogs were given single doses of 200 cGy TBI, delivered at either 10 (n=13) or 60 (n=5) cGy/min. Thirty-one dogs received 300 cGy TBI at 10 cGy/min, delivered as either single doses (n=21) or three fractions of 100 cGy each (n=10). Seventeen dogs were given 300 cGy TBI at 60 cGy/min, administered either as single doses (n=5) or three fractions of 100 cGy each (n=10). Within the limitations of the experimental design, three conclusions were drawn: 1) with 200 and 300 cGy single-dose TBI, an increase of dose rate from 10 to 60 cGy/min, respectively, caused significant increases in marrow toxicity; 2) at 60 cGy/min, dose fractionation resulted in a significant decrease in marrow toxicities, whereas such a protective effect was not seen at 10 cGy/min; and 3) with fractionated TBI, no significant differences in marrow toxicity were seen between dogs irradiated at 60 and 10 cGy/min. The reduced effectiveness of TBI when a dose of 300 cGy was divided into three fractions of 100 cGy or when dose rate was reduced from 60 cGy/min to 10 cGy/min was consistent with models of radiation toxicity that allow for repair of sublethal injury in DNA.

  19. Response of rat spinal cord to single and fractionated doses of accelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, J.L.; McDonald, M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Bliven, S.F.; Walton, R.E.; Woodruff, K.H.; Howard, J.

    1980-01-01

    The response of rat spinal cord to irradiation with accelerated heavy ions, in particular carbon and neon ions has been studied. Two different ionization regions in the modified Bragg curve for each ion have been studied for both single and fractionated exposures. We have defined the paralytic response as a function of dose and dose per fraction, and we have determined RBE and repair values. The response of rat spinal cord is both dose and LET dependent, which allows the derivation of RBE and repair values

  20. Variable dose rate single-arc IMAT delivered with a constant dose rate and variable angular spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Grace; Earl, Matthew A; Yu, Cedric X

    2009-01-01

    Single-arc intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) has gained worldwide interest in both research and clinical implementation due to its superior plan quality and delivery efficiency. Single-arc IMAT techniques such as the Varian RapidArc(TM) deliver conformal dose distributions to the target in one single gantry rotation, resulting in a delivery time in the order of 2 min. The segments in these techniques are evenly distributed within an arc and are allowed to have different monitor unit (MU) weightings. Therefore, a variable dose-rate (VDR) is required for delivery. Because the VDR requirement complicates the control hardware and software of the linear accelerators (linacs) and prevents most existing linacs from delivering IMAT, we propose an alternative planning approach for IMAT using constant dose-rate (CDR) delivery with variable angular spacing. We prove the equivalence by converting VDR-optimized RapidArc plans to CDR plans, where the evenly spaced beams in the VDR plan are redistributed to uneven spacing such that the segments with larger MU weighting occupy a greater angular interval. To minimize perturbation in the optimized dose distribution, the angular deviation of the segments was restricted to ≤± 5 deg. This restriction requires the treatment arc to be broken into multiple sectors such that the local MU fluctuation within each sector is reduced, thereby lowering the angular deviation of the segments during redistribution. The converted CDR plans were delivered with a single gantry sweep as in the VDR plans but each sector was delivered with a different value of CDR. For four patient cases, including two head-and-neck, one brain and one prostate, all CDR plans developed with the variable spacing scheme produced similar dose distributions to the original VDR plans. For plans with complex angular MU distributions, the number of sectors increased up to four in the CDR plans in order to maintain the original plan quality. Since each sector was

  1. Remifentanil dose for laryngeal mask airway insertion with a single standard dose of propofol during emergency airway management in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Junghee; Oh, Ah Young; Baek, Ji-Seok; Kim, Jin-Hee; Park, Sang-Heon; Noh, Jae-Mun

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the dose of remifentanil to use during insertion of a Classic™ laryngeal mask airway (LMA, The Laryngeal Mask Co., Nicosia, Cyprus) in elderly patients during emergency airway management when combined with a single dose of propofol. Patients aged 65-80 years were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 1 mg/kg, and then a blinded dose of remifentanil was infused over 30 s after confirming the patient's loss of consciousness. The dose of remifentanil was determined using Dixon's up-and-down method, starting at 0.5 µg/kg (a step size of 0.1 µg/kg). Insertion of the LMA was attempted 60 s after loss of consciousness. In total, 23 patients were recruited and the mean age ± standard deviation was 72 ± 3 years. The effective dose for successful LMA insertion in 50% of the patients (ED50) was 0.20 ± 0.05 µg/kg. No patient needed more than 0.3 µg/kg. Remifentanil 0.20 ± 0.05 µg/kg with propofol 1 mg/kg resulted in excellent LMA insertion in 50% of elderly patients without significant hemodynamic changes during emergency airway management.

  2. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can a single dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevent cervical cancer? Early findings from an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Joshi, Smita; Muwonge, Richard; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha; Prabhu, Priya; Bhatla, Neerja; Nene, Bhagwan M; Shaw, Janmesh; Poli, Usha Rani Reddy; Verma, Yogesh; Zomawia, Eric; Pimple, Sharmila; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Gheit, Tarik; Waterboer, Tim; Sehr, Peter; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (Gardasil™) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default. They were followed up for the primary outcomes of immunogenicity in terms of L1 genotype-specific binding antibody titres, neutralising antibody titres, and antibody avidity for the vaccine-targeted HPV types and HPV infections. Analysis was per actual number of vaccine doses received. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN98283094; and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00923702. Of the 17,729 vaccinated girls, 4348 (25%) received three doses on days 1, 60, 180 or later, 4979 (28%) received two doses on days 1 and 180 or later, 3452 (19%) received two doses on days 1 and 60, and 4950 (28%) received one dose. One dose recipients demonstrated a robust and sustained immune response against HPV 16 and 18, albeit inferior to that of 3- or 2-doses and the antibody levels were stable over a 4 year period. The frequencies of cumulative incident and persistent HPV 16 and 18 infections up to 7 years of follow-up were similar and uniformly low in all the vaccinated study groups; the frequency of HPV 16 and 18 infections were significantly higher in unvaccinated age-matched control women than among vaccine recipients. The frequency of vaccine non-targeted HPV types was similar in the vaccinated groups but higher in the unvaccinated control women. Our results indicate that a single dose of quadrivalent HPV

  4. The effect of radiation dose on mouse skeletal muscle remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Fix, Dennis K.; Gao, Song; Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Carson, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two clinically relevant radiation doses on the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to remodeling. Alterations in muscle morphology and regulatory signaling were examined in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles after radiation doses that differed in total biological effective dose (BED). Female C57BL/6 (8-wk) mice were randomly assigned to non-irradiated control, four fractionated doses of 4 Gy (4x4 Gy; BED 37 Gy), or a single 16 Gy dose (16 Gy; BED 100 Gy). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the initial radiation exposure. The 16 Gy, but not 4x4 Gy, decreased total muscle protein and RNA content. Related to muscle regeneration, both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy increased the incidence of central nuclei containing myofibers, but only 16 Gy increased the extracellular matrix volume. However, only 4x4 Gy increased muscle 4-hydroxynonenal expression. While both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy decreased IIB myofiber mean cross-sectional area (CSA), only 16 Gy decreased IIA myofiber CSA. 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter IIA and IIB myofibers, while 4x4 Gy only increased the incidence of small diameter IIB myofibers. Both treatments decreased the frequency and CSA of low succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) fibers. Only 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter myofibers having high SDH activity. Neither treatment altered muscle signaling related to protein turnover or oxidative metabolism. Collectively, these results demonstrate that radiation dose differentially affects muscle remodeling, and these effects appear to be related to fiber type and oxidative metabolism

  5. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral...... antihyperglycemic agents in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The degree of DPP-4 inhibition and the level of active incretin augmentation required for glucose lowering efficacy after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... concentrations; and sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Sitagliptin dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity over 24 h, enhanced active GLP-1 and GIP levels, increased insulin/C-peptide, decreased glucagon, and reduced glycemic excursion after OGTTs administered at 2 and 24 h after single oral 25...

  6. Cumulative doses analysis in young trauma patients: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Sergio; Marrale, Maurizio; Geraci, Claudia; Caruso, Giuseppe; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) represents the main source of radiation exposure in trauma patients. The radiation exposure of young patients is a matter of considerable medical concern due to possible long-term effects. Multiple MDCT studies have been observed in the young trauma population with an increase in radiation exposure. We have identified 249 young adult patients (178 men and 71 women; age range 14-40 years) who had received more than one MDCT study between June 2010 and June 2014. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication, we have calculated the cumulative organ dose tissue-weighting factors by using CT-EXPO software(®). We have observed a mean cumulative dose of about 27 mSv (range from 3 to 297 mSv). The distribution analysis is characterised by low effective dose, below 20 mSv, in the majority of the patients. However, in 29 patients, the effective dose was found to be higher than 20 mSv. Dose distribution for the various organs analysed (breasts, ovaries, testicles, heart and eye lenses) shows an intense peak for lower doses, but in some cases high doses were recorded. Even though cumulative doses may have long-term effects, which are still under debate, high doses are observed in this specific group of young patients.

  7. Accelerated repopulation of mouse tongue epithelium during fractionated irradiations or following single doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Kummermehr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mouse tongue mucosa was established as an animal model to study repopulation after large single doses or during continuous irradiation. A top-up irradiation technique was used employing priming doses or fractionated treatment to the whole snout (300 kV X-rays) followed by local test doses (25 kV X-rays) to elicit denudation in a confined field of the inferior tongue surface. Clearcut quantal dose-response curves of ulcer incidence were obtained to all protocols; animal morbidity, i.e. body weight loss was minimal. Repopulation following priming doses of 10 and 13 Gy started with a delay of at least 3 days and then progressed rapidly to nearly restore original tissue tolerance by day 11. During continuous fractionation over 1 to 3 weeks with 5 fractions/week and doses per fraction of 2.5, 3 and 3.5 Gy, repopulation was small in week one but subsequently increased to fully compensate the weekly dose at all dose levels. Additional measurements of cell density during a 4 weeks course of 5 x 3 Gy or 5 x 4 Gy per week showed only moderate depletion to 67% of the control figures. The fact that rapid repopulation is achieved at relatively moderate damage levels should be taken into account when the timing of a treatment split is considered. (author). 18 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Comparison of scatter doses from a multislice and a single slice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, J. W.; Causer, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    During shielding calculations for a new multislice CT (MSCT) scanner it was found that the manufacturer's data indicated significantly higher external scatter doses than would be generated for a single slice CT (SSCT). Even allowing for increased beam width, the manufacturer's data indicated that the scatter dose per scan was higher by a factor of about 3 to 4. The magnitude of the discrepancy was contrary to expectations and also contrary to a statement by the UK ImPACT group, which indicated that when beam width is taken into account, the scatter doses should be similar. The matter was investigated by comparing scatter doses from an SSCT and an MSCT. Scatter measurements were performed at three points using a standard perspex CTDI phantom, and CT dose indices were also measured to compare scanner output. MSCT measurements were performed with a 40 mm wide beam, SSCT measurements with a 10 mm wide beam. A film badge survey was also performed after the installation of the MSCT scanner to assess the adequacy of lead shielding in the room. It was found that the scatter doses from the MSCT were lower than indicated by the manufacturer's data. MSCT scatter doses were approximately 4 times higher than those from the SSCT, consistent with expectations due to beam width differences. The CT dose indices were similar, and the film badge survey indicated that the existing shielding, which had been adequate for the SSCT, was also adequate for the MSCT

  9. The origin of dose distributions in fluvial sediments, and the prospect of dating single grains from fluvial deposits using optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olley, J.M.; Caitcheon, G.G.; Roberts, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the causes of the asymmetric distributions of dose observed from measurements of the optically stimulated luminescence emitted by small aliquots of fluvial quartz, and deduce that the asymmetry arises as a result of samples being composed of a mix of mainly well bleached grains with grains that were effectively unbleached at the time of deposition. We demonstrate that the shapes of the dose distributions can be used to assess the likelihood that aliquots consist only of grains that were well-bleached at the time of deposition. The more asymmetric the distribution, the greater the probability that the aliquots with the lowest dose most closely represent the true burial dose. Single grains with differing doses are present in each of the samples examined, and the population with the lowest dose gives an optical age consistent with the expected burial age. This result implies that the beta-dose heterogeneity in these deposits is small, and that the effects of micro-dosimetric variations on optical dating of individual grains are not significant for these samples. We demonstrate that single-grain dating of fluvial material is possible and practicable using standard Risoe optical dating equipment, and we conclude that application of a new regenerative-dose protocol to single grains of quartz, using the lowest dose population to estimate the burial dose, is the best available means of obtaining reliable luminescence ages for heterogeneously bleached fluvial sediments

  10. Bile duct evaluation of potential living liver donors with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Single-dose, double dose or half-dose contrast enhanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinner, Sonja, E-mail: Sonja.Kinner@uni-due.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Steinweg, Verena [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Maderwald, Stefan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Radtke, Arnold; Sotiropoulos, Georgios [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Schroeder, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of the biliary anatomy is essential to avoid complications in living donor liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dosage of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (ce-MRC) with reference to contrast-enhanced CT cholangiography (ce-CTC). Materials and methods: 30 potential living liver donors (PLLD) underwent both ce-CTC and ce-MRC. Ten candidates each received single, double or half-dose Gd-EOB-DTPA. Ce-MRC images with and without inversion recovery pulses (T1w ± IR) were acquired 20–30 min after intravenous contrast injection. Image data was quantitatively and qualitatively reviewed by two radiologists based on a on a 5-point scale. Data sets were compared using a Mann–Whitney-U-test or Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Kappa values were also calculated. Results: All image series provided sufficient diagnostic information both showing normal biliary anatomy and variant bile ducts. Ce-CTC showed statistically significant better results compared to all ce-MRC data sets. T1w MRC with single dose Gd-EOB-DTPA proved to be superior to half and double dose in subjective and objective evaluation without a statistically significant difference. Conclusions: Ce-MRC is at any dosage inferior to ce-CTC. As far as preoperative planning of bile duct surgery is focused on the central biliary anatomy, ce-MRC can replace harmful ce-CTC strategies, anyway. Best results were seen with single dose GD-EOB-DTPA on T1w MRC+IR.

  11. Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Sendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67% received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225 of the patients. 28% (63/225 were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63 of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63 underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  12. Failure rate of single dose methotrexate in managment of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendy, Feras; AlShehri, Eman; AlAjmi, Amani; Bamanie, Elham; Appani, Surekha; Shams, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67%)) received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225) of the patients. 28% (63/225) were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63) of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63) underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  13. Standard effective doses for proliferative tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.C.; Hoban, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the treatment schedules used clinically for highly proliferative tumours, particularly with reference to the effects of fraction size, fraction number and treatment duration. The linear quadratic model (with time component) is used here to compare non-standard treatment regimens (e.g. accelerated and hyperfractionated schedules), currently the focus of randomized trials, with each other and some common 'standard regimens'. To ensure easy interpretation of results, two parameters known as proliferative standard effective dose one (PSED 1 ) and proliferative standard effective dose two (PSED 2 ) have been calculated for each regimen. Graphs of PSED 1 and PSED 2 versus potential doubling time (T p ) have been generated for a range of fractionation regimens which are currently under trial in various randomized studies. From these graphs it can be seen that the highly accelerated schedules (such as CHART) only show advantages for tumours with very short potential doubling times. Calculations for most of the schedules considered showed at least equivalent tumour control expected for the trial schedule compared with the control arm used and these values agree quite well with clinical results. These calculations are in good agreement with clinical results available at present. The greater the PSED 1 or PSED 2 for the schedule considered the greater the tumour control, which can be expected. However, as has been seen with clinical trials, this higher cell kill also results in higher acute effects which have proved too great for some accelerated schedules to continue. (author)

  14. Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ≥5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are

  15. Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Pedersen, Peter; Petersen, Asger Greval; Eiskjær, Søren Peter

    2016-01-01

    Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery. A study on anthropomorphic phantoms describing patient radiation exposure in full spine examinations. Authors: Peter Heide Pedersen, Asger Greval Petersen, Søren Peter Eiskjær. Background: Ionizing radiation potentially...... quality images while at the same time reducing radiation dose. At our institution we use the EOS for pre- and postoperative full spine examinations. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to make first time organ dose and effective dose evaluations with micro-dose settings in full spine examinations. Our...... hypothesis is that organ dose and effective doses can be reduced 5-10 times compared to standard settings, without too high image-quality trade off, resulting in a theoretical reduction of radiation induced cancer. Methods: Patient dosimetry is performed on anthropomorphic child phantoms, representing a 5...

  16. Age-dependent conversion coefficients for organ doses and effective doses for external neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizaki, Chihiro; Endo, Akira; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-06-01

    To utilize dose assessment of the public for external neutron irradiation, conversion coefficients of absorbed doses of organs and effective doses were calculated using the numerical simulation technique for six different ages (adult, 15, 10, 5 and 1 years and newborn), which represent the member of the public. Calculations were performed using six age-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for two irradiation geometries, anterior-posterior and rotational geometries, for 20 incident energies from thermal to 20 MeV. Effective doses defined by the 1990 Recommendation of ICRP were calculated from the absorbed doses in 21 organs. The calculated results were tabulated in the form of absorbed doses and effective doses per unit neutron fluence. The calculated conversion coefficients are used for dose assessment of the public around nuclear facilities and accelerator facilities. (author)

  17. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in healthy Chinese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Y

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yimin Cui,1 Yan Song,2 Jessie Wang,2 Zhigang Yu,2 Alan Schuster,2 Yu Chen Barrett,2 Charles Frost2 1Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA Background: The pharmacokinetics (PK, pharmacodynamics (PD, and safety of apixaban were assessed in healthy Chinese subjects in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-sequence, single- and multiple-dose study. Subjects and methods: Eighteen subjects 18–45 years of age were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio to receive apixaban or matched placebo. Subjects received a single 10 mg dose of apixaban or placebo on day 1, followed by 10 mg apixaban or placebo twice daily for 6 days (days 4–9. The PK and PD of apixaban were assessed by collecting plasma samples for 72 hours following the dose on day 1 and the morning dose on day 9, and measuring apixaban concentration and anti-Xa activity. Safety was assessed via physical examinations, vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory evaluations. Results: PK analysis showed similar characteristics of apixaban after single and multiple doses, including a median time to maximum concentration of ~3 hours, mean elimination half-life of ~11 hours, and renal clearance of ~1.2 L/hour. The accumulation index was 1.7, consistent with twice-daily dosing and the observed elimination half-life. Single-dose data predict multiple-dose PK, therefore apixaban PK are time-independent. The relationship between anti-Xa activity and plasma apixaban concentrations appears to be linear. Apixaban was safe and well tolerated, with no bleeding-related adverse events reported. Conclusion: Apixaban was safe and well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. Apixaban PK and PD were predictable and consistent with findings from previous studies in Asian and non-Asian subjects. The administration of apixaban does not require any dose modification based on race. Keywords: apixaban, oral

  18. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is at this point excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron systems. As discussed here, such work has to date been carried out

  19. A luminescence imaging system for the routine measurement of single-grain OSL dose distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Myung Ho; Lapp, Torben; Murray, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    the potential of an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD), providing extremely low level light detection. We characterize the performance of the device by discussing reproducibility and evaluating uncertainties in OSL signals. Finally we derive a typical single grain natural dose distribution...

  20. Single dose of fluoxetine increases muscle activation in chronic stroke patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, Hanneke Irene; Nijlant, Juliette M.M.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Movig, Kris L.L.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study explores the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine (20 mg) on the muscle activation patterns and functional ability of the muscles in the lower part of the arm in chronic stroke patients. Methods: A crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 10

  1. X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Debo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a concept about circuit designing of X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software, and gives several methods for solving the design procedure of hardware and software with emphasis. (authors)

  2. Sources of variability in OSL dose measurements using single grains of quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2005-01-01

    spread. In this preliminary study, dose distributions have been studied using single grains of heated and laboratory irradiated quartz. By heating the sample, the contribution from incomplete zeroing was excluded and at the same time the sample was sensitised. The laboratory gamma irradiation...

  3. Single dose silodosin prior to voiding cystourethrogram: a pharmacological adjunct to enhance visualization of posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagathan, Deepak Sharanappa; Dalela, Divakar; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Goel, Apul; Dwivedi, Amod Kumar; Yadav, Rahul

    2014-03-04

    Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is needed to ascertain the upper end of urethral stricture. Occasionally, a patient is unable to open the bladder neck with resultant failure of the test. Realizing the strong and prompt alpha antagonistic action of silodosin, we evaluated single 8 mg dose as a pharmacological adjunct prior to VCUG to overcome this problem.

  4. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Kalend, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  5. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, J C; Kalend, A [Pittsburgh University School of Medicine (USA). Department of Radiation Oncology Pittsburg Cancer Institute (USA)

    1990-03-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  6. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  7. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) for acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2013-06-24

    Combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief than either drug alone in acute pain. This appears to be broadly true across a range of different drug combinations, in postoperative pain and migraine headache. Some combinations of ibuprofen and paracetamol are available for use without prescription in some acute pain situations. To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of single dose oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol for acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (Issue 4 of 12, 2013), MEDLINE (1950 to May 21st 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 21st 2013), the Oxford Pain Database, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of articles. Randomised, double-blind clinical trials of single dose, oral ibuprofen plus paracetamol compared with placebo or the same dose of ibuprofen alone for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed quality, and extracted data. We used validated equations to calculate the area under the pain relief versus time curve and derive the proportion of participants with at least 50% of maximum pain relief over six hours. We calculated relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for ibuprofen plus paracetamol, ibuprofen alone, or placebo. We used information on use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. We also collected information on adverse events. Searches identified three studies involving 1647 participants. Each of them examined several dose combinations. Included studies provided data from 508 participants for the comparison of ibuprofen 200 mg + paracetamol 500 mg with placebo, 543

  8. Single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of intravenous and intramuscular HPβCD-diclofenac (Dyloject) compared with other diclofenac formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Fred; Hamilton, Douglas A; Wright, Curtis; Lacouture, Peter G; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Carr, Daniel B

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate single- and repeated-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and dose proportionality of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD)-diclofenac compared with Voltarol after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Study 1: Single-dose randomized four-way crossover study. Study 2: Multiple-dose randomized three-way crossover study. Clinical research center. Healthy adult volunteers. Study 1: Subjects received HPβCD-diclofenac and Voltarol, IV and IM, with a 5-day washout between treatment periods. Study 2: Subjects received two doses of IV HPβCD-diclofenac and oral Cataflam once every 6 hours for four doses with a 48-hour washout period between treatment periods. Study 1: IV HPβCD-diclofenac had a higher peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and earlier time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ), but equivalent plasma exposure (area under the curve from time zero to t [AUC0-t ]) to IV Voltarol. The geometric mean ratio of HPβCD-diclofenac (IV) to Voltarol (IV) for AUC0-t was 106.27%. The geometric mean ratio of HPβCD-diclofenac (IM) to Voltarol (IM) for AUC0-t was 110.91%. The geometric mean ratio of HPβCD-diclofenac (IV) to HPβCD-diclofenac (IM) for AUC0-t was 101.25%. The geometric mean ratio of HPβCD-diclofenac (IM) to Voltarol (IV) for AUC0-t was 104.96%. Study 2: Cmax for diclofenac was 2904 and 6031 ng/ml after the first IV dose of 18.75 and 37.5 mg HPβCD-diclofenac, respectively, and was 3090 and 5617 ng/ml after the fourth dose, indicating no accumulation. Plasma exposures to 18.75 mg (866 ng·hour/ml) and 37.5 mg (1843 ng·hour/ml) IV HPβCD-diclofenac bracketed that of oral Cataflam 50 mg (1473 ng·hour/ml). Study 1: Bioavailability in terms of AUC after IV administration was equivalent for HPβCD-diclofenac compared with Voltarol and after IM administration of HPβCD-diclofenac and Voltarol. Bioavailability in terms of AUC after IM administration of HPβCD-diclofenac was equivalent to IV administration of HP

  9. Study on relations between heavy ions single event upset cross sections and γ accumulated doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; Wang Yanping; Peng Honglun; Yang Hailiang; Chen Xiaohua; Li Guozheng

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were done under 252 Cf and 60 Co γ source to study the relation between heavy ion Single Event Upset (SEU) cross sections and γ accumulated doses. There was no obvious rule and little influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections when Static Random Access Memories were in power off mode and static power on mode. In active measuring mode, the SEU cross section increased as the accumulated doses increasing when same data were written in memory cells. If reverse data, such as '55' and 'AA', were written in memory cells during the experiment, the SEU cross sections decreased to the level when memories were not irradiated under 60 Co γ source, even more small. It implied that the influence of γ accumulated doses on SEU cross sections can be set off by this method

  10. Association of the multidrug resistance-1 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the tacrolimus dose requirements in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglicheau, Dany; Verstuyft, Céline; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Becquemont, Laurent; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Cassinat, Bruno; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric

    2003-07-01

    The immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus, whose pharmacokinetic characteristics display large interindividual variations, is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene. Some of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MDR1 reported correlated with the in vivo activity of P-gp. Because P-gp is known to control tacrolimus intestinal absorption, it was postulated that these polymorphisms are associated with tacrolimus pharmacokinetic variations in renal transplant recipients. The objective of this study was to evaluate in a retrospective study of 81 renal transplant recipients the effect on tacrolimus dosages and concentration/dose ratio of four frequent MDR1 SNP possibly associated with P-gp function (T-129C in exon 1b, 1236C>T in exon 12, 2677G>T,A in exon 21, and 3435C>T in exon 26). As in the general population, the SNP in exons 12, 21, and 26 were frequent (16, 17.3, and 22.2% for the variant homozygous genotype, respectively) and exhibited incomplete linkage disequilibrium. One month after tacrolimus introduction, exon 21 SNP correlated significantly with the daily tacrolimus dose (P < or = 0.05) and the concentration/dose ratio (P < or = 0.02). Tacrolimus dose requirements were 40% higher in homozygous than wild-type patients for this SNP. The concentration/dose ratio was 36% lower in the wild-type patients, suggesting that, for a given dose, their tacrolimus blood concentration is lower. Haplotype analysis substantiated these results and suggested that exons 26 and 21 SNP may be associated with tacrolimus dose requirements. Genotype monitoring of the MDR1 gene reliably predicts the optimal dose of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients and may predict the initial daily dose needed by individual patients to obtain adequate immunosuppression.

  11. Single versus double dose praziquantel comparison on efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni re-infection in preschool-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel...... (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially...... all children were treated with a single standard oral dose 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ. Two weeks later a second dose was administered to children in the double dose treatment arm. Side effects were monitored at 30 minutes to 24 hours after each treatment. Efficacy in terms of CRs and ERRs for the two...

  12. Single induction dose of etomidate versus other induction agents for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Eric A; Ball, Ian M; Ridi, Stacy; Pickett, William; Hohl, Corinne

    2015-01-08

    The use of etomidate for emergency airway interventions in critically ill patients is very common. In one large registry trial, etomidate was the most commonly used agent for this indication. Etomidate is known to suppress adrenal gland function, but it remains unclear whether or not this adrenal gland dysfunction affects mortality. The primary objective was to assess, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects mortality.The secondary objectives were to address, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects adrenal gland function, organ dysfunction, or health services utilization (as measured by intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor requirements).We repeated analyses within subgroups defined by the aetiologies of critical illness, timing of adrenal gland function measurement, and the type of comparator drug used. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; LILACS; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; Web of Science; the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); and ISI BIOSIS Citation index(SM) on 8 February 2013. We reran the searches in August 2014. We will deal with any studies of interest when we update the review.We also searched the Scopus database of dissertations and conference proceedings and the US Food and Drug Administration Database. We handsearched major emergency medicine, critical care, and anaesthesiology journals.We handsearched the conference proceedings of major emergency medicine, anaesthesia, and critical care conferences from 1990 to current, and performed a grey literature search of the following: Current Controlled Trials; National Health Service - The National Research Register; ClinicalTrials.gov; NEAR website. We included randomized controlled

  13. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  14. ESTIMATION OF THE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FROM DOSE-AREA PRODUCT TO EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR BARIUM MEAL EXAMINATIONS FOR ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vodovatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroscopic examinations of the upper gastro-intestinal tract and, especially, barium meal examinations, are commonly performed in a majority of hospitals. These examinations are associated both with substantial individual patient doses and contribution to the collective dose from medical exposure. Effective dose estimation for this type of examinations is complicated due to: 1 the necessity to simulate the moving X-ray irradiation field; 2 differences in study structure for the individual patients; 3 subjectivity of the operators; and 4 differences in the X-ray equipment. The aim of the current study was to estimate conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose for barium meal examinations for the over couch and under couch exposure conditions. The study was based on data collected in the X-ray unit of the surgical department of the St-Petersburg Mariinsky hospital. A model of patient exposure during barium meal examination was developed based on the collected data on fluoroscopy protocols and adult patient irradiation geometry. Conversion coefficients were calculated using PCXMC 2.0 software. Complete examinations were converted into a set of typical fluoroscopy phases and X-ray images, specified by the examined anatomical region and the projection of patient exposure. Conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose were calculated for each phase of the examination and for the complete examination. The resulting values of the conversion coefficients are comparable with published data. Variations in the absolute values of the conversion coefficients can be explained by differences in clinical protocols, models for the estimation of the effective dose and parameters of barium meal examinations. The proposed approach for estimation of effective dose considers such important features of fluoroscopic examinations as: 1 non-uniform structure of examination, 2 significant movement of the X-ray tube within a single

  15. Is single-dose fosfomycin trometamol a good alternative for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimesterof pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Inegöl, Ilknur; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Koç, Akif; Turhan, Nilgün Oztürk

    2007-05-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with acute pyelonephritis, which may have a role in many maternal and fetal complications. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is related to anemia, septicemia, transient renal dysfunction, and pulmonary insufficiency. A randomized study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological efficacy of a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimester of pregnancy compared with a 5-day regimen of cefuroxime axetyl. Forty-four women received fosfomycin trometamol and 40 women received cefuroxime axetyl. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding the mean age and mean duration of pregnancy. Therapeutic success was achieved in 93.2% of the patients treated with fosfomycin trometamol vs 95% of those treated with cefuroxime axetyl. A single dose of fosfomycin trometamol is a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Determination of Effect of Low Dose Vs Moderate Dose of Clofibrate on the Decreasing in Serum Bilirubin Level in the Term Healthy Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ashkan Moslehi; Narges Pishva

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to determine the effect of low doses (25 mg/Kg) vs. moderate doses (50 mg/Kg) of clofibrate in treatment of non-hemolytic hyperbilirubin¬emia in healthy term neonates. Material & Methods: A clinical randomized controlled trial was performed in three groups of healthy term neonates. One group was treated with a single low dose of clofibrate (25 mg/Kg) while another group received a single moderate dose (50mg/kg) both orally plus phototherapy; the results wer...

  17. We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effective dose concept was designed to compare the generic risks of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radiation-induced cancer risks. For various reasons, effective dose represents flawed science: for instance, the tissue-specific weighting factors used to calculate effective dose are a subjective mix of different endpoints; and the marked and differing age and gender dependencies for different health detriment endpoints are not taken into account. This paper suggests that effective dose could be replaced with a new quantity, ‘effective risk’, which, like effective dose, is a weighted sum of equivalent doses to different tissues. Unlike effective dose, where the tissue-dependent weighting factors are a set of generic, subjective committee-defined numbers, the weighting factors for effective risk are simply evaluated tissue-specific lifetime cancer risks per unit equivalent dose. Effective risk, which has the potential to be age and gender specific if desired, would perform the same comparative role as effective dose, be just as easy to estimate, be less prone to misuse, be more directly understandable, and would be based on solid science. An added major advantage is that it gives the users some feel for the actual numerical values of the radiation risks they are trying to control.

  18. Single dose oral ranitidine improves MRCP image quality: a double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, M.T.; Martin, D.F.; Melling, A.; Roberts, D.; Laasch, H.-U.; Sukumar, S.; Morris, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possibility of whether a single 300 mg dose of ranitidine given orally 2-3 h before magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could reduce the signal from the stomach and duodenum, and thus increase the conspicuousness of the biliary tree. Materials and methods: Thirty-five volunteers (22 female, 13 male), (age range 21-50) were underwent MRCP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial on a Philips Intera 1.5 T machine using a phased array surface coil. Imaging was carried out in the coronal oblique plane. Six 40 mm sections were acquired at varying angles to delineate the biliary tree and pancreatic duct. The 70 examinations were blindly scored by three consultants experienced in cholangiography. Results: After ranitidine administration there was a significant decrease in signal from the stomach (mean = 17.7, p = 0.0005, CI 10, 25.3) and duodenum (mean = 18.4, p = 0.0005, 95%CI 9.6, 27.1) with a significant increase in conspicuousness of the distal common duct (mean = 7.7, p = 0.033, 95%CI 0.7, 14.7) and proximal common duct (mean = 8.7, p = 0.010 CI 2.2, 15.2). There were no adverse effects. Conclusion: Oral ranitidine is a cheap and effective agent to decrease signal from the upper gastrointestinal tract and to improve visibility of the biliary tree

  19. Functional and morphological changes in pig skin after single or fractionated doses in x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.M.A.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The flank skin of pigs has been treated with either single or fractionated doses of x-irradiation. A single dose (2070 cGy) was compared with treatment given as 6 fractions in 18 days (6f/18 days; 3780 cGy) or 30 fractions in 39 days (30f/39 days; 8000 cGy). The doses were selected on the basis that similar levels of late tissue damage would result. Radiation induced changes in the skin were assessed by observing the skin reactions and by the measurement of isotope clearance (functional study), relative field contraction, dermal and epidermal thickness and dermal vascular density (morphological studies). In the three treatment groups the early radiation reaction varied considerably. In the first wave reaction (3 to 6 weeks after treatment) bright red erythema was recorded in many fields but moist desquamation developed only in the 30f/39 days treatment group. The second wave (10-16 weeks) was characterized by an ischemic mauve/dusky reaction. Dermal necrosis developed in 50% of the single dose fields. In the 30f/39 days regimen persistent moist desquamation progressed to dermal necrosis. Neither desquamation nor necrosis developed after 6f/18 days. Different levels of vascular damage in the dermis were assessed using an isotope clearance technique; for example in the early reaction significant changes were recorded in the papillary dermis (faster clearance) prior to the development of moist desquamation (30f/39 days) and in the reticular dermis (slower clearance) before necrosis (single dose). Changes in clearance rates have been correlated with changes in the vascular density and thickness of the dermis. Between 26 and 52 weeks (the late reaction) relative field contraction was slightly greater in the 30f/39 days group than in the other treatment groups

  20. Development of a synthetic single crystal diamond dosimeter for dose measurement of clinical proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moignier, Cyril; Tromson, Dominique; de Marzi, Ludovic; Marsolat, Fanny; García Hernández, Juan Carlos; Agelou, Mathieu; Pomorski, Michal; Woo, Romuald; Bourbotte, Jean-Michel; Moignau, Fabien; Lazaro, Delphine; Mazal, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The scope of this work was to develop a synthetic single crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDD-Pro) for accurate relative dose measurements of clinical proton beams in water. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out based on the MCNPX code in order to investigate and reduce the dose curve perturbation caused by the SCDD-Pro. In particular, various diamond thicknesses were simulated to evaluate the influence of the active volume thickness (e AV) as well as the influence of the addition of a front silver resin (250 µm in thickness in front of the diamond crystal) on depth-dose curves. The simulations indicated that the diamond crystal alone, with a small e AV of just 5 µm, already affects the dose at Bragg peak position (Bragg peak dose) by more than 2% with respect to the Bragg peak dose deposited in water. The optimal design that resulted from the Monte Carlo simulations consists of a diamond crystal of 1 mm in width and 150 µm in thickness with the front silver resin, enclosed by a water-equivalent packaging. This design leads to a deviation between the Bragg peak dose from the full detector modeling and the Bragg peak dose deposited in water of less than 1.2%. Based on those optimizations, an SCDD-Pro prototype was built and evaluated in broad passive scattering proton beams. The experimental evaluation led to probed SCDD-Pro repeatability, dose rate dependence and linearity, that were better than 0.2%, 0.4% (in the 1.0-5.5 Gy min-1 range) and 0.4% (for dose higher than 0.05 Gy), respectively. The depth-dose curves in the 90-160 MeV energy range, measured with the SCDD-Pro without applying any correction, were in good agreement with those measured using a commercial IBA PPC05 plane-parallel ionization chamber, differing by less than 1.6%. The experimental results confirmed that this SCDD-Pro is suitable for measurements with standard electrometers and that the depth-dose curve perturbation is negligible, with no energy dependence and no significant dose rate

  1. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal in the development of this project was the demonstration and exploration of the microwave properties of single-electron system. As discussed in this paper such work has to data been carried out. Also as discussed in our previous progress report, the next step in the experimental evolution of the project will be to use lithographically-defined small dots as capacitors as outlined in our proposal. At this point we have made such microdotsdots as will be discussed. We have also continued our work with metal droplets to form single-electron tunnel systems

  2. Controlled single-blind clinical evaluation of low-dose mammographic screen: film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.; Genant, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of five low-dose mammographic screen-film systems to portray normal and abnormal breast structures was evaluated in parallel with a study of physical image properties. Single-blind evaluations of the visibility of normal breast architecture, mass lesions, and calcifications were made on the mammograms of 100 patients radiographed with each of the systems. There was increased noise and slightly poorer resolution of the faster recording systems, but there was no difference in final diagnostic impressions among the five systems. These results suggest that the faster systems will result in substantial dose reduction without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy

  3. Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauls, Mathilde M H; Clarke, Natasha; Trippier, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    vascular territories. The aim of this trial is to test the hypothesis that tadalafil increases cerebral blood flow in older people with small vessel disease. METHODS/DESIGN: Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS) is a phase II randomised double......-blind crossover trial. In two visits, 7-30 days apart, participants undergo arterial spin labelling to measure cerebral blood flow and a battery of cognitive tests, pre- and post-dosing with oral tadalafil (20 mg) or placebo. SAMPLE SIZE: 54 participants are required to detect a 15% increase in cerebral blood...

  4. Single-dose rofecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults: a quantitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuay Henry J

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rofecoxib is a cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective inhibitor. This systematic review of rofecoxib in acute pain examined studies in adults of analgesic efficacy over six hours, the amount and quality of the evidence on extended duration of analgesia, and the quality and quantity of evidence on adverse events. Methods Cochrane Library (issue 4, 2001, Biological Abstracts (March 2002, MEDLINE (March 2002 and PubMed (March 2002 were searched using rofecoxib as a free text term. The area under the pain relief versus time curve was dichotomized using validated equations to derive the proportion of patients on rofecoxib 50 mg or placebo with at least 50% pain relief over six hours. This was used to calculate the number needed to treat for at least 50% pain relief over six hours for rofecoxib compared with placebo. Information on duration of analgesia and adverse events was also collected. Results Five included trials investigated 1,118 patients, of whom 211 received placebo and 464 received rofecoxib 50 mg. The NNT for rofecoxib 50 mg was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 2.6. The weighted mean remedication time was 1.9 hours for placebo (126 patients, 7.4 hours for ibuprofen 400 mg (97 patients and 13.6 hours for rofecoxib 50 mg (322 patients. Conclusion Rofecoxib at 2–4 times the standard daily dose for chronic pain is an effective single dose oral analgesic in acute pain. Limitations in trial reporting constrain conclusions about longer duration of analgesia and adverse event profile.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple intravenous doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao; Wu, Xiao-Jie; Fan, Ya-Xin; Zhang, Ying-Yuan; Guo, Bei-Ning; Yu, Ji-Cheng; Cao, Guo-Ying; Chen, Yuan-Cheng; Wu, Ju-Fang; Shi, Yao-Guo; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    The high prevalence of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as a last-line therapy. Knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and colistin has increased substantially; however, the pharmacokinetics in the Chinese population is still unknown due to lack of a CMS product in China. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a new CMS product developed in China in order to optimise dosing regimens. A total of 24 healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Concentrations of CMS and formed colistin in plasma and urine were measured, and PK analysis was conducted using a non-compartmental approach. Following a single CMS dose [2.36 mg colistin base activity (CBA) per kg, 1 h infusion], peak concentrations (C max ) of CMS and formed colistin were 18.0 mg/L and 0.661 mg/L, respectively. The estimated half-life (t 1/2 ) of CMS and colistin were 1.38 h and 4.49 h, respectively. Approximately 62.5% of the CMS dose was excreted via urine within 24 h after dosing, whilst only 1.28% was present in the form of colistin. Following multiple CMS doses, colistin reached steady-state within 24 h; there was no accumulation of CMS, but colistin accumulated slightly (R AUC  = 1.33). This study provides the first PK data in the Chinese population and is essential for designing CMS dosing regimens for use in Chinese hospitals. The urinary PK data strongly support the use of intravenous CMS for serious urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid filler dermal injection: effects on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation from a single-dose, monocentric, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameli, Norma; Mariano, Maria; Serio, Mirko; Berardesca, Enzo

    2016-10-01

    When a hyaluronic acid dermal device to fill soft tissues is chosen, efficacy, safety and durability are key concerns. This is an open-label prospective study to instrumentally evaluate the effects of HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds skin biophysical parameters and augmentation. A single Italian site treated female subjects aged 40-55, for nasolabial folds, with a single standardized injection. The outcome was evaluated with objective quantitative measurements after 90 (T1) and 180 days (T2) from the injection comparing to baseline (T0) by means of Corneometer (skin hydration measurement), Cutometer (skin elasticity measurement), and Visioface devices for digital and UV computerized image analysis. Secondary endpoints were safety assessment, subject investigator satisfaction with the intervention. Assessment of aesthetic results included photographic documentation. The computerized image analysis confirmed the clinical assessment showing statistically significant reduction in nasolabial folds both at T1 and T2. Visioface® indexes showed a marked and statistical significant response. An excellent profile of satisfaction of the product at T2 from investigators and patients was recorded. Skin hydration and elasticity did not show significant changes. In our study, a standardized HA filler dermal injection on nasolabial folds did not influence skin biophysical parameters such as skin hydration and elasticity. Nasolabial folds showed a persistent and significative response at T2 confirmed by instrumental evaluation. The tolerability and safety profile of the product was excellent.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after oral administration of single-dose and multiple-dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rongrong; Wang, Yuan; Zou, Xiong; Hu, Kun; Sun, Beibei; Fang, Wenhong; Fu, Guihong; Yang, Xianle

    2017-06-01

    The tissue distribution and depletion of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) were studied in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after single-dose and multiple-dose oral administration of SMZ-TMP (5:1) via medicated feed. In single-dose oral administration, shrimps were fed once at a dose of 100 mg/kg (drug weight/body weight). In multiple-dose oral administration, shrimps were fed three times a day for three consecutive days at a dose of 100mg/kg. The results showed the kinetic characteristic of SMZ was different from TMP in Pacific white shrimp. In the single-dose administration, the SMZ was widely distributed in the tissues, while TMP was highly concentrated in the hepatopancreas. The t 1/2z values of SMZ were larger and persist longer than TMP in Pacific white shrimp. In the multiple-dose administration, SMZ accumulated well in the tissues, and reached steady state level after successive administrations, while TMP did not. TMP concentration even appeared the downward trend with the increase of drug times. Compared with the single dose, the t 1/2z values of SMZ in hepatopancreas (8.22-11.33h) and muscle (6.53-10.92h) of Pacific white shrimps rose, but the haemolymph dropped (13.76-11.03) in the multiple-dose oral administration. Meanwhile, the corresponding values of TMP also rose in hepatopancreas (4.53-9.65h) and muscle (2.12-2.71h), and declined in haemolymph (7.38-5.25h) following single-dose and multiple-dose oral administration in Pacific white shrimps. In addition, it is worth mentioning that the ratios of SMZ and TMP were unusually larger than the general aim ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Misonidazole cytotoxicity in vivo: a comparison of large single doses with smaller doses and extended contact of the drug with tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, P.J.; Sutherland, R.M.; Passalacqua, W.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the kinetics and magnitude of misonidazole cytotoxicity in EMT6/Ro tumors using an in vivo-in vitro clonogenicity assay. A comparison was made between the cytotoxic effects of large single doses with smaller doses of misonidazole administered ip and those produced on extended contact of the drug with tumor cells using a continuous iv drug infusion system. After a single ip dose of 1 mg/g, cytotoxicity was maximum at 18 to 24 h; by 72 h the clonogenic cells per tumor had returned to control levels. The maximum cytotoxicity was greater (a decrease of 10 times) if the animals were kept at 37 0 C compared with ambient conditions (a decrease of 4.5 times) where the body temperature would decrease due to the drug. A dose-response curve performed with the animals at 37 0 C showed no significant cytotoxicity at 18 h after single ip doses of 0.5 mg/g or less. Other experiments were carried out at 37 0 C using a drug continuous infusion system. Two profiles were studied: (a) continuous constant rate infusion over 3 days of constant serum and tumor levels of both 100 and 200 μg/ml and (b) continuous variable rate infusion where the maximum serum levels reached 80 or 200 μg/ml after 2 to 4 h and decayed with a half-life of 12 h as in humans. Significant cytotoxicity was obtained under both of these conditions. Maximum cytotoxicity occurred at about 24 h in both types of experiments and amounted to decreases of clonogenic tumor cells of 4.5 and 7 times for 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively, after constant rate infusion and 2 to 4 times for 80 and 200 μg/ml, respectively, after variable rate infusion. Because of the relatively rapid recovery in the number of clonogenic tumor cells by 72 h, the cytotoxic effects were not reflected as changes in tumor size even when the animals were maintained at 37 0 C

  9. Sources of variability in OSL dose measurements using single grains of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.J.; Murray, A.S.; Boetter-Jensen, L.

    2005-01-01

    In luminescence-based measurements of dose distributions in unheated mineral samples, the observed spread in dose values is usually attributed to four main factors: fluctuations in the number of photons counted, incomplete zeroing of any prior trapped charge (including signals arising from thermal transfer), heterogeneity in dosimetry, and instrument reproducibility. For correct interpretation of measured dose distributions in retrospective dosimetry, it is important to understand the relative importance of these components, and to establish whether other factors also contribute to the observed spread. In this preliminary study, dose distributions have been studied using single grains of heated and laboratory irradiated quartz. By heating the sample, the contribution from incomplete zeroing was excluded and at the same time the sample was sensitised. The laboratory gamma irradiation was designed to deliver a uniform dose to the sample. Thus it was anticipated that statistical fluctuations in the number of photons counted and instrument reproducibility, both quantifiable entities, should be able to account for all the observed variance in the measured dose distributions. We examine this assumption in detail, and discuss the origins and importance of the residual variance in our data

  10. Single-electron charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    The status of our project on single-electron tunneling is, again, excellent. As outlined in our original proposal, a key goal for this project has been the development of a scanning tunneling instrument for the purpose of imaging individual particles and tunneling into these particles at high magnetic fields. Further progress is discussed in this report

  11. Effective dose in abdominal digital radiography: Patient factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Sung; Koo, Hyun Jung; Park, Jung Hoon; Cho, Young Chul; Do, Kyung Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyung Jin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To identify independent patient factors associated with an increased radiation dose, and to evaluate the effect of patient position on the effective dose in abdominal digital radiography. We retrospectively evaluated the effective dose for abdominal digital radiography in 222 patients. The patients were divided into two groups based on the cut-off dose value of 0.311 mSv (the upper third quartile of dose distribution): group A (n = 166) and group B (n = 56). Through logistic regression, independent factors associated with a larger effective dose were identified. The effect of patient position on the effective dose was evaluated using a paired t-test. High body mass index (BMI) (≥ 23 kg/m2), presence of ascites, and spinal metallic instrumentation were significantly associated with a larger effective dose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high BMI [odds ratio (OR), 25.201; p < 0.001] and ascites (OR, 25.132; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a larger effective dose. The effective dose was significantly lesser (22.6%) in the supine position than in the standing position (p < 0.001). High BMI and ascites were independent factors associated with a larger effective dose in abdominal digital radiography. Significant dose reduction in patients with these factors may be achieved by placing the patient in the supine position during abdominal digital radiography.

  12. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  13. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  14. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  15. Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates; Les effets des faibles doses et des faibles debits de doses de rayons gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D [Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 2027, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

  16. Bluetongue Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine: Studies on the optimal route and dose in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Piet A; Daus, Franz J; Maris-Veldhuis, Mieke A; Feenstra, Femke; van Gennip, René G P

    2017-01-05

    Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides genus. Outbreaks have been controlled successfully by vaccination, however, currently available BT vaccines have several shortcomings. Recently, we have developed BT Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccines based on live-attenuated BTV without expression of dispensable non-structural NS3/NS3a protein. DISA vaccines are non-pathogenic replicating vaccines, do not cause viremia, enable DIVA and are highly protective. NS3/NS3a protein is involved in virus release, cytopathogenic effect and suppression of Interferon-I induction, suggesting that the vaccination route can be of importance. A standardized dose of DISA vaccine for serotype 8 has successfully been tested by subcutaneous vaccination. We show that 10 and 100times dilutions of this previously tested dose did not reduce the VP7 humoral response. Further, the vaccination route of DISA vaccine strongly determined the induction of VP7 directed antibodies (Abs). Intravenous vaccination induced high and prolonged humoral response but is not practical in field situations. VP7 seroconversion was stronger by intramuscular vaccination than by subcutaneous vaccination. For both vaccination routes and for two different DISA vaccine backbones, IgM Abs were rapidly induced but declined after 14days post vaccination (dpv), whereas the IgG response was slower. Interestingly, intramuscular vaccination resulted in an initial peak followed by a decline up to 21dpv and then increased again. This second increase is a steady and continuous increase of IgG Abs. These results indicate that intramuscular vaccination is the optimal route. The protective dose of DISA vaccine has not been determined yet, but it is expected to be significantly lower than of currently used BT vaccines. Therefore, in addition to the advantages of improved safety and DIVA compatibility, the novel DISA vaccines will be cost

  17. Impact of multiple-dose versus single-dose inhaler devices on COPD patients’ persistence with long-acting β2-agonists: a dispensing database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Job FM; van Raaij, Joost J; van der Galiën, Ruben; Postma, Maarten J; van der Molen, Thys; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard; Vegter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background: With a growing availability of different devices and types of medication, additional evidence is required to assist clinicians in prescribing the optimal medication in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients’ persistence with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Aims: To assess the impact of the type of inhaler device (multiple-dose versus single-dose inhalers) on 1-year persistence and switching patterns with LABAs. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed comparing a cohort of patients initiating multiple-dose inhalers and a cohort initiating single-dose inhalers. The study population consisted of long-acting bronchodilator naive COPD patients, initiating inhalation therapy with mono-LABAs (formoterol, indacaterol or salmeterol). Analyses were performed using pharmacy dispensing data from 1994 to 2012, obtained from the IADB.nl database. Study outcomes were 1-year persistence and switching patterns. Results were adjusted for initial prescriber, initial medication, dosing regimen and relevant comorbidities. Results: In all, 575 patients initiating LABAs were included in the final study cohort. Among them, 475 (83%) initiated a multiple-dose inhaler and 100 (17%) a single-dose inhaler. Further, 269 (47%) initiated formoterol, 9 (2%) indacaterol and 297 (52%) salmeterol. There was no significant difference in persistence between users of multiple-dose or single-dose inhalers (hazard ratio: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.76–1.26, P=0.99). Over 80% re-started or switched medication. Conclusions: There seems no impact of inhaler device (multiple-dose versus single-dose inhalers) on COPD patients’ persistence with LABAs. Over 80% of patients who initially seemed to discontinue LABAs, re-started their initial medication or switched inhalers or medication within 1 year. PMID:25274453

  18. [MAXIMUM SINGLE DOSE OF COLLOIDAL SILVER NEGATIVELY AFFECTS ERYTHROPOIESIS IN VITRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishevskayal, N V; Zakharovl, Y M; Bolotovl, A A; Arkhipenko, Yu V; Sazontova, T G

    2015-01-01

    Erythroblastic islets (EI) of rat bone marrow were cultured for 24 h in the presence of silver nanoparticles (1.07 · 10(-4) mg/ml; 1.07 · 10(-3) mg/ml; and 1.07 · 10(-2) mg/mL). The colloidal silver at 1.07 · 10(-3) mg/ml concentration inhibited the formation of new Elby disrupting contacts of bone marrow macrophages with CFU-E (erythropoiesis de novo) by 65.3% (p Colloidal silver nanoparticles suppressed the reconstruction of erythropoiesis and inhibited the formation of new EI by disrupting contacts of CFU-E and central macrophages with matured erythroidal "crown" (erythropoiesis de repeto). The colloidal silver concentration of 1.07 · 10(-3) mg/ml in the culture medium also reduced the number of self-reconstructing EI by 67.5% (p colloidal silver reduced this value by 93.7% (p Silver nanoparticles retarded maturation of erythroid cells at the stage of oxiphylic normoblast denucleation: 1.07 · 10(-3) mg/ml colloidal silver increased the number of mature El by 53% (p colloidal silver in concentration equivalent to the maximum single dose is related to the effect of silver nanoparticles rather than glycerol present in the colloidal suspension.

  19. Serum tocopherol levels in very preterm infants after a single dose of vitamin E at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward F; Hansen, Nellie I; Brion, Luc P; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Walsh, Michele C; Shankaran, Seetha; Acarregui, Michael J; Johnson, Karen J; Hale, Ellen C; Messina, Lynn A; Crawford, Margaret M; Laptook, Abbot R; Goldberg, Ronald N; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Carlo, Waldemar A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Faix, Roger G; Carlton, David P; Watterberg, Kristi L; Ellsbury, Dan L; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to examine the impact of a single enteral dose of vitamin E on serum tocopherol levels. The study was undertaken to see whether a single dose of vitamin E soon after birth can rapidly increase the low α-tocopherol levels seen in very preterm infants. If so, this intervention could be tested as a means of reducing the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Ninety-three infants vitamin E or placebo by gastric tube within 4 hours of birth. The vitamin E group received 50 IU/kg of vitamin E as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (Aquasol E). The placebo group received sterile water. Blood samples were taken for measurement of serum tocopherol levels by high-performance liquid chromatography before dosing and 24 hours and 7 days after dosing. Eighty-eight infants received the study drug and were included in the analyses. The α-tocopherol levels were similar between the groups at baseline but higher in the vitamin E group at 24 hours (median 0.63 mg/dL vs. 0.42 mg/dL, P = .003) and 7 days (2.21 mg/dL vs 1.86 mg/dL, P = .04). There were no differences between groups in γ-tocopherol levels. At 24 hours, 30% of vitamin E infants and 62% of placebo infants had α-tocopherol levels vitamin E raised serum α-tocopherol levels, but to consistently achieve α-tocopherol levels >0.5 mg/dL, a higher dose or several doses of vitamin E may be needed.

  20. Clinical Effectiveness and Dose Titration in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the questions of usage of one of the popular antipyretic and anesthetic drug in pediatric practice — ibuprofen. In the article there are generalized literature data and own experience in ibuprofen dose titration in single dose 5 and 10 mg/kg depending on clinical situation.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in pigs after intramuscular administration of a single dose

    OpenAIRE

    Pejčić Zorica; Pokrajac Milena; Jezdimirović Milanka

    2006-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was studied in 10 clinically normal male Yorkshire pigs, following intramuscular (i.m) administration of a single dose of diclofenac-sodium (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Diclofenac serum concentrations were determined by high pressure- liquid-chromatography (HPLC), with UV detection (226 nm). Following i.m. administration all individual diclofenac serum levels best fitted the one-compartment open model for extravascular administration. The maximal diclofenac seru...

  2. Mouse single oral dose toxicity test of bupleuri radix aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hu; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Choi, Seong-Hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of Bupleuri Radix (BR) aqueous extracts, it has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agent, in male and female mice. BR extracts (yield = 16.52%) was administered to female and male ICR mice as an oral dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg (body weight) according to the recommendation of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy; organ weight and histopathology of 14 principal organs were examined. As the results, no BR extracts treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principal organs were detected up to 2,000 mg/kg in both female and male mice, except for soft feces and related body weight decrease detected in male mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of BR aqueous extracts after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Although it was also observed that the possibilities of digestive disorders, like soft feces when administered over 2,000 mg/kg of BR extracts in the present study, these possibilities of digestive disorders can be disregard in clinical use because they are transient in the highest dosages male only.

  3. Optimization of the temporal pattern of applied dose for a single fraction of radiation: Implications for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Michael B.

    The increasing prevalence of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as a treatment modality has led to a renewed interest in the potential for interaction between prolonged treatment time, as frequently associated with IMRT, and the underlying radiobiology of the irradiated tissue. A particularly relevant aspect of radiobiology is cell repair capacity, which influences cell survival, and thus directly relates to the ability to control tumors and spare normal tissues. For a single fraction of radiation, the linear quadratic (LQ) model is commonly used to relate the radiation dose to the fraction of cells surviving. The LQ model implies a dependence on two time-related factors which correlate to radiobiological effects: the duration of radiation application, and the functional form of how the dose is applied over that time (the "temporal pattern of applied dose"). Although the former has been well studied, the latter has not. Thus, the goal of this research is to investigate the impact of the temporal pattern of applied dose on the survival of human cells and to explore how the manipulation of this temporal dose pattern may be incorporated into an IMRT-based radiation therapy treatment planning scheme. The hypothesis is that the temporal pattern of applied dose in a single fraction of radiation can be optimized to maximize or minimize cell kill. Furthermore, techniques which utilize this effect could have clinical ramifications. In situations where increased cell kill is desirable, such as tumor control, or limiting the degree of cell kill is important, such as the sparing of normal tissue, temporal sequences of dose which maximize or minimize cell kill (temporally "optimized" sequences) may provide greater benefit than current clinically used radiation patterns. In the first part of this work, an LQ-based modeling analysis of effects of the temporal pattern of dose on cell kill is performed. Through this, patterns are identified for maximizing cell kill for a

  4. Impact of total ionizing dose on the electromagnetic susceptibility of a single bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doridant, A.; Jarrix, S.; Raoult, J.; Blain, A.; Dusseau, L.; Chatry, N.; Calvel, P.; Hoffmann, P.

    2012-01-01

    Space or military electronic components are subject to both electromagnetic fields and total ionizing dose. This paper deals with the electromagnetic susceptibility of a discrete low frequency transistor subject to total ionizing dose deposition. The electromagnetic susceptibility is investigated on both non-irradiated and irradiated transistors mounted in common emitter configuration. The change in susceptibility to 100 MHz-1.5 GHz interferences lights up a synergy effect between near field electromagnetic waves and total ionizing dose. Physical mechanisms leading to changes in signal output are detailed. (authors)

  5. Clinical trial: single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) in healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, R W; Nix, L C; Chavira, R E; Cleveland, M Vb; Stetson, P

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG-3350) have not been fully described because of lack of a sufficiently sensitive analytical method. To describe the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350 in humans. A highly sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed for PEG-3350 in urine, plasma and faeces with quantification limits of 30 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL and 500 microg/g respectively. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics methods were used and the effects of gender, age, renal status and dosing frequency were examined after the oral administration of 17 g to healthy volunteers. Peak PEG-3350 plasma concentrations occurred at 2-4 h and declined to nonquantifiable levels usually within 18 h after single and multiple doses, with a half-life of about 4-6 h. Steady state was reached within 5 days of dosing. Mean urinary excretion of the administered dose ranged from 0.19% to 0.25%. Age, gender or mild kidney impairment did not alter the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350. Mean faecal excretion of the administered dose was 93% in young subjects. For the first time, a highly sensitive assay allowed comprehensive pharmacokinetics studies of PEG-3350 in humans. These studies confirmed that orally administered PEG-3350 is minimally absorbed, rapidly excreted and primarily eliminated via faeces.

  6. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  7. Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from indoor and outdoor gamma dose rate of university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State. ... Therefore, the management of University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital ...

  8. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Multifaceted empathy of healthy volunteers after single doses of MDMA: A pooled sample of placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Kim Pc; Dolder, Patrick C; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-01

    Previous placebo-controlled experimental studies have shown that a single dose of MDMA can increase emotional empathy in the multifaceted empathy test (MET) without affecting cognitive empathy. Although sufficiently powered to detect main effects of MDMA, these studies were generally underpowered to also validly assess contributions of additional parameters, such as sex, drug use history, trait empathy and MDMA or oxytocin plasma concentrations. The present study examined the robustness of the MDMA effect on empathy and investigated the moderating role of these additional parameters. Participants ( n = 118) from six placebo-controlled within-subject studies and two laboratories were included in the present pooled analysis. Empathy (MET), MDMA and oxytocin plasma concentrations were assessed after oral administration of MDMA (single dose, 75 or 125 mg). Trait empathy was assessed using the interpersonal reactivity index. We confirmed that MDMA increased emotional empathy at both doses without affecting cognitive empathy. This MDMA-related increase in empathy was most pronounced during presentation of positive emotions as compared with negative emotions. MDMA-induced empathy enhancement was positively related to MDMA blood concentrations measured before the test, but independent of sex, drug use history and trait empathy. Oxytocin concentrations increased after MDMA administration but were not associated with behavioral effects. The MDMA effects on emotional empathy were stable across laboratories and doses. Sex did not play a moderating role in this effect, and oxytocin levels, trait empathy and drug use history were also unrelated. Acute drug exposure was of significant relevance in the MDMA-induced emotional empathy elevation.

  10. Radiation hardening at 77 K in Zn and Cu single crystals at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.C.; Bisogni, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    There is controversy about radiation hardening phenomenon and its additivity with other hardening mechanisms. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of this subject, through measurements made in Zn and Cu single crystals. Post-irradiation measurements of yield stress of Zn, made on different single crystals, show a direct proportionality to the 0.5 power of the dose. It is determined that for a dose greater than 3.7 x 10 16 neutrons cm -2 s -1 there is always cleavage. The maximum critical resolved shear stress measured is about 8.82 MPa. In order to study additivity it is necessary to lower experimental errors. A micro tensile machine is designed to operate in the CNEA facility RA1 in a bath of liquid N 2 . Experimental measurements of yield stress with dose are carried out in-situ on the same single crystals. Experimental results on Cu and Zn show that radiation induced yield stress increases with a 0.5 power law. It must be taken into account that the definition of radiation induced yield stress stands for radiation created obstacles operating alone. The radiation induced yield stress adds algebraically to the athermal component of the initial yield stress but is not exactly additive to the other thermally activated mechanisms. A gradual transition from one to the other type of obstacles is observed. (author)

  11. A dramatic response to a single dose of infliximab in a patient with prolonged pustular psoriasis derived from inverse psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Dai, Weiwei; Yan, Wei; Liu, Yuanzhen; Wang, Lian; Li, Wei

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of a 25-year-old Chinese man with an exceptionally prolonged history of pustular psoriasis derived from inverse psoriasis who was unsatisfied with conventional treatment and was successfully treated with a single dose of infliximab without noticeable adverse effects. No recurrence or flaring was observed after 3 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that infliximab may be an effective and safe therapeutic option for patients with refractory pustular psoriasis derived from inverse psoriasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Single daily dosing of antibiotics: importance of in vitro killing rate, serum half-life, and protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potel, G; Chau, N P; Pangon, B; Fantin, B; Vallois, J M; Faurisson, F; Carbon, C

    1991-10-01

    The relative importance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for the feasibility of a single daily dose (SDD) of antibiotics remains to be established. Therefore, we studied the relationship between in vitro bacteriological parameters (MIC, MBC, and killing rate [KR], defined as the reduction in the inoculum within 3 h), pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2 and protein binding [PB], and in vivo antibacterial effect of a single antibiotic dose in an experimental rabbit model of Escherichia coli endocarditis. Nine antibiotics were investigated: two aminoglycosides, two quinolones, and five beta-lactams. For each drug, the minimal effective dose (MED) (in milligrams per kilogram) was defined as the lowest dose able to achieve a significant difference (P less than 0.05) of CFU in the vegetations in comparison with controls 24 h after a single intravenous injection. Aminoglycosides and quinolones had the lowest MEDs, followed by beta-lactams. Univariate regression analysis showed that KR was the major determinant of MED. A stepwise regression analysis showed that t1/2 significantly improved the predictive value of KR, while PB, MIC, and MBC did not. The final equation was MED = 1,586-238 KR-297 t1/2 (r = 0.90, P = 0.01). We concluded that the pharmacodynamic parameters (especially the high KR) of aminoglycosides and quinolones explained their low MEDs and might allow SDD. In contrast, the low KR of beta-lactams emphasized the critical importance of a long t1/2, as for ceftriaxone, allowing the use of this beta-lactam alone in SDD.

  13. Macroscopic, pathologic and immunologic investigations of ten patients with carcinoma of oral cavity treated by a single large dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuriya, Shuichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Konoeda, Koichi; Igarashi, Seishi; Hirohashi, Hitoshi

    1979-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effect of radiation has been emphasized. Although the irradiated cancer cells die gradually during the treatment, it is understood that they keep cancer specific antigenecity in that process. Another words, we assume that the immunologic capacity participates in the dying process of cancer cells by radiotherapy. We have been preferring to treat carcinoma by a single large dose irradiation method because this method does not impair the patient's immunologic capacity. On this time, we treated ten patients with carcinoma of oral cavity by this method and could obtain favorable results. 1) Ten patients with carcinoma of oral cavity classified in T1N0M0-T3N0M0 were irradiated by 4 - 10 MeV betatron electron. In seven patients, 2,500 - 3,000 rads were given at once and other three patients were irradiated with fractionated dose of 1,000 rads three times within two weeks (total 3,000 rads per two weeks). 2) Effects of a single large dose irradiation were remarkable and almost all cancer cells in these patients disappeared both macroscopically and pathologically. 3) According to the results of cellular immunity tests, numbers of peripheral lymphocytes, absolute numbers of fractionated T and B cells, and blastoid formation rate of lymphocytes stimulated by PHA in vitro were all increased and values obtained by four kinds of skin tests were also elevated after the radiations. These results indicate that the single large dose irradiation for these patients does not impair the immunologic capacity of the patients. (author)

  14. In vivo tumor targeting of gold nanoparticles: effect of particle type and dosing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanakrishnan, Priyaveena; Park, Jaesook; Chatterjee, Deyali; Krishnan, Sunil; Tunnell, James W

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gained significant interest as nanovectors for combined imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors. Delivered systemically, GNPs preferentially accumulate at the tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and when irradiated with near infrared light, produce sufficient heat to treat tumor tissue. The efficacy of this process strongly depends on the targeting ability of the GNPs, which is a function of the particle's geometric properties (eg, size) and dosing strategy (eg, number and amount of injections). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GNP type and dosing strategy on in vivo tumor targeting. Specifically, we investigated the in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of pegylated gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) for single and multiple dosing. We used Swiss nu/nu mice with a subcutaneous tumor xenograft model that received intravenous administration for a single and multiple doses of GNS and GNR. We performed neutron activation analysis to quantify the gold present in the tumor and liver. We performed histology to determine if there was acute toxicity as a result of multiple dosing. Neutron activation analysis results showed that the smaller GNRs accumulated in higher concentrations in the tumor compared to the larger GNSs. We observed a significant increase in GNS and GNR accumulation in the liver for higher doses. However, multiple doses increased targeting efficiency with minimal effect beyond three doses of GNPs. These results suggest a significant effect of particle type and multiple doses on increasing particle accumulation and on tumor targeting ability.

  15. Collective effective dose equivalent, population doses and risk estimates from occupational exposures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Nishizawa, Kanae; Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwai, Kazuo; Mase, Naomichi.

    1993-01-01

    Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation work for about 0.21 million workers except for the workers in nuclear power stations. The data on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official report of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers including nuclear power stations was estimated to be about 0.26 million. Radiation works were subdivided as follows: medical works including dental; non-atomic energy industry; research and education; atomic energy industry and nuclear power station. For the determination of effective dose equivalent and population dose, organ or tissue doses were measured with a phantom experiment. The resultant doses were compared with the doses previously calculated using a chord length technique and with data from ICRP publications. The annual collective effective dose equivalent were estimated to be about 21.94 person·Sv for medical workers, 7.73 person·Sv for industrial workers, 0.75 person·Sv for research and educational workers, 2.48 person·Sv for atomic energy industry and 84.4 person ·Sv for workers in nuclear power station. The population doses were calculated to be about 1.07 Sv for genetically significant dose, 0.89 Sv for leukemia significant dose and 0.42 Sv for malignant significant dose. The population risks were estimated using these population doses. (author)

  16. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Ohyama, Harumi

    1999-01-01

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  17. Dose rate effect on low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity with cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Min; Kim, Eun-Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is the phenomenon that mammalian cells exhibit higher sensitivity to radiation at low doses (< 0.5 Gy) than expected by the linear-quadratic model. At doses above 0.5Gy, the cellular response is recovered to the level expected by the linear-quadratic model. This transition is called the increased radio-resistance (IRR). HRS was first verified using Chinese hamster V79 cells in vitro by Marples and has been confirmed in studies with other cell lines including human normal and tumor cells. HRS is known to be induced by inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), which plays a key role in repairing DNA damages. Considering the connection between ATM and HRS, one can infer that dose rate may affect cellular response regarding HRS at low doses. In this study, we quantitated the effect of dose rate on HRS by clonogenic assay with normal and tumor cells. The HRS of cells at low dose exposures is a phenomenon already known. In this study, we observed HRS of rat normal diencephalon cells and rat gliosarcoma cells at doses below 1 Gy. In addition, we found that dose rate mattered. HRS occurred at low doses, but only when total dose was delivered at a rate below certain level.

  18. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  19. Radiation effects on and dose enhancement of electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; Long, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes radiation effects on and dose enhancement factors for electronic materials. Alteration of the electrical properties of solid-state devices and integrated circuits by impinging radiation is well-known. Such changes may cause an electronic subsystem to fail, thus there is currently great interest in devising methods for avoiding radiation-induced degradation. The development of radiation-hardened devices and circuits is an exciting approach to solving this problem for many applications, since it could minimize the need for shielding or other system hardening techniques. Part 1 describes the basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials, devices, and integrated circuits. Radiation effects in bulk silicon and in silicon devices are treated. Ionizing radiation effects in silicon dioxide films and silicon MOS devices are discussed. Single event phenomena are considered. Key literature references and a bibliography are provided. Part II provides tabulations of dose enhancement factors for electronic devices in x-ray and gamma-ray environments. The data are applicable to a wide range of semiconductor devices and selected types of capacitors. Radiation environments discussed find application in system design and in radiation test facilities

  20. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Zubaidah

    2003-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  1. Low-dose effects of hormones and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones have effects on tissue morphology, cell physiology, and behaviors at low doses. In fact, hormones are known to circulate in the part-per-trillion and part-per-billion concentrations, making them highly effective and potent signaling molecules. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) mimic hormones, yet there is strong debate over whether these chemicals can also have effects at low doses. In the 1990s, scientists proposed the "low-dose hypothesis," which postulated that EDCs affect humans and animals at environmentally relevant doses. This chapter focuses on data that support and refute the low-dose hypothesis. A case study examining the highly controversial example of bisphenol A and its low-dose effects on the prostate is examined through the lens of endocrinology. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of factors that can influence the ability of a study to detect and interpret low-dose effects appropriately. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological effects of low doses of radiation at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine available scientific data and models relevant to the hypothesis that induction of genetic changes and cancers by low doses of ionizing radiation at low dose rate is a stochastic process with no threshold or apparent threshold. Assessment of the effects of higher doses of radiation is based on a wealth of data from both humans and other organisms. 234 refs., 26 figs., 14 tabs

  3. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  4. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.; Case, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Five additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 5 yr after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu have died during the first 3 postexposure yr. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  5. Esophageal Toxicity From High-Dose, Single-Fraction Paraspinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Brett W.; Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, Margie; Bilsky, Mark; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the esophageal toxicity from single-fraction paraspinal stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and identify dosimetric and clinical risk factors for toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 204 spinal metastases abutting the esophagus (182 patients) were treated with high-dose single-fraction SRS during 2003-2010. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Dose-volume histograms were combined to generate a comprehensive atlas of complication incidence that identifies risk factors for toxicity. Correlation of dose-volume factors with esophageal toxicity was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression. Clinical factors were correlated with toxicity. Results: The median dose to the planning treatment volume was 24 Gy. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 3-81). There were 31 (15%) acute and 24 (12%) late esophageal toxicities. The rate of grade ≥3 acute or late toxicity was 6.8% (14 patients). Fisher’s exact test resulted in significant median splits for grade ≥3 toxicity at V12 = 3.78 cm 3 (relative risk [RR] 3.7, P=.05), V15 = 1.87 cm 3 (RR 13, P=.0013), V20 = 0.11 cm 3 (RR 6, P=0.01), and V22 = 0.0 cm 3 (RR 13, P=.0013). The median split for D2.5 cm 3 (14.02 Gy) was also a significant predictor of toxicity (RR 6; P=.01). A highly significant logistic regression model was generated on the basis of D2.5 cm 3 . One hundred percent (n = 7) of grade ≥4 toxicities were associated with radiation recall reactions after doxorubicin or gemcitabine chemotherapy or iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus. Conclusions: High-dose, single-fraction paraspinal SRS has a low rate of grade ≥3 esophageal toxicity. Severe esophageal toxicity is minimized with careful attention to esophageal doses during treatment planning. Iatrogenic manipulation of the irradiated esophagus and systemic agents classically associated with radiation recall reactions are

  6. Dose enhancement effects of X ray radiation in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun

    1997-01-01

    The author has presented behaviour degradation and dose enhancement effects of bipolar transistors in X ray irradiation environment. The relative dose enhancement factors of X ray radiation were measured in bipolar transistors by the experiment methods. The mechanism of bipolar device dose enhancement was investigated

  7. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Lis, Eric; Katsoulakis, Evangelia; Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily; Bilsky, Mark H.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Laufer, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  8. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Katsoulakis, Evangelia [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kahn, Sweena; Svoboda, Marek; DiStefano, Natalie M.; McLaughlin, Lily [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: lauferi@mskcc.org [Division of Neurological Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included disease progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias/myositis. Thirteen

  9. Single oral dose toxicity test of platycodin d, a saponin from platycodin radix in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Seong-Hun

    2011-12-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of platycodin D, a saponin from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum in male and female mice. Platycodin D was administered to female and male mice as an oral dose of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg (body wt.). Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after treatment, upon necropsy, organ weight and histopathology of 14 principle organs were examined. As the results, no platycodin D treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principle organs were detected up to 2000 mg/kg in both female and male mice. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of playtcodin D after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg - the limited dosages recommended by KFDA Guidelines [2009-116, 2009], respectively.

  10. Determination of effective dose of antimalarial from Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further investigation is required to determine an effective dose of the administered extract for a higher inhibitory effect and increasing effectiveness of the extract. Material and Methods: To determine the effective dose of ethanol extract of C. spectabilis leaves, a "4-day suppressive test"of Peter was performed with ...

  11. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  12. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational

  13. Bronchodilator Efficacy of Single Doses of Indacaterol in Japanese Patients with COPD: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motokazu Kato

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Indacaterol is an investigational, novel, inhaled once-daily ultra-long-acting beta-2 agonist for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study evaluated the 24-h bronchodilatory efficacy and safety of indacaterol in Japanese patients with COPD. Methods: This Phase-II, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study comprised four double-blind, single-dose treatment periods (washout between periods: 14-28 days. Japanese patients aged 40-75 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomised to receive single doses of indacaterol (150, 300, or 600 μg or placebo via a single-dose dry-powder inhaler. Efficacy (primary endpoint: standardised FEV1AUC22-24h and safety were assessed for 24 h post-dose in each treatment period. Results: Of the 50 patients randomised (92% male; mean age, 67.2 years, 45 completed the study. Standardised FEV1AUC22-24h was significantly higher for all indacaterol doses as compared with placebo, with clinically relevant differences of 130, 160, and 170 mL for 150, 300, and 600 μg, respectively (P < 0.001. The improvement in FEV1 was seen as early as 5 min post-dose with indacaterol and sustained for 24 h (P < 0.001 vs placebo at all time points. All indacaterol doses were well tolerated and showed no clinically meaningful effect on pulse rate, blood pressure, QTc interval, and laboratory parameters when compared with placebo. Conclusions: In the Japanese COPD population studied, single doses of indacaterol (150, 300, and 600 μg provided sustained 24-h bronchodilation, with onset of action within 5 min post-dose. All doses were well tolerated. These results are consistent with data from Caucasian populations. KEY WORDS: beta2-agonists, bronchodilator, COPD, efficacy, indacaterol

  14. Pharmacokinetics of [14C]teicoplanin in male rats after single intravenous dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernareggi, A.; Cavenaghi, L.; Assandri, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of [ 14 C]teicoplanin was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats given a single 10,000-U/kg intravenous dose. The disposition of the antimicrobial activity in the body was estimated by a three-compartment open model. Plasma concentration data were fitted to a three-exponent equation. The profile of total 14 C in plasma was similar to that of the microbiological activity. The cumulative recovery of total 14 C 5 days after drug administration averaged 76.3% of the administered dose in the urine and 8.7% in the feces. The residual dose remaining in the animal carcasses was 11.1%. Teicoplanin was widely distributed in the body. In almost all organs, the maximum concentration of [ 14 C]teicoplanin was already reached at the first time of killing, which was 0.25 h after the administration of drug. The liver, kidneys, skin, and fat contained most of the residual dose found in the animal carcasses 120 h after administration and behaved as a deep compartment with the adrenal glands and spleen

  15. Single dose total lymphoid irradiation combined with cyclophosphamide as immunosuppression for human marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kersey, J.H.; Khan, F.M.; Sewchand, W.; Ramsey, N.; Krivit, W.; Coccia, P.; Nesbit, M.E.; Levitt, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    Six patients with aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation following conditioning with high dose cyclophosphamide and single dose total lymphoid irradiation with 750 rad, 26 rad/min at the midplane of the patient. They all received bone marrow from human leukocyte antigens/mixed lymphocyte culture (HLA/MLC) matched siblings. Five of 6 patients were alive without complications at 12, 11, 7, 4 and 4 months respectively. The remaining patient died from sepis which he had prior to transplantation. There were no graft rejection, graft-vs-Host Disease (GVHD) or interstitial pneumonitis among these patients. The procedure was well tolerated with minimal side effects. The results will be compared with those of groups whose bone marrow was previously transplanted with different immunosuppressive methods

  16. A PC program for estimating organ dose and effective dose values in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, W.A.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, M.; Zankl, M.

    1999-01-01

    Dose values in CT are specified by the manufacturers for all CT systems and operating conditions in phantoms. It is not trivial, however, to derive dose values in patients from this information. Therefore, we have developed a PC-based program which calculates organ dose and effective dose values for arbitrary scan parameters and anatomical ranges. Values for primary radiation are derived from measurements or manufacturer specifications; values for scattered radiation are derived from Monte Carlo calculations tabulated for standard anthropomorphic phantoms. Based on these values, organ doses can be computed by the program for arbitrary scan protocols in conventional and in spiral CT. Effective dose values are also provided, both with ICRP 26 and ICRP 60 tissue-weighting coefficients. Results for several standard CT protocols are presented in tabular form in this paper. In addition, potential for dose reduction is demonstrated, for example, in spiral CT and in quantitative CT. Providing realistic patient dose estimates for arbitrary CT protocols is relevant both for the physician and the patient, and it is particularly useful for educational and training purposes. The program, called WinDose, is now in use at the Erlangen University hospitals (Germany) as an information tool for radiologists and patients. Further extensions are planned. (orig.)

  17. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1991-08-01

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60 Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  18. Dose reconstruction in deforming lung anatomy: Dose grid size effects and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Mihaela; Chetty, Indrin J.; Balter, James M.; Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated the accumulation of dose to a deforming anatomy (such as lung) based on voxel tracking and by using time weighting factors derived from a breathing probability distribution function (p.d.f.). A mutual information registration scheme (using thin-plate spline warping) provided a transformation that allows the tracking of points between exhale and inhale treatment planning datasets (and/or intermediate state scans). The dose distributions were computed at the same resolution on each dataset using the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Two accumulation/interpolation approaches were assessed. The first maps exhale dose grid points onto the inhale scan, estimates the doses at the 'tracked' locations by trilinear interpolation and scores the accumulated doses (via the p.d.f.) on the original exhale data set. In the second approach, the 'volume' associated with each exhale dose grid point (exhale dose voxel) is first subdivided into octants, the center of each octant is mapped to locations on the inhale dose grid and doses are estimated by trilinear interpolation. The octant doses are then averaged to form the inhale voxel dose and scored at the original exhale dose grid point location. Differences between the interpolation schemes are voxel size and tissue density dependent, but in general appear primarily only in regions with steep dose gradients (e.g., penumbra). Their magnitude (small regions of few percent differences) is less than the alterations in dose due to positional and shape changes from breathing in the first place. Thus, for sufficiently small dose grid point spacing, and relative to organ motion and deformation, differences due solely to the interpolation are unlikely to result in clinically significant differences to volume-based evaluation metrics such as mean lung dose (MLD) and tumor equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). The overall effects of deformation vary among patients. They depend on the tumor location, field

  19. A single-dose live-attenuated vaccine prevents Zika virus pregnancy transmission and testis damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chao; Muruato, Antonio E; Jagger, Brett W; Richner, Justin; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Xie, Xuping; Nunes, Jannyce G C; Morabito, Kaitlyn M; Kong, Wing-Pui; Pierson, Theodore C; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Rossi, Shannan L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Graham, Barney S; Diamond, Michael S; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-09-22

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital abnormities or fetal demise. The persistence of Zika virus in the male reproductive system poses a risk of sexual transmission. Here we demonstrate that live-attenuated Zika virus vaccine candidates containing deletions in the 3' untranslated region of the Zika virus genome (ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV) prevent viral transmission during pregnancy and testis damage in mice, as well as infection of nonhuman primates. After a single-dose vaccination, pregnant mice challenged with Zika virus at embryonic day 6 and evaluated at embryonic day 13 show markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues. Vaccinated male mice challenged with Zika virus were protected against testis infection, injury, and oligospermia. A single immunization of rhesus macaques elicited a rapid and robust antibody response, conferring complete protection upon challenge. Furthermore, the ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV vaccine candidates have a desirable safety profile. These results suggest that further development of ZIKV-3'UTR-LAV is warranted for humans.Zika virus infection can result in congenital disorders and cause disease in adults, and there is currently no approved vaccine. Here Shan et al. show that a single dose of a live-attenuated Zika vaccine prevents infection, testis damage and transmission to the fetus during pregnancy in different animal models.

  20. SU-E-I-98: Dose Comparison for Pulmonary Embolism CT Studies: Single Energy Vs. Dual Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the size specific dose estimate (SSDE), dose length product (DLP) and noise relationship for pulmonary embolism studies evaluated by single source dual energy computed tomography (DECT) against conventional CT (CCT) studies in a busy cancer center and to determine the dose savings provided by DECT. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective study was performed to determine the CTDIvol and DLP from a subset of patients scanned with both DECT and CCT over the past five years. We were able to identify 30 breast cancer patients (6 male, 24 female, age range 24 to 81) who had both DECT and CCT studies performed. DECT scans were performed with a GE HD 750 scanner (140/80 kVp, 480 mAs and 40 mm) and CCT scans were performed with a GE Lightspeed 16 slice scanner (120 kVp, 352 mAs, 20 mm). Image noise was measured by placing an ROI and recording the standard deviation of the mean HU along the descending aorta. Results: The average DECT patient size specific dose estimate was to be 14.2 ± 1.7 mGy as compared to 22.4 ± 2.7 mGy from CCT PE studies, which is a 37% reduction in the SSDE. The average DECT DLP was 721.8 ± 84.6 mGy-cm as compared to 981.8 ± 106.1 mGy-cm for CCT, which is a 26% decrease. Compared to CCT the image noise was found to decrease by 19% when using DECT for PE studies. Conclusion: DECT SSDE and DLP measurements indicate dose savings and image noise reduction when compared to CCT. In an environment that heavily debates CT patient doses, this study confirms the effectiveness of DECT in PE imaging

  1. Single beam stability, incoherent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.; Bassetti, M.; Faugeras, P.; Hilaire, A.; Montague, B.; Potaux, D.; Scandale, W.; Vos, L.; Zyngier, H.

    1980-01-01

    The group first realized that it was difficult in the available time to make an overall review of the many subjects implied by the group's heading. It therefore restricted itself to a few separate topics, which are: 1. Working point. 2. Non-linear coupling. 3. Effect of octupoles. 4. Chromaticity correction and tracking. 5. Vertical dispersion. 6. Beam separation. 7. Remark on non-linear lens experiments. (orig.)

  2. γ-ray dose rate effect in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liya; Li Peiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the dose rate effect and potentially lethal damage repair in DNA double-strand break repair deficient murine cells (SCID) irradiated by γ-ray. Methods: The wild type (CB.17+/+) and SCID cells were exposed to γ-ray at high and low dose rates. The high dose rate exposure was fractionated into two equal doses at 24 h intervals. The survival rates of irradiated cells were calculated by clone-forming analysis. Results: When γ-ray was given to wild type (CB.17+/+) cells in two fractions at 24 h intervals, the survival rate was significantly higher than that when the same total dose was given singly. In contrast, there was no difference in the survival rates between the single and fractionated exposure in SCID cells. SCID cells were more sensitive than CB.17+/+ cells to both low and high dose rates γ-ray exposure for cell killing. The survival rate by low dose rate exposure was significantly higher than that by high dose rate exposure, not only in CB.17+/+ cells but also in SCID cells. Conclusions: SCID cells are deficient in repairing γ-ray induced double-strand breaks. There is dose rate effect in both SCID and CB.17+/+ cells

  3. Dose dependence on stochastic radiobiological effect in radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the results in dose -- effect relationship observation has been carried out on the cell and organism levels, with the aim to obtain more precise data on the risk coefficients at low doses. The results are represented by two contrasting groups of dose dependence on effect: a downwards concave and a J-shaped curve. Both types of dependence are described by the equation solutions of an assumed unified protective mechanism, which comprises two components: constitutive and adaptive or inducible ones. The latest data analysis of the downwards concave dependence curves shows a considerable underestimation of radiation risk in all types of cancer, except leukemia, for a number of critical groups in a population, at low doses comparing to the ICRP recommendations. With the dose increase, the decrease of the effect value per dose unit is observed. It may be possibly related to the switching of the activity of the adaptive protective mechanism, with some threshold dose values being exceeded

  4. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral doses in patients undergoing Cyberknife treatment for intracranial lesions. A single centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachopoulou, Vassiliki; Antypas, Christos; Delis, Harry; Tzouras, Argyrios; Salvaras, Nikolaos; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Panayiotakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy procedures are known to deliver a very high dose per fraction, and thus, the corresponding peripheral dose could be a limiting factor for the long term surviving patients. The aim of this clinical study was to measure the peripheral dose delivered to patients undergoing intracranial Cyberknife treatment, using the MOSFET dosimeters. The influence of the supplemental shielding, the number of monitor units and the collimator size to the peripheral dose were investigated. MOSFET dosimeters were placed in preselected anatomical regions of the patient undergoing Cyberknife treatment, namely the thyroid gland, the nipple, the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. The mean peripheral doses before the supplemental shielding was added to the Cyberknife unit were 51.79 cGy, 13.31 cGy and 10.07 cGy while after the shielding upgrade they were 38.40 cGy, 10.94 cGy, and 8.69 cGy, in the thyroid gland, the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis, respectively. The increase of the collimator size corresponds to an increase of the PD and becomes less significant at larger distances, indicating that at these distances the PD is predominate due to the head leakage and collimator scatter. Weighting the effect of the number of monitor units and the collimator size can be effectively used during the optimization procedure in order to choose the most suitable treatment plan that will deliver the maximum dose to the tumor, while being compatible with the dose constraints for the surrounding organs at risk. Attention is required in defining the thyroid gland as a structure of avoidance in the treatment plan especially in patients with benign diseases

  6. Peripheral doses in patients undergoing Cyberknife treatment for intracranial lesions. A single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachopoulou Vassiliki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy procedures are known to deliver a very high dose per fraction, and thus, the corresponding peripheral dose could be a limiting factor for the long term surviving patients. The aim of this clinical study was to measure the peripheral dose delivered to patients undergoing intracranial Cyberknife treatment, using the MOSFET dosimeters. The influence of the supplemental shielding, the number of monitor units and the collimator size to the peripheral dose were investigated. Methods MOSFET dosimeters were placed in preselected anatomical regions of the patient undergoing Cyberknife treatment, namely the thyroid gland, the nipple, the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis. Results The mean peripheral doses before the supplemental shielding was added to the Cyberknife unit were 51.79 cGy, 13.31 cGy and 10.07 cGy while after the shielding upgrade they were 38.40 cGy, 10.94 cGy, and 8.69 cGy, in the thyroid gland, the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis, respectively. The increase of the collimator size corresponds to an increase of the PD and becomes less significant at larger distances, indicating that at these distances the PD is predominate due to the head leakage and collimator scatter. Conclusion Weighting the effect of the number of monitor units and the collimator size can be effectively used during the optimization procedure in order to choose the most suitable treatment plan that will deliver the maximum dose to the tumor, while being compatible with the dose constraints for the surrounding organs at risk. Attention is required in defining the thyroid gland as a structure of avoidance in the treatment plan especially in patients with benign diseases.

  7. An examination of resveratrol's mechanisms of action in human tissue: impact of a single dose in vivo and dose responses in skeletal muscle ex vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron B Williams

    Full Text Available The current study tested the hypothesis that a single, moderate dose of RSV would activate the AMPK/SIRT1 axis in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Additionally, the effects of RSV on mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs were examined. Eight sedentary men (23.8±2.4 yrs; BMI: 32.7±7.1 reported to the lab on two occasions where they were provided a meal supplemented with 300 mg of RSV or a placebo. Blood samples, and a muscle biopsy were obtained in the fasted state and again, with the addition of an adipose tissue biopsy, two hours post-prandial. The effect of RSV on mitochondrial respiration was examined in PmFBs taken from muscle biopsies from an additional eight men (23.4±5.4 yrs; BMI: 24.4±2.8. No effect of RSV was observed on nuclear SIRT1 activity, acetylation of p53, or phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC or PKA in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. A decrease in post absorptive insulin levels was accompanied by elevated skeletal muscle phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but no change in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue insulin signalling. Mitochondrial respiration in PmFBs was rapidly inhibited by RSV at 100-300 uM depending on the substrate examined. These results question the efficacy of a single dose of RSV at altering skeletal muscle and adipose tissue AMPK/SIRT1 activity in humans and suggest that RSV mechanisms of action in humans may be associated with altered cellular energetics resulting from impaired mitochondrial ATP production.

  8. Single-dose and fractionated irradiation of four human lung cancer cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, O.; Lennartsson, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four established human lung cancer cell lines were exposed to single-dose irradiation. The survival curves of 2 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) were characterized by a limited capacity for repair with small and moderate shoulders with extrapolation numbers (n) of 1.05 and 1.60 respectively. Two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, one squamous cell (SQCLC) and one large cell (LCLC) had large shoulders with n-values of 73 and 15 respectively. The radiosensitivity when measured as D 0 did not, however, differ as much from cell line to cell line, with values from 1.22 to 1.65. The surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.24 and 0.42 respectively in the SCLC cell lines and 0.90 and 0.88 respectively in the NSCLC cell lines. Fractionated irradiation delivered according to 3 different schedules was also investigated. All the schedules delivered a total dose of 10 Gy in 5 days and were applied in 1, 2 and 5 Gy dose fractions respectively. Survival followed the pattern found after single-dose irradiation; it was lowest in the SCLC cell line with the lowest SF and highest in the two NSCLC cell lines. In the SCLC cell lines all schedules were approximately equally efficient. In the LCLC and in the SQCLC cell lines, the 5 Gy schedule killed more cells than the 1 and 2 Gy schedules. The results indicate that the size of the shoulder of the survival curve is essential when choosing the most tumoricidal fractionation schedule. (orig.)

  9. Study of single dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Chul, Yoon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to analyse single dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods : All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of single dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 9.0 ㎎/㎏ body weight which is 1300 times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 3.0 and 1.0 ㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group. Results : 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all the experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, brain, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and histologocal observation using H-E staining was conducted. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But the other organs did not showed in any abnormality. 5. The maximum dose of Sweet BV in Beagle dogs were over 9 ㎎/㎏ in this study. Conclusions : The above findings of this study suggest that Sweet BV is a relatively safe treatment medium. Further studies on the toxicity of Sweet BV should be conducted to yield more concrete evidences.

  10. Absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement one to three days after the administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE/-TOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänscheid, Heribert; Lapa, Constantin; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Werner, Rudolf A

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the accuracy of absorbed dose estimates from a single measurement of the activity concentrations in tumors and relevant organs one to three days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/TOC assuming tissue specific effective half-lives. Activity kinetics in 54 kidneys, 30 neuroendocrine tumor lesions, 25 livers, and 27 spleens were deduced from series of planar images in 29 patients. After adaptation of mono- or bi-exponential fit functions to the measured data, it was analyzed for each fit function how precise the time integral can be estimated from fixed tissue-specific half-lives and a single measurement at 24, 48, or 72 h after the administration. For the kidneys, assuming a fixed tissue-specific half-life of 50 h, the deviations of the estimate from the actual integral were median (5 % percentile, 95 % percentile): -3 °% (-15 %>; +16 °%) for measurements after 24 h, +2 %> (-9 %>; +12 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and 0 % (-2 %; +12 %) for measurements after 72 h. The corresponding values for the other tissues, assuming fixed tissue-specific half-lives of 67 h for liver and spleen and 77 h for tumors, were +2 % (-25 %; +20 %) for measurements after 24 h, +2 °% (-16 %>; +17 %>) for measurements after 48 h, and +2 %> (-11 %>; +10 %>) for measurements after 72 h. Especially for the kidneys, which often represent the dose limiting organ, but also for liver, spleen, and neuroendocrine tumors, a meaningful absorbed dose estimate is possible from a single measurement after 2, more preferably 3 days after the administration of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE/-TOC assuming fixed tissue specific effective half-lives. Schattauer GmbH.

  11. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D [Cancer Care of Western New York, Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site.