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Sample records for single cigarettes promote

  1. Availability and costs of single cigarettes in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ojeda, Ana; Barnoya, Joaquin; Thrasher, James F

    2013-01-01

    Single-cigarette sales have been associated with increased cigarette accessibility to less educated, lower-income populations, and minors; lower immediate cost, and increased smoking cues. Since 1997, Guatemalan Law bans the sale of single cigarettes and packs with fewer than 20 cigarettes. In 2005, Guatemala ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC); it is therefore obliged to "prohibit sale of cigarettes individually or in small packets." Blocks were numbered and randomly selected in Guatemala City and 3 neighboring towns. All stores in each block were surveyed. Single-cigarette and fewer than 20-cigarette pack sales were assessed by observation and purchase attempts. Cigarette brands and manufacturers (Philip Morris, PM or British American Tobacco, BAT) were also recorded. Percentages and means were used to describe data. Analyses were done using STATA 11.0. Of 398 stores and street vendors surveyed, 75.6% (301) sold cigarettes. Of these, 91% (275) sold single cigarettes and none sold fewer than 20-cigarette packs. Only informal economic sectors sold singles. There was no difference on sales between Guatemala City and neighboring towns and by store type. Buying 20 single cigarettes was US$ 0.83 more expensive than buying a 20-cigarette pack. The most prevalent brands were Rubios (PM), Marlboro (PM), Payasos (BAT), and After Hours (BAT). Single-cigarettes sales are highly prevalent among informal economic sectors in Guatemala City and its neighboring towns. Our data should prove useful to advocate for FCTC Article 16 enforcement in Guatemala.

  2. RJR Nabisco's cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, J R; Richards, J W; Paulman, P M; Wolf-Gillespie, N; Fletcher, C; Jaffe, R D; Murray, D

    1991-12-11

    To determine if RJR Nabisco's cartoon-theme advertising is more effective in promoting Camel cigarettes to children or to adults. To determine if children see, remember, and are influenced by cigarette advertising. Use of four standard marketing measures to compare the effects of Camel's Old Joe cartoon advertising on children and adults. High school students, grades 9 through 12, from five regions of the United States, and adults, aged 21 years and over, from Massachusetts. Recognition of Camel's Old Joe cartoon character, product and brand name recall, brand preference, appeal of advertising themes. Children were more likely to report prior exposure to the Old Joe cartoon character (97.7% vs 72.2%; P less than .0001). Children were better able to identify the type of product being advertised (97.5% vs 67.0%; P less than .0001) and the the Camel cigarette brand name (93.6% vs 57.7%; P less than .0001). Children also found the Camel cigarette advertisements more appealing (P less than .0001). Camel's share of the illegal children's cigarette market segment has increased from 0.5% to 32.8%, representing sales estimated at $476 million per year. Old Joe Camel cartoon advertisements are far more successful at marketing Camel cigarettes to children than to adults. This finding is consistent with tobacco industry documents that indicate that a major function of tobacco advertising is to promote and maintain tobacco addiction among children.

  3. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-12-01

    Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents-off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (pmarket areas with high tobacco control programme funding (pmarket areas with high cigarette tax (pmarket areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas.

  4. Promotions on Newport and Marlboro Cigarette Packages: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Richardson, Amanda; Golden, Shelley D; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-10-01

    While cigarette pack designs are part of integrated marketing efforts, it is unclear the degree to which packs are used to advertise promotions and whether the tobacco retailers' neighborhood characteristics influence the likelihood and type of pack-based promotion in the United States. Between June and October 2012, data collectors purchased packs of either Marlboro Red (n = 1090) or Newport Green (n = 1057) cigarettes at 2147 stores that were part of a national sample of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Coders rated packs for the presence of an exterior and interior pack promotion, placement of exterior promotion (eg, front, back), presentation of exterior promotion (eg, onsert, tear strip), and nature of the promotion (eg, contest/give/away). Using Census tract data, we examined the association of pack promotions with tobacco retailers' neighborhood demographic characteristics. Marlboro packs were approximately twice as likely to have promotions as Newport packs (31.7% vs. 14.7%). Fewer Marlboro packs (14.6%) and no Newport packs had interior promotions. The majority of exterior promotions were for contests (>80% for both brands), while almost all interior Marlboro promotions (97.5%) were for a discounted price. There were few differences in presence or type of promotion by tobacco retailers' neighborhood characteristics. Exterior packs promotions, in particular, were fairly common and may contribute to the allure of tobacco products. Use of promotions on the interior and exterior of cigarette packs are a mechanism that the tobacco industry uses to sell its products and should be continually assessed for their influence on consumer behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  6. The Single Cigarette Economy in India--a Back of the Envelope Survey to Estimate its Magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Pranay; Kumar, Ravinder; Ray, Shreelekha; Sharma, Narinder; Bhattarcharya, Bhaktimay; Mishra, Deepak; Sinha, Mukesh K; Christian, Anant; Rathinam, Arul; Singh, Gurbinder

    2015-01-01

    Sale of single cigarettes is an important factor for early experimentation, initiation and persistence of tobacco use and a vital factor in the smoking epidemic in India as it is globally. Single cigarettes also promote the sale of illicit cigarettes and neutralises the effect of pack warnings and effective taxation, making tobacco more accessible and affordable to minors. This is the first study to our knowledge which estimates the size of the single stick market in India. In February 2014, a 10 jurisdiction survey was conducted across India to estimate the sale of cigarettes in packs and sticks, by brands and price over a full business day. We estimate that nearly 75% of all cigarettes are sold as single sticks annually, which translates to nearly half a billion US dollars or 30 percent of the India's excise revenues from all cigarettes. This is the price which the consumers pay but is not captured through tax and therefore pervades into an informal economy. Tracking the retail price of single cigarettes is an efficient way to determine the willingness to pay by cigarette smokers and is a possible method to determine the tax rates in the absence of any other rationale.

  7. Point of purchase cigarette promotions before and after the Master Settlement Agreement: exploring retail scanner data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, B R; Farrelly, M C; Nonnemaker, J M; Mann, N H

    2006-04-01

    Evidence indicates that point of purchase (POP) advertising and promotions for cigarettes have increased since the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). Retail promotions have the potential to offset the effects of cigarette tax and price increases and tobacco control programmes. To describe the trend in the proportion of cigarette sales that occur as part of a POP promotion before and after the MSA. Scanner data were analysed on cigarette sales from a national sample of grocery stores, reported quarterly from 1994 through 2003. The proportion of total cigarette sales that occurred under any of three different types of POP promotions is presented. The proportion of cigarettes sold under a POP promotion increased notably over the sample period. Large increases in promoted sales are observed following implementation of the MSA and during periods of sustained cigarette excise tax increases. The observed pattern of promoted cigarette sales is suggestive of a positive relationship between retail cigarette promotions, the MSA, and state cigarette tax increases. More research is needed to describe fully the relationship between cigarette promotions and tobacco control policy.

  8. Comparative tumor promotion assessment of e-cigarette and cigarettes using the in vitro Bhas 42 cell transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breheny, Damien; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Pant, Kamala; Gaça, Marianna

    2017-05-01

    In vitro cell transformation assays (CTA) are used to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and complex mixtures and can detect nongenotoxic as well as genotoxic carcinogens. The Bhas 42 CTA has been developed with both initiation and promotion protocols to distinguish between these two carcinogen classes. Cigarette smoke is known to be carcinogenic and is positive in in vitro genotoxicity assays. Cigarette smoke also contains nongenotoxic carcinogens and is a tumour promoter and cocarcinogen in vivo. We have combined a suite of in vitro assays to compare the relative biological effects of new categories of tobacco and nicotine products with traditional cigarettes. The Bhas promotion assay has been included in this test battery to provide an in vitro surrogate for detecting tumor promoters. The activity of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette; Vype ePen) was compared to that of a reference cigarette (3R4F) in the promotion assay, using total particulate matter (TPM)/aerosol collected matter (ACM) and aqueous extracts (AqE) of product aerosol emissions. 3R4F TPM was positive in this assay at concentrations ≥6 µg/mL, while e-cigarette ACM did not have any promoter activity. AqE was found to be a lesssuitable test matrix in this assay due to high cytotoxicity. This is the first study to use the Bhas assay to compare tobacco and nicotine products and demonstrates the potential for its future application as part of a product assessment framework. These data add to growing evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes may provide a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:190-198, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  10. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnoya Joaquin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45, whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior.

  11. Direct Marketing Promotion and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adults, National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2013–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. Methods We used using data from the 2013–2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations ...

  12. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-07-01

    To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. From 1980-1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting.

  13. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Methods Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. Results From 1980–1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. Conclusions BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting. PMID:21282136

  14. Single Cigarette Sales: State Differences in FDA Advertising and Labeling Violations, 2014, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah M; Lee, Joseph G L; Ranney, Leah M; Goldstein, Adam O

    2016-02-01

    Single cigarettes, which are sold without warning labels and often evade taxes, can serve as a gateway for youth smoking. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gives the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, including prohibiting the sale of single cigarettes. To enforce these regulations, the FDA conducted over 335,661 inspections between 2010 and September 30, 2014, and allocated over $115 million toward state inspections contracts. To examine differences in single cigarette violations across states and determine if likely correlates of single cigarette sales predict single cigarette violations at the state level. Cross-sectional study of publicly available FDA warning letters from January 1 to July 31, 2014. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. Tobacco retailer inspections conducted by FDA (n = 33 543). State cigarette tax, youth smoking prevalence, poverty, and tobacco production. State proportion of FDA warning letters issued for single cigarette violations. There are striking differences in the number of single cigarette violations found by state, with 38 states producing no warning letters for selling single cigarettes even as state policymakers developed legislation to address retailer sales of single cigarettes. The state proportion of warning letters issued for single cigarettes is not predicted by state cigarette tax, youth smoking, poverty, or tobacco production, P = .12. Substantial, unexplained variation exists in violations of single cigarette sales among states. These data suggest the possibility of differences in implementation of FDA inspections and the need for stronger quality monitoring processes across states implementing FDA inspections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Clean, cheap, convenient: promotion of Electronic cigarettes on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G.; Walker, Kandi L.; Hart, Joy L.; Lee, Alexander S.; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public’s opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. Methods The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in u...

  16. Clean, cheap, convenient: promotion of Electronic cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Clara G; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Lee, Alexander S; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney

    2017-04-01

    Videos promoting electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can be easily accessed on YouTube. Marketing claims present in YouTube videos may help shape the public's opinion of e-cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand the most frequent marketing claims and video sources. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify marketing claims in YouTube videos that are commonly made on e-cigarette retail websites and 2) compare the frequency of marketing claims in user-generated and professional YouTube videos. Through content analysis, this study evaluated six marketing claims and descriptive information about YouTube videos (n = 50) related to "electronic cigarettes" and "vape". Overall, the most frequent marketing claim promoted e-cigarette use as better than traditional tobacco use (52%). Approximately 65% of videos appeared to be user-generated and 35% were professionally-produced. Compared to user-generated videos, significantly more professional videos made claims that e-cigarettes are cleaner (p YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  17. Direct Marketing Promotion and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adults, National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-09-21

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. We used using data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between e-cigarette promotions and the prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use among US adults. In the 2013-2014 survey period, 7.1% of adults (about 16.0 million) reported receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions in the previous 6 months; 3.2% received mail promotions, and 5.1% received email promotions. A higher prevalence of promotions was found among men versus women, adults aged under 65 years versus those older, current e-cigarette users, current smokers, and people with no smoking restriction rules in their homes or vehicles. In the multivariable analysis, receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions was associated with higher odds of being current e-cigarette users (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; P marketing promotions was prevalent among US adults. Receiving e-cigarette promotions was associated with increased odds of both prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use. Future longitudinal studies are needed to measure causal effects of e-cigarette promotions on e-cigarette use among adults.

  18. Adolescents' responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Bauld, Linda; Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine adolescents' awareness of e-cigarette marketing and investigate the impact of e-cigarette flavour descriptors on perceptions of product harm and user image. Data come from the 2014 Youth Tobacco Policy Survey, a cross-sectional in-home survey conducted with 11-16 year olds across the UK (n = 1205). Adolescents' awareness of e-cigarette promotion, brands, and flavours was assessed. Perceptions of product harm, and likely user of four examples of e-cigarette flavours was also examined. Some participants had tried e-cigarettes (12 %) but regular use was low (2 %) and confined to adolescents who had also smoked tobacco. Most were aware of at least one promotional channel (82 %) and that e-cigarettes came in different flavours (69 %). Brand awareness was low. E-cigarettes were perceived as harmful (M = 3.54, SD = 1.19) but this was moderated by product flavours. Fruit and sweet flavours were perceived as more likely to be tried by young never smokers than adult smokers trying to quit (p < 0.001). There is a need to monitor the impact of future market and regulatory change on youth uptake and perceptions of e-cigarettes.

  19. #Vapelife: An Exploratory Study of Electronic Cigarette Use and Promotion on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laestadius, Linnea I; Wahl, Megan M; Cho, Young I

    2016-10-14

    The growth of social networking services has enabled the sharing of electronic cigarette opinions and experiences via user-generated content. This exploratory study analyzed electronic cigarette content found on the visual social networking service, Instagram, in order to highlight public health challenges created by this content and support understanding of electronic cigarette promotion and usage. A qualitative content analysis was performed on Instagram posts made with the hashtags #ecig or #vape in October 2014. Images, text, and hashtags from 85 posts (43 #ecig, 42 #vape) were analyzed. In addition, the total number of posts made with eight key electronic cigarette hashtags was recorded at four points between March 2014 and October 2015. The total number of #vape posts on Instagram grew by 4,163,274 during the study period, while #ecig posts increased by 741,916. Of the posts examined in-depth, corporate users made up over half of posts. No posts were critical of electronic cigarettes. Few mentioned electronic cigarettes in the context of health benefits. No posts included major brands, and mod style electronic cigarettes were mentioned or depicted in over half of posts. A majority of posts included hashtags expressing vaping identity and community. In addition, users mentioned novel practices such as sub-ohming. Conclusions/Importance: Instagram users in our sample characterized electronic cigarettes primarily as novel devices rather than equivalents to cigarettes. Further, hashtag communities and identities appear to be forming around vaping. Future research should consider the public health implications of these hashtags, as well as novel electronic cigarette practices.

  20. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  1. Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina C.; Dauphinee, Amanda L.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. Methods: In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. Results: For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%–31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = −0.18, −0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. Conclusions: In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer’s claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes. PMID:21705460

  2. Five decades of promotion techniques in cigarette advertising: a longitudinal content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Jeong, Hyun Ju; Choi, Hojoon; Krugman, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This study examines frequencies and types of promotion techniques featured in five decades of cigarette advertising relative to five major smoking eras. Analysis of 1,133 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage sampling of 1954 through 2003 issues of three youth-oriented magazines found that 7.6% of the analyzed ads featured at least one promotion technique. Across smoking eras the proportion of promotion in the ads steadily increased from 1.6% in the "pre-broadcast ban era" to 10.9% in the "the pre-Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) era" and 9% in "post-MSA era." The increased use of sponsorships/events in cigarette ads for youth-oriented brands warrants more attention from tobacco control experts and government regulators.

  3. E-cigarette availability and promotion among retail outlets near college campuses in two southeastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Song, Eunyoung Y; Egan, Kathleen L; Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    E-cigarettes are relatively new products that simulate the smoking experience. This descriptive study assessed changes in e-cigarette availability and promotions among retailers in 11 college communities in North Carolina and Virginia during a 1-year period. During the spring of 2012 and 2013, observers completed assessments in 320 tobacco-selling retailers, including grocery and convenience stores, pharmacies, and tobacco shops. Assessors collected e-cigarette availability, advertising, price, and promotions. E-cigarette availability increased among retailers from 24.7% in 2012 to 59.9% in 2013. They were available in the form of disposables and reusable kits and were most frequently available in tobacco shops, convenience stores, and pharmacies. The average price for disposables was $9.70 (SD = 1.07) in 2012 and $9.61 (SD = 2.10) in 2013; the average price for kits was $39.58 (SD = 15.79) in 2012 and $32.59 (SD = 18.65) in 2013. The presence of interior advertising increased from 12.7% to 50.6% (p impact individual exposure and use of e-cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Clean, Cheap, Convenient: Promotion of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G Sears

    2017-04-01

    Videos on YouTube promote e-cigarettes as safer than other tobacco products. Videos appearing to be user-generated contained different marketing claims compared to professional videos. Further research is necessary to assess how the perceived source of the video impacts the ways these marketing claims shape public perception and influence use.

  5. Cross sectional survey on association between alcohol, betel- nut, cigarette consumption and health promoting behavior of industrial workers in Ghaziabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Marya, Charu Mohan; Menon, Ipseeta; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The work force in industries are at risk of developing unduly high rates of health and behaviour related problems including abuse of alcohol, betel nut and cigarette (alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption). This study describes the relationships between alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption and health promoting behaviour among industrial workers. A cross sectional survey was conducted on workers in various industries of Ghaziabad city with concerned authority permission. A sample size of 732 workers was calculated based on pilot study. Through Simple random sampling 732 workers in 20 to 50 years age group with informed consent were interviewed through structured, pretested, validated questionnaire in vernacular language by one calibrated investigator. Data on socio demography, alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption pattern and health behaviour were collected. The association between health promoting behaviour and alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption was analysed by Logistic regression and Chi-square test through SPSS 16 at pbetel nut and cigarette consumption in study population was 88%. The prevalence of individual alcohol, betel nut and cigarette consumption were 82%, 68% and 79% respectively. Combined alcohol, betel nut and cigarette prevalence in study population was 58%. Alcohol and cigarette users were significantly higher (pbetel nut and cigarette users.

  6. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed.

  7. The messages presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, Kahlia; Maycock, Bruce; Jancey, Jonine

    2017-11-08

    Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions. A scoping review will be undertaken adhering to the methodology outlined in The Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Scoping Reviews. Six key electronic databases will be searched to identify eligible studies. Studies must be published in English between 2007 and 2017, examine and/or analyse content captured from online electronic cigarette promotions or discussions and report results for electronic cigarettes separately to other forms of tobacco delivery. Studies will be screened initially by title and abstract, followed by full-text review. Results of the search strategy will be reported in a PRISMA flow diagram and presented in tabular form with accompanying narrative summary. The methodology consists of reviewing and collecting data from publicly available studies, and therefore does not require ethics approval. Results will be published in a peer reviewed journal and be presented at national/international conferences. Additionally, findings will be disseminated via social media and online platforms. Advocacy will be key to informing policy makers of regulatory and health issues that need to be addressed. The review was registered prospectively with The Joanna Briggs Institute Systematic Reviews database. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  8. Influence of retail cigarette advertising, price promotions, and retailer compliance on youth smoking-related attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Loomis, Brett R; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to retail tobacco marketing is associated with youth smoking, but most studies have relied on self-reported measures of exposure, which are prone to recall bias. To examine whether exposure to retail cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance is associated with youth smoking-related outcomes using observational estimates of exposure. Data on retail cigarette advertising and promotions were collected from a representative sample of licensed tobacco retailers in New York annually since 2004. County-level estimates of retail cigarette advertising and promotions and retailer compliance with youth access laws were calculated and linked to the New York Youth Tobacco Survey, administered to 54,671 middle and high school students in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Regression models examined whether cigarette advertising, promotions, and retailer compliance were associated with youth's awareness of retail cigarette advertising, attitudes about smoking, susceptibility to smoking, cigarette purchasing behaviors, and smoking behaviors. Living in counties with more retail cigarette advertisements is associated with youth having positive attitudes about smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.19, P advertising and promotions may help reduce youth smoking.

  9. A Bayesian statistical analysis of mouse dermal tumor promotion assay data for evaluating cigarette smoke condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Steven J; Potts, Ryan J; Ayres, Paul H; Harp, Paul R; Wilson, Cody L; Garner, Charles D

    2010-10-01

    The mouse dermal assay has long been used to assess the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). This mouse skin model has been developed for use in carcinogenicity testing utilizing the SENCAR mouse as the standard strain. Though the model has limitations, it remains as the most relevant method available to study the dermal tumor promoting potential of mainstream cigarette smoke. In the typical SENCAR mouse CSC bioassay, CSC is applied for 29 weeks following the application of a tumor initiator such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Several endpoints are considered for analysis including: the percentage of animals with at least one mass, latency, and number of masses per animal. In this paper, a relatively straightforward analytic model and procedure is presented for analyzing the time course of the incidence of masses. The procedure considered here takes advantage of Bayesian statistical techniques, which provide powerful methods for model fitting and simulation. Two datasets are analyzed to illustrate how the model fits the data, how well the model may perform in predicting data from such trials, and how the model may be used as a decision tool when comparing the dermal tumorigenicity of cigarette smoke condensate from multiple cigarette types. The analysis presented here was developed as a statistical decision tool for differentiating between two or more prototype products based on the dermal tumorigenicity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An examination of trends in amount and type of cigarette advertising and sales promotions in California stores, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Schleicher, N C; Boley Cruz, T; Unger, J B

    2008-04-01

    Cigarette companies spend more of their marketing dollars in stores than in any other venue. In 2005, they spent 88% of a total of $13.1 billion to advertise and promote product sales in stores. The purposes of this study were to identify how the amount and types of cigarette advertising and sales promotions have changed in stores in California between 2002 and 2005, and to assess neighbourhood influences on cigarette marketing in stores. Four observational assessments of cigarette advertising were conducted in approximately 600 California stores that sold cigarettes from 2002 to 2005. Trained observers collected data on the amount and type of cigarette advertising, including signs, product shelving and displays and functional items, and presence of sales promotions on these items. Longitudinal analyses were performed to estimate trends over time and identify correlates of change in the amount and type of tobacco advertising. The mean number of cigarette advertisements per store increased over time from 22.7 to 24.9. The percentage of stores with at least one advert for a sales promotion increased from 68% to 80%. The amount of advertising and proportion of stores with sales promotions increased more rapidly in stores situated in neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of African-Americans. The results indicate increasing use of stores to market and promote cigarette sales. Further, these increases are disproportionately accelerating in neighbourhoods with more African-Americans. Legislative strategies should be pursued to control the marketing of tobacco products and promotional strategies used to reduce prices in stores.

  11. Depressive Mood, the Single-Parent Home, and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S.; Tam, Debbie

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between depressive mood and cigarette smoking among a sample of 123 adolescent males and 82 adolescent females. Finds an independent relation of depressive mood, friends' smoking behavior, and living in a single-parent home. Concludes that depressive mood and stress may contribute to the onset of smoking. (FMW)

  12. An examination of the effect on cigarette prices and promotions of Philip Morris USA penalties to stores that sell cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Schleicher, N C; Ribisl, K M; Rogers, T

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of public policies to regulate price discounting strategies on retail cigarette prices and advertising. Philip Morris USA (PM USA) has a policy designed to sanction stores violating state laws banning illegal tobacco sales to minors by temporarily suspending price discounting incentives. This study examined the impact of those sanctions on retail cigarette prices and sales promotion advertising. In November 2006, the California Attorney General's Office informed PM USA that 196 stores were found guilty of illegal underage sales. Of these, 109 stores that participated in the PM USA Retail Leaders Program were notified that their merchandising and/or promotional resources would be suspended for the month of April 2007. The remaining 87 stores were not sanctioned and served as a comparison group. Trained raters assessed advertising and prices of selected PM USA brands in these stores pre-penalty and during the penalty phase. There were no significant differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned stores on median changes in price and sales promotion advertising from the pre-penalty to the penalty phase. The lack of impact on cigarette prices and advertising indicate that the PM USA policy may be flawed in its design or execution. If public policies are developed to restrain cigarette price discounting strategies, they should be crafted to ensure compliance and preclude possible compensatory actions by retailers.

  13. Is Every Smoker Interested in Price Promotions? An Evaluation of Price-Related Discounts by Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-01-01

    Raising unit price is one of the most effective ways of reducing cigarette consumption. A large proportion of US adult smokers use generic brands or price discounts in response to higher prices, which may mitigate the public health impacts of raising unit price. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the retail price impact and the determinants of price-related discount use among US adult smokers by their most commonly used cigarette brand types. Data from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of US adults 18 years or older, was used to assess price-related discount use by cigarette brands. Price-related discounts included coupons, rebates, buy 1 get 1 free, 2 for 1, or any other special promotions. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess sociodemographic and tobacco use determinants of discount use by cigarette brands. Discount use was most common among premium brand users (22.1%), followed by generic (13.3%) and other brand (10.8%) users. Among premium brand users, those who smoked 10 to 20 cigarettes per day were more likely to use discounts, whereas elderly smokers, non-Hispanic blacks, those with greater annual household income, dual users of cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products, and those who had no quit intentions were less likely to do so. Among generic brand users, those who had no quit intentions and those who smoked first cigarette within 60 minutes after waking were more likely to use discounts. Frequent use of discounts varies between smokers of premium and generic cigarette brands. Setting a high minimum price, together with limiting the use of coupons and promotions, may uphold the effect of cigarette excise taxes to reduce smoking prevalence.

  14. Features of sales promotion in cigarette magazine advertisements, 1980-1993: an analysis of youth exposure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, L G; Siegel, M

    1999-01-01

    To examine the presence of features of sales promotion in cigarette advertising in United States magazines, and to describe trends in youth (ages 12-17) exposure to such advertising (termed "promotional advertising"). Analysis of 1980-1993 annual data on: (a) total pages and expenditures for "promotional advertising" (advertising that contains features of sales promotion) in 36 popular magazines (all magazines for which data were available), by cigarette brand; and (b) readership characteristics for each magazine. We defined promotional advertising as advertisements that go beyond the simple advertising of the product and its features to include one or more features of sales promotion, such as coupons, "retail value added" promotions, contests, sweepstakes, catalogues, specialty item distribution, and sponsorship of public entertainment or sporting events. Total pages of, and expenditures for promotional advertising in magazines; and gross impressions (number of readers multiplied by the number of pages of promotional advertising) among youth and total readership. During the period 1980-1993, tobacco companies spent $90.2 million on promotional advertising in the 36 magazines. The proportion of promotional advertising appearing in "youth" magazines (defined as magazines with a greater than average proportion of youth readers) increased from 7% in 1980 to nearly 100% in 1987. Although youth readers represented only 19% of magazine readers, the proportion of youth gross impressions to total gross impressions of tobacco promotional advertising exceeded this value throughout the entire period 1985-1993, peaking at 33% in 1987. The five "youth" cigarette brands (defined as brands smoked by at least 2.5% of smokers aged 10-15 years in 1993) accounted for 59% of promotional advertising in all magazines, but for 83% of promotional advertising in youth magazines during the study period. In their magazine advertising, cigarette companies are preferentially exposing young

  15. Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eunhee S

    2010-04-01

    impaired. Conclusions These data indicate that COPD is associated with increased numbers of cells bearing markers associated with Langerhans cells and mature dendritic cells, and that cigarette smoke promotes survival signals and augments survival of dendritic cells. Although CSE suppressed dendritic cell CCR7 expression, migration towards a CCR7 ligand was not diminished, suggesting that reduced CCR7-dependent migration is unlikely to be an important mechanism for dendritic cell retention in the lungs of smokers with COPD.

  16. Content analysis of e-cigarette products, promotions, prices and claims on Internet tobacco vendor websites, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Liebman, Aliza K; LaFleur, Kevin

    2017-11-03

    To identify the population of Internet e-cigarette vendors (IEVs) and conduct content analysis of products sold and IEVs' promotional, claims and pricing practices. Multiple sources were used to identify IEV websites, primarily complex search algorithms scanning over 180 million websites. In 2013, 32 446 websites were manually screened, identifying 980 IEVs, with the 281 most popular selected for content analysis. This methodology yielded 31 239 websites for manual screening in 2014, identifying 3096 IEVs, with 283 selected for content analysis. While the majority of IEVs (71.9%) were US based in 2013, this dropped to 64.3% in 2014 (plocated in at least 38 countries, and 12% providing location indicators reflecting two or more countries, complicating jurisdictional determinations.Reflecting the retail market, IEVs are transitioning from offering disposable and 'cigalike' e-cigarettes to larger tank and "mod" systems. Flavored e-cigarettes were available from 85.9% of IEVs in 2014, with fruit and candy flavors being most popular. Most vendors (76.5%) made health claims in 2013, dropping to 43.1% in 2014. Some IEVs featured conflicting claims about whether or not e-cigarettes aid in smoking cessation. There was wide variation in pricing, with e-cigarettes available as inexpensive as one dollar, well within the affordable range for adults and teens. The number of Internet e-cigarette vendors grew threefold from 2013 to 2014, far surpassing the number of Internet cigarette vendors (N=775) at the 2004 height of that industry. New and expanded regulations for online e-cigarette sales are needed, including restrictions on flavors and marketing claims. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi An

    Full Text Available It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP, which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  18. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Richard; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia) Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents' smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of the students (9.3% among males and 12.1% among females) smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to the survey. Students who favored banning smoking in public places were 33% (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.47, 0.96]) less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to those who were not in favor of the ban. Seeing actors smoking in TV shows, videos or movies was positively associated with smoking (OR = 1.90; 95% CI [1.26, 2.88]). However, possessing an item with a cigarette brand logo on it, seeing advertisements of cigarettes on billboards and being ever offered a free cigarette by a cigarette sales representative were negatively associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95% CI [0.26, 0.58]; OR=0.63, 95% CI [0.43, 0.92]; and OR=0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.65], respectively). Findings from this study indicate that TV advertisement-promotion-sponsorship was positively associated with smoking, while it was the opposite with other forms of advertisement; there is a need for further studies.

  19. Movie moguls: British American Tobacco's covert strategy to promote cigarettes in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGresley, Eric M; Muggli, Monique E; Hurt, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Though the cigarette companies have long publicly denied paying for product placement in films, the documentary evidence from the 1950s-1980s overwhelmingly suggests otherwise. Approximately 800,000 pages of previously secret internal corporate British American Tobacco Company documents were reviewed at the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository from March 2003 through May 2005. Documents were also searched online at the various tobacco document collections between February 2004 and November 2004. A small collection of internal corporate documents from British American Tobacco show that in the late 1990s the company evaluated investing in a movie destined for Eastern Europe. By being an investor, BAT could influence the alteration of the movie script to promote BAT's brands, thus providing marketing opportunities without a clear violation of movie product placement restrictions. Future protocols to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should seek to curtail more than just payment for tobacco product placement. More restrictive provisions will be needed to hinder creative strategies by the tobacco industry to continue tobacco promotion and trademark diversification through movies.

  20. Reported exposure to E-cigarette advertising and promotion in different regulatory environments: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country (ITC-4C) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, E; McNeill, A; Li, L; Hammond, D; Thrasher, J F; Yong, H-H; Cummings, K M; Fong, G T; Hitchman, S C

    2018-07-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertising regulations differ across countries. This study examines how differences in e-cigarette advertising regulations influence exposure to e-cigarette advertising, and perceptions about what participants had seen and read about e-cigarettes. Data come from the ITC Four Country Survey (Canada [CA], United States [US], Australia [AU] and United Kingdom [UK]) carried out between August 2013 and March 2015 (n = 3460). In 2014, AU and CA had laws prohibiting the retail sale of e-cigarettes containing nicotine while the US and UK had no restrictions, although a voluntary agreement restricting advertising in the UK was introduced during fieldwork. Smokers and ex-smokers were asked whether in the last six months they had noticed e-cigarettes advertisements and received free samples/special offers (promotion), and about their perceptions (positive or otherwise) of what they had seen or read about e-cigarettes. Data were analyzed in 2017. US and UK participants were more likely to report that they had noticed e-cigarette advertisements and received promotions compared to CA or AU participants. For TV and radio advertisements, reported exposure was higher in US compared to UK. For all types of advertisements, reported exposure was higher in CA than AU. Overall, nearly half of AU (44.0%) and UK (47.8%) participants perceived everything they had seen and read about e-cigarettes to be positive, with no significant differences between AU and UK. Participants in countries with permissive e-cigarette advertising restrictions and less restrictive e-cigarette regulations were more likely to notice advertisements than participants in countries with more restrictive e-cigarette regulations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  2. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  3. Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Inadequate self-control has been linked to behavioural and impulse-control problems such as overeating, alcohol and drug abuse and smoking. Construal-level theory (CLT) suggests that a high-level construal (highlighting central goals associated with an event), relative to a low-level construal (highlighting means and resources), promotes self-control. Inspired by CLT, we examined whether smokers primed with a high-level (versus low-level) construal mind-set would show reductions in smoking that might be mediated by improved self-control. A single-factor (construal level: high, low, control) between-subjects design was employed. We used a widely employed why/how paradigm to induce high/low construal levels, whereby participants were asked to respond to questions about 'why' or 'how' they would maintain good physical health. Laboratory at Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. A community sample consisting of 102 daily smokers participated in this experiment. The Stroop task measuring self-control was implemented after the construal-level manipulation. The dependent measure was actual cigarette consumption during an ostensible survey. Participants in a high-level construal mind-set smoked fewer cigarettes [mean = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.7] than those in a low-level construal mind-set (mean = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0; P self-control (B = -1.14, 95% CI: -1.65, -0.74, P self-control that leads to reduced cigarette consumption. Thus, reminding smokers to think abstractly about health may be an effective strategy that could help them to smoke fewer cigarettes. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Cigarette smoke exposure promotes arterial thrombosis and vessel remodeling after vascular injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Sawalich, Matthias; Humboldt, Tim; Leifheit, Maren; Meurrens, Kris; Berges, An; Xu, Haiyan; Lebrun, Stefan; Wallerath, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros; Schleef, Raymond; Schaefer, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, in terms of the vessel wall, the underlying pathomechanisms of cigarette smoking are incompletely understood, partly due to a lack of adequate in vivo models. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were exposed to filtered air (sham) or to cigarette mainstream smoke at a total particulate matter (TPM) concentration of 600 microg/l for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h, for 5 days/week. After exposure for 10 +/- 1 weeks, arterial thrombosis and neointima formation at the carotid artery were induced using 10% ferric chloride. Mice exposed to mainstream smoke exhibited shortened time to thrombotic occlusion (p < 0.01) and lower vascular patency rates (p < 0.001). Morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis of neointimal lesions demonstrated that mainstream smoke exposure increased the amount of alpha-actin-positive smooth muscle cells (p < 0.05) and dose-dependently increased the intima-to-media ratio (p < 0.05). Additional analysis of smooth muscle cells in vitro suggested that 10 microg TPM/ml increased cell proliferation without affecting viability or apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (100 and 500 microg TPM/ml) appeared to be cytotoxic. Taken together, these findings suggest that cigarette smoking promotes arterial thrombosis and modulates the size and composition of neointimal lesions after arterial injury in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N; Lee, R E; Halvorson, S

    2001-06-01

    To examine the extent and types of cigarette advertising materials in stores and to assess tobacco company compliance with the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). A cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of 586 stores that sold cigarettes. US state of California. Trained data collectors classified cigarette advertising materials by type (signs, displays, functional items), location (interior or exterior), and placement (below 3 feet (1 m) or near candy). California retail outlets featured 17.2 (SD 16.1) tobacco advertising materials on average, and 94% of stores featured at least some advertising. About 85% of these were within 4 feet (1.3 m) of the counter. About 50% of the stores had ads at or below 3 feet, and 23% had cigarette product displays next to candy. In violation of the MSA, 3% of stores featured signs with cartoons and 11% had large exterior signs. Tobacco companies are aggressively using stores to market cigarettes. Moreover, the spirit of the MSA-to protect children from cigarette advertising-has not been realised. Future studies should monitor industry use of this venue and assess the impact of exposure to cigarette advertising materials in stores on adult smokers and youth.

  6. E-Cigarettes: Implications for Health Promotion in the Asian Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine; Maycock, Bruce; McCausland, Kahlia; Howat, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Since their introduction to the United States in 2007, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has grown exponentially. This rapid growth in e-cigarette use has been heralded by some as a potential important public health measure that could ultimately replace tobacco cigarettes, while others recommend a cautionary approach until there is clear evidence they will not become "new tobacco" bringing a possible myriad of other problems. E-cigarettes may have real benefits, however they do expose users and those nearby to organic compounds, solvents and particulate matter, with there being limited data relating to their health impact. It is unclear as to whether this relatively new device has the potential to exacerbate nicotine addictions, or play a part in reducing harm and smoking cessation. The fundamental requirement of public health practice is to do no harm and from the inconclusive evidence we have to date on e-cigarettes, it appears a cautious approach is warranted. This commentary reviews evidence that supports a cautious approach to e-cigarette availability in Australia and the Asian Pacific region.

  7. From Promotion to Cessation: Masculinity, Race, and Style in the Consumption of Cigarettes, 1962–1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L.; Bottorff, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions. PMID:23409887

  8. From promotion to cessation: masculinity, race, and style in the consumption of cigarettes, 1962-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cameron; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions.

  9. TLR4 deficiency promotes autophagy during cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chang Hyeok; Wang, Xiao Mei; Lam, Hilaire C; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Washko, George R; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2012-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) exert important nonimmune functions in lung homeostasis. TLR4 deficiency promotes pulmonary emphysema. We examined the role of TLR4 in regulating cigarette smoke (CS)-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema. Lung tissue was obtained from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) patients. C3H/HeJ (Tlr4-mutated) mice and C57BL/10ScNJ (Tlr4-deficient) mice and their respective control strains were exposed to chronic CS or air. Human or mouse epithelial cells (wild-type, Tlr4-knockdown, and Tlr4-deficient) were exposed to CS-extract (CSE). Samples were analyzed for TLR4 expression, and for autophagic or apoptotic proteins by Western blot analysis or confocal imaging. Chronic obstructive lung disease lung tissues and human pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to CSE displayed increased TLR4 expression, and increased autophagic [microtubule-associated protein-1 light-chain-3B (LC3B)] and apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3) markers. Beas-2B cells transfected with TLR4 siRNA displayed increased expression of LC3B relative to control cells, basally and after exposure to CSE. The basal and CSE-inducible expression of LC3B and cleaved caspase-3 were elevated in pulmonary alveolar type II cells from Tlr4-deficient mice. Wild-type mice subjected to chronic CS-exposure displayed airspace enlargement;, however, the Tlr4-mutated or Tlr4-deficient mice exhibited a marked increase in airspace relative to wild-type mice after CS-exposure. The Tlr4-mutated or Tlr4-deficient mice showed higher levels of LC3B under basal conditions and after CS exposure. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 was markedly increased in Tlr4-deficient mice exposed to CS. We describe a protective regulatory function of TLR4 against emphysematous changes of the lung in response to CS.

  10. Association of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) exposure and cigarette use among Nigerian adolescents: implications for current practices, products and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chido-Amajuoyi, Onyema G; Mantey, Dale S; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pérez, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS) and cigarette use behaviours among adolescents in five Nigerian regions. This is imperative given a 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, revealing Nigeria has not met any of the MPOWER TAPS ban indicators instituted since 2008. Secondary data analysis of the 2008 Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Nigeria. Participants were 1399 adolescents, representative of 5 Nigerian regions. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between TAPS exposure and (1) past 30-day (current) cigarette use, (2) ever cigarette use and (3) susceptibility to use cigarettes among never cigarette users. Sensitivity analysis via complete case analysis and multiple imputation were conducted. Ninety-five per cent of Nigerian adolescents reported exposure to TAPS. Among adolescents who had never smoked, 15% were susceptible to use cigarettes. Cumulative TAPS exposure was significantly associated with both an increased odds of current cigarette use (AOR: 1.73; 95% CI 1.09 to2.99) and ever cigarette use (AOR: 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to1.45); as well as increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking (AOR: 1.18; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34), among non-smokers. Given study results, the emergence of new tobacco products and novel platforms for TAPS globally, implementation of existing policies and enhancement of efforts to attain comprehensive bans on all forms of direct and indirect TAPS in line with article 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are needed to reduce TAPS exposure and curtail tobacco use in Nigeria.

  11. Neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale price promotions for cigarettes is associated with financial stress among smokers: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Tibbits, Melissa; Soliman, Ghada A; Grimm, Brandon; Shaikh, Raees A; McCarthy, Molly; Wan, Neng; Ramos, Athena K; Correa, Antonia

    2017-11-01

    To examine the association between neighbourhood exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette price promotions and financial stress among smokers in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the USA. Survey data from 888 smokers provided information on sociodemographic and smoking related variables. Financial stress was measured with the question: 'In the last six months, because of lack of money, was there a time when you were unable to buy food or pay any important bills on time, such as electricity, telephone, credit card, rent or your mortgage? (Yes/No).' Using audit data from 504 tobacco retailers, we estimated a score of POS price promotions for each respondent by summing the different types of promotion in each store in their neighbourhood, as defined by a 1-km roadway buffer. Adjusted results provided strong support for an association between higher scores of neighbourhood POS cigarette price promotions and a higher probability of financial stress (p=0.007). Exposure to POS cigarette price promotions is associated with financial stress. This finding, coupled with previous reports that smokers with financial stress are less likely to attempt to quit or succeed in quitting smoking, suggests that POS cigarette price promotions may act as an impediment to smoking cessation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Gestational Exposure to Sidestream (Secondhand) Cigarette Smoke Promotes Transgenerational Epigenetic Transmission of Exacerbated Allergic Asthma and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shashi P; Chand, Hitendra S; Langley, Raymond J; Mishra, Neerad; Barrett, Ted; Rudolph, Karin; Tellez, Carmen; Filipczak, Piotr T; Belinsky, Steve; Saeed, Ali I; Sheybani, Aryaz; Exil, Vernat; Agarwal, Hemant; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Sussan, Thomas; Biswal, Shyam; Sopori, Mohan

    2017-05-15

    Embryonic development is highly sensitive to xenobiotic toxicity and in utero exposure to environmental toxins affects physiological responses of the progeny. In the United States, the prevalence of allergic asthma (AA) is inexplicably rising and in utero exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of AA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in children and animal models. We reported that gestational exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke (SS), or secondhand smoke, promoted nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent exacerbation of AA and BPD in mice. Recently, perinatal nicotine injections in rats were reported to induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent transgenerational transmission of asthma. Herein, we show that first generation and second generation progeny from gestationally SS-exposed mice exhibit exacerbated AA and BPD that is not dependent on the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ levels. Lungs from these mice show strong eosinophilic infiltration, excessive Th2 polarization, marked airway hyperresponsiveness, alveolar simplification, decreased lung compliance, and decreased lung angiogenesis. At the molecular level, these changes are associated with increased RUNX3 expression, alveolar cell apoptosis, and the antiangiogenic factor GAX, and decreased expression of HIF-1α and proangiogenic factors NF-κB and VEGFR2 in the 7-d first generation and second generation lungs. Moreover, the lungs from these mice exhibit lower levels of microRNA (miR)-130a and increased levels of miR-16 and miR-221. These miRs regulate HIF-1α-regulated apoptotic, angiogenic, and immune pathways. Thus the intergenerational effects of gestational SS involve epigenetic regulation of HIF-1α through specific miRs contributing to increased incidence of AA and BPD in the progenies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, Chad A.; Rutagarama, Pierrot; Ahmad, Tanveer; Sundar, Isaac K.; Elder, Alison; Rahman, Irfan, E-mail: irfan_rahman@urmc.rochester.edu

    2016-09-02

    Oxidants or nanoparticles have recently been identified as constituents of aerosols released from various styles of electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Cells in the lung may be directly exposed to these constituents and harbor reactive properties capable of incurring acute cell injury. Our results show mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and aerosol containing copper nanoparticles when exposed to human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) using an Air-Liquid Interface culture system, evident by elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Increased mtROS after aerosol exposure is associated with reduced stability of OxPhos electron transport chain (ETC) complex IV subunit and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in HFL-1 conditioned media were also observed. These findings reveal both mitochondrial, genotoxic, and inflammatory stresses are features of direct cell exposure to E-cig aerosols which are ensued by inflammatory duress, raising a concern on deleterious effect of vaping. - Graphical abstract: Oxidants and possibly reactive properties of metal particles in E-cig aerosols impart mitochondrial oxidative stress and DNA damage. These biological effects accompany inflammatory response which may raise concern regarding long term E-cig use. Mitochondria may be particularly sensitive to reactive properties of E-cig aerosols in addition to the potential for them to induce genotoxic stress by generating increased ROS. - Highlights: • Mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and metal nanoparticles. • Increased mtROS by E-cig aerosol is associated with disrupted mitochondrial energy. • E-cig causes nuclear DNA fragmentation. • E-cig aerosols induce pro-inflammatory response in human fibroblasts.

  14. Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Chad A.; Rutagarama, Pierrot; Ahmad, Tanveer; Sundar, Isaac K.; Elder, Alison; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Oxidants or nanoparticles have recently been identified as constituents of aerosols released from various styles of electronic cigarettes (E-cigs). Cells in the lung may be directly exposed to these constituents and harbor reactive properties capable of incurring acute cell injury. Our results show mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and aerosol containing copper nanoparticles when exposed to human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) using an Air-Liquid Interface culture system, evident by elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS). Increased mtROS after aerosol exposure is associated with reduced stability of OxPhos electron transport chain (ETC) complex IV subunit and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Increased levels of IL-8 and IL-6 in HFL-1 conditioned media were also observed. These findings reveal both mitochondrial, genotoxic, and inflammatory stresses are features of direct cell exposure to E-cig aerosols which are ensued by inflammatory duress, raising a concern on deleterious effect of vaping. - Graphical abstract: Oxidants and possibly reactive properties of metal particles in E-cig aerosols impart mitochondrial oxidative stress and DNA damage. These biological effects accompany inflammatory response which may raise concern regarding long term E-cig use. Mitochondria may be particularly sensitive to reactive properties of E-cig aerosols in addition to the potential for them to induce genotoxic stress by generating increased ROS. - Highlights: • Mitochondria are sensitive to both E-cig aerosols and metal nanoparticles. • Increased mtROS by E-cig aerosol is associated with disrupted mitochondrial energy. • E-cig causes nuclear DNA fragmentation. • E-cig aerosols induce pro-inflammatory response in human fibroblasts.

  15. The cigarette manufacturers' efforts to promote tobacco to the U.S. military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anne M; Muggli, Monique; Pearson, Kathryn C; Lando, Harry

    2005-10-01

    This article describes findings from review of tobacco industry documents regarding promotion of tobacco to the military, and efforts to influence Department of Defense policies regarding the use and sale of tobacco products. The documents reveal that the industry has targeted the military for decades for reasons including: (1) the volume of worldwide military personnel; (2) the opportunity to attract young men who fit a specific socioeconomic and cultural profile; (3) potential carryover of profits to civilian markets; and (4) the unusual price structure of commissaries and exchanges. The industry used distinctive promotion methods such as in-store merchandising, sponsorships, and even brand development to target the military, both in the United States and abroad during times of conflict. Legislative activity to protect tobacco promotion to this vulnerable population was carried out in response to smoking policy changes proposed by the Department of Defense. The tobacco industry has contributed to the high prevalence of smoking in the military and among veterans.

  16. Availability, Price, and Promotions for Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products: A Comparison of United States Air Force Bases with nearby Tobacco Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2019-01-12

    payoff the taxes that would be applicable off-base. Additionally, the new policy extends to account for all tobacco products, not just cigarettes...competitive local price" was not legally required to include local or state excise or sales taxes . As a result, many of the tobacco products sold on-base...all applicable taxes that local consumers pay when purchasing tobacco.൞•23 : this policy went in;to effect after the data collection for the current

  17. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics, including trends in e-cigarette use; health effects of e-cigarettes, nicotine, and secondhand e-cigarette aerosol; e-cigarette marketing and advertising; and evidence-based strategies to reduce e-cigarette use among young people. ...

  18. [Initiation, promotion, initiation experiments with radon and cigarette smoke: Lung tumors in rats]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    During the past several years, the authors have made considerable progress in modeling carcinogenesis in general, and in modeling radiation carcinogenesis, in particular. They present an overview of their progress in developing stochastic carcinogenesis models and applying them to experimental and epidemiologic data sets. Traditionally, cancer models have been used for the analysis of incidence (or prevalence) data in epidemiology and time to tumor data in experimental studies. The relevant quantities for the analysis of these data are the hazard function and the probability of tumor. The derivation of these quantities is briefly described here. More recently, the authors began to use these models for the analysis of data on intermediate lesions on the pathway to cancer. Such data are available in experimental carcinogenesis studies, in particular in initiation and promotion studies on the mouse skin and the rat liver. If however, quantitative information on intermediate lesions on the pathway to lung cancer were to be come available at some future date, the methods that they have developed for the analysis of initiation-promotion experiments could easily be applied to the analysis of these lesions. The mathematical derivations here are couched in terms of a particular two-mutation model of carcinogenesis. Extension to models postulating more than two mutations is not always straightforward

  19. Trends in Cigarette Advertising, Price-Reducing Promotions, and Policy Compliance in New York State Licensed Tobacco Retailers, 2004 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kimberly A; Gammon, Doris G; Loomis, Brett R; Juster, Harlan R; Anker, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    To describe the presence of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs), cigarette advertisements, price-reducing promotions, and compliance with tobacco control policies in New York State from 2004 to 2015 and to discuss implications and lessons learned from 11 years of experience conducting LTR surveys. Annual surveys of tobacco advertising from cross-sectional, stratified random samples of LTRs in New York State from 2004 to 2015 were conducted by professional data collectors. Data for 2013 were unavailable as the survey was not fielded in that year. New York State. Licensed tobacco retailers, which are stores licensed to sell tobacco in the state of New York. Between 3.6% (n = 800) and 19.7% (n = 3945) of all LTRs were sampled annually. The presence and number of cigarette advertisements and the presence of price-reducing promotions, required age-of-sale signage, and self-service tobacco displays were documented. We tested for significant differences between 2014 and 2015 and significant trends overall and by outlet type. We used logistic regression for binary outcomes and Poisson regression for count variables. The number of LTRs in New York State decreased 22.9% from 2004 (n = 25 740) to 2015 (n = 19 855). The prevalence and number of cigarette advertisements and the prevalence of cigarette price-reducing promotions decreased significantly over time. Compliance with posting required age-of-sale signs increased significantly from 2004 to 2015 and from 2014 to 2015. Compliance with the ban on self-service tobacco displays was consistently near 100%. The tobacco retail environment in New York State improved substantially from 2004 to 2015. The implications of these findings for youth and adult smoking and the associated social costs are unknown; however, decreases in pro-tobacco marketing, decreases in the number of LTRs, and improvements in compliance are likely to have positive impacts on youth and adult smoking outcomes, such as reduced initiation and increased

  20. Hospitalized Smokers’ Expectancies for Electronic Cigarettes versus Tobacco Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Cases, Mallory G.; Thorne, Christopher B.; Cheong, JeeWon; Harrington, Kathleen F.; Kohler, Connie L.; Bailey, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To compare hospitalized smokers’ expectancies for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) against their expectancies for tobacco cigarettes and evaluate relationships between e-cigarette expectancies and intention to use e-cigarettes. Methods Analysis of baseline data from a one-year longitudinal observational study. The setting was a tertiary care academic center hospital in the Southeastern U.S. Participants were 958 hospitalized tobacco cigarette smokers. A questionnaire of e-cigarette expectancies based on the Brief Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (BSCQ-A) was developed and administered along with the original, tobacco-specific, BSCQ-A. Intention to use e-cigarettes was assessed with a single 10-point Likert scale item. Results Participants reported significantly weaker expectancies for e-cigarettes relative to tobacco cigarettes on all 10 BSCQ-A scales. Participants held sizably weaker expectancies for the health risks of e-cigarettes (p < .001, Cohen's d = −2.07) as well as the ability of e-cigarettes to relieve negative affect (p < .001, Cohen's d = −1.01), satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.83), and taste pleasant (p < .001, Cohen's d = −.73). Among the strongest predictors of intention to use e-cigarettes were greater expectancies that e-cigarettes taste pleasant (p < .001, adjusted β = .34), relieve negative affect (p < .001, adjusted β = .32), and satisfy the desire for nicotine (p < .001, adjusted β = .31). Conclusions Hospitalizedtobacco smokers expect fewer negative and positive outcomes from e-cigarettes versus tobacco cigarettes. This suggests that e-cigarettes might be viable though imperfect substitutes for tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25452052

  1. Solvent Chemistry in the Electronic Cigarette Reaction Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. Paul; Strongin, Robert M.; Peyton, David H.

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of the mechanism of formation, levels and toxicological profiles of the chemical products in the aerosols (i.e., vapor plus particulate phases) of e-cigarettes is needed in order to better inform basic research as well as the general public, regulators, and industry. To date, studies of e-cigarette emissions have mainly focused on chromatographic techniques for quantifying and comparing the levels of selected e-cigarette aerosol components to those found in traditional cigarettes. E-cigarettes heat and aerosolize the solvents propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GLY), thereby affording unique product profiles as compared to traditional cigarettes. The chemical literature strongly suggests that there should be more compounds produced by PG and GLY than have been reported in e-cigarette aerosols to date. Herein we report an extensive investigation of the products derived from vaporizing PG and GLY under mild, single puff conditions. This has led to the discovery of several new compounds produced under vaping conditions. Prior reports on e-cigarette toxin production have emphasized temperature as the primary variable in solvent degradation. In the current study, the molecular pathways leading to enhanced PG/GLY reactivity are described, along with the most impactful chemical conditions promoting byproduct production.

  2. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4 ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and combustion by heating tobacco at a much lower temperature

  3. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  4. A single blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) portion does not affect markers of antioxidant defence and oxidative stress in healthy volunteers following cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Campolo, Jonica; Parolini, Marina; Lanti, Claudia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported that a portion of blueberries reversed endothelial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking. Since smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction is associated with a condition of oxidative stress, we evaluated whether the observed effect was mediated by modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. Fourteen out of 16 male healthy smokers previously enrolled, participated in a three-armed randomized controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300g of blueberries) + smoking (one cigarette); control treatment (300ml of water with sugar) + smoking (one cigarette). The cigarette was smoked 100min after blueberry/control/water consumption. Each treatment was separated by 1 week of washout period. Plasma vitamin (C, B12 and folate) and aminothiol concentrations, endogenous [formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites] and oxidatively induced DNA damage (resistance to H2O2-induced DNA damage) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured at baseline and 20, 60, 90, 120min and 24h after smoking. On the whole, analysis of variance did not show a significant effect of treatment on the modulation of markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence but revealed an effect of time for plasma concentrations of vitamin C (P = 0.003), B12 (P 0.05) and H2O2-induced DNA damage (P > 0.05) in PBMCs. In conclusion, the consumption of a single blueberry portion failed to modulate markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence investigated in our experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate this finding and help clarifying the mechanisms of protection of blueberries against smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Systems Biology Reveals Cigarette Smoke-Induced Concentration-Dependent Direct and Indirect Mechanisms That Promote Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Carine; Laurent, Alexandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; De Leon, Hector

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) affects the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, a critical step in atherogenesis. Using an in vitro adhesion assay together with innovative computational systems biology approaches to analyze omics data, our study aimed at investigating CS-induced mechanisms by which monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion is promoted. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated for 4 h with (1) conditioned media of human monocytic Mono Mac-6 (MM6) cells preincubated with low or high concentrations of aqueous CS extract (sbPBS) from reference cigarette 3R4F for 2 h (indirect treatment, I), (2) unconditioned media similarly prepared without MM6 cells (direct treatment, D), or (3) freshly generated sbPBS (fresh direct treatment, FD). sbPBS promoted MM6 cells-HCAECs adhesion following I and FD, but not D. In I, the effect was mediated at a low concentration through activation of vascular inflammation processes promoted in HCAECs by a paracrine effect of the soluble mediators secreted by sbPBS-treated MM6 cells. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), a major inducer, was actually shed by unstable CS compound-activated TNFα-converting enzyme. In FD, the effect was triggered at a high concentration that also induced some toxicity. This effect was mediated through an yet unknown mechanism associated with a stress damage response promoted in HCAECs by unstable CS compounds present in freshly generated sbPBS, which had decayed in D unconditioned media. Aqueous CS extract directly and indirectly promotes monocytic cell-endothelial cell adhesion in vitro via distinct concentration-dependent mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prevalence and Trends of Cigarette Smoking Among Military Personnel in Taiwan: Results of 10-Year Anti-Smoking Health Promotion Programs in Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2017-07-01

    decreased after 2012. Furthermore, in 2014, the prevalence of smoking decreased as the difference became smaller, 4.5% and 6.1% for freshman and senior, respectively. During this 10-year period, the smoking cessation programs include in-class education course, out-door physical training, antismoking clinic, and group therapy. After these military health promoting programs, there are some beneficial effects to decline the prevalence of cigarette smoking for military personnel in Taiwan. However, more active intervention and health promoting programs in prevention and cessation of smoking are needed for the military. The military also have to develop specific approaches and programs to prevent cigarette smoking among conscripts and officers. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  8. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Nayir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert that it is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, some others assert the contrary. Although e-cigarette contains less toxic substances compared to conventional cigarette, it contains certain carcinogens existing in conventional cigarette such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It also contains heavy metals (nickel, chrome that conventional cigarette does not contain; and therefore, raises concerns about health. E-cigarette leads to upper and lower respiratory tract irritation as well as an increased airway resistance and an increased bacterial colonization in the respiratory tract. It may also cause tahcycardia and increase diastolic blood pressure. Although e-cigarette has been found to have certain benefits in terms of smoking cessation, most of the studies have shown unfavorable results. In this collected work, the effects of e-cigarette on health and its role in smoking cessation are discussed in detail.

  9. Dual Use of E-Cigarettes and Traditional Cigarettes Among Adolescents in Taiwan, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Chang, Li-Chuan; Hsu, Chieh; Lee, Yue-Chune

    2018-02-02

    We investigated the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with traditional cigarettes among adolescents during 2014 to 2016 to identify risk factors for using e-cigarettes only, traditional cigarettes only, or both products. We used cross-sectional data from the Taiwan Global Youth Tobacco Survey, (conducted over a 3-year period by the Health Promotion Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan), which is representative of tobacco use among adolescents aged 12-18 years. The outcome variable was smoking behavior. Dependent variables included gender, grade, monthly income/allowance, parents' educational level, parents' smoking status, close friends' smoking status, use of other tobacco products, contact with cigarette/e-cigarette advertisements, and access to free cigarettes/e-cigarettes. Multinomial regression identify factors influencing the smoking behaviors of adolescents, as manifested in the use of traditional cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only, e-cigarettes with traditional cigarettes, and nonsmoking. When weighted to the population, the sample included 1723150 adolescents in 2014, 1691568 adolescents in 2015, and 1627216 adolescents in 2016. The rates averaged over three years were as follows: nonsmoking (91.6%), traditional cigarettes only (5.4%), e-cigarettes only (1.5%), and dual usage (1.6%). Among adolescents in Taiwan, the following were risk factors for dual use: male, older, high monthly allowance, smoking parents, smoking friends, use of other tobacco products, contact with cigarette advertisements, and access to free cigarettes. Our results revealed an increase in the number of adolescents using e-cigarettes with traditional cigarettes. We recommend that the government continue smoking cessation programs while maintaining control over advertisements and promotions for tobacco products. This is the first study to examine the dual use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes among adolescents in Taiwan. This study identified the

  10. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Nayir; Burak Karacabey; Onder Kirca; Mustafa Ozdogan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert ...

  11. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  12. The administration of a high refined carbohydrate diet promoted an increase in pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pena KB

    2016-12-01

    increase in the catalase activity in RCSG compared with CG. In addition, there was a decrease in the glutathione reduced/glutathione total ratio of CSG, RG, and RCSG compared to CG. Therefore, the administration of a high refined carbohydrate diet promoted an increase in pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in mice exposed to CS. Keywords: obesity, cigarette smoke, oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation

  13. E-Cigarettes and Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K. Michael; Dresler, Carolyn M.; Field, John K.; Fox, Jesme; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hanna, Nasser H.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Jassem, Jacek; Mulshine, James L.; Peters, Matthew J.; Yamaguchi, Nise H.; Warren, Graham; Zhou, Caicun

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity and availability of electronic cigarettes (i.e., e-cigarettes) in many countries have promoted debate among health professionals as to what to recommend to their patients who might be struggling to stop smoking or asking about e-cigarettes. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, some health professionals have urged caution about recommending them due to the limited evidence of their safety and efficacy, while others ...

  14. Effects of e-Cigarette Advertisements on Adolescents' Perceptions of Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Popova, Lucy; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-12-13

    This study examined the effect of exposure to "cigalike" (products resembling cigarettes) e-cigarette advertisements on adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. A nationally representative sample of 802 adolescents (13-17 years old) was randomly assigned to watch three e-cigarette or three control advertisements. Never-smokers who saw the e-cigarette advertisements (n = 352) reported significantly lower perceived risks of smoking than those in the control condition (n = 320). Ever-smokers (n = 130) did not show significant differences across the conditions. In subgroup analyses, current smokers (reported smoking in the past 30 days, n = 31) in the e-cigarette condition reported significantly lower perceived benefits of smoking than those in the control condition. E-cigarette advertisements can affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. Many advertisements, especially the ones promoting "cigalikes," depict e-cigarettes as being similar to cigarettes (e.g., look, flavor) but also as a solution for cigarettes' shortcomings (e.g., bad smell). While the advertisements include messages about problems posed by cigarettes, proposing e-cigarettes as a solution may decrease the perceived risks of smoking among never-smokers. It may also not be clear to adolescents whether advertisements are for cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Regulating e-cigarette advertisements to minimize adolescents' exposure may prevent potential harmful effects on never-smokers' perception of smoking.

  15. Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking among children: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Petrescu, Dragos C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-12-01

    There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, such as, bubble gum and milk chocolate. We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11-16 years) to 1 of 3 different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured e-cigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Tobacco smokers and e-cigarette users were excluded from analyses (final sample=471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Also, it did not reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking, which was high. Flavoured e-cigarette adverts were, however, more appealing than adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes and elicited greater interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Exposure to adverts for e-cigarettes does not seem to increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. Flavoured, compared with non-flavoured, e-cigarette adverts did, however, elicit greater appeal and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Further studies extending the current research are needed to elucidate the impact of flavoured and non-flavoured e-cigarette adverts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. E-Cigarette Marketing and Communication: How E-Cigarette Companies Market E-Cigarettes and the Public Engages with E-cigarette Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren; Glasser, Allison M; Abudayyeh, Haneen; Pearson, Jennifer L; Villanti, Andrea C

    2018-01-05

    Given the lack of regulation on marketing of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the U.S. and the increasing exchange of e-cigarette-related information online, it is critical to understand how e-cigarette companies market e-cigarettes and how the public engages with e-cigarette information. Results are from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature on e-cigarettes via a PubMed search through June 1, 2017. Search terms included: "e-cigarette*" OR "electronic cigarette" OR "electronic cigarettes" OR "electronic nicotine delivery" OR "vape" OR "vaping." Experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies, observational studies, qualitative studies, and mixed methods studies providing empirical findings on e-cigarette marketing and communication (i.e., non-marketing communication in the public) were included. One hundred twenty-four publications on e-cigarette marketing and communication were identified. They covered topics including e-cigarette advertisement claims/promotions and exposure/receptivity, the effect of e-cigarette advertisements on e-cigarette and cigarette use, public engagement with e-cigarette information, and the public's portrayal of e-cigarettes. Studies show increases in e-cigarette marketing expenditures and online engagement through social media over time, that e-cigarettes are often framed as an alternative to combustible cigarettes, and that e-cigarette advertisement exposure may be associated with e-cigarette trial in adolescents and young adults. Few studies examine the effects of e-cigarette marketing on perceptions and e-cigarette and cigarette use. Evidence suggests that exposure to e-cigarette advertisements affects perceptions and trial of e-cigarettes, but there is no evidence that exposure affects cigarette use. No studies examined how exposure to e-cigarette communication, particularly misleading or inaccurate information, impacts e-cigarette and tobacco use behaviors. The present article provides a comprehensive review of e-cigarette

  17. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  18. "Not one single case of throat irritation": misuse of the image of the otolaryngologist in cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hussein A; Jackler, Robert K

    2008-03-01

    Early in the last century, when questions about the health effects of smoking became a topic of widespread discussion, tobacco companies undertook a multi-faceted campaign to allay the public's fears. As terms like "smoker's cough" and "coffin nails" (referring to cigarettes) began to appear in the popular vernacular, tobacco marketers recognized the need to counter this threat to their livelihood. One strategy was to use endorsements by healthy and vigorous-appearing singers, radio stars, and actors. Another was to raise fears over weight gain: "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." Among the more reprehensible tactics was the utilization of the image of the noble and caring physician to sell cigarettes: doctors were depicted both as satisfied and enthusiastic partakers of the smoking habit (e.g., "More doctors smoke Camels"). Images of medical men (and a few token women) appeared under warm reassurances of the safety of smoking. Frequently, images appeared of a head-mirrored "throat doctor," smiling benignly, while indicating that the company's product would do no harm. Indeed, many cigarette ads, especially for menthol brands, suggested a therapeutic soothing benefit from smoking. Liberal use was also made of pseudo-scientific medical reports and surveys. Our intention is to tell, principally through advertising images-the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products.

  19. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  20. Lack of association of the serotonin transporter gene promoter region polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, including rs25531 with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Bagger, Yu; Tanko, Laszlo B

    2009-01-01

    We addressed the question whether 5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats located in the 5' end of the serotonin transporter gene, is associated with smoking or alcohol consumption. Samples of DNA from 1,365 elderly women with a mean age of 69.2 years were genotyped for this polymorphism...... using a procedure, which allowed the simultaneous determination of variation in the number of repeat units and single nucleotide changes, including the A > G variation at rs25531 for discrimination between the L(A) and L(G) alleles. Qualitative and quantitative information on the women's current...... and previous consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were obtained using a questionnaire. Genotypes were classified according to allele size, that is, S and L with 14 and 16 repeat units, respectively, and on a functional basis by amalgamation of the L(G) and S alleles. Data were subjected to regression analyses...

  1. Behavioral economic substitution between conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes differs as a function of the frequency of e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sarah E; Cummings, K Michael; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-08-01

    Models measuring the interactions between consumption of conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in the marketplace are becoming vital forecast tools as the popularity of e-cigarettes increases and policy on tobacco products changes. Behavioral economics, which involves the integration of psychology and consumer demand, can be used to measure individuals' purchase behavior under different marketplace conditions. Our goal was to measure hypothetical conventional cigarette and e-cigarette purchasing among smokers with varying e-cigarette use patterns. Daily cigarette smokers were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing tool. Participants were asked about their frequency of e-cigarette use and to complete hypothetical single and cross-commodity purchase tasks. Frequency of e-cigarette use differentially affected how individuals consumed both conventional and e- cigarettes in different hypothetical marketplace conditions. The present study demonstrates four main findings: 1) the demand for conventional cigarettes was the lowest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 2) the demand for e-cigarettes was the highest in those with greater frequency of e-cigarette use, 3) when both products were available together, daily e-cigarette users purchased more e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes served as a substitute for cigarettes in all groups regardless of frequency of use, and 4) the demand for conventional cigarette demand was lower in frequent e-cigarette users when e-cigarettes were concurrently available. Together, these data suggest that price and marketplace conditions will impact purchasing behavior of conventional and e-cigarettes users heterogeneously. Therefore, frequency of use patterns should be considered when implementing novel policies and/or marketplace changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. E-Cigarette Vapor Induces an Apoptotic Response in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells Through the Caspase-3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Park, Hyun Jin; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Chmielewski, Witold; Chakir, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes represent an increasingly significant proportion of today's consumable tobacco products. E-cigarettes contain several chemicals which may promote oral diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of e-cigarette vapor on human gingival epithelial cells. Results show that e-cigarette vapor altered the morphology of cells from small cuboidal form to large undefined shapes. Both single and multiple exposures to e-cigarette vapor led to a bulky morphology with large faint nuclei and an enlarged cytoplasm. E-cigarette vapor also increased L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the targeted cells. This activity was greater with repeated exposures. Furthermore, e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic/necrotic epithelial cell percentages compared to that observed in the control. Epithelial cell apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL assay showing that exposure to e-cigarette vapor increased apoptotic cell numbers, particularly after two and three exposures. This negative effect involved the caspase-3 pathway, the activity of which was greater with repeated exposure and which decreased following the use of caspase-3 inhibitor. The adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor on gingival epithelial cells may lead to dysregulated gingival cell function and result in oral disease. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Knowledge and Attitude of Teenagers Towards Electronic Cigarettes in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Asim; Ansari, Hamza T; Ahmad, Zeerak; Shaikh, Mahnoor Y; Khalid, Ilma; Jahangir, Maha; Majeed, Amna; Shakeel, Nimra; Ahmed, Arsalan; Memon, Roha Saeed; Tariq, Eleze; Irfan, Rafia; Madni, Dania

    2017-07-13

    Introduction Studies have shown that electronic cigarettes have gained immense popularity and their use has increased dramatically all over the world. However, little is known about the knowledge and attitudes towards e-cigarettes in third world countries such as Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of teenagers in Karachi regarding e-cigarettes and whether the differences in said perceptions were affected by gender and level of education. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in January 2017 using convenience sampling and interviewed 441 young individuals, aged 13 to 19 years, to determine their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding e-cigarettes. The participants were questioned about their knowledge and its source. Attitudes were judged using four and five-point Likert scales while questions regarding practices focused on single and current use. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of teenagers with gender and level of schooling. Results The majority of participants knew what e-cigarettes were (n=277, 68.7%) but did not know about their contents (n=225, 55.8%) and had learned about them from either friends or the internet (n=245, 60.%). Almost half of them (n=190, 47.2%) believed that the reason for e-cigarette use was either peer pressure or to quit smoking conventional cigarettes. An overwhelming majority also stated that; it was either easy or very easy to obtain e-cigarettes (n=277, 68.7%), they would not try smoking e-cigarettes even if a good friend of theirs recommended them (n=287, 71.2%), they were not current e-cigarette smokers (n=370, 91.8%) and they would never promote e-cigarette use (n=371, 92.1%). Statistically significant differences were found with males knowing more about e-cigarettes (p=0.006) and being more common to either have smoked (p e-cigarette smokers (p e-cigarette use among teenagers in Pakistan due to cultural and social stigmas

  4. Bi-directional associations of electronic and combustible cigarette use onset patterns with depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Janssen, Tim; Kahler, Christopher W; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    Whether well-documented patterns of mental health comorbidity with adolescent combustible cigarette use extend to e-cigarette use is unclear. Demonstrating associations between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use with mental health symptomatology across adolescence may be important for promoting accurate perceptions of populations at risk for and potential consequences of tobacco product use. Adolescents (N=2460; mean age at baseline=14.1; 53.4% female; 44.1% Hispanic) who had never previously used combustible or e-cigarettes were assessed at baseline, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups in Los Angeles, CA (2013-2014). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline depressive symptoms and onset of e-cigarette and cigarette single product and dual use at follow-ups. Latent growth modeling was used to examine associations between sustained use of either product (vs. non-use) and changes in depressive symptoms over 12-months. Higher baseline depressive symptoms predicted subsequent onset of cigarette (OR=1.024, 95% C.I.=1.009-1.055), e-cigarette (OR=1.015, C.I.=1.003-1.023), and dual use of both products (OR=1.021, C.I.=1.003-1.043). Sustained use of e-cigarettes over the 12-month observation (vs. non-use) was associated with a greater rate of increase in depressive symptoms over time (b=1.272, SE=0.513, p=0.01). Among those who sustained use of e-cigarettes, higher frequency of use was associated with higher depressive symptoms at the final follow-up (B=1.611, p=0.04). A bi-directional association of depressive symptoms with e-cigarette use onset across mid adolescence was observed. Further research on the causal nature, etiological underpinnings, and intervention implications of mental health and tobacco product use comorbidity is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette Cue Attentional Bias in Cocaine-Smoking and Non-Cocaine-Using Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoking in cocaine users is nearly four times higher than the national prevalence and cocaine use increases cigarette smoking. The mechanisms underlying cigarette smoking in cocaine-using individuals need to be identified to promote cigarette and cocaine abstinence. Previous studies have examined the salience of cigarette and cocaine cues separately. The present aim was to determine whether cigarette attentional bias (AB) is higher in cigarettes smokers who smoke cocaine relative to individuals who only smoke cigarettes. Twenty cigarette smokers who smoke cocaine and 20 non-cocaine-using cigarette smokers completed a visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. During this task, the magnitude of cigarette and cocaine AB was assessed through orienting bias, fixation time, and response time. Cocaine users displayed an orienting bias towards cigarette cues. Cocaine users also endorsed a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect associated with cigarette craving than non-cocaine users (g = 0.6). Neither group displayed a cigarette AB, as measured by fixation time. Cocaine users, but not non-cocaine users, displayed a cocaine AB as measured by orienting bias (g = 2.0) and fixation time (g = 1.2). There were no significant effects for response time data. Cocaine-smoking cigarettes smokers display an initial orienting bias toward cigarette cues, but not sustained cigarette AB. The incentive motivation underlying cigarette smoking also differs. Cocaine smokers report more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect. Identifying differences in motivation to smoke cigarettes may provide new treatment targets for cigarette and cocaine use disorders. These results suggest that cocaine-smoking cigarette smokers display an initial orienting bias towards cigarette cues, but not sustained attention towards cigarette cues, relative to non-cocaine-using smokers. Smoked cocaine users also report a more urgent desire to smoke to relieve negative affect

  6. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  7. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  8. [Focus on electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghino, Biagio; Pacifici, Roberta; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Palmi, Ilaria; Solimini, Renata; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear regulation on electronic cigarettes (e-cig); their health effects are not yet fully investigated and there is insufficient standardisation and quality control of the product. Moreover, the e-cig could be a gateway for young people to nicotine addiction and traditional cigarette smoking. In Italy, the Ministry of Health banned the sale of e-cig with nicotine firstly to adolescents aged marketing of e-cigs, to make them less attractive, to forbid their use in enclosed areas, and prevent them from being promoted. E-cigs, however, seem to be much less dangerous than traditional cigarettes, although the few studies conducted are not sufficient to demonstrate either a clear therapeutic efficacy of e-cig or their total harmlessness. If e-cig had a known content, were made according to clear rules and in certified laboratories, without toxic substances, it could be used to help heavy smokers to quit, or at least to reduce smoking habits. There is a large proportion of smokers who are unable to quit. The revision of the European Directive (the proposal is being evaluated and we are waiting for its final approval) on tobacco recommends free sale for a minority of e-cigs only, those with a nicotine content e-cig and the much more dangerous tobacco cigarettes are still sold without any restriction.

  9. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ok Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 69,923, a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%. Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR = 2.51, p < 0.001 and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001. Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  10. Examining Youth Dual and Polytobacco Use with E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Pepper, Jessica K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Nonnemaker, James M; Duke, Jennifer C; Porter, Lauren

    2018-04-08

    E-cigarettes and other non-cigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth. Little is known to inform public health efforts to reduce youth use. We examined psychosocial correlates of single and multiple tobacco product use among youth e-cigarette users. Data were from the 2014 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey ( N = 69,923), a representative sample of Florida middle and high school students. Associations between combinations of e-cigarette, cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use and psychosocial variables were examined using multinomial logistic regression with an analytic sample of N = 2756. Most e-cigarette-using youth used at least one other product (81%). Perceiving cigarettes as easy to quit was significantly associated with greater likelihood of combined e-cigarette/OTP use (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.51, p < 0.001) and combined e-cigarette/cigarette/OTP use (RRR = 3.20, p < 0.0001). Thinking you will be smoking cigarettes in 5 years was associated with product combinations that include cigarettes. Tobacco company marketing receptivity was associated with multiple product user types. Given that specific psychosocial factors put youth at risk for concurrent use of e-cigarettes with tobacco products, public health efforts should address polytobacco use specifically, instead of individual product use. Youth perceptions about the ease of quitting cigarettes, intentions to continue smoking cigarettes and receptivity to tobacco company marketing are promising areas for messaging aimed at reducing e-cigarette polytobacco product use.

  11. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31-40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31-40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers.

  12. E-cigarettes in pregnancy: reducing or introducing harm?

    OpenAIRE

    Weighall, Jaydene; Wilbraham, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes use has become increasingly prevalent with around 17.6% of population using these products. The serious harm to health caused by cigarette smoke is well publicised, and government advice has promoted the message that e-cigarettes are 95% safer; however e-cigarettes are not risk free. Given the high prevalence of e-cigarette usage, pregnant women are likely to look to midwives for guidance on whether e-cigarettes are safe, however advice to midwives is inconsistent. The c...

  13. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  14. Assessment of indoor air quality at an electronic cigarette (Vaping) convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Aherrera, Angela; Isichei, Chineye; Olmedo, Pablo; Jarmul, Stephanie; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Rule, Ana M

    2017-12-29

    E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO 2 and NO 2 concentrations were measured. Integrated samples of air nicotine and PM 10 concentrations were also collected. The number of attendees was estimated to range from 75 to 600 at any single observation time. The estimated 24-h time-weighted average (TWA) PM 10 was 1800 μg/m 3 , 12-fold higher than the EPA 24-h regulation (150 μg/m 3 ). Median (range) indoor TVOCs concentration was 0.13 (0.04-0.3) ppm. PM 10 and TVOC concentrations were highly correlated with CO 2 concentrations, indicating the high number of people using e-cigarettes and poor indoor air quality. Air nicotine concentration was 125 μg/m 3 , equivalent to concentrations measured in bars and nightclubs. E-cigarette aerosol in a vaping convention that congregates many e-cigarette users is a major source of PM 10 , air nicotine and VOCs, impairing indoor air quality. These findings also raise occupational concerns for e-cigarette vendors and other venue staff workers.

  15. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J E; Li, Q; Abrams, S M; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K M

    2005-04-01

    To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts.

  16. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained m...

  17. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging.

  18. Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

  19. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang

    2018-04-04

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  20. Single-site catalyst promoters accelerate metal-catalyzed nitroarene hydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Liang; Guan, Erjia; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Junhao; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Yang, Ming; Cen, Cheng; Fu, Gang; Gates, Bruce C.; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2018-01-01

    Atomically dispersed supported metal catalysts are drawing wide attention because of the opportunities they offer for new catalytic properties combined with efficient use of the metals. We extend this class of materials to catalysts that incorporate atomically dispersed metal atoms as promoters. The catalysts are used for the challenging nitroarene hydrogenation and found to have both high activity and selectivity. The promoters are single-site Sn on TiO2 supports that incorporate metal nanoparticle catalysts. Represented as M/Sn-TiO2 (M = Au, Ru, Pt, Ni), these catalysts decidedly outperform the unpromoted supported metals, even for hydrogenation of nitroarenes substituted with various reducible groups. The high activity and selectivity of these catalysts result from the creation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface by single-site Sn, which leads to efficient, selective activation of the nitro group coupled with a reaction involving hydrogen atoms activated on metal nanoparticles.

  1. Cigarette smoke extract promotes human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and survival through ERK1/2- and NF-κB-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-Wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The underlying molecular mechanisms that link cigarette smoke to cardiovascular disease remain unclear. The present study was designed to examine the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-soluble smoke particles (DSPs) on huma...

  2. Cigarette smoke extract promotes human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and survival through ERK1/2- and NF-κB-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-Wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2010-01-01

    and necrosis were found in serum-starved HASMCs. DSPs decreased cell death and increased B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 expression. Blocking phosphorylation of ERK1/2 or NF-κB attenuated DSP-induced cell death inhibition. Cigarette smoke particles stimulate HASMC proliferation and inhibit cell death...

  3. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Williams, Rebecca S; Gammon, Doris G; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (eg, US-based, international or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. We analysed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (OR=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1508 per year buying cigarettes online. ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Gammon, Doris G.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (e.g., US-based, international, or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. Methods We analyzed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010, and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. Findings The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (odds ratio (OR)=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1,508 per year buying cigarettes online. Conclusions ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. PMID:26490844

  5. Prevalence of Cigarette Advertising and Other Promotional Strategies at the Point of Sale in St Louis, Missouri: Analysis by Store Type and Distance From a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. Methods All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, “no sales to minors” signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. Results We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Conclusion Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail. PMID:24742394

  6. Prevalence of cigarette advertising and other promotional strategies at the point of sale in St Louis, Missouri: analysis by store type and distance from a school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-04-17

    Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, "no sales to minors" signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail.

  7. Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing, Urge to Buy Cigarettes, and Impulse Purchases of Cigarettes: Results From a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Hyland, Andrew; Smith, Danielle; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing for one's regular brand, as well as any brand of cigarettes, with the urge to buy cigarettes and frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes. Nine hundred ninety-nine smokers in Omaha, Nebraska were interviewed via telephone. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as discounts for their regular brand as well as any brand of cigarettes in their neighborhoods stores. We measured urge to buy cigarettes with the question "When you are in a store in your neighborhood that sells tobacco products, how often do you get an urge to buy cigarettes?" We measured frequency of impulse purchases of cigarettes with the question "When you are shopping in a store in your neighborhood for something other than cigarettes, how often do you decide to buy cigarettes?" We estimated ordinary least squares linear regression models to address the study aim. Higher levels of POS marketing for one's regular brand and any brands of cigarettes were associated with more frequent urges to buy (P purchases of cigarettes (P = .01 and P = .013, respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Existing studies on the association of POS cigarette marketing with urge to buy and an impulse purchase of cigarettes only focus on cigarette pack displays, not on advertisements and promotions. Also, these studies make no distinction between marketing for the smokers' regular brand and any brand of cigarettes. This study found that Exposure to POS marketing for one's own brand of cigarette as well as any brand is associated with urges to buy and impulse purchases of cigarettes. Our findings can provide part of the evidence-base needed by the Food and Drug Administration or local

  8. Affect, risk perception, and the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: a population study of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Owusu, Daniel; Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Mertz, C K; Pechacek, Terry F; Slovic, Paul

    2018-03-22

    Tobacco companies argue that the decision to smoke is made by well-informed rational adults who have considered all the risks and benefits of smoking. Yet in promoting their products, the tobacco industry frequently relies on affect, portraying their products as part of a desirable lifestyle. Research examining the roles of affect and perceived risks in smoking has been scant and non-existent for novel tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We examined the relationship between affect, perceived risk, and current use for cigarettes and e-cigarettes in 2015 in a nationally representative sample of 5398 U.S. adults who were aware of e-cigarettes. Participants held various affective associations with tobacco products, and affect towards cigarettes was more negative than affect towards e-cigarettes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), affect towards cigarettes and e-cigarettes was associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use respectively, and these associations were both direct and partially mediated by risk perceptions towards smoking and e-cigarette use. More positive affect towards cigarettes or e-cigarettes was associated with lower perceived risks, which in turn was associated with higher odds of being a current cigarette or e-cigarette user. In developing models explaining tobacco use behavior, or in creating public communication campaigns aimed at curbing tobacco use, it is useful to focus not only on the reason based predictors, such as perceptions of risks and benefits, but also on affective predictors. Educational efforts aimed at further smoking reductions should highlight and reinforce negative images and associations with cigarettes.

  9. The effect of cigarette smoke extract on thrombomodulin-thrombin binding: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujie; Zhang, Xuejie; Xu, Li; Yi, Shaoqiong; Li, Yi; Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Huiliang

    2012-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Smoking can cause vascular endothelial dysfunction and consequently trigger haemostatic activation and thrombosis. However, the mechanism of how smoking promotes thrombosis is not fully understood. Thrombosis is associated with the imbalance of the coagulant system due to endothelial dysfunction. As a vital anticoagulation cofactor, thrombomodulin (TM) located on the endothelial cell surface is able to regulate intravascular coagulation by binding to thrombin, and the binding results in thrombosis inhibition. This work focused on the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on TM-thrombin binding by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy. The results from both in vitro and live-cell experiments indicated that CSE could notably reduce the binding probability of TM and thrombin. This study provided a new approach and new evidence for studying the mechanism of thrombosis triggered by cigarette smoking.

  10. Modeling the Health Effects of Expanding e-Cigarette Sales in the United States and United Kingdom: A Monte Carlo Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Population health effects will depend on cigarette smoking behaviors, levels of dual use with conventional cigarettes, and e-cigarette toxicity. To evaluate potential health effects of various scenarios of increasing promotion and use of e-cigarettes. A base case model was developed using data on actual cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns that quantifies transitions from an initial state of no cigarette or e-cigarette use to 1 of 5 final states: never use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes, cigarette use, e-cigarette use, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or quit. Seven scenarios were created that cover a range of use patterns, depending on how the e-cigarette market might develop, as well as a range of possible long-term health effects of e-cigarette use. Scenarios for changes from the base case were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Separate sets of base case model parameters were evaluated for the US and UK populations. We assigned unitless health "costs" for each final state on a scale of 0 to 100. Population health "costs" were compared with the base case (status quo) assuming e-cigarette use health "costs" from 1% to 50% as dangerous as conventional cigarette use health costs. Compared with the base case, a harm reduction scenario in which e-cigarette use increases only among smokers who are interested in quitting with more quit attempts and no increased initiation of e-cigarette use among nonsmokers, and another scenario in which e-cigarettes are taken up only by youth who would have smoked conventional cigarettes, had population-level health benefits regardless of e-cigarette health costs in both the United States and United Kingdom. Conversely, scenarios in which e-cigarette promotion leads to renormalization of cigarette smoking or e-cigarettes are used primarily by youth who never would have smoked showed net health harms across all e-cigarette health costs. In other

  11. RADX interacts with single-stranded DNA to promote replication fork stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Lisa; Ho, Teresa; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions form as an intermediate in many DNA-associated transactions. Multiple cellular proteins interact with ssDNA via the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. The heterotrimeric, multi-OB fold domain-containing Replication Protein A (RPA) complex...... ssDNA-binding activities is critical for avoiding these defects. Our findings establish RADX as an important component of cellular pathways that promote DNA replication integrity under basal and stressful conditions by means of multiple ssDNA-binding proteins....

  12. Characteristics of Adults Who Switched From Cigarette Smoking to E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su Hyun; Duncan, Dustin T; Shahawy, Omar El; Lee, Lily; Shearston, Jenni A; Tamura, Kosuke; Sherman, Scott E; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), this study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics and state-level prevalence of U.S. adults who have switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes. Data from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Surveys were analyzed in 2016. Relative percent change in switching was estimated, and the state-specific prevalence of adults who switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes was calculated and mapped. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine how switching varied by sociodemographic subgroups and region. Overall, the number of individuals who switched from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes increased by approximately 100% over the 1-year interval. Significant increases were found among a number of sociodemographics and regions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that young adults and those living in the South and West were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes, compared to former smokers who did not switch. Compared with current dual users, those with higher education and those who were not single were more likely to switch to e-cigarettes. The state with the highest prevalence of switching was New Mexico (7.3%), whereas Connecticut had the lowest prevalence (0.8 %) among former smokers. There is an increase in the progression from traditional cigarette use to e-cigarette use. Further research is warranted to determine whether this change continues and facilitates cigarette smoking cessation as a possible public health benefit and opportunity to save lives rather than constitutes a potential threat to public health. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in cigarette expenditure minimising strategies before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2018-01-01

    Smokers use cigarette expenditure minimising strategies (CEMS) to alleviate the effect of tax increases on their cigarette expenses. We examined changes in smokers' CEMS use before and after a 2013 Minnesota $1.75 cigarette tax increase. Data were from representative samples of smokers who participated in the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey 2010 (n=948) and 2014 (n=1229). Participants indicated CEMS used in the past year from a list. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine changes in prevalence of each CEMS use over time adjusting for demographics and cigarette consumption. Characteristics associated with CEMS use in 2014 were examined. Between 2010 and 2014, more smokers tried to save money on cigarettes by rolling their own cigarettes (from 19% to 29%), using other tobacco products (from 13% to 25%), and buying cigarettes from cheaper places (from 48% to 55%). Yet, fewer smokers used coupons/promotions (from 63% to 50%) and bought cigarettes by the carton (from 39% to 32%). These changes varied somewhat by race/ethnicity and education, for example, more smokers with tax increase. Regulations that would reduce CEMS use could boost the effectiveness of cigarette tax increases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Are electronic cigarettes saviors or new culprits?

    OpenAIRE

    YALCIN, Bektas Murat; UNAL, Mustafa; SELCUK, Mustafa Yasin

    2017-01-01

     Electronic cigarette (EC) usage in the world is increasing. It might outsell the other tobacco products in the future with this rate of selling increase. Promoters of EC argue that using them will bring additional benefits in the fight against tobacco. By switching from cigarettes to ECs, smokers will not be exposed to a number of dangerous substances thus; morbidity and mortality of smoking would decrease. This may cause major epidemiologic changes. Opponents argue that none of these claims...

  15. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  16. E-cigarette marketing and older smokers: road to renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    To describe older smokers' perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking.

  17. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  18. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Pankow

    Full Text Available The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes" used to create "vaping" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG, glycerol (GL, benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine.Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM "pod" system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice, and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG and glycerol (GL, and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk.

  19. Are Cigarette Smokers', E-Cigarette Users', and Dual Users' Health-Risk Beliefs and Responses to Advertising Influenced by Addiction Warnings and Product Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher; Burton, Scot; Howlett, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    This research examines cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs across tobacco products and considers the effects of addiction warnings on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts. Study 1 used a cross-sectional survey with a sample of 195 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users to examine health-risk beliefs associated with combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes (cancer, lung disease, stroke, heart disease, harm to an unborn baby, and addiction). Using a sample of 265 adult cigarette smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users, Study 2 used a between-subjects experiment to examine the effects of an addiction warning presented in an advertisement on health-risk beliefs and willingness to try the promoted product. Study 1 results reveal that health-risk beliefs for cigarettes are extremely high, whereas health-risk beliefs for e-cigarettes are lower and vary across specific health-risk beliefs; specifically, beliefs related to addiction and harm to an unborn baby are greater than other risk beliefs. Extending these findings, Study 2 results demonstrate that health-risk beliefs associated with cigarette smoking are not affected by an addiction warning in a cigarette advertisement. However, an addiction warning in an e-cigarette advertisement does modify e-cigarette-related risk beliefs, which, in turn, reduces consumers' willingness to try the promoted e-cigarette. Findings indicate that the addition of an addiction warning may be effective in changing consumers' risk beliefs associated with e-cigarettes and consumers' responses to e-cigarette persuasion attempts. By examining cigarette smokers' and e-cigarette users' product-related health-risk beliefs and considering the effects of an addiction warning on consumers' responses to persuasion attempts, this research contributes to the understanding of how warnings in tobacco promotion affect cigarette smokers', e-cigarette users', and dual users' health

  20. Sestrin-2, a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, promotes cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and is upregulated in individuals with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Juliana; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Wempe, Frank; Seimetz, Michael; Bangsow, Thorsten; Tomasovic, Ana; Veit, Florian; Scheibe, Susan; Pichl, Alexandra; Weisel, Friederike; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Weissmann, Norbert; von Melchner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and/or other environmental pollutants that are believed to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that gradually disrupt signalling pathways responsible for maintaining lung integrity. Here we identify the antioxidant protein sestrin-2 (SESN2) as a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, and PDGFRβ signalling as an upstream regulator of alveolar maintenance programmes. In mice, the mutational inactivation of Sesn2 prevents the development of cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema by upregulating PDGFRβ expression via a selective accumulation of intracellular superoxide anions (O2−). We also show that SESN2 is overexpressed and PDGFRβ downregulated in the emphysematous lungs of individuals with COPD and to a lesser extent in human lungs of habitual smokers without COPD, implicating a negative SESN2-PDGFRβ interrelationship in the pathogenesis of COPD. Taken together, our results imply that SESN2 could serve as both a biomarker and as a drug target in the clinical management of COPD. PMID:24046361

  1. The Self-Report Habit Index: Assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, e-cigarette, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; DeMartini, Kelly S; Foster, Dawn; Patock-Peckham, Julie; Garrison, Kathleen A; Corlett, Philip R; Krystal, John H; Krishan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-05-01

    Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users. A 6-item, single-factor solution evidenced good fit across substances (CFI marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes = 0.996/0.997/0.996/0.994, RMSEA = 0.046/0.047/0.067/0.068, SRMR = 0.017/0.017/0.010/0.015) and internal consistency (α = 0.88/0.94/0.95/0.91). The SRHI was scalar invariant for sex and race. However, independent-samples t-tests indicated only that women endorsed stronger habitual e-cigarette use and that men endorsed stronger habitual marijuana use. The SRHI also was scalar invariant by product type in dual-users (cigarettes/e-cigarettes[N = 371]; alcohol/cigarettes [n = 58]), although differences in habit strength only were observed for cigarettes versus e-cigarettes, with dual-users reporting stronger habitual cigarette use. Finally, the SRHI predicted frequency of marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use (n p 2 [marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes] = 0.37/0.48/0.31/0.17) and quantity of alcohol and cigarette use (n p 2  = 0.43/0.33). The SRHI is a psychometrically sound measure of adults' habitual substance use. The SRHI detected mean differences by sex and substance type and predicted the frequency of using each substance. Future research should determine if the SRHI is appropriate for use with other substances or age groups (e.g., adolescents), how it relates to task-based, behavioral measures of habit strength, and the degree to which habit predicts the development or maintenance of addiction. Copyright © 2018

  2. Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Use of Cigarettes, E-cigarettes and Hookah in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; McConnell, Rob; Low, Brittany Wagman; Unger, Jennifer B; Pentz, Mary Ann; Urman, Robert; Berhane, Kiros; Chou, Chih Ping; Liu, Fei; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica

    2018-05-28

    Tobacco marketing has expanded from cigarettes to other tobacco products through many promotional channels. Marketing exposure is associated with use of that tobacco product. However, it's unclear if marketing for one product leads to subsequent use of other tobacco products. This prospective cohort study assessed self-reported marketing exposure for six tobacco products across five marketing channels in 11th/12th grade students in 2014. Approximately 16 months later a follow-up survey was conducted online (N=1553) to assess initiation of cigarettes, e-cigarettes and hookah. Adolescent never smokers with frequent exposure to cigarette marketing on the Internet and in stores are more than two times as likely to begin smoking as young adults (Internet OR 2.98 [95% CI, 1.56-5.66); Stores OR, 2.83 [95% CI, 1.23-6.50]). Never users of e-cigarettes were significantly more likely to initiate use, if exposed to Internet, store and outdoor e-cigarette marketing. Never users of hookah were more likely to use hookah after seeing it marketed in stores. Youth exposed to marketing of e-cigarettes, hookah, cigars, smokeless and pipe tobacco in stores were two to three times more likely to begin smoking cigarettes even though the marketed products were not cigarettes. Adolescent exposure to marketing of tobacco products is associated with initiation of those products as young adults. Exposure to marketing for non-cigarette tobacco products is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking, even when the promoted products are not cigarettes. Future research and interventions should consider the influence of marketing from multiple tobacco products on adolescent tobacco use. Adolescents grow up in a rich media environment with exposure to tobacco marketing in both their homes (e.g., through the Internet and television) and their communities (e.g., stores and billboards). This prospective study provides evidence that adolescents exposed to tobacco marketing for multiple tobacco

  3. What's in a Cigarette?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toluene - used to manufacture paint What's in an e-cigarette? Get the facts about nicotine, flavorings, colorings and other chemicals found in e-cigarettes. Find out more » Learn about the American Lung ...

  4. Grafting of a Single Donor Myofibre Promotes Hypertrophy in Dystrophic Mouse Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of regeneration following injury. Satellite cells, the principal muscle stem cells, are responsible for this process. However, this regenerative capacity is reduced in muscular dystrophies or in old age: in both these situations, there is a net loss of muscle fibres. Promoting skeletal muscle muscle hypertrophy could therefore have potential applications for treating muscular dystrophies or sarcopenia. Here, we observed that muscles of dystrophic mdx nude host mice that had been acutely injured by myotoxin and grafted with a single myofibre derived from a normal donor mouse exhibited increased muscle area. Transplantation experiments revealed that the hypertrophic effect is mediated by the grafted fibre and does not require either an imposed injury to the host muscle, or the contribution of donor cells to the host muscle. These results suggest the presence of a crucial cross-talk between the donor fibre and the host muscle environment. PMID:23349935

  5. Failure of single electron descriptions of molecular orbital collision processes. [Electron promotion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Inner-shell excitation occurring in low and moderate (keV range) energy collisions between light atomic and ionic systems is frequently describable in terms of molecular promotion mechanisms, which were extensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. The bulk of such studies have concentrated on processes understandable through the use of single- and independent-electron models. Nonetheless, it is possible to find cases of inner-shell excitation in relatively simple collision systems which involve nearly simultaneous multiple-electron transitions and transitions induced by inherently two-electron interactions. Evidence for these many- and nonindependent-electron phenomena in inner-shell excitation processes and the importance of considering such effects in the interpretation of collisionally induced excitation spectra is discussed. 13 references.

  6. HIV-1 Promoter Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Are Associated with Clinical Disease Severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Nonnemacher

    Full Text Available The large majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 markers of disease progression/severity previously identified have been associated with alterations in host genetic and immune responses, with few studies focused on viral genetic markers correlate with changes in disease severity. This study presents a cross-sectional/longitudinal study of HIV-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contained within the viral promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR in patients within the Drexel Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES Cohort. HIV-1 LTR SNPs were found to associate with the classical clinical disease parameters CD4+ T-cell count and log viral load. They were found in both defined and undefined transcription factor binding sites of the LTR. A novel SNP identified at position 108 in a known COUP (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter/AP1 transcription factor binding site was significantly correlated with binding phenotypes that are potentially the underlying cause of the associated clinical outcome (increase in viral load and decrease in CD4+ T-cell count.

  7. Manage Emotions Without Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you used to reach for a cigarette after a tough day at the office. Or found comfort in the companionship of a cigarette on a lonely night. Maybe you used to have cigarettes available as one way to help you deal with uncomfortable emotions.

  8. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  9. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  10. Determinants associated with E-cigarette adoption and use intention among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lohrmann, David K

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated characteristics of potential and current e-cigarette users based on four different levels of use acceptability along with the determinants that promote e-cigarette use acceptability among college students. College students (N=1198) aged 18-25years at a Midwestern university were surveyed in September-October 2015. Participants were categorized into four groups based on e-cigarette use acceptability adapted from the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (i.e., laggards, late majority, early majority, and adopters). Multinomial logistic regressions and Heckman two-step selection procedures were performed to examine the determinants that promote e-cigarette use acceptability. Approximately 40% of the participants reported ever using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette adopters agreed that e-cigarettes are more socially acceptable than traditional tobacco cigarettes (relative risk ratio [RRR]=1.43, preason for e-cigarette use (pse-cigarette use. Study findings indicate a possible explosive increase in e-cigarette experimentation or use among college students. Unique features of e-cigarettes such as flavor and USB rechargeability appear to be strong factors making e-cigarettes more acceptable and appealing to young adults regardless of their smoking status. Concerted efforts should be initiated to effectively counter or eliminate attractive features that lure young adults to experiment with e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. A single-molecule view of the transcription cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gary M; Baumann, Christoph G; Quinn, Diana M; Molloy, Justin E; Hoggett, James G

    2004-01-30

    A single-molecule transcription assay has been developed that allows, for the first time, the direct observation of promoter binding, initiation, and elongation by a single RNA polymerase (RNAP) molecule in real-time. To promote DNA binding and transcription initiation, a DNA molecule tethered between two optically trapped beads was held near a third immobile surface bead sparsely coated with RNAP. By driving the optical trap holding the upstream bead with a triangular oscillation while measuring the position of both trapped beads, we observed the onset of promoter binding, promoter escape (productive initiation), and processive elongation by individual RNAP molecules. After DNA template release, transcription re-initiation on the same DNA template is possible; thus, multiple enzymatic turnovers by an individual RNAP molecule can be observed. Using bacteriophage T7 RNAP, a commonly used RNAP paradigm, we observed the association and dissociation (k(off)= 2.9 s(-1)) of T7 RNAP and promoter DNA, the transition to the elongation mode (k(for) = 0.36 s(-1)), and the processive synthesis (k(pol) = 43 nt s(-1)) and release of a gene-length RNA transcript ( approximately 1200 nt). The transition from initiation to elongation is much longer than the mean lifetime of the binary T7 RNAP-promoter DNA complex (k(off) > k(for)), identifying a rate-limiting step between promoter DNA binding and promoter escape.

  12. E-Cigarette Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegin, Gulay; Mekala, Hema Madhuri; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Lippmann, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful. E-cigarettes may be safer than tobacco products, but repeated prolonged exposure to their aerosols has its own considerable potential risk. The long-term health consequences of their use remain to be established. Physicians should vigorously discourage the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products, with special emphasis on abstinence for younger people and during pregnancy or lactation.

  13. Knowledge about electronic cigarettes and its perception: a community survey, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Elkheir, Omaima I; Sobh, Eman

    2016-05-17

    Electronic cigarettes are promoted as safer products than traditional cigarettes and as smoking cessation devices. Awareness and perception are key elements for the adoption of new habits. Little is known about electronic cigarettes and public opinions towards it. This study aims to identify the prevalence of knowledge about electronic cigarettes, its perception, and use among Egyptian population. An observational cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire in Arabic language was conducted between March and April 2015 among a sample of Egyptian population aged 15-75 years (N = 1239). We compared between respondent's who know e-cigarettes and those who do not know it. More than half (57.5 %) of the respondents had heard about e-cigarettes, 51.8 % were non-smokers and nobody of them reported use of e-cigarettes. There were statistically significant differences between those who know and those who do not know e-cigarettes regarding age, educational levels and history of smoking. Among those who know e-cigarettes, 41.6 % believed that e-cigarettes help smoking cessation and 31.9 % believed it is less harmful than traditional cigarettes. A considerable level of knowledge about e-cigarettes is found among young people aged 15-39 years. E-cigarettes were perceived as less harmful than traditional cigarettes or a smoking cessation aid. None of the respondents reported use of e-cigarettes.

  14. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T.E.; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtORHis (R90H) or SbORHis (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtORAla (R90A) functioned similarly to AtORHis to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtORHis greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtORHis exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtORHis triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtORHis in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates ORHis/Ala as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying ORHis-regulated carotenoid accumulation. PMID:26224804

  15. CDC Vital Signs-E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This podcast is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  16. E-cigarette Ads and Youth PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Most electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and may harm brain development. More than 18 million middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette ads. Exposure to these ads may be contributing to an increase in e-cigarette use among youth. Learn what can be done to keep our youth safe and healthy.  Created: 1/5/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/5/2016.

  17. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  18. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  19. Single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) inhibited proliferation of human glioma cells and promoted its apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunjun [The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital (China); Zhang, Jinqian, E-mail: jingwanghou@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital (China); Zhao, Ming [Peking University, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Shi, Zujin [Peking University, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China); Chen, Xin; He, Xihui; Han, Nanyin, E-mail: jingwanghou@sina.com [Peking University, Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (China); Xu, Ruxiang, E-mail: everbright999@163.com [The Military General Hospital of Beijing PLA, Affiliated Bayi Brain Hospital (China)

    2013-08-15

    Although single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) have been demonstrated to accumulate to cytotoxic levels within organs of various animal models and cell types, they have been exploited for cancer therapies. The role of SWNHs in human glioma cell lines was unclear. To address this question, the research about direct role of SWNHs on the growth, proliferation, and apoptosis of human glioma cell lines (U87, U251, and U373) had been performed. Our results indicate that particle size of SWNHs in water is between 342 and 712 nm, the films of SEM show that SWNHs on PS surface are individual particles. SWNHs significantly delayed mitotic entry of human glioma cell lines cells, and inhibited its proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. SWNHs induced a significant increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase followed the gradually increasing concentrations. SWNHs in human glioma cell lines cells significantly induced apoptosis followed by their gradually increasing concentrations. The TEM images showed that individual spherical SWNHs particles smaller than 100 nm in diameters were localized inside lysosomes of human glioma cell lines. SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human glioma cell lines, and promoted its apoptosis. SWNHs may be a novel opportunity or method for the research on treatment of human glioma.

  20. Single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) inhibited proliferation of human glioma cells and promoted its apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunjun; Zhang, Jinqian; Zhao, Ming; Shi, Zujin; Chen, Xin; He, Xihui; Han, Nanyin; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-08-01

    Although single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) have been demonstrated to accumulate to cytotoxic levels within organs of various animal models and cell types, they have been exploited for cancer therapies. The role of SWNHs in human glioma cell lines was unclear. To address this question, the research about direct role of SWNHs on the growth, proliferation, and apoptosis of human glioma cell lines (U87, U251, and U373) had been performed. Our results indicate that particle size of SWNHs in water is between 342 and 712 nm, the films of SEM show that SWNHs on PS surface are individual particles. SWNHs significantly delayed mitotic entry of human glioma cell lines cells, and inhibited its proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. SWNHs induced a significant increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase followed the gradually increasing concentrations. SWNHs in human glioma cell lines cells significantly induced apoptosis followed by their gradually increasing concentrations. The TEM images showed that individual spherical SWNHs particles smaller than 100 nm in diameters were localized inside lysosomes of human glioma cell lines. SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth, and proliferation of human glioma cell lines, and promoted its apoptosis. SWNHs may be a novel opportunity or method for the research on treatment of human glioma.

  1. Knowledge about electronic cigarettes and its perception: a community survey, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-Elkheir, Omaima I.; Sobh, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes are promoted as safer products than traditional cigarettes and as smoking cessation devices. Awareness and perception are key elements for the adoption of new habits. Little is known about electronic cigarettes and public opinions towards it. This study aims to identify the prevalence of knowledge about electronic cigarettes, its perception, and use among Egyptian population. Methods An observational cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire ...

  2. Retail availability and marketing of electronic cigarettes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; White, Christine M; Czoli, Christine D; Martin, Christina L; Magennis, Paul; Shiplo, Samantha

    2015-10-09

    Canada is among an increasing number of countries with restrictions on the sale of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). In Canada, e-cigarettes containing nicotine have not been approved for sale; however, e-cigarettes that do not contain nicotine and do not make health claims can be sold. To date, there is little empirical evidence assessing the retail availability and marketing of e-cigarettes in countries such as Canada. Audits were conducted at 59 brick-and-mortar retail outlets (grocery stores, convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops) in four cities (Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal and Halifax) in August-October 2014. In addition, a total of 21 e-cigarette manufacturer/retailer websites were audited, and inquiries were made as to whether the companies sold nicotine-containing products. Overall, 76% of the retail outlets sold e-cigarette products. Of convenience stores, grocery stores and tobacconist shops with e-cigarettes for sale, the vast majority (94%) sold nicotine-free products only; in contrast, all the vape shops sold at least one nicotine-containing e-cigarette product. Front counter displays were the most common form of in-store promotions and were present in virtually all convenience stores, tobacconist shops and vape shops. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes were available for purchase at approximately half (52%) of the online e-cigarette retailers surveyed. E-cigarettes with and without nicotine are widely available and marketed at a variety of retail outlets in Canada. "Illegal" sales of nicotinecontaining e-cigarettes were predominantly found at vape shops and online outlets, suggesting limited compliance with existing regulations.

  3. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  4. Electronic cigarette: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal addictive component of tobacco smoke is nicotine. The mechanisms of nicotine addiction are highly complex and are responsible for maintenance of smoking behaviour. Use of electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine containing vapor has increased rapidly across the world. They are marketed as a "healthier alternatives" to conventional cigarettes. There is extensive debate over long-term safety and efficacy of these devices on public health. Studies show that the vapor generated from the E-cigarettes has a variable amount of nicotine and potential harmful toxins. Until robust research demonstrates the safety of E-cigarettes and efficacy in the treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as safe smoking cessation tool is unclear. This review highlights the recent data regarding E-cigarettes toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation.

  5. Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Burke, Mack D.; Zaini, Samar; Zhang, Nan; Vannest, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect…

  6. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  7. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  8. The radioactive cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulatowski, J.; Skwarzec, B.

    2002-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb on lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumption of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination in fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% total cigarette consumption in Poland, are presented and discussed. Moreover, polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco, ash, fresh filter and post smoking filter. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb (each of them). The highest 210 Po content per sample was found in the cheep 'Popularne' brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in 'Caro' (4.23 mBq). The mean values and annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke 2 packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv/y) in comparison with intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland. (author)

  9. The E-cigarette Social Environment, E-cigarette Use, and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Urman, Robert; Chou, Chih Ping; Howland, Steve; Wang, Kejia; Pentz, Mary Ann; Gilreath, Tamika D; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Samet, Jonathan M; McConnell, Rob

    2016-07-01

    One concern regarding the recent increase in adolescent e-cigarette use is the possibility that electronic (e-) cigarettes may be used by those who might not otherwise have used cigarettes, and that dual use, or transition to cigarette use alone, may follow. Questionnaire data were obtained in 2014 from 11th/12th grade students attending schools in 12 communities included in the Southern California Children's Health Study. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between e-cigarette use, the social environment (family and friends' use and approval of e-cigarettes and cigarettes), and susceptibility to future cigarette use among never cigarette smokers (N = 1,694), using previously validated measures based on reported absence of a definitive commitment not to smoke. Among adolescents who had never used cigarettes, 31.8% of past e-cigarette users and 34.6% of current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users indicated susceptibility to cigarette use, compared with 21.0% of never e-cigarette users. The odds of indicating susceptibility to cigarette use were two times higher for current e-cigarette users compared with never users (odds ratio = 1.97; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.22). A social environment favorable to e-cigarettes (friends' use of and positive attitudes toward the use of e-cigarettes) was also associated with greater likelihood of susceptibility to cigarette use, independent of an individual's e-cigarette use. E-cigarette use in adolescence, and a pro-e-cigarette social environment, may put adolescents at risk for future use of cigarettes. E-cigarettes may contribute to subsequent cigarette use via nicotine addiction or social normalization of smoking behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor promoting properties of a cigarette smoke prevalent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as indicated by the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication via phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Upham, B. L.; Bláha, L.; Babica, P.; Park, J.-S.; Sovadinová, I.; Pudrith, Ch.; Rummel, A.M.; Weis, L.M.; Sai, K.; Tithof, P.K.; Gužvič, M.; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.; Trosko, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2008), s. 696-705 ISSN 1347-9032 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : GJIC * phospholipases * tumor promotion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.471, year: 2008

  11. Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. Method A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (Thai GYTS 2005 was analysed to obtain prevalence of selected attributes and assess factors associated with current cigarette smoking. Current cigarette smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette, even a single puff, in the last 30 days. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the level of association between the explanatory variables and current smoking. Results Of the 18,368 respondents, 22.0% males and 5.2% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Current cigarette smoking was associated with male gender, smoking parents or closest peers. Perception that smoking was harmful to health was associated with less likelihood of being a current smoker.

  12. Effects of advertisements on smokers’ interest in trying e-cigarettes: the roles of product comparison and visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Southwell, Brian G; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers’ responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads’ arguments and imagery. Methods A US national sample of smokers who had never tried e-cigarettes (n=3253) participated in a between-subjects experiment. Smokers viewed an online advertisement promoting e-cigarettes using one of three comparison types (emphasising similarity to regular cigarettes, differences or neither) with one of three images, for nine conditions total. Smokers then indicated their interest in trying e-cigarettes. Results Ads that emphasised differences between e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes elicited more interest than ads without comparisons (pe-cigarettes’ lower cost, greater healthfulness and utility for smoking cessation. However, ads that emphasised the similarities of the products did not differ from ads without comparisons. Ads showing a person using an e-cigarette created more interest than ads showing a person without an e-cigarette (pe-cigarettes was highest after viewing ads with messages about differences between regular and electronic cigarettes and ads showing product use. If e-cigarettes prove to be harmful or ineffective cessation devices, regulators might restrict images of e-cigarette use in advertising, and public health messages should not emphasise differences between regular and electronic cigarettes. To inform additional regulations, future research should seek to identify what advertising messages and features appeal to youth. PMID:24935896

  13. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  14. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  15. Cigarette price level and variation in five Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Ross, Hana; Ratanachena, Sophapan; Dorotheo, E Ulysses; Foong, Kin

    2015-06-01

    To monitor and analyse impacts of the interaction between tobacco excise tax policy and industry price strategy, on the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in five Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, the Philippines and Vietnam). Prices of cigarette sold by sticks and packs were collected through an in-person survey of retailers during 2011. Mean cigarette prices and price variation were calculated in each study country for single cigarettes, whole packs and brand groups. Price variation of whole packs was greater in countries with ad-valorem excise tax structures (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam) than in countries with multitiered specific excise taxes (Indonesia and the Philippines). The price variation for single sticks appeared to be driven by local currency denomination. Cigarettes sold individually cost more per stick than cigarettes sold in whole packs in every brand group except for Indonesia's domestic brands. Tobacco industry strategy and excise tax structure drove the price level and variation of cigarettes sold in packs, while currency denominations influence the selling price of single sticks. To maximise the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies, countries should adopt specific excise tax structures to decrease cigarette price variation, which would minimise opportunities for smokers to 'trade down' to a cheaper brand to avoid a tax-driven price increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Modeling the Health Effects of Expanding e-Cigarette Sales in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Population health effects will depend on cigarette smoking behaviors, levels of dual use with conventional cigarettes, and e-cigarette toxicity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential health effects of various scenarios of increasing promotion and use of e-cigarettes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A base case model was developed using data on actual cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns that quantifies transitions from an initial state of no cigarette or e-cigarette use to 1 of 5 final states: never use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes, cigarette use, e-cigarette use, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or quit. Seven scenarios were created that cover a range of use patterns, depending on how the e-cigarette market might develop, as well as a range of possible long-term health effects of e-cigarette use. Scenarios for changes from the base case were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Separate sets of base case model parameters were evaluated for the US and UK populations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assigned unitless health “costs” for each final state on a scale of 0 to 100. Population health “costs” were compared with the base case (status quo) assuming e-cigarette use health “costs” from 1% to 50% as dangerous as conventional cigarette use health costs. RESULTS Compared with the base case, a harm reduction scenario in which e-cigarette use increases only among smokers who are interested in quitting with more quit attempts and no increased initiation of e-cigarette use among nonsmokers, and another scenario in which e-cigarettes are taken up only by youth who would have smoked conventional cigarettes, had population-level health benefits regardless of e-cigarette health costs in both the United States and United Kingdom. Conversely, scenarios in which e-cigarette promotion leads to renormalization of cigarette smoking or e-cigarettes are used primarily by youth

  17. Exploring the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace: Identifying Internet e-cigarette marketing characteristics and regulatory gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Miner, Angela; Cuomo, Raphael E

    2015-11-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market is maturing into a billion-dollar industry. Expansion includes new channels of access not sufficiently assessed, including Internet sales of e-cigarettes. This study identifies unique e-cigarette Internet vendor characteristics, including geographic location, promotional strategies, use of social networking, presence/absence of age verification, and consumer warning representation. We performed structured Internet search engine queries and used inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify e-cigarette vendors. We then conducted content analysis of characteristics of interest. Our examination yielded 57 e-cigarette Internet vendors including 54.4% (n=31) that sold exclusively online. The vast majority of websites (96.5%, n=55) were located in the U.S. Vendors used a variety of sales promotion strategies to market e-cigarettes including 70.2% (n=40) that used more than one social network service (SNS) and 42.1% (n=24) that used more than one promotional sales strategies. Most vendors (68.4%, n=39) displayed one or more health warnings on their website, but often displayed them in smaller font or in their terms and conditions. Additionally, 35.1% (n=20) of vendors did not have any detectable age verification process. E-cigarette Internet vendors are actively engaged in various promotional activities to increase the appeal and presence of their products online. In the absence of FDA regulations specific to the Internet, the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace is likely to grow. This digital environment poses unique challenges requiring targeted policy-making including robust online age verification, monitoring of SNS marketing, and greater scrutiny of certain forms of marketing promotional practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The unbearable lightness of "light" cigarettes: a comparison of smoke yields in six varieties of Canadian "light" cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Paul L; Vitaro, Frank

    2005-01-01

    these varieties of cigarettes. Only yields of formaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 1-aminonaphtalene, and proprionaldehyde were systematically reduced in all varieties of "light" cigarettes. The six varieties of "light" cigarettes examined in this study do not differ substantially from "regular" cigarettes in terms of smoke yields. We argue that the modified ISO protocol should be implemented for a more valid comparison of potential smoke yields in all varieties of cigarettes and that labelling based on this protocol should be promoted.

  19. Cigarette pack labelling in 12 countries at different levels of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Hassan; Buchanan, Daniel; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2011-05-01

    With increasing restrictions on cigarette marketing, the cigarette pack itself has become a main means of marketing. We describe a method to examine cigarette labelling and use it to evaluate packs collected from 12 countries at different stages of economic development. Health warnings were present on all 115 packs of cigarettes examined, but were on the front and back panels of only 68 per cent. Promotional labels were widespread, found on packs from all countries and more numerous (although not necessarily larger) than health warning labels in 10 of the 12 countries. Deceptive terms such as 'light' and 'mild' were observed on 42 per cent of all packs examined. The simple method described here can be used to compare cigarette labelling and potentially evaluate and track the implementation of cigarette labelling policy. We found health warning legislation poorly enforced and cigarette packs widely used to promote smoking and deceive smokers about health risks. The findings underline the need for generic (plain) packaging.

  20. E-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness: prevalence and associations with smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers' past-year quit attempts and intention to quit. Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger; men (compared with women); white (compared with African-American); more educated respondents; and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. [corrected]. Overall e-cigarette awareness increased whereas the proportion of smokers who perceived less harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How close are we to definitively identifying the respiratory health effects of e-cigarettes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Alexsandra; Feleszko, Wojciech; Smith, Danielle M; Goniewicz, Maciej

    2018-07-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is frequently promoted as a less harmful alternative to cigarette smoking. The impact of repeated inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols on respiratory health is not well understood. Areas covered: Using results from laboratory, observational, and clinical studies, we synthesize evidence relevant to potential respiratory health effects that may result from inhalation of e-cigarette aerosols. Expert commentary: Chemical analyses reveal that e-cigarette aerosols contain numerous respiratory irritants and toxicants. There are documented cytotoxic effects of e-cigarette constituents on lung tissue. Studies among ex-smokers who switched to e-cigarettes note reduced exposure to numerous respiratory toxicants, reduced asthma exacerbations, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms. Regular exposure to e-cigarette aerosols is associated with impaired respiratory functioning. Potential respiratory health risks resulting from secondhand e-cigarette aerosol exposure have not been sufficiently evaluated. Current evidence indicates that although e-cigarettes are not without risk, these products seemingly pose fewer respiratory health harms issues compared to tobacco cigarettes. Data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials examining the impact of e-cigarette use on lung health are needed to better understand respiratory health risks tied to use of these products.

  2. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  3. Single-Molecule Kinetics Reveal Cation-Promoted DNA Duplex Formation Through Ordering of Single-Stranded Helices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Nicholas F.; Holmstrom, Erik D.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the kinetics of short, fully complementary oligonucleotides are investigated at the single-molecule level. Constructs 6–9 bp in length exhibit single exponential kinetics over 2 orders of magnitude time for both forward (kon, association) and reverse (koff, dissociation) processes. Bimolecular rate constants for association are weakly sensitive to the number of basepairs in the duplex, with a 2.5-fold increase between 9 bp (k′on = 2.1(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) and 6 bp (k′on = 5.0(1) × 106 M−1 s−1) sequences. In sharp contrast, however, dissociation rate constants prove to be exponentially sensitive to sequence length, varying by nearly 600-fold over the same 9 bp (koff = 0.024 s−1) to 6 bp (koff = 14 s−1) range. The 8 bp sequence is explored in more detail, and the NaCl dependence of kon and koff is measured. Interestingly, konincreases by >40-fold (kon = 0.10(1) s−1 to 4.0(4) s−1 between [NaCl] = 25 mM and 1 M), whereas in contrast, koffdecreases by fourfold (0.72(3) s−1 to 0.17(7) s−1) over the same range of conditions. Thus, the equilibrium constant (Keq) increases by ≈160, largely due to changes in the association rate, kon. Finally, temperature-dependent measurements reveal that increased [NaCl] reduces the overall exothermicity (ΔΔH° > 0) of duplex formation, albeit by an amount smaller than the reduction in entropic penalty (−TΔΔS° duplex formation. PMID:23931323

  4. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español E-Cigarettes KidsHealth / For Parents / E-Cigarettes What's in this ... Print en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes are devices marketed as a safe ...

  5. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  6. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.

  7. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  9. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity. PMID:27351725

  10. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  11. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Putzhammer

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  12. Reasons for current E-cigarette use among U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin C.; Cox, Shanna; Bradfield, Brian; King, Brian A.; Shafer, Paul; Caraballo, Ralph; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly among U.S. adults. However, reasons for use among adults are unclear. We assessed reasons for e-cigarette use among a national sample of U.S. adults. Data were collected via online surveys among U.S. adults aged 18 or older from April through June 2014. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess reasons for e-cigarette use among 2448 current e-cigarette users, by sociodemographic characteristics and product type. Assessed reasons included cessation/health, consideration of others, convenience, cost, curiosity, flavoring, and simulation of conventional cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 93% were also current cigarette smokers. The most common reasons for e-cigarette use were cessation/health (84.5%), consideration of others (71.5%), and convenience (56.7%). The prevalence of citing convenience (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.49) and curiosity (aPR = 1.54) as reasons for e-cigarette use were greater among current cigarette smokers than nonsmokers (P e-cigarette use among adults, and flavorings are more commonly cited by younger adults. Efforts are warranted to provide consumers with accurate information on the health effects of e-cigarettes and to ensure that flavoring and other unregulated features do not promote nicotine addiction, particularly among young adults. PMID:27612572

  13. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  14. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  15. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  16. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  17. Cavity Pull Rod: Device to Promote Single Crystal Growth from the Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A pull rod for use in producing a single crystal from a molten alloy is provided that includes an elongated rod having a first end and a second end, a first cavity defined at the first end and a second cavity defined at the first end and in communication with the first cavity. The first cavity receives the molten alloy and the second cavity vents a gas from the molten alloy to thereby template a single crystal when the pull rod is dipped into and extracted from the molten alloy.

  18. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarett...

  19. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  20. Do E-cigarettes induce weight changes and increase cardiometabolic risk? A signal for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, A; Van Gaal, L

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco use in electronic cigarettes, also called vaping, is rapidly increasing, especially in adolescents and young adults, due to attractive marketing techniques promoting them as healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Although smoking is associated with weight loss, it increases insulin resistance and attributes to other features of the metabolic syndrome, increasing the cardiometabolic risk profile. Whether vaping has the same deleterious effects on metabolic parameters as regular cigarette smoke has not yet been studied thoroughly in humans. However, animal model experiments attribute comparable effects of e-cigarette smoking, even without nicotine exposure, on weight and metabolic parameters as compared to smoking cigarettes. In this review paper, we want to give an overview of published data on the effects on weight and cardiometabolic parameters of e-cigarette use and formulate some mechanistic hypotheses. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of single versus multiple health behavior change: promoting physical activity and nutrition among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Sallis, James F

    2004-05-01

    Targeting multiple behaviors for change may provide significant health benefits. This study compared interventions targeting physical activity and nutrition (PAN) concurrently versus physical activity (PA) alone. Adolescents (N=138) were randomized to the PAN or PA intervention or control condition (n=46 per group). Primary outcomes were change in PA accelerometer and 3-day dietary recording from baseline to 3-month follow-up. The PAN and PA interventions were efficacious in supporting boys' (pdecrement to PA promotion when a nutrition intervention was added, neither do they reveal any additional benefit. More studies comparing single versus multibehavioral interventions are needed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  2. One-single physical exercise session after object recognition learning promotes memory persistence through hippocampal noradrenergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Neves, Ben-Hur Souto das; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2017-06-30

    Previously we showed the involvement of the hippocampal noradrenergic system in the consolidation and persistence of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that one-single physical exercise session performed immediately after learning promotes OR memory persistence and increases norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus. Additionally, effects of exercise on memory are avoided by an intra-hippocampal beta-adrenergic antagonist infusion. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise effects on memory can be related to noradrenergic mechanisms and acute physical exercise can be a non-pharmacological intervention to assist memory consolidation and persistence, with few or no side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. E-cigarette Advertising Exposure, Explicit and Implicit Harm Perceptions, and E-Cigarette use Susceptibility Among Non-Smoking Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Fagan, Pebbles; Unger, Jennifer B; Stacy, Alan W

    2018-02-10

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising increases e-cigarette use susceptibility among non-smoking young adults by promoting explicit and implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer and healthier alternative to combustible cigarettes. Young adult current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette (N = 393; Mean age = 22.1, Standard Deviation = 3.9; 66% Women) were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing real-world, print e-cigarette ads. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where ads with different predominant themes [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition involving ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (i.e., self-reported harm perceptions) and implicit (i.e., Implicit Association Test) attitudes towards e-cigarette use and e-cigarette use intentions. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Relative to Control participants, participants in Health and Social conditions were more likely to show higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes. Only the Social condition, relative to Control, had a significant effect on lower explicit harm perceptions of e-cigarette versus cigarette use. The Social condition had a significant indirect effect on e-cigarette use susceptibility, mediated by explicit harm perceptions. Social enhancement-themed ads may communicate the reduced-harm messages more strongly among young adults so as to affect both explicit and implicit attitudes and, through these, e-cigarette use susceptibility. Regulatory bodies may need to scrutinize reduced-harm claims communicated through social enhancement-themed ads. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  4. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Violi, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Marullo, Antonino G M; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Valenti, Valentina; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The vascular safety of electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) must still be clarified. We compared the impact of e-Cigarettes vs traditional tobacco cigarettes on oxidative stress and endothelial function in healthy smokers and nonsmoker adults. A crossover, single-blind study was performed in 40 healthy subjects (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers, matched for age and sex). First, all subjects smoked traditional tobacco cigarettes. One week later, the same subjects smoked an e-Cigarette with the same nominal nicotine content. Blood samples were drawn just before and after smoking, and markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, and vitamin E levels were measured. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also measured. Smoking both e-Cigarettes and traditional cigarettes led to a significant increase in the levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and a significant decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, vitamin E levels, and FMD. Generalized estimating equation analysis confirmed that all markers of oxidative stress and FMD were significantly affected by smoking and showed that the biologic effects of e-Cigarettes vstraditional cigarettes on vitamin E levels (P = .413) and FMD (P = .311) were not statistically different. However, e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact than traditional cigarettes on levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (P = .001), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (P = .046), and nitric oxide bioavailability (P = .001). Our study showed that both cigarettes have unfavorable effects on markers of oxidative stress and FMD after single use, although e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact. Future studies are warranted to clarify the chronic vascular effects of e-Cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Giovenco, Daniel P; Steinberg, Michael B; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B

    2016-05-01

    Amid increasing rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the United States, there is an urgent need to monitor patterns of use at the population level in order to inform practice, policy and regulation. This article examines how patterns of e-cigarette use among adults differ between users and nonusers of cigarettes using the most current national data. We analyzed data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated prevalence of ever, current, and daily e-cigarette use and examined how use patterns differed by demographic subgroups and measures of cigarette smoking status that accounted for the recent availability of e-cigarettes in the US marketplace. Current e-cigarette use is extremely low among never cigarette smokers (0.4%) and former smokers who quit cigarettes 4 or more years ago (0.8%). Although e-cigarette experimentation is most common among current cigarette smokers and young adults, daily use is highest among former smokers who quit in the past year (13.0%) and older adults. Compared to daily cigarette smokers, recently quit smokers were more than four times as likely to be daily users of e-cigarettes (AOR: 4.33 [95% CI: 3.08-6.09]). Extremely low e-cigarette use among never-smokers and longer term former smokers suggest that e-cigarettes neither promote widespread initiation nor relapse among adults. Recognition of the heterogeneity of smokers, including the time since quitting, is critical to draw accurate conclusions about patterns of e-cigarette use at the population level and its potential for public health benefit or harm. Data from 2014 National Health Interview Survey indicate that e-cigarettes have not been attracting adult non-smokers or promoting relapse in longer term former smokers. Moreover, the data are suggestive that some recent quitters may have done so with the assistance of e-cigarettes. Creating measures of smoking status that treat former smokers as a homogenous group is insufficient to assess the

  6. Effect of e-cigarette advertisement exposure on intention to use e-cigarettes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Andrea M; Branstetter, Steven A

    2018-07-01

    With the growth of electronic cigarettes use, curiosity about and experimentation with these products has increased among adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the moderating effect of e-cigarette advertisement (ad) exposure on the relation between perceptions of use and intentions to use in youth. Multiple regression analyses utilizing data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 17,286) were used to evaluate the effect of ad exposure, perceived harmfulness, barriers, and benefits of e-cigarette use on intentions to use among youth who had never used e-cigarettes. Models for non-smokers accounted for 15.5% of the variance in intention to use (R 2  = 0.155, F (15) = 187.0, p < 0.001). Results demonstrate that an increase in the number of exposures to e-cigarette ads was associated with an increase in intent to use (b = 0.039, t = 7.4, p < 0.001). Models also demonstrated significant interactions between ad exposure and perceptions of use on future intention to use. For smokers, models explained 11.1% of the variance in intention to use (R 2  = 0.111, F (15) = 3.1, p < 0.001). Ad exposure had a non-significant effect on intention to use e-cigarettes (b = -0.010, t = -0.2, p = 0.859). In smokers, ad exposure did not significantly affect the association between perceptions of use and intention to use. Ads are most effective at attracting non-smoking youth as new users rather than promoting product switching in young cigarette smokers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal-spontaneous or automatic-attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. 187 young adult (mean age=21.9; SD=4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction ("Health") vs. social enhancement ("Social") focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of electronic cigarette advertising on intended use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig W; Kim, Se-Jin Sage

    2015-07-01

    . Aside from prohibiting health claims, there are presently no restrictions on electronic cigarette advertising in the U.S. Studies have shown college students have a positive view of e-cigarettes and use on campuses is increasing. The purpose of this study was to test if the appeal of e-cigarette advertisements and beliefs about the addictiveness of e-cigarettes may affect their uptake among college students. The study was framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action, which posits that behavioral intention can be understood in terms of social norms and attitudes toward a behavior. We also included variables capturing appeal of e-cigarette advertisements, belief that e-cigarettes are not as addictive as cigarettes, and tobacco use. Attitudes toward e-cigarettes, perceived norms concerning their use, beliefs that e-cigarettes are not as addictive as cigarettes, and positive appraisal of e-cigarette advertising videos were all hypothesized to be independently positively associated with intention to use an e-cigarette. Data were collected through a survey of students at a major U.S. university (participation rate 78%, N=296). Participants were exposed to three e-cigarette video advertisements in random order. In a regression analysis we found positive reaction to the ads and holding the belief that e-cigarettes are not as addictive were both independently associated with intention. Attitudes and norms were also associated but were controlled by inclusion of the other variables. These findings suggest that advertising may promote the uptake of e-cigarettes and may do so in addition to current smoking and alternate tobacco use status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  10. The impact of a federal cigarette minimum pack price policy on cigarette use in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogan, Nathan J; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Berman, Micah

    2018-03-01

    Increasing cigarette prices reduce cigarette use. The US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the sale and promotion-and therefore the price-of tobacco products. To examine the potential effect of federal minimum price regulation on the sales of cigarettes in the USA. We used yearly state-level data from the Tax Burden on Tobacco and other sources to model per capita cigarette sales as a function of price. We used the fitted model to compare the status quo sales with counterfactual scenarios in which a federal minimum price was set. The minimum price scenarios ranged from $0 to $12. The estimated price effect in our model was comparable with that found in the literature. Our counterfactual analyses suggested that the impact of a minimum price requirement could range from a minimal effect at the $4 level to a reduction of 5.7 billion packs sold per year and 10 million smokers at the $10 level. A federal minimum price policy has the potential to greatly benefit tobacco control and public health by uniformly increasing the price of cigarettes and by eliminating many price-reducing strategies currently available to both sellers and consumers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  12. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Bax Gene Promoter Affects Transcription and Influences Retinal Ganglion Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila J Semaan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pro-apoptotic Bax is essential for RGC (retinal ganglion cell death. Gene dosage experiments in mice, yielding a single wild-type Bax allele, indicated that genetic background was able to influence the cell death phenotype. DBA/2J Bax+/− mice exhibited complete resistance to nerve damage after 2 weeks (similar to Bax −/− mice, but 129B6 Bax+/− mice exhibited significant cell loss (similar to wild-type mice. The different cell death phenotype was associated with the level of Bax expression, where 129B6 neurons had twice the level of endogenous Bax mRNA and protein as DBA/2J neurons. Sequence analysis of the Bax promoters between these strains revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (T129B6 to CDBA/2J at position −515. A 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in transcriptional activity was observed from the 129B6 promoter in transient transfection assays in a variety of cell types, including RGC5 cells derived from rat RGCs. Since this polymorphism occurred in a p53 half-site, we investigated the requirement of p53 for the differential transcriptional activity. Differential transcriptional activity from either 129B6 or DBA/2J Bax promoters were unaffected in p53−/− cells, and addition of exogenous p53 had no further effect on this difference, thus a role for p53 was excluded. Competitive electrophoretic mobility-shift assays identified two DNA-protein complexes that interacted with the polymorphic region. Those forming Complex 1 bound with higher affinity to the 129B6 polymorphic site, suggesting that these proteins probably comprised a transcriptional activator complex. These studies implicated quantitative expression of the Bax gene as playing a possible role in neuronal susceptibility to damaging stimuli.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Siegel, Michael; Borrelli, Belinda

    2012-09-01

    Concerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them. This paper argues that, while more research is needed on the cost-benefit equation of these products and the appropriate level and type of regulation for them, the harms have tended thus far to be overstated relative to the potential benefits. In particular: concern over repeated inhalation of propylene glycol is not borne out by toxicity studies with this compound; risk of accidental poisoning is no different from many household devices and chemicals available in supermarkets; concern that e-cigarettes may promote continued smoking by allowing smokers to cope with no-smoking environments is countered by the observation that most smokers use these products to try to quit and their use appears to enhance quitting motivation; concerns over low nicotine delivery are countered by evidence that the products provide significant craving reduction despite this in some cases; and e-cigarettes may help reduce toxin exposure to non-smokers. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. [Cigarette taxes and demand in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Norman; Llorente, Blanca; Deaza, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price and income elasticities of aggregate demand for cigarettes in Colombia, by controlling for structural market changes since the late 1990s, to identify policy opportunities for taxes that could improve public health and increase tax revenues. Measurement of aggregate demand for cigarettes using gross income reported on value-added tax returns submitted to Colombia's National Tax and Customs Office (DIAN is the acronym in Spanish) by the tobacco product manufacturing industry, subtracting exports. A quarterly time series was obtained for the period 1994-2014. The econometric estimation using two-stage least squares controls for price endogeneity and uses a set of dummy variables to control for structural changes in the market and in its regulation. Demand is, from a statistical standpoint, sensitive to price and to income. Price elasticity of demand is -0.78 and income elasticity is 0.61. Inelastic demand implies that it is possible, through cigarette excise taxes, to meet public health targets and increase revenues simultaneously. The results also suggest that the considerable increase in household income in Colombia in the first decade of the 21st century increased purchasing power, which, lacking an accompanying tax increase, promoted cigarette consumption, with negative effects on public health, and wasted an opportunity to increase tax revenues.

  15. The importance of social sources of cigarettes to school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, E; Aveyard, P; Griffin, C; Cheng, K K

    2003-03-01

    To discover the importance of social sources of tobacco to young people as opposed to commercial sources; to describe the peer market for cigarettes in schools and the consequences for young people of their involvement in it. Cross sectional questionnaire survey, one-to-one interviews, and focus groups. Seven schools in Birmingham, UK. All students in two randomly selected classes from each school completed the questionnaire, and never smokers, occasional smokers, and regular smokers were interviewed. Two thirds of occasional smokers and one quarter of regular smokers obtained cigarettes socially, mostly for free. A few smokers regularly bought their cigarettes from others. Among friendship groups, both smokers and non-smokers were involved in the exchange of cigarettes, often for money, which is a common activity. A few young people use the selling of cigarettes to fund their own smoking. Some young people, smokers and non-smokers, are involved in semi-commercial selling of cigarettes. All school students are aware of where to purchase cigarettes from non-friends, which is only used "in emergency" because of the high price. One school had a strong punishment policy for students caught with cigarettes. In this school, more people bought singles from the peer market and the price was higher. The passing and selling of cigarettes in school is a common activity, which from the young persons perspective, ensures that all share cross counter purchases. A few people are prepared to use the peer market for monetary gain and it appears to be responsive to external conditions. The peer market might mean that efforts to control illegal sales of cigarettes are not as effective as hoped.

  16. Public Support for Electronic Cigarette Regulation in Hong Kong: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Jiang, Nan; Kwong, Antonio; Lai, Vienna; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-06-30

    This study aimed to gauge the Hong Kong's public support towards new e-cigarette regulation, and examine the associated factors of the support. We conducted a two-stage, randomized cross-sectional telephone-based survey to assess the public support towards the banning of e-cigarette promotion and advertisement, its use in smoke-free venues, the sale to people aged under 18, and regulating the sale of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. Adults (aged 15 years or above) who were never smoking ( n = 1706), ex-smoking ( n = 1712) or currently smoking ( n = 1834) were included. Over half (57.8%) supported all the four regulations. Banning of e-cigarette promotion and advertisement (71.7%) received slightly less support than the other three regulations (banning of e-cigarette use in smoke-free venues (81.5%); banning of e-cigarette sale to minors (93.9%); sale restriction of nicotine-free e-cigarettes (80.9%)). Current smokers, and perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than traditional cigarettes or not knowing the harmfulness, were associated with a lower level of support. Our findings showed a strong public support for further regulation of e-cigarettes in Hong Kong. Current stringent measures on tobacco and e-cigarettes, and media reports on the harmfulness of e-cigarettes may underpin the strong support for the regulation.

  17. Public Support for Electronic Cigarette Regulation in Hong Kong: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Tak Derek Cheung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gauge the Hong Kong’s public support towards new e-cigarette regulation, and examine the associated factors of the support. We conducted a two-stage, randomized cross-sectional telephone-based survey to assess the public support towards the banning of e-cigarette promotion and advertisement, its use in smoke-free venues, the sale to people aged under 18, and regulating the sale of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. Adults (aged 15 years or above who were never smoking (n = 1706, ex-smoking (n = 1712 or currently smoking (n = 1834 were included. Over half (57.8% supported all the four regulations. Banning of e-cigarette promotion and advertisement (71.7% received slightly less support than the other three regulations (banning of e-cigarette use in smoke-free venues (81.5%; banning of e-cigarette sale to minors (93.9%; sale restriction of nicotine-free e-cigarettes (80.9%. Current smokers, and perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than traditional cigarettes or not knowing the harmfulness, were associated with a lower level of support. Our findings showed a strong public support for further regulation of e-cigarettes in Hong Kong. Current stringent measures on tobacco and e-cigarettes, and media reports on the harmfulness of e-cigarettes may underpin the strong support for the regulation.

  18. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  19. A Single Sphingomyelin Species Promotes Exosomal Release of Endoglin into the Maternal Circulation in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermini, Leonardo; Ausman, Jonathan; Melland-Smith, Megan; Yeganeh, Behzad; Rolfo, Alessandro; Litvack, Michael L; Todros, Tullia; Letarte, Michelle; Post, Martin; Caniggia, Isabella

    2017-09-22

    Preeclampsia (PE), an hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, exhibits increased circulating levels of a short form of the auxillary TGF-beta (TGFB) receptor endoglin (sENG). Until now, its release and functionality in PE remains poorly understood. Here we show that ENG selectively interacts with sphingomyelin(SM)-18:0 which promotes its clustering with metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) in SM-18:0 enriched lipid rafts of the apical syncytial membranes from PE placenta where ENG is cleaved by MMP14 into sENG. The SM-18:0 enriched lipid rafts also contain type 1 and 2 TGFB receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), but not soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1), another protein secreted in excess in the circulation of women with PE. The truncated ENG is then released into the maternal circulation via SM-18:0 enriched exosomes together with TGFBR1 and 2. Such an exosomal TGFB receptor complex could be functionally active and block the vascular effects of TGFB in the circulation of PE women.

  20. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Donny, Eric C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2017-01-01

    The reduced nicotine content cigarette and the emergence of non-combusted nicotine products like e-cigarettes should be viewed not as alternatives but as complementary components of regulatory interventions that could virtually end combusted tobacco use. PMID:27555354

  1. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  2. Effects of advertisements on smokers' interest in trying e-cigarettes: the roles of product comparison and visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Southwell, Brian G; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices that have become popular among smokers. We conducted an experiment to understand adult smokers' responses to e-cigarette advertisements and investigate the impact of ads' arguments and imagery. A U.S. national sample of smokers who had never tried e-cigarettes (n=3253) participated in a between-subjects experiment. Smokers viewed an online advertisement promoting e-cigarettes using one of three comparison types (emphasising similarity to regular cigarettes, differences or neither) with one of three images, for nine conditions total. Smokers then indicated their interest in trying e-cigarettes. Ads that emphasised differences between e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes elicited more interest than ads without comparisons (pe-cigarette created more interest than ads showing a person without an e-cigarette (pe-cigarette use in advertising, and public health messages should not emphasise differences between regular and electronic cigarettes. To inform additional regulations, future research should seek to identify what advertising messages and features appeal to youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720 among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902 used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers.

  4. Adolescents' interest in trying flavoured e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Brewer, N T

    2016-11-01

    More US adolescents use e-cigarettes than smoke cigarettes. Research suggests flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to youth, but little is known about perceptions of and reasons for attraction to specific flavours. A national sample of adolescents (n=1125) ages 13-17 participated in a phone survey from November 2014 to June 2015. We randomly assigned adolescents to respond to survey items about 1 of 5 e-cigarette flavours (tobacco, alcohol, menthol, candy or fruit) and used regression analysis to examine the impact of flavour on interest in trying e-cigarettes and harm beliefs. Adolescents were more likely to report interest in trying an e-cigarette offered by a friend if it were flavoured like menthol (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.46 to 10.97), candy (OR=4.53, 95% CI 1.67 to 12.31) or fruit (OR=6.49, 95% CI 2.48 to 17.01) compared with tobacco. Adolescents believed that fruit-flavoured e-cigarettes were less harmful to health than tobacco-flavoured e-cigarettes (p<0.05). Perceived harm mediated the relationship between some flavours and interest in trying e-cigarettes. A minority of adolescents believed that e-cigarettes did not have nicotine (14.6%) or did not know whether they had nicotine (3.6%); these beliefs did not vary by flavour. Candy-flavoured, fruit-flavoured and menthol-flavoured e-cigarettes appeal to adolescents more than tobacco-flavoured or alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes. This appeal is only partially explained by beliefs about reduced harm. Given adolescents' interest in trying e-cigarettes with certain flavours, policymakers should consider restricting advertisements promoting flavoured products in media that reach large numbers of young people. Future research should examine other reasons for the appeal of individual flavours, such as novelty and perceived luxury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Perceptions towards electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation among Stop Smoking Service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Frances C; Newson, Lisa; Marcus, Michael W; Field, John K; Robinson, Jude

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as smoking cessation tools, yet they remain unavailable from Stop Smoking Services in England; the debate over their safety and efficacy is ongoing. This study was designed to explore perceptions and reasons for use or non-use of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tools, among individuals engaged in Stop Smoking Services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with twenty participants engaged in Stop Smoking Services in the north-west of England. Participants comprised of both individuals who had tried e-cigarettes (n = 6) and those who had not (n = 14). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to thematic analysis, which explored participants' beliefs and experiences of e-cigarettes. A thematic analysis of transcripts suggested that the following three superordinate themes were prominent: (1) self-efficacy and beliefs in e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid; and (3) cues for e-cigarette use. Participants, particularly never users, were especially concerned regarding e-cigarette efficacy and safety. Overall, participants largely expressed uncertainty regarding e-cigarette safety and efficacy, with some evidence of misunderstanding. Evidence of uncertainty and misunderstanding regarding information on e-cigarettes highlights the importance of providing smokers with concise, up-to-date information regarding e-cigarettes, enabling smokers to make informed treatment decisions. Furthermore, identification of potential predictors of e-cigarette use can be used to inform Stop Smoking Services provision and future research. What is already known on this subject? Research suggests that e-cigarettes may help smokers quit smoking, but further studies are needed. Electronic cigarette use in Stop Smoking Services has increased substantially in recent years, although e-cigarettes are currently not regulated. There is debate within the

  6. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  7. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  9. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  11. Impact of E-cigarettes on Smoking and Related Outcomes in Veteran Smokers With Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gerald W; Hefner, Kathryn; Jatlow, Peter I; Rosenheck, Robert A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Compared to the general U.S. population, smokers with comorbid psychiatric and/or substance use disorders have lower quit rates after evidence-based treatments and disproportionately high smoking-related deaths. Improved modalities for reducing tobacco-related harm in this subpopulation are needed. Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can now deliver physiologically relevant levels of nicotine to consumers, they represent an additional nicotine delivery system that could be used in cessation interventions. While current data suggest that the use of e-cigarettes by smokers promotes a reduction in combustible cigarette use, smoking quit rates through use of e-cigarettes appears to be low. The goal of this study was to examine impact of e-cigarette use on combustible tobacco use as well as on the readiness to quit smoking and changes in nicotine dependence in a multimorbid population. We conducted a 4-week, open-label study in 43 military veteran smokers who had no immediate intention to stop smoking and were currently receiving psychiatric services from the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system. Participants were provided with a study e-cigarette they could use ad libitum along with other tobacco products and were encouraged to attend weekly laboratory visits and a one-month follow-up visit. Main outcome measures were number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), the frequency of e-cigarette use, the amount of money spent on combustible cigarettes (U.S. dollars/week), alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and urine cotinine levels. Mean e-cigarette use was 5.7 days per week and only 9% of participants used the e-cigarette for fewer than 4 days per week. Significant reductions in breath CO (9.3 ppm to 7.3 ppm, p combustible cigarette use. E-cigarettes appear to be a viable harm reduction modality in smokers with psychiatric comorbidities.

  12. Cigarette weight control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, G.F.W.; Bolt, R.C.; Simmons, A.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the weight of a continuous wrapped rod of tobacco formed by a cigarette-making machine. A scanner unit can be used which passes beta-rays from a primary radiation source through the rod. The absorption is measured by comparison of the intensity at a detector on the opposite side of the rod with that at a detector facing another smaller source, the balance unit. This is pre-set so that when the rod weight is correct the detected intensities from the two sources will be equal. It is essential that the scanning station is kept clean otherwise the dust is included in the weight reading and the cigarettes manufactured would be underweight. This can be checked using an artificial cigarette of known weight as a calibration check. In this device a test circuit can be connected to the scanner head and this opens the shutter over the radioactive source when the test is initiated. A warning device is initiated if the reading is beyond predetermined limits and can be made to prevent operation of the cigarette machine if a satisfactory test is not obtained. (U.K.)

  13. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  15. Automatic feedback to promote safe walking and speech loudness control in persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.

  16. A single cysteine post-translational oxidation suffices to compromise globular proteins kinetic stability and promote amyloid formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Marinelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidatively modified forms of proteins accumulate during aging. Oxidized protein conformers might act as intermediates in the formation of amyloids in age-related disorders. However, it is not known whether this amyloidogenic conversion requires an extensive protein oxidative damage or it can be promoted just by a discrete, localized post-translational modification of certain residues. Here, we demonstrate that the irreversible oxidation of a single free Cys suffices to severely perturb the folding energy landscape of a stable globular protein, compromise its kinetic stability, and lead to the formation of amyloids under physiological conditions. Experiments and simulations converge to indicate that this specific oxidation-promoted protein aggregation requires only local unfolding. Indeed, a large scale analysis indicates that many cellular proteins are at risk of undergoing this kind of deleterious transition; explaining how oxidative stress can impact cell proteostasis and subsequently lead to the onset of pathological states. Keywords: Protein oxidation, Protein misfolding, Protein aggregation, Oxidative stress, Post-translational modification

  17. CO Reduction to CH3OSiMe3: Electrophile-Promoted Hydride Migration at a Single Fe Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Meaghan M; Peters, Jonas C

    2017-02-22

    One of the major challenges associated with developing molecular Fischer-Tropsch catalysts is the design of systems that promote the formation of C-H bonds from H 2 and CO while also facilitating the release of the resulting CO-derived organic products. To this end, we describe the synthesis of reduced iron-hydride/carbonyl complexes that enable an electrophile-promoted hydride migration process, resulting in the reduction of coordinated CO to a siloxymethyl (L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 ) group. Intramolecular hydride-to-CO migrations are extremely rare, and to our knowledge the system described herein is the first example where such a process can be accessed from a thermally stable M(CO)(H) complex. Further addition of H 2 to L n Fe-CH 2 OSiMe 3 releases CH 3 OSiMe 3 , demonstrating net four-electron reduction of CO to CH 3 OSiMe 3 at a single Fe site.

  18. The cigarette box as an advertising vehicle in the United Kingdom: A case for plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewe, Michaela; Ogden, Jane; Coyle, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to study tobacco advertising between 1950-2003 and to evaluate the role of the cigarette box in advertising. Tobacco company advertisements (n = 204) were coded for content and meanings used to promote their product. There was a significant shift from cigarettes being displayed to the cigarette box only. Changes in advertising and the meanings evoked were unrelated to changes in smoking behaviour. It is argued that the cigarette box has absorbed the meanings associated with smoking and has become an effective vehicle for advertising. It is also argued that this can only be minimised with plain packaging. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Toxicological and analytical assessment of e-cigarette refill components on airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasjot; Luquet, Emilie; Smith, David P T; Potgieter, Herman J; Ragazzon, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    There are over 2.6 million users of e-cigarettes in the United Kingdom alone as they have been promoted as a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. The addition of flavours and aromas has also proven to be popular with younger generations. In this review, we survey the range of studies in the short timeframe since e-cigarettes reached the market to draw attention to the health associated risks and benefits of their introduction. We complement this review with a case study reporting on the composition of selected e-cigarette refills with particular emphasis on the toxicological activity of its components on lung cells.

  20. Adolescent Sports Participation, E-cigarette Use, and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Sean Esteban; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents. National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Differences in e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were assessed between 13 different sports to determine which sports were associated with a greater or lower risk of these behaviors. Adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport were less likely to engage in past 30-day traditional cigarette smoking (AOR=0.73, 95% CI=0.538, 0.973) and past 30-day dual use of traditional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.438, 0.982) when compared with their nonparticipating peers. Adolescents who participated in baseball/softball and wrestling were at greatest risk of e-cigarette use. Of the 13 assessed sports, none were found to lower the odds of e-cigarette use. No significant evidence was found that participation in a sport was a protective factor against e-cigarette use. Certain types of athletes are at an elevated risk of e-cigarette use, and prevention efforts targeted at these specific sports should be considered by school administrators. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking....

  2. Family strengths, motivation, and resources as predictors of health promotion behavior in single-parent and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Gilboe, M

    1997-06-01

    The extent to which selected aspects of family health potential (strengths, motivation, and resources) predicted health work (health-related problem-solving and goal attainment behaviors) was examined in a Canadian sample of 138 female-headed single-parent families and two-parent families. The mother and one child (age 10-14) each completed mailed self-report instruments to assess the independent variables of family cohesion, family pride, mother's non-traditional sex role orientation, general self-efficacy, internal health locus of control, network support, community support, and family income, as well as the dependent variable, health work. With the effects of mothers' education held constant, the independent variables predicted 22 to 27% of the variance in health work in the total sample and each family type. Family cohesion was the most consistent predictor of health work, accounting for 8 to 13% of the variance. The findings challenge existing problem-oriented views of single-parent families by focusing on their potential to engage in health promotion behavior.

  3. E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents Not Susceptible to Using Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Osman, Amira; Ranney, Leah M.; Heck, Courtney; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests that adolescents who use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), including adolescents not susceptible to smoking cigarettes (ie, those who have never smoked cigarettes and are not attitudinally susceptible to using cigarettes), are more likely to initiate using cigarettes or other combustible tobacco products than adolescents who do not use e-cigarettes. In this study, we examined correlates of e-cigarette use and susceptibility among adolescents not susceptible ...

  4. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    Background Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users...

  5. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, IfeanyiChukwu O.; Stirling, Daniel L.; Williams, Shandrika R.; Bediako, Daniel; Borghol, Amne; Harris, Martha B.; Darensburg, Tiernisha B.; Clay, Sharde D.; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:28956852

  6. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IfeanyiChukwu O. Onor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  7. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  8. Can a single session of motor imagery promote motor learning of locomotion in older adults? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson,1 Justin WL Keogh,2–4 Nancy L Low Choy1 1School of Physiotherapy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia; 3Human Potential Centre, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Cluster for Health Improvement, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups. The motor imagery training group completed 20 imagined repetitions of a locomotor task, the physical training group completed 20 physical repetitions of a locomotor task, and the control group spent 25 minutes playing mentally stimulating games on an iPad. Imagined and physical performance times were measured for each training repetition. Gait speed (preferred and fast, timed-up-and-go, gait variability and the time to complete an obstacle course were completed before and after the single training session. Results: Motor learning occurred in both the motor imagery training and physical training groups. Motor imagery training led to refinements in motor planning resulting in imagined movements better matching the physically performed movement at the end of training. Motor imagery and physical training also promoted improvements in some locomotion outcomes as demonstrated by medium to large effect size improvements after training for fast gait speed and timed-up-and-go. There were no training effects on gait variability. Conclusion: A single session

  9. Trends in E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Mullen, Deborah; Johnson, Tyler J; Ford, Eric W

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity as an alternative to regular cigarettes, as they are viewed as potentially less harmful. However, it remains unclear how awareness about e-cigarettes is permeating through the general U.S. This study seeks to extend previous research and examine trends in e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness, and their association with smoking-cessation efforts. Data from three cycles (2012, 2013, and 2014) of the Health Information National Trends Survey were combined into a single data set. Controlling for survey year, multivariate logit models were used to determine the association between demographic characteristics and e-cigarette awareness, perceived harmfulness, quit attempts, and quit intentions. Data were analyzed in 2015. Awareness of e-cigarettes increased from 77.1% in 2012 to 94.3% in 2014. Controlling for demographic characteristics, e-cigarette awareness significantly increased in both 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Perception that e-cigarettes were less harmful than regular cigarettes declined from 50.7% in 2012 to 43.1% in 2014. Among smokers, no relationship was observed between e-cigarette awareness and past-year quit attempts or quit intentions, but those that viewed e-cigarettes as less harmful were less likely to have a past-year quit attempt. These analyses reveal a continued increase in overall public awareness of e-cigarettes and shifting harm perceptions relative to regular cigarettes. New regulatory oversight by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration may have major effects on both dimensions, which are worth continued monitoring. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic Cigarette Exposure: Calls to Wisconsin Poison Control Centers, 2010–2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.

  11. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers. Cigarette...

  12. Multielement determination in a Chinese cigarette brand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cigarette brand manufactured in the Republic of China was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 27 elements in cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper, cigarette filter before and after smoking and in the dropped ash. The results were compared to the literature values for American and other international cigarette brands. (author) 28 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  14. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  15. Using Twitter Data to Gain Insights into E-cigarette Marketing and Locations of Use: An Infoveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Porter, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. Objective This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. Methods We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. Results We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Conclusions Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more

  16. Using Twitter Data to Gain Insights into E-cigarette Marketing and Locations of Use: An Infoveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Guillory, Jamie; Porter, Lauren

    2015-11-06

    Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more diverse than offline product offerings and

  17. Internet-based Advertising Claims and Consumer Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes by Device Type in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Sun, Jessica Y; Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Holguin, Gabriel; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims. Current users (≥18 years old) of exclusively closed or open e-cigarettes (N = 860) in a nationally representative online survey in February-March 2014 provided their main reason for using e-cigarettes. Internet sites that exclusively sold closed-system e-cigarettes were more likely to make cigarette-related claims such as e-cigarettes being healthier and cheaper than cigarettes (ps < .0001) compared to sites selling open systems. Many sites implied their products could help smokers quit. Exclusive users of both systems endorsed cessation as their top reason. Closed-system users were more likely to report their reason as "use where smoking is banned." Although promotion of e-cigarettes as cessation aids is prohibited, consumers of both systems endorsed smoking cessation as their top reason for using e-cigarettes.

  18. E-Cigarettes and the Use of Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Nies, Alina; Goecke, Michaela; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2018-04-06

    In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15.5 years, standard deviation 0.65; 53.6% female). 14.3% of the survey population (313 adolescents) said at the start of the survey period that they had already tried e-cigarettes at least once. By the end of the survey period, 12.3% (268) of those who had never smoked before had begun to experiment with conventional cigarettes. The risk of beginning such experimentation was 2.2 times higher among e-cigarette users. This association remained (relative risk = 2.18 [1.65; 2.83]) after statistical control for age, sex, state, immigrant background, type of school, socioeconomic status, various personality traits (sensation-seeking, impulsivity, anxiety, hopelessness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness), and the use of alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs. Further analysis revealed that the association between the use of e-cigarettes and the onset of conventional cigarette smoking was stronger among adolescents with low sensation-seeking scores and without any experience of alcohol intoxication. Among adolescents who have never smoked, experimentation with conventional cigarettes is more common in those who have used e-cigarettes. This effect seems to be stronger among adolescents who, in general, have a lower risk of starting to smoke. The 6-month observation period of this study is too short to allow any inference regarding a connection between e-cigarette use and the development of tobacco dependence.

  19. A cross-sectional examination of marketing of electronic cigarettes on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid increases in marketing of e-cigarettes coincide with growth in e-cigarette use in recent years; however, little is known about how e-cigarettes are marketed on social media platforms. Methods Keywords were used to collect tweets related to e-cigarettes from the Twitter Firehose between 1 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Tweets were coded for smoking cessation mentions, as well as health and safety mentions, and were classified as commercial or non-commercial (‘organic’) tweets using a combination of Naïve Bayes machine learning methods, keyword algorithms and human coding. Metadata associated with each tweet were used to examine the characteristics of accounts tweeting about e-cigarettes. Results 73 672 tweets related to e-cigarettes were captured in the study period, 90% of which were classified as commercial tweets. Accounts tweeting commercial e-cigarette content were associated with lower Klout scores, a measure of influence. Commercial tweeting was largely driven by a small group of highly active accounts, and 94% of commercial tweets included links to websites, many of which sell or promote e-cigarettes. Approximately 10% of commercial and organic tweets mentioned smoking cessation, and 34% of commercial tweets included mentions of prices or discounts for e-cigarettes. Conclusions Twitter appears to be an important marketing platform for e-cigarettes. Tweets related to e-cigarettes were overwhelmingly commercial, and a substantial proportion mentioned smoking cessation. E-cigarette marketing on Twitter may have public health implications. Continued surveillance of e-cigarette marketing on social media platforms is needed. PMID:24935894

  20. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  1. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  2. The associations between cigarette smoking and health-related behaviors among Chinese school-aged adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2017-06-01

    The results suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors in adolescents, which should be considered in health promotion interventions to target multiple health behaviors.

  3. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels ...

  4. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000761.htm E-cigarettes and E-hookahs To use the sharing features ... cigarettes because they believe these devices are safe. E-cigarettes and Children Many experts also have concerns about ...

  5. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco.

  6. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene and its relationship to pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Georgia; Lu, Minyan; Stoddard, Paul; Sammel, Mary D; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F; Matthews, Catherine A

    2009-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes, the 2 conditions which have in common weakening of the tensile strength of tissues, are thought to be caused, in part, by abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis and/or catabolism. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (NT_010194(LOXL1):g.45008784A>C) in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene, which is essential for elastin synthesis. Promoter studies showed that the minor "C'' allele had significantly greater activity than the major "A'' allele. Case-control studies examined the association of the alleles of this single nucleotide polymorphism with pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes. When comparing allele frequencies and genotypes in pelvic organ prolapse cases versus controls, no significant associations were found. A case-control study conducted in African American neonates also found no significant associations between the promoter alleles and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We conclude that a functional single nucleotide polymorphism exists in the promoter region of the LOXL1 gene. Association studies suggest that the promoter single nucleotide polymorphism does not contribute significantly to risk of pelvic organ prolapse or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

  7. Assessing nicotine dependence in adolescent E-cigarette users: The 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; S O'Malley, Stephanie

    2018-04-26

    Adolescent e-cigarette use (i.e., "vaping") likely confers risk for developing nicotine dependence. However, there have been no studies assessing e-cigarette nicotine dependence in youth. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Nicotine Dependence Item Bank for E-cigarettes (PROMIS-E) for assessing youth e-cigarette nicotine dependence and examined risk factors for experiencing stronger dependence symptoms. In 2017, 520 adolescent past-month e-cigarette users completed the PROMIS-E during a school-based survey (50.5% female, 84.8% White, 16.22[1.19] years old). Adolescents also reported on sex, grade, race, age at e-cigarette use onset, vaping frequency, nicotine e-liquid use, and past-month cigarette smoking. Analyses included conducting confirmatory factor analysis and examining the internal consistency of the PROMIS-E. Bivariate correlations and independent-samples t-tests were used to examine unadjusted relationships between e-cigarette nicotine dependence and the proposed risk factors. Regression models were run in which all potential risk factors were entered as simultaneous predictors of PROMIS-E scores. The single-factor structure of the PROMIS-E was confirmed and evidenced good internal consistency. Across models, larger PROMIS-E scores were associated with being in a higher grade, initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age, vaping more frequently, using nicotine e-liquid (and higher nicotine concentrations), and smoking cigarettes. Adolescent e-cigarette users reported experiencing nicotine dependence, which was assessed using the psychometrically sound PROMIS-E. Experiencing stronger nicotine dependence symptoms was associated with characteristics that previously have been shown to confer risk for frequent vaping and tobacco cigarette dependence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter resea...

  9. E-cigarette use, perceptions, and cigarette smoking intentions in a community sample of young adult nondaily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-05-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. Although e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions, and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (N = 348, 57% male) aged 18 to 24 years were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included nondaily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline, and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22% to 33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Role of Cigarette Sensory Cues in Modifying Puffing Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; O Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human puffing topography promotes tobacco dependence by ensuring nicotine delivery, but the factors that determine puffing behavior are not well explained by existing models. Chemosensory cues generated by variations in cigarette product design features may serve as conditioned cues to allow the smoker to optimize nicotine delivery by adjusting puffing topography. Internal tobacco industry research documents were reviewed to understand the influence of sensory cues on puffing topography, and to examine how the tobacco industry has designed cigarettes, including modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), to enhance puffing behavior to optimize nicotine delivery and product acceptability. Methods Relevant internal tobacco industry documents were identified using systematic searching with key search terms and phrases, and then snowball sampling method was applied to establish further search terms. Results Modern cigarettes are designed by cigarette manufacturers to provide sensory characteristics that not only maintain appeal, but provide cues which inform puffing intensity. Alterations in the chemosensory cues provided in tobacco smoke play an important role in modifying smoking behavior independently of the central effects of nicotine. Conclusions An associative learning model is proposed to explain the influence of chemosensory cues on variation in puffing topography. These cues are delivered via tobacco smoke and are moderated by design features and additives used in cigarettes. The implications for regulation of design features of modified risk tobacco products, which may act to promote intensive puffing while lowering risk perceptions, are discussed. PMID:22365895

  11. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  12. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  13. Determination of single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M gene in coronary artery diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zheng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lu Zheng1, Guanghua Luo1, Xiaoying Zhang1, Jun Zhang1, Jiang Zhu1, Jiang Wei1, Qinfeng Mu1, Lujun Chen1, Peter Nilsson-Ehle2, Ning Xu21Comprehensive Laboratory, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou University, Changzhou China; 2Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, SwedenObjective: It has been reported that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the proximal promoter region of apolipoprotein M (apoM gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D and coronary artery disease (CAD in the Han Chinese. However, in a recent study demonstrated that plasma apoM level did not correlated to the coronary heart disease. In the present studies, we investigated the SNP T-778C of apoM gene in CAD patients and controls in the Han Chinese population. Moreover we examined whether serum apoM levels could be influenced by this promoter mutation.Material and methods: One hundred twenty-six CAD patients and 118 non-CAD patients were subjected in the present study. All patients were confirmed by the angiography. The genotyping of polymorphisms T-778C in apoM promoter was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Serum apoM levels were semi-quantitatively determined by the dot-blotting analysis. Results: Distribution of apoM T-778C genotype in non-CAD patients was as following: 84.7% were T/T, 15.3% were T/C and 0.0% was C/C. T allele frequencies were 92.4% and C allele, 7.6%. In the CAD patients, 99 patients (78.6% had the T/T genotype, 25 patients (19.8% with T/C genotype and 2 patients (1.6% with C/C genotype. The allele frequency was 88.5% for the T allele and 11.5% for the C allele. There was no statistical significant difference of serum apoM levels found in these three genotypes.Conclusions: There was no significant difference in allele or genotype frequencies between CAD patients and non-CAD patients. Binary logistic regression analysis with adjustments for age

  14. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes.

  15. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  16. Epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by the lncRNA CCAT1, acting via BMI1, promotes an altered cell cycle transition in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Hui; Luo, Fei; Liu, Xinlu; Lu, Xiaolin; Yang, Qianlei; Xue, Junchao; Chen, Chao; Shi, Le; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to lung cancer are largely unknown. A long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA), CCAT1, regarded as cancer-associated, has been investigated extensively. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. In the present investigation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) caused an altered cell cycle and increased CCAT1 levels and decreased miR-218 levels in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Depletion of CCAT1 attenuated the CSE-induced decreases of miR-218 levels, suggesting that miR-218 is negatively regulated by CCAT1 in HBE cells exposed to CSE. The CSE-induced increases of BMI1 levels and blocked by CCAT1 siRNA were attenuated by an miR-218 inhibitor. Moreover, in CSE-transformed HBE cells, the CSE-induced cell cycle changes and elevated neoplastic capacity were reversed by CCAT1 siRNA or BMI1 siRNA. This epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by CCAT1 induces an altered cell cycle transition through BMI1 and provides a new mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • CSE exposure induces increases of CCAT1 levels and decreases of miR-218 levels. • CCAT1 negatively regulates miR-218 expression. • CCAT1, regulated by miR-218, via BMI1, is involved in the CSE-induced altered cell cycle transition.

  17. Epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by the lncRNA CCAT1, acting via BMI1, promotes an altered cell cycle transition in the malignant transformation of HBE cells induced by cigarette smoke extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Hui; Luo, Fei; Liu, Xinlu; Lu, Xiaolin; Yang, Qianlei; Xue, Junchao; Chen, Chao; Shi, Le; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for the development of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to lung cancer are largely unknown. A long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA), CCAT1, regarded as cancer-associated, has been investigated extensively. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. In the present investigation, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) caused an altered cell cycle and increased CCAT1 levels and decreased miR-218 levels in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Depletion of CCAT1 attenuated the CSE-induced decreases of miR-218 levels, suggesting that miR-218 is negatively regulated by CCAT1 in HBE cells exposed to CSE. The CSE-induced increases of BMI1 levels and blocked by CCAT1 siRNA were attenuated by an miR-218 inhibitor. Moreover, in CSE-transformed HBE cells, the CSE-induced cell cycle changes and elevated neoplastic capacity were reversed by CCAT1 siRNA or BMI1 siRNA. This epigenetic silencing of miR-218 by CCAT1 induces an altered cell cycle transition through BMI1 and provides a new mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • CSE exposure induces increases of CCAT1 levels and decreases of miR-218 levels. • CCAT1 negatively regulates miR-218 expression. • CCAT1, regulated by miR-218, via BMI1, is involved in the CSE-induced altered cell cycle transition.

  18. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  19. Tobacco cigarette use versus electronic cigarette use: determinants of smoking and vaping behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Romijnders; Marlieke Beijaert; Liesbeth van Osch; Hein de Vries; Reinskje Talhout

    2018-01-01

    Background It is important to know why individuals use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) compared to tobacco cigarettes. This comparison provides policy makers with opportunities to target different types of users. This study examined behavioral determinants associated with both tobacco and e-cigarette use. Differences between non-users (neither e-cigarette users nor smokers), smokers, e-cigarette users, and dual users were assessed for tobacco use versus e-cigarette u...

  20. Electronic cigarettes, quit attempts and smoking cessation: a 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Anne; Guignard, Romain; Andler, Raphaël; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt

    2017-09-01

    There is conflicting evidence that use of e-cigarettes promotes cessation in regular smokers, but contrasting findings may be due to differing definitions of vaping. The aim was to assess whether regular use of e-cigarettes while smoking is associated with subsequent smoking cessation. Baseline internet survey with outcomes measured at 6-month follow-up. All French metropolitan territory. A total of 2057 smokers aged 15-85 years were recruited through an access panel and responded to a 6-month follow-up: 1805 exclusive tobacco smokers and 252 dual users (tobacco plus regular e-cigarette users) at baseline. The three outcomes assessed at 6 months were: a minimum 50% reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts of at least 7 days and smoking cessation of at least 7 days at the time of follow-up. Logistic regressions were performed to model the three outcomes according to regular e-cigarette use at baseline, adjusted for socio-economic variables and smoking behaviours. Baseline dual users were more likely than baseline exclusive tobacco smokers to have halved cigarette consumption [25.9 versus 11.2%, P e-cigarette regularly are more likely to try to quit smoking and reduce their cigarette consumption during the next 6 months. It remains unclear whether regular e-cigarette users are also more likely to stop smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Openness to Using Non-cigarette Tobacco Products Among U.S. Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Arrazola, René A; Tworek, Cindy; Rolle, Italia V; Neff, Linda J; Portnoy, David B

    2016-04-01

    National data indicate that the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is highest among young adults; however, little is known about their openness to use these products in the future and associated risk factors. This study sought to characterize openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products and associated factors among U.S. young adults. In 2014, National Adult Tobacco Survey data (2012-2013) were analyzed to characterize openness to using the following tobacco products among all young adults aged 18-29 years (N=5,985): cigars; electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes"); hookah; pipe tobacco; chew, snuff, or dip; snus; and dissolvables. Among those who were not current users of each product, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, cigarette smoking status, lifetime use of other non-cigarette products, perceived harm and addictiveness of smoking, and receipt of tobacco industry promotions and openness to using each product. Among all young adults, openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products was greatest for hookah (28.2%); e-cigarettes (25.5%); and cigars (19.1%). In multivariable analyses, which included non-current users of each product, non-current ever, current, and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to be open to using most examined products, as were men and adults aged 18-24 years. Receipt of tobacco industry promotions was associated with openness to using e-cigarettes; chew, snuff, or dip; and snus. There is substantial openness to trying non-cigarette tobacco products among U.S. young adults. Young adults are an important population to consider for interventions targeting non-cigarette tobacco product use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  3. Know More About Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Quit Why Do You Want to Quit? Health Effects Benefits of Quitting How Much Will You Save How Smoking Affects Your Workout Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes Know More About Menthol Cigarettes Quitting Dip Stay ...

  4. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  5. Reasons for current E-cigarette use among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Davis, Kevin C; Cox, Shanna; Bradfield, Brian; King, Brian A; Shafer, Paul; Caraballo, Ralph; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly among U.S. adults. However, reasons for use among adults are unclear. We assessed reasons for e-cigarette use among a national sample of U.S. adults. Data were collected via online surveys among U.S. adults aged 18 or older from April through June 2014. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess reasons for e-cigarette use among 2448 current e-cigarette users, by sociodemographic characteristics and product type. Assessed reasons included cessation/health, consideration of others, convenience, cost, curiosity, flavoring, and simulation of conventional cigarettes. Among current e-cigarette users, 93% were also current cigarette smokers. The most common reasons for e-cigarette use were cessation/health (84.5%), consideration of others (71.5%), and convenience (56.7%). The prevalence of citing convenience (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.49) and curiosity (aPR=1.54) as reasons for e-cigarette use were greater among current cigarette smokers than nonsmokers (Preason for use was greater among adults aged 18 to 24 (aPR=2.02) than 55 or older (Preason except convenience and curiosity. Cessation- and health-related factors are primary reasons cited for e-cigarette use among adults, and flavorings are more commonly cited by younger adults. Efforts are warranted to provide consumers with accurate information on the health effects of e-cigarettes and to ensure that flavoring and other unregulated features do not promote nicotine addiction, particularly among young adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Lee, Youn O; Kim, Annice E; Watson, Kimberly A; Arnold, Kristin Y; Nonnemaker, James M; Porter, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. Nielsen data on television household audiences' exposure to e-cigarette advertising across US markets were examined by calendar quarter, year, and sponsor. Youth exposure to television e-cigarette advertisements, measured by target rating points, increased 256% from 2011 to 2013. Young adult exposure increased 321% over the same period. More than 76% of all youth e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred on cable networks and was driven primarily by an advertising campaign for 1 e-cigarette brand. E-cigarette companies currently advertise their products to a broad audience that includes 24 million youth. The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. In the absence of evidence-based public health messaging, the current e-cigarette television advertising may be promoting beliefs and behaviors that pose harm to the public health. If current trends in e-cigarette television advertising continue, awareness and use of e-cigarettes are likely to increase among youth and young adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (pmarketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Erika; Faubl, Nóra; Riemenschneider, Henna; Balázs, Péter; Bergmann, Antje; Cseh, Károly; Horváth, Ferenc; Schelling, Jörg; Terebessy, András; Wagner, Zoltán; Voigt, Karen; Füzesi, Zsuzsanna; Kiss, István

    2018-05-03

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Besides cigarette smoking, waterpipe and e-cigarettes are gaining popularity among young adults. Medical students' smoking behavior is of particular interest because of their impending role in health promotion as future physicians. Aim of our study is to examine the prevalence and predictors of cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use and the association of tobacco use with self-reported health status in an international sample of medical students. In a multicenter cross-sectional study data on different aspects of health behavior were collected from medical students of 65 nationalities using a self-administered questionnaire in Germany (Dresden, Munich) and Hungary (Budapest, Pécs). The survey was conducted among 1st, 3rd and 5th year students. To explore associations between smoking behavior and socio-cultural factors Pearson's chi 2 -tests and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were performed. The largest subpopulations were formed by German (n = 1289), Hungarian (n = 1055) and Norwegian (n = 147) students. Mean age was 22.5 ± 3.3 years. Females represented 61.6% of the sample. In the whole sample prevalence of cigarette smoking was 18.0% (95% CI 16.6-19.4%), prevalence of waterpipe use was 4.8% (95% CI 4.0-5.7%), that of e-cigarette 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.2%). More males (22.0%) than females (15.5%) reported cigarette smoking. The lowest prevalence of cigarette smoking was found among Norwegian students (6.2%). Cigarette smokers were older, waterpipe users were younger than non-users. E-cigarette use was not associated with age of the students. Religious involvement was protective only against cigarette smoking. Financial situation showed no association with any kind of tobacco consumption. Cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users were less likely to report very good or excellent health status. Cigarette smoking is still the most popular way of consuming tobacco

  9. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  10. Trophic predator-prey relationships promote transport of microplastics compared with the single Hypoaspis aculeifer and Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong; Bi, Qing-Fang; Xiang, Qian; Chen, Qing-Lin; Christie, Peter; Ke, Xin; Wu, Long-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2018-04-01

    Although the roles of earthworms and soil collembolans in the transport of microplastics have been studied previously, the effects of the soil biota at different trophic levels and interspecific relationships remain poorly understood. Here, we examine three soil microarthropod species to explore their effects on the transport of microplastics. The selected Folsomia candida and Hypoaspis aculeifer are extensively used model organisms, and Damaeus exspinosus is a common and abundant indigenous species in China. A model food chain (prey-collembolan and predator-mite) was structured to test the role of the predator-prey relationship in the transport of microplastics. Commercial Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles (Diameter: 80-250 μm) were selected as the test microplastics, because large amounts of PVC have persisted and accumulated in the environment. Synchronized soil microarthropods were held in plates for seven days to determine the movement of microplastics. The 5000 microplastic particles were carefully placed in the center of each plate prior to the introduction of the animals. Our results clearly show that all three microarthropod species moved and dispersed the microplastics in the plates. The 0.54%, 1.8% and 4.6% of the added microplastic particles were moved by collembolan, predatory mite and oribatid mite, respectively. Soil microarthropods (microplastic particles up to 9 cm. The avoidance behavior was observed in the collembolans in respect of the microplastics. The predatory -prey relationship did promote the transport of microplastics in the plates, increasing transport by 40% compared with the effects of adding single species (P microplastics by soil microarthropods may influence the exposure of other soil biota to microplastics and change the physical properties of soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Receptivity to e-cigarette marketing, harm perceptions, and e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-01-01

    To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.

  12. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  14. Per-pack price reductions available from different cigarette purchasing strategies: United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Malarcher, Ann M; Pechacek, Terry F

    2014-06-01

    Following cigarette excise tax increases, smokers may use cigarette price minimization strategies to continue their usual cigarette consumption rather than reducing consumption or quitting. This reduces the public health benefits of the tax increase. This paper estimates the price reductions for a wide-range of strategies, compensating for overlapping strategies. We performed regression analysis on the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=13,394) to explore price reductions that smokers in the United States obtained from purchasing cigarettes. We examined five cigarette price minimization strategies: 1) purchasing discount brand cigarettes, 2) using price promotions, 3) purchasing cartons, 4) purchasing on Indian reservations, and 5) purchasing online. Price reductions from these strategies were estimated jointly to compensate for overlapping strategies. Each strategy provided price reductions between 26 and 99cents per pack. Combined price reductions were possible. Additionally, price promotions were used with regular brands to obtain larger price reductions than when price promotions were used with generic brands. Smokers can realize large price reductions from price minimization strategies, and there are many strategies available. Policymakers and public health officials should be aware of the extent that these strategies can reduce cigarette prices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Combustible cigarettes cost less to use than e-cigarettes: global evidence and tax policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Alex C; Drope, Jeffrey M; Stoklosa, Michal

    2017-03-01

    Some scholars suggest that price differences between combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes could be effective in moving current combustible smokers to e-cigarettes, which could reduce tobacco-related death and disease. Currently, in most jurisdictions, e-cigarettes are not subject to the same excise taxes as combustible cigarettes, potentially providing the category with a price advantage over combustible cigarettes. This paper tests whether e-cigarettes tax advantage has translated into a price advantage. In a sample of 45 countries, the price of combustible cigarettes, disposable e-cigarettes and rechargeable cigarettes were compared. Comparable units of combustible cigarettes cost less than disposable e-cigarettes in almost every country in the sample. While the e-liquids consumed in rechargeable e-cigarettes might cost less per comparable unit than combustible cigarettes, the initial cost to purchase a rechargeable e-cigarette presents a significant cost barrier to switching from smoking to vaping. Existing prices of e-cigarettes are generally much higher than of combustible cigarettes. If policymakers wish to tax e-cigarettes less than combustibles, forceful policy action-almost certainly through excise taxation-must raise the price of combustible cigarettes beyond the price of using e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Single-step generation of gene knockout-rescue system in pluripotent stem cells by promoter insertion with CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Taichi; Yamashita, Jun K

    2014-02-07

    Specific gene knockout and rescue experiments are powerful tools in developmental and stem cell biology. Nevertheless, the experiments require multiple steps of molecular manipulation for gene knockout and subsequent rescue procedures. Here we report an efficient and single step strategy to generate gene knockout-rescue system in pluripotent stem cells by promoter insertion with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. We inserted a tetracycline-regulated inducible gene promoter (tet-OFF/TRE-CMV) upstream of the endogenous promoter region of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/Flk1) gene, an essential gene for endothelial cell (EC) differentiation, in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with homologous recombination. Both homo- and hetero-inserted clones were efficiently obtained through a simple selection with a drug-resistant gene. The insertion of TRE-CMV promoter disrupted endogenous Flk1 expression, resulting in null mutation in homo-inserted clones. When the inserted TRE-CMV promoter was activated with doxycycline (Dox) depletion, Flk1 expression was sufficiently recovered from the downstream genomic Flk1 gene. Whereas EC differentiation was almost completely perturbed in homo-inserted clones, Flk1 rescue with TRE-CMV promoter activation restored EC appearance, indicating that phenotypic changes in EC differentiation can be successfully reproduced with this knockout-rescue system. Thus, this promoter insertion strategy with CRISPR/Cas9 would be a novel attractive method for knockout-rescue experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (Plow-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (Plow-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  18. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the following...

  19. The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes have generated controversy in the tobacco control field similar to that of Swedish snus, which came to the U.S. market six years earlier. Some argue that e-cigarettes have great potential to help smokers quit regular cigarettes while others contend they should be banned for lack of safety and efficacy data. This study examined population data from the U.S.A U.S. population survey with a national probability sample (N=10,041 was conducted (February 24 to March 8, 2012, before any major paid advertisement of e-cigarettes appeared on television. Survey respondents were asked if they had heard about e-cigarettes, where they had heard about them, whether they had used e-cigarettes or snus, how often they used them, and why they used them. Responses were weighted to represent the entire U.S. population.A high proportion, 75.4%, reported having heard about e-cigarettes. Television ranked as the number one source of information, followed by "in-person conversation" and "Internet." About 8.1% had tried e-cigarettes, and 1.4% were current users. These rates were twice those of snus (4.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Among current smokers, 32.2% had tried e-cigarettes, and 6.3% were current users. Over 80% of current e-cigarette users were non-daily users. Women were significantly more likely to have tried e-cigarettes than men. Those who had tried e-cigarettes were more likely than those who tried snus to report their products being safer than regular cigarettes (49.9% vs. 10.8%. Almost half (49.5% of current smokers were susceptible to using e-cigarettes in the future.That e-cigarettes have surpassed snus in adoption rate, even before any promotion by major tobacco companies, suggests that the former have tapped into smokers' intuitive preference for potentially harm-reducing products, probably due to the product design. E-cigarette use is likely to increase in the next few years.

  20. Cigarette brand diversity and price changes during the implementation of plain packaging in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Magdalena Opazo; Britton, John; Huang, Yue; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2018-05-29

    Plain packaging of cigarettes appeared in the UK in July 2016 and was ubiquitous by May 2017. The change coincided with another legislative change, raising the minimum pack size from 10 to 20 cigarettes. Laws imposing plain packaging on cigarette packs remove another promotional route from tobacco companies but the effect of such laws on brand diversity, pricing, and sales volume is unknown. This study aimed to 1) describe and quantify changes in brand diversity, price segmentation and sales volumes and 2) estimate the association between the introduction of plain cigarette packaging and cigarette pricing in the UK. We used a natural experiment design to assess the impact of plain packaging legislation on brand diversity and cigarette prices. The data comprised a sample of 76% of sales of cigarettes in the UK between March 2013 and June 2017. United Kingdom MEASUREMENTS: Cigarette prices, number of brands and products, volumes of sales FINDINGS: During the period analysed, there was a slight decrease in the number of cigarette brands. There was also an initial increase observed in the number of cigarette products, mainly due to an increase in the number of products in packs of fewer than 20 cigarettes sold before July 2016, which was then followed by a rapid decrease in the number of products that coincided with the implementation of the new legislation. Cigarette sales volumes during this period did not deviate from the preceding secular trend, but prices rose substantially. Regression results showed that price per cigarette, regardless of pack size, was 5.0 (95% CI 4.8 to 5.3) pence higher in plain than in fully branded packs. For packs of 20 cigarettes, price increases were greater in the lower price quintiles, ranging from 2.6 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.7) GBP in the lowest to 0.3 (95% CI 0.3-0.4) GBP per pack in the highest quintile. The implementation of standardised packaging legislation in the UK, which included minimum pack sizes of 20, was associated with

  1. E-cigarettes Associated With Depressed Smoking Cessation: A Cross-sectional Study of 28 European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Margarete C; Lisha, Nadra E; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often promoted to assist with cigarette smoking cessation. In 2016-2017, the relationship between e-cigarette use and having stopped smoking among ever (current and former) smokers was assessed in the European Union and Great Britain by itself. Cross-sectional logistic regression of the association between being a former smoker and e-cigarette use was applied to the 2014 Eurobarometer survey of 28 European Union countries controlling for demographics. Among all ever smokers, any regular ever use of nicotine e-cigarettes was associated with lower odds of being a former smoker (unadjusted OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.26, 0.43, AOR=0.43, 95% CI=0.32, 0.58) compared with smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. In unadjusted models, daily use (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.31, 0.56); occasional use (OR=0.25, 95% CI=0.18, 0.35); and experimentation (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.19, 0.30) of nicotine e-cigarettes were associated with lower odds of being a former smoker compared with having never used nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. Comparable results were found in adjusted models. Results were similar in Great Britain alone. Among current smokers, daily cigarette consumption was 15.6 cigarettes/day (95% CI=14.5, 16.7) among those who also used e-cigarettes versus 14.4 cigarettes/day (95% CI=13.4, 15.4) for those who did not use them (pEuropean Union (and Great Britain) is associated with depressed smoking cessation of conventional cigarettes. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P M; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies.

  5. What is included with your online e-cigarette order? An analysis of e-cigarette shipping, product and packaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Derrick, Jason C; Abrantes, Anthony S; Williams, Rebecca S

    2016-06-29

    The electronic cigarette industry is growing, with youth using e-cigarettes at higher rates than they are using cigarettes, and retail and online sales projected to reach $10 billion in 2017. Minimal regulation of the production and marketing of e-cigarettes exists to date, which has allowed companies to promote unsupported claims. We assessed the shipping, product features and packaging of a wide variety of e-cigarettes purchased online by adults and youth. The most popular internet e-cigarette vendors were identified from a larger study of internet tobacco vendors. Between August 2013 and June 2014, adults made 56 purchase attempts from online vendors, and youth made 98 attempts. Packages received were assessed for exterior and internal packaging features, including product information, health warnings and additional materials. We analysed a total of 125 orders featuring 86 unique brands of e-cigarettes. The contents were rarely indicated on package exteriors. Product information came with just 60% of orders and just 38.4% included an instruction manual. Only 44.6% of products included a health warning, and some had unsupported claims, such as lack of secondhand smoke exposure. Additionally, some products were leaking e-liquid and battery fluid on arrival. A large variety of e-cigarette products are manufactured and marketed to consumers. Many products do not include instructions for use, and unsupported claims are being presented to consumers. Effective federal regulation of the manufacturing, packaging, product information and health claims surrounding e-cigarettes is necessary to ensure consumers are presented with accurate e-cigarette use information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mendy, Vincent L.; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an ...

  7. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess w...

  8. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  9. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  10. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  11. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-10-01

    Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD), neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's' disease), and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphical review: The redox dark side of e-cigarettes; exposure to oxidants and public health concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i.e. COPD, neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Alzheimer's’ disease, and cancer. Health warning signs on the packaging and professional consultation to avoid adaptation in risk groups might be helpful solutions to control negative impacts of e-cigarettes. It is also recommended to further expand basic and clinical investigations to reveal more detailed oxidative stress mechanisms of e-cigarette induced damages, which would ultimately result in more effective protective strategies.

  13. The perceived effects of electronic cigarettes on health by adult users: A state of the science systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashefski, Amy

    2016-09-01

    There is a lack of research on perceived health effects of electronic cigarettes by adult users. Because more people are choosing electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in addition to, or instead of traditional cigarettes, it is important for the nurse practitioner (NP) to understand why. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using four scholarly databases. The search strategy utilized remained consistent. Qualitative, quantitative, observational studies and meta-analyses were considered for review. Of the 52 articles preliminarily retrieved, 9 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The majority of e-cigarette users perceive they are less harmful to health than traditional cigarettes. One reason for use is smoking cessation. Current guidelines recommend against promoting e-cigarette use. More research is needed on the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes as well as regulatory statements to guide future healthcare practice. As prevalence of e-cigarette use increases, it is important for NPs to understand the perceived effects on health by adults who use them and, specifically, how these perceptions motivate use. Armed with this information, the NP can communicate with patients about e-cigarettes, confidently recommend against their use, and begin discussions about reliable smoking cessation tools and resources that will help patients achieve their goals. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. "I always thought they were all pure tobacco": American smokers' perceptions of "natural" cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-12-01

    To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural" and American smokers' views of the "naturalness" (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural" since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that "natural" referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term "additive-free", introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term "natural" in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed "natural" cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable "regular" brands. Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of "natural" cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to "denaturalise" smoking.

  15. Point-of-sale cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation in smokers: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Robbins, Regina; Tibbits, Melissa; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Soliman, Ghada; McCarthy, Molly; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-04-28

    Strict restrictions on outdoor cigarette marketing have resulted in increasing concentration of cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale (POS). The association between POS cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation (SID) has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine this association and how it is mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes. Data from a telephone survey of 939 smokers were collected in Omaha, Nebraska. POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as cigarette price discounts within their respective neighborhoods. SID was measured with the following question: "In the last six months, has there been a time when the money you spent on cigarettes resulted in not having enough money for household essentials such as food? [yes/no]" We used structural equation modeling to examine the study aim. There was overwhelming evidence for an association between higher levels of POS cigarette marketing and a higher probability of SID (p marketing is associated with a higher probability of experiencing SID, policies that ban POS cigarette marketing might help some smokers afford essentials household items such as food more easily and thus have better standards of living.

  16. Health care professional and cigarette cessation volunteers knowledge, attitude and practice on e-cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Sharifi

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette) are new phenomenon that has been widely accepted. E- Cigarettes are more popular that has become one of the preferable rout of smoking cessation in patients. Further researches are required for future advice on e-cigarette use.To determine Health Care Professional and Cigarette Cessation Volunteers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on e-Cigarettes Methods In a cross-sectional description study, 147 medical professional ...

  17. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  18. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-07-15

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes.

  20. A Decade of e-Cigarettes: Limited Research & Unresolved Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. PMID:27477296

  1. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income (p < 0.003 and belonging to a race/ethnicity other than “non-Hispanic White” (p = 0.011 were associated with higher levels of exposure to POS cigarette marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  2. EAMJ April Cigarette.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... associated with smoking compared to their non- smoking ... CIGARETTE SMOKING AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG HEALTHCARE STUDENTS. P. Komu, BDS (Nbi), ..... Ashwin, A. P., Hill, K., Balras, V., et al.A comparison.

  3. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  4. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  5. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products come in kid-friendly flavors (including grape, chocolate, bubble gum, and gummy bear). E-cigarette advertising ... a tobacco telephone quit line), approved nicotine replacement therapies (eg, patch, gum, or inhaler), and oral nonnicotine ...

  6. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May S. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05. Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95] and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33] at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies.

  7. Symptoms during Adolescents’ First Use of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, May S.; Hall, Marissa G.; Parada, Humberto; Peebles, Kathryn; Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms adolescents experience during their first time using a cigarette predict their current use, but little is known regarding the symptoms experienced during first e-cigarette use. We conducted a pilot study to understand the symptoms adolescents experience when they first tried cigarettes and e-cigarettes and the associations between these symptoms and current use. Participants were 41 adolescents in two U.S. cities who had tried cigarettes or e-cigarettes. We asked adolescents to recall the symptoms they experienced during their first cigarette or e-cigarette and categorized symptoms as negative (felt bad, coughing/chest pain, bad taste, upset stomach, dizzy/lightheaded) or positive (felt relaxed, rush/buzz). Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms for first e-cigarette than first cigarette use (all p < 0.05). Current cigarette smoking was associated with endorsing fewer negative symptoms (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = [0.25, 0.95]) and more positive symptoms (OR = 7.11, 95% CI = [1.47, 34.33]) at first cigarette use. First e-cigarette use symptoms were not associated with current e-cigarette use. Adolescents reported fewer negative symptoms from first e-cigarette than from first cigarette, and e-cigarette symptoms did not influence use as they do for cigarettes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in longitudinal studies. PMID:29053574

  8. Cyclosporine promotes the induction of thymic lymphomas in C57BL/6 mice initiated by a single dose of γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabu, Koji; Warty, V.S.; Gorelik, E.; Shinozuka, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a single dose of γ-radiation (350 rads) was able to induce thymic lymphomas in C57BL mice when followed by promoting treatment with oral cyclosporine (CsA), a non-genotoxic immunosuppressant. We have now tested the efficacy of various doses of γ-radiation as an initiator of CsA promotion of the induction of thymic lymphomas in male C57BL mice. The effects of oral CsA on the splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity of non-irradiated and irradiated (400 rads, 1X) mice were tested by the standard 51 Cr release assays against YAC-1 cells. The cumulative incidence of thymic lymphomas induced by a single dose of γ-radiation at 100, 200, 400 and 600 rads were 10, 25, 63 and 75% respectively, after 42 weeks of CsA promotion. The splenic NK cell activity in non-irradiated mice given CsA for 4 weeks was twice as high as that in the control mice. CsA inhibited poly I:C-induced augmentation of the splenic NK cell activity. In mice given a single dose (400 rads) of γ-radiation and CsA for 4 weeks, a similar but reduced enhancement of the splenic NK cell activity as seen in non-irradiated mice was observed. These results indicate that the efficacy of CsA promotion in the induction of thymic lymphomas is dependent on the initiating doses of γ-radiation, and that CsA enhances host splenic NK cell activity during the early stage of tumor promotion. (author)

  9. Depiction of Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Gittens, Olivia E; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the quantity, quality, and reach of e-cigarette health effects YouTube videos, and to quantify the description of positive and negative e-cigarette health effects and promotional content in each video. Searches for videos were conducted in 2015 using the YouTube search engine, and the top 20 search results by relevance and view count were identified. Videos were classified by educational/medical news, advertising/marketing, and personal/testimonial categories. A coding sheet was used to assess the presence or absence of negative and positive health effects, and promotional content. Of the 320 videos retrieved, only 55 unique videos were included. The majority of videos (46.9%) were educational/medical/news, 29.7% were personal/testimonial, and 23.4% were advertising/marketing. The three most common negative health effects included discussing nicotine, e-cigarettes not being FDA regulated, and known and unknown health consequences related to e-cigarette use. The top positive health effects discussed were how e-cigarettes can help individuals quit smoking, e-cigarettes are healthier than smoking, and e-cigarettes have no smoke or secondhand smoke exposure. It is critical to monitor YouTube health effects content and develop appropriate messages to inform consumers about the risks associated with use while mitigating misleading information presented.

  10. Depiction of Health Effects of Electronic Cigarettes on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Gittens, Olivia E.; Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to assess the quantity, quality, and reach of e-cigarette health effects YouTube videos, and to quantify the description of positive and negative e-cigarette health effects and promotional content in each video. Method Searches for videos were conducted in 2015 using the YouTube search engine, and the top 20 search results by relevance and view count were identified. Videos were classified by educational/medical news, advertising/marketing, and personal/testimonial categories. A coding sheet was used to assess the presence or absence of negative and positive health effects, and promotional content. Results Of the 320 videos retrieved, only 55 unique videos were included. The majority of videos (46.9%) were educational/medical/news, 29.7% were personal/testimonial, and 23.4% were advertising/marketing. The three most common negative health effects included discussing nicotine, e-cigarettes not being FDA regulated, and known and unknown health consequences related to e-cigarette use. The top positive health effects discussed were how e-cigarettes can help individuals quit smoking, e-cigarettes are healthier than smoking, and e-cigarettes have no smoke or secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusions It is critical to monitor YouTube health effects content and develop appropriate messages to inform consumers about the risks associated with use while mitigating misleading information presented. PMID:28217030

  11. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  12. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  13. E-Cigarette Use, Perceptions, and Cigarette Smoking Intentions in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Daily Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikmanis, Kristin; Petersen, Angela; Doran, Neal

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes have been suggested as a strategy for reducing harm from cigarettes. While e-cigarettes could be a less-harmful alternative to cigarettes for those trying to quit, there may also be costs that outweigh any benefits of reduction. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively investigate perceptions of e-cigarettes, cigarette smoking intentions and their associations with e-cigarette use over time. Community participants (n = 348, 57% male) aged 18–24 were recruited for a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Inclusion criteria included non-daily cigarette smoking for ≥ 6 months with no history of daily smoking. Participants reported e-cigarette use over the past 14 days at baseline and for the past 9 days at 3, 6, and 9 months. Assessments were completed online or via mobile phone. Across the 4 assessments, 22–33% of participants reported recent e-cigarette use. Intent to quit smoking cigarettes and intent to maintain smoking were unrelated to e-cigarette frequency. E-cigarette frequency was positively associated with perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and more positive e-cigarette expectancies (ps E-cigarette use was also more frequent among those who smoked cigarettes frequently and who used e-cigarettes to circumvent cigarette bans more often (ps e-cigarette use more than harm reduction. Findings instead seem consistent with the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are more often used to complement ongoing cigarette smoking. PMID:28125242

  14. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Vincent L; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle; Byambaa, Enkhmaa; Zhang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X 2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000-$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2%) of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1%) of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was "to cut down or quit smoking."

  15. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  16. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  17. Predictors of Adult E-Cigarette Users Vaporizing Cannabis Using E-Cigarettes and Vape-Pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Lipshie, Noah; Josephson, Margo; Foster, Dawn

    2017-07-03

    Given limited extant research, we assessed the use of portable, battery-powered cannabis vaporizers by adult e-cigarette users. 522 adult vapers completed an online survey. Demographics; lifetime and past-month cannabis vaporization via e-cigarettes/vape-pens; preferences for hash oil, D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) wax, or dried buds; and cannabis vaporization beliefs and motives were examined. Demographics, age of e-cigarette onset, e-cigarette use frequency, state-level legal status of cannabis, cannabis vaping beliefs/motives, and impulsivity were examined as predictors of lifetime cannabis vaporization, past-month cannabis vaporization, and cannabis vaping frequency. E-cigarette users reported lifetime (17.8%) and past-month (11.5%) cannabis vaporization. Vapers preferred hash oil (LT/PM 45.5/47.5%), THC wax (15.2/32.2%), and dried buds (39.4/35.6%). Motivations to vape cannabis included: it tastes better (39.3/37.9%), is healthier (42.9/39.7%), is easier to conceal/hide (35.7/46.6%), does not smell as strong (42.9/39.7%), is more convenient (42.9/27.6%), and produces a stronger/better high (58.1/40.7%) than smoking cannabis. Lifetime and past-month cannabis vaporization, respectively, were associated with initiating e-cigarette use at an earlier age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.09/0.88), being impulsive (OR = 2.25/3.23), having poor self-control (OR = 2.23/1.85), and vaporizing cannabis because it is easier to conceal/hide (OR = 2.45/2.48) or is more convenient than smoking cannabis (OR = 5.02/2.83). Frequency of vaping cannabis was associated with heavier e-cigarette use (η p 2 = 0.10) and impulsivity (η p 2 = 0.09). Adult e-cigarette users are vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes/vape-pens. Efforts to curb cannabis vaporization may benefit from targeting impulsivity in users and regulating device features that facilitate or promote convenient, inconspicuous cannabis use.

  18. The electronic cigarette: a knight in shining armour or a Trojan horse?†

    OpenAIRE

    Schluger, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have caused a sharp debate in the public health community, with some promoting them as a means of harm reduction for tobacco users and some taking a strong stand against them because of fear of renormalising smoking behaviour and interrupting tobacco control progress. People with mental health problems smoke at high rates and e-cigarettes seem a potentially attractive method of cessation in this population, and their use should be studied carefully.

  19. The electronic cigarette: a knight in shining armour or a Trojan horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluger, Neil W

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have caused a sharp debate in the public health community, with some promoting them as a means of harm reduction for tobacco users and some taking a strong stand against them because of fear of renormalising smoking behaviour and interrupting tobacco control progress. People with mental health problems smoke at high rates and e-cigarettes seem a potentially attractive method of cessation in this population, and their use should be studied carefully.

  20. Expectancies for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and nicotine replacement therapies among e-cigarette users (aka vapers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Marquinez, Nicole S; Correa, John B; Meltzer, Lauren R; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  1. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  2. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  3. Contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Regmi, Sakshi; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-09-04

    Not much is currently understood regarding the contexts of cigarette and e-cigarette use among dual users. Proper application of e-cigarettes to smoking cessation or tobacco harm reduction would require an understanding of when and why dual users use cigarettes versus e-cigarettes. This study sought to elucidate the contexts of cigarette versus e-cigarette use among dual users. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 young adult current daily e-cigarette users [63% men; mean age = 25.1 (Standard Deviation = 5.5)]. Almost all participants either concurrently smoked cigarettes or had been recent dual users. Data were analyzed following principles of inductive deduction. Results indicated that dual users' use of cigarettes is influenced by particular activities (e.g., before/after eating), strong craving or need for stimulation (e.g., in response to stress), places/situations (e.g., when cigarette smokers are nearby; outdoors), use of other substances (alcohol, coffee), and unavailability of an e-cigarette when needed. In addition to particular activities and places/situations that are conducive to e-cigarette use, use of e-cigarette when cigarette is not available or where cigarette smoking is not permitted emerged as contexts specific to e-cigarette use. For habitual cigarette smokers wanting to quit tobacco smoking, switching over completely to e-cigarettes may require skills of cognitive-behavioral management. Future research needs to ascertain the characteristics of dual users who use e-cigarettes as cessation aids versus as cigarette alternative when cigarette is unavailable or smoking is not permitted.

  4. The mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay for the assessment and comparison of the mutagenic activity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramke, H; Meisgen, T J; Tewes, F J; Gomm, W; Roemer, E

    2006-10-29

    The mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase assay (MLA) has been optimized to quantitatively determine the in vitro mutagenicity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase. To test whether the MLA is able to discriminate between different cigarette types, specially constructed cigarettes each containing a single tobacco type - Bright, Burley, or Oriental - were investigated. The mutagenic activity of the Burley cigarette was statistically significantly lower, up to approximately 40%, than that of the Bright and Oriental cigarettes. To determine the impact of two different sets of smoking conditions, American-blend cigarettes were smoked under US Federal Trade Commission/International Organisation for Standardisation conditions and under Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) conditions. Conventional cigarettes - eight from the US commercial market plus the Reference Cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F - and an electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) prototype were tested. There were no statistically significant differences between the two sets of smoking conditions on a per mg total particulate matter basis, although there was a consistent trend towards slightly lower mutagenic activity under MDPH conditions. The mutagenic activity of the EHCSS prototype was distinctly lower than that of the conventional cigarettes under both sets of smoking conditions. These results show that the MLA can be used to assess and compare the mutagenic activity of cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase in the comprehensive toxicological assessment of cigarette smoke.

  5. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Vector with a Single Promoter for In Vitro Transcription and Mammalian Cell Expression of CRISPR gRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Romanienko

    Full Text Available The genomes of more than 50 organisms have now been manipulated due to rapid advancement of gene editing technology. One way to perform gene editing in the mouse using the CRISPR/CAS system, guide RNA (gRNA and CAS9 mRNA transcribed in vitro are microinjected into fertilized eggs that are then allowed to develop to term. As a rule, gRNAs are tested first in tissue culture cells and the one with the highest locus-specific cleavage activity is chosen for microinjection. For cell transfections, gRNAs are typically expressed using the human U6 promoter (hU6. However, gRNAs for microinjection into zygotes are obtained by in vitro transcription from a T7 bacteriophage promoter in a separate plasmid vector. Here, we describe the design and construction of a combined U6T7 hybrid promoter from which the same gRNA sequence can be expressed. An expression vector containing such a hybrid promoter can now be used to generate gRNA for testing in mammalian cells as well as for microinjection purposes. The gRNAs expressed and transcribed from this vector are found to be functional in cells as well as in mice.

  7. Hereditary Persistence of Fetal Hemoglobin Caused by Single Nucleotide Promoter Mutations in Sickle Cell Trait and Hb SC Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Anthony O; Campbell, Andrew D; Han, Zeqiu J; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Chui, David H K; Steinberg, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) can be caused by point mutations in the γ-globin gene promoters. We report three rare cases: a child compound heterozygous for Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) and HPFH with a novel point mutation in the (A)γ-globin gene promoter who had 42.0% Hb S, 17.0% Hb A and 38.0% Hb F; a man with Hb SC (HBB: c.19G > A) disease and a point mutation in the (G)γ-globin gene promoter who had 54.0% Hb S, 18.0% Hb C and 25.0% Hb F; a child heterozygous for Hb S and HPFH due to mutations in both the (A)γ- and (G)γ-globin gene promoters in cis [(G)γ(A)γ(β(+)) HPFH], with 67.0% Hb A, 6.5% Hb S and 25.0% Hb F.

  8. 78 FR 44484 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... on the access to, and the advertising and promotion of, the tobacco product, if the Secretary of HHS... could be substituted by manufacturers to maintain the effect or appeal of menthol to menthol cigarette... cessation? 2. Should FDA consider establishing restrictions on the advertising and promotion of menthol...

  9. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  10. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers’ views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Setting Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Participants Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013–2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. Primary and secondary outcome measures The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers’ perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. Results The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. Conclusions E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. PMID:26362665

  11. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Jiang, Di; Minor, Maisha; Chu, Hong Wei

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV) infection. We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6) production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1) in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  12. E-cigarette marketing in UK stores: an observational audit and retailers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, D; Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; MacDonald, L; Purves, R; Pearce, J; Tisch, C; van der Sluijis, W; Amos, A; MacGregor, A; Haw, S

    2015-09-11

    To explore how e-cigarettes are being promoted at point of sale in the UK and how retailers perceive market trends. Fixed retail outlets subject to a ban on the display of tobacco products. Observational audit of all stores selling tobacco products (n=96) in 4 Scottish communities, conducted over 2 waves 12 months apart (2013-2014), and qualitative interviews with small retailers (n=25) in 4 matched communities. The audit measured e-cigarette display characteristics, advertising materials and proximity to other products, and differences by area-level disadvantage. Interviews explored retailers' perceptions of e-cigarette market opportunities and risks, and customer responses. The number of e-cigarette point-of-sale display units and number of brands displayed increased between waves. E-cigarettes were displayed close to products of interest to children in 36% of stores. Stores in more affluent areas were less likely to have external e-cigarette advertising than those in deprived areas. Although e-cigarettes delivered high profit margins, retailers were confused by the diversity of brands and products, and uncertain of the sector's viability. Some customers were perceived to purchase e-cigarettes as cessation aids, and others, particularly low-income smokers, as a cheaper adjunct to conventional tobacco. E-cigarette point-of-sale displays and number of brands displayed increased over 12 months, a potential cause for concern given their lack of regulation. Further scrutiny is needed of the content and effects of such advertising, and the potentially normalising effects of placing e-cigarettes next to products of interest to children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. The recent and projected public health and economic benefits of cigarette taxation in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Vardavas, Constantine I; Chaloupka, Frank J; Vozikis, Athanassios; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis; Bertic, Monique; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-09-01

    Greece is in an economic crisis compounded by the costs caused by smoking. The present investigation estimates the economic and public health benefits ensuing from the recent cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 and projects the potential benefits from an additional €2.00 per pack cigarette tax increase. The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed. The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths. Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Electronic cigarette liquid increases inflammation and virus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Wu

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes is rapidly increasing in the United States, especially among young people since e-cigarettes have been perceived as a safer alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. However, the scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes on the lung is extremely limited. The major goal of our current study is to determine if e-cigarette use alters human young subject airway epithelial functions such as inflammatory response and innate immune defense against respiratory viral (i.e., human rhinovirus, HRV infection.We examined the effects of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid on pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g., IL-6 production, HRV infection and host defense molecules (e.g., short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1, SPLUNC1 in primary human airway epithelial cells from young healthy non-smokers. Additionally, we examined the role of SPLUNC1 in lung defense against HRV infection using a SPLUNC1 knockout mouse model. We found that nicotine-free e-liquid promoted IL-6 production and HRV infection. Addition of nicotine into e-liquid further amplified the effects of nicotine-free e-liquid. Moreover, SPLUNC1 deficiency in mice significantly increased lung HRV loads. E-liquid inhibited SPLUNC1 expression in primary human airway epithelial cells. These findings strongly suggest the deleterious health effects of e-cigarettes in the airways of young people. Our data will guide future studies to evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on lung health in human populations, and help inform the public about potential health risks of e-cigarettes.

  15. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  16. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco Tobacco Marketing and Products Youth Tobacco Use Get Email Updates ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  17. Activation of the "Splenocardiac Axis" by electronic and tobacco cigarettes in otherwise healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Zachary; Gupta, Pawan; Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Yin, Fen; Peters, Kacey M; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Czernin, Johannes; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-01

    The "Splenocardiac Axis" describes an inflammatory signaling network underlying acute cardiac ischemia, characterized by sympathetic nerve stimulation of hematopoietic tissues, such as the bone marrow and spleen, which then release proinflammatory monocytes that populate atherosclerotic plaques, thereby promoting ischemic heart disease. Electronic (e) cigarettes, like tobacco cigarettes trigger sympathetic nerve activation, but virtually nothing is known about their influence on hematopoietic and vascular tissues and cardiovascular risks. The objective of this study was to determine if the Splenocardiac Axis is activated in young adults who habitually use either tobacco or e-cigarettes. In otherwise healthy humans who habitually use tobacco cigarettes or e-cigarettes (not both), we used 18 F-flurorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to test the hypothesis that tobacco or e-cigarettes increased metabolic activity of the hematopoietic and vascular tissues. FDG uptake in the spleen increased from nonuser controls (1.62 ± 0.07), to the e-cigarette users (1.73 ± 0.04), and was highest in tobacco cigarette smokers (1.82 ± 0.09; monotone P  = 0.05). Similarly, FDG uptake in the aorta increased from the nonuser controls (1.87 ± 0.07) to the e-cigarette users (1.98 ± 0.07), and was highest in tobacco cigarette smokers (2.10 ± 0.07; monotone P  = 0.04). FDG uptake in the skeletal muscle, which served as a control tissue, was not different between the groups. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with activation of the Splenocardiac Axis by emissions from tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes. This activation suggests a mechanism by which tobacco cigarettes, and potentially e-cigarettes, may lead to increased risk of future cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  19. Changes in use of cigarettes and non-cigarette alternative products among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Batanova, Milena; Fernandez, Alejandra; Agarwal, Deepti

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined change in use of various smoked and smokeless non-cigarette alternative products in a sample of college students, stratified by current, or past 30-day, cigarette smoking status. Participants were 698 students from seven four-year colleges in Texas. Participants completed two waves of online surveys regarding tobacco use, knowledge, and attitudes, with 14 months between each wave. The most prevalent products used by the entire sample at Wave 1 were cigarettes, followed by hookah, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). At Wave 2, prevalence of e-cigarette use surpassed use of cigars/cigarillos/little cigars. Snus and chew/snuff/dip were relatively uncommon at both waves. Examination of change in use indicated that e-cigarette use increased across time among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Prevalence of current e-cigarette use doubled across the 14-month period to 25% among current smokers and tripled to 3% among non-cigarette smokers. Hookah use also increased across time, but only among non-cigarette smokers, whereas it decreased among current cigarette smokers. Use of all other non-cigarette alternatives remained unchanged across time. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the socio-demographic predictors of Wave 2 e-cigarette use, the only product that increased in use among both current cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers. Results indicated that Wave 1 current cigarette use and Wave 1 current e-cigarette use, but not gender, age, or race/ethnicity, were significantly associated with Wave 2 e-cigarette use. Findings underscore the need to track changes in the use of non-cigarette alternatives and call for additional research examining the factors contributing to change in use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: (a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; (b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); (c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, the nicotine dependence syndrome scale, the cigarette dependence scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (≤3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Test of "Light" cigarette counter-advertising using a standard test of advertising effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, S; Burton, S L; Pillitteri, J L; Gitchell, J G; Di Marino, M E; Sweeney, C T; Wardle, P A; Koehler, G L

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate systematically the effectiveness of six advertising strategies (two message strategies presented in three different contexts) designed to promote smoking cessation by addressing smokers' misperceptions about Light cigarettes. Smokers viewed one of six, 30 second test television concept advertisements, which varied by message (one emphasising how the sensory effects of Lights can be deceptive, the other describing the effects of vent blocking) and by ad context (non-commercial public service announcement (PSA), promotion of unbranded nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or promotion of branded NRT). The effectiveness of each advertisement was determined using a validated advertising testing system in which ads were viewed in the context of reviewing a pilot television programme. Response to ads is assessed through shifts in subject choices of products offered as prizes before and after viewing the test advertisements. Included among the possible prizes were cigarettes and various pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. Daily smokers (n = 1890) of Regular (34%), Light (47%), and Ultra Light (19%) cigarettes recruited from eight US cities. The primary outcome of interest was the shift away from cigarettes as the selected prize following exposure to the test advertisements. Secondary outcomes of interest included movement away from Light cigarettes and movement towards assisted quitting products. Smokers who saw the advertisement emphasising the sensory characteristics of Light cigarettes were more likely than subjects who saw the advertisement emphasising the effect of vent blocking to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.97, 95% confidence interval CI 1.25 to 3.09; chi(2)(1) = 8.69, p = 0.003). Similarly, subjects who saw the advertisement framed as a PSA, rather than as a promotion for either a branded or unbranded NRT product, were also somewhat more likely to move away from cigarettes (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.40; chi(2)(1) = 2.97, p = 0.085). The

  2. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  3. Electronic cigarette explosions involving the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca; Hicklin, David

    2016-11-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is a rapidly growing trend throughout the United States. E-cigarettes have been linked to the risk of causing explosion and fire. Data are limited on the associated health hazards of e-cigarette use, particularly long-term effects, and available information often presents conflicting conclusions. In addition, an e-cigarette explosion and fire can pose a unique treatment challenge to the dental care provider because the oral cavity may be affected heavily. In this particular case, the patient's injuries included intraoral burns, luxation injuries, and alveolar fractures. This case report aims to help clinicians gain an increased knowledge about e-cigarette design, use, and risks; discuss the risk of spontaneous failure and explosion of e-cigarettes with patients; and understand the treatment challenges posed by an e-cigarette explosion. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Classification of Twitter Users Who Tweet About E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Thomas; Chew, Robert; Eggers, Matthew; Nonnemaker, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite concerns about their health risks, e‑cigarettes have gained popularity in recent years. Concurrent with the recent increase in e‑cigarette use, social media sites such as Twitter have become a common platform for sharing information about e-cigarettes and to promote marketing of e‑cigarettes. Monitoring the trends in e‑cigarette–related social media activity requires timely assessment of the content of posts and the types of users generating the content. However, little is known about the diversity of the types of users responsible for generating e‑cigarette–related content on Twitter. Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel methodology for automatically classifying Twitter users who tweet about e‑cigarette–related topics into distinct categories. Methods We collected approximately 11.5 million e‑cigarette–related tweets posted between November 2014 and October 2016 and obtained a random sample of Twitter users who tweeted about e‑cigarettes. Trained human coders examined the handles’ profiles and manually categorized each as one of the following user types: individual (n=2168), vaper enthusiast (n=334), informed agency (n=622), marketer (n=752), and spammer (n=1021). Next, the Twitter metadata as well as a sample of tweets for each labeled user were gathered, and features that reflect users’ metadata and tweeting behavior were analyzed. Finally, multiple machine learning algorithms were tested to identify a model with the best performance in classifying user types. Results Using a classification model that included metadata and features associated with tweeting behavior, we were able to predict with relatively high accuracy five different types of Twitter users that tweet about e‑cigarettes (average F1 score=83.3%). Accuracy varied by user type, with F1 scores of individuals, informed agencies, marketers, spammers, and vaper enthusiasts being 91.1%, 84.4%, 81.2%, 79.5%, and 47.1%, respectively

  5. Classification of Twitter Users Who Tweet About E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Miano, Thomas; Chew, Robert; Eggers, Matthew; Nonnemaker, James

    2017-09-26

    Despite concerns about their health risks, e‑cigarettes have gained popularity in recent years. Concurrent with the recent increase in e‑cigarette use, social media sites such as Twitter have become a common platform for sharing information about e-cigarettes and to promote marketing of e‑cigarettes. Monitoring the trends in e‑cigarette-related social media activity requires timely assessment of the content of posts and the types of users generating the content. However, little is known about the diversity of the types of users responsible for generating e‑cigarette-related content on Twitter. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a novel methodology for automatically classifying Twitter users who tweet about e‑cigarette-related topics into distinct categories. We collected approximately 11.5 million e‑cigarette-related tweets posted between November 2014 and October 2016 and obtained a random sample of Twitter users who tweeted about e‑cigarettes. Trained human coders examined the handles' profiles and manually categorized each as one of the following user types: individual (n=2168), vaper enthusiast (n=334), informed agency (n=622), marketer (n=752), and spammer (n=1021). Next, the Twitter metadata as well as a sample of tweets for each labeled user were gathered, and features that reflect users' metadata and tweeting behavior were analyzed. Finally, multiple machine learning algorithms were tested to identify a model with the best performance in classifying user types. Using a classification model that included metadata and features associated with tweeting behavior, we were able to predict with relatively high accuracy five different types of Twitter users that tweet about e‑cigarettes (average F 1 score=83.3%). Accuracy varied by user type, with F 1 scores of individuals, informed agencies, marketers, spammers, and vaper enthusiasts being 91.1%, 84.4%, 81.2%, 79.5%, and 47.1%, respectively. Vaper enthusiasts were the most challenging user

  6. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  7. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  8. Emergence of electronic cigarette use in US adolescents and the link to traditional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Russell, Michael A; Braymiller, Jessica L

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used by US adolescents and may be a gateway to traditional cigarette use. We examine rates of both products by age and examine differences in age-varying rates by sex and race/ethnicity. Data are from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a national sample of US middle and high school students (n=22.007); students ages 11-19 were included. Past 30-day e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use were examined as a function of age; sex and race/ethnicity were included as moderators. The age-varying association between e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use was also examined. Rates of e-cigarette use increase faster than traditional cigarette use from ages 13-16. Compared to females, males had higher rates of e-cigarette use from ages 14-17.5 and traditional cigarette use from ages 15-18. Between ages 12-14, more Hispanic adolescents used e-cigarettes compared to White or Black adolescents; after age 14 Hispanics and Whites reported similar rates, peaking at twice the rate for Blacks. Hispanic adolescents report greater traditional cigarette use versus Whites between ages 12-13, but lower rates between ages 15-18. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with traditional cigarette use, particularly during early adolescence [OR>40 before age 12]. Young Hispanic adolescents are at elevated risk for use of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes during early adolescence. During early adolescence, youth using e-cigarettes are more likely to smoke traditional cigarettes compared to youth not using e-cigarettes. The study of age-varying effects holds promise for advancing understanding of disparities in health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  10. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  11. Victimless vapour? Health care organizations should restrict the use of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Sally T; Smith, Maxwell J

    2016-03-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-powered devices that heat a liquid containing either vegetable glycerin or propylene glycol in combination with nicotine and/or flavours; an aerosol is produced that is inhaled by the user. Health Canada currently prohibits the importation, marketing or selling of e-cigarettes containing nicotine, although they can be easily purchased. Because of the availability of e-cigarettes, patients and visitors to health care organizations (HCOs) are inquiring about their use within and on the grounds of those facilities. We contend that in provinces or municipalities where e-cigarette use has not been restricted, HCOs should develop institutional policies to do so. We argue that the following reasons collectively justify measures to restrict the use of e-cigarettes within HCOs: unknown long-term safety, uncertain effectiveness in harm reduction, the conflict with the mission of HCOs to promote health, the potential negative health impacts on vulnerable patients with a compromised health status, and the risk of re-normalization of smoking. However, because of the rapidly developing evidence base in this area, HCOs should remain responsive to emerging evidence regarding the status of e-cigarettes as an effective harm reduction tool.

  12. Tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Zachary C; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2012-03-01

    China produces and consumes more tobacco than any other country in the world and as such is at the forefront of the world tobacco epidemic. Many studies have recently emerged that directly or indirectly reference the acts of giving and sharing cigarettes as a major contributor to China's high tobacco usage. The goal of this report is to review relevant literature relating to sharing and gifting cigarettes as well as provide useful historic and cultural contexts. Important differences between the act of giving individual cigarettes and the gifting of packaged cigarettes are explored as well as explanations for how both these practices have influenced current tobacco control efforts. Available Chinese and English sources on gifting and sharing cigarettes in China published between 1991 and 2011 were reviewed and discussed with a cultural and historical background. The practices of gifting and sharing cigarettes strongly contribute to smoking initiation as well as failure to quit smoking among Chinese males. Historical and cultural roots have reinforced these practices and hampered efforts to reduce tobacco use in China. Traditional tobacco control efforts should be combined with culture-specific approaches to reduce tobacco usage in China. The regular exchange of cigarettes normalizes smoking across society and promotes tobacco's acceptability. Great efforts should be taken not only to minimize these practices among males but also to discourage their adoption by females.

  13. Social Disparities in Exposure to Point-of-Sale Cigarette Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Farazi, Paraskevi A; Kim, Jungyoon; Michaud, Tzeyu L; Yoder, Aaron M; Soliman, Ghada; Tibbits, Melissa K; Nguyen, Minh N; Shaikh, Raees A

    2016-12-21

    While most ecological studies have shown that higher levels of point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing are associated with larger proportions of residents from lower socioeconomic and minority backgrounds in neighborhoods, there are no studies that examine individual-level social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing among smokers in the United States. Our aim was to examine these disparities in a Midwestern metropolitan area in the United States. We conducted a telephone survey to collect data on 999 smokers. Cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing advertisements, promotions, and displays of cigarettes within their respective neighborhoods. The questions were combined to create a summated scale. We estimated ordered logistic regression models to examine the association of sociodemographic variables with exposure to POS cigarette marketing. Adjusted results showed that having a lower income ( p marketing. The results highlight social disparities in exposure to POS cigarette marketing in the United States, which can potentially be eliminated by banning all forms of cigarette marketing.

  14. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Kornfield, Rachel; Emery, Sherry L

    2016-03-18

    The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos' overall presence on the platform. To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform's impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. YouTube is a major information-sharing platform for electronic cigarettes

  15. 100 Million Views of Electronic Cigarette YouTube Videos and Counting: Quantification, Content Evaluation, and Engagement Levels of Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The video-sharing website, YouTube, has become an important avenue for product marketing, including tobacco products. It may also serve as an important medium for promoting electronic cigarettes, which have rapidly increased in popularity and are heavily marketed online. While a few studies have examined a limited subset of tobacco-related videos on YouTube, none has explored e-cigarette videos’ overall presence on the platform. Objective To quantify e-cigarette-related videos on YouTube, assess their content, and characterize levels of engagement with those videos. Understanding promotion and discussion of e-cigarettes on YouTube may help clarify the platform’s impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors and inform regulations. Methods Using an automated crawling procedure and keyword rules, e-cigarette-related videos posted on YouTube and their associated metadata were collected between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. Metadata were analyzed to describe posting and viewing time trends, number of views, comments, and ratings. Metadata were content coded for mentions of health, safety, smoking cessation, promotional offers, Web addresses, product types, top-selling brands, or names of celebrity endorsers. Results As of June 30, 2013, approximately 28,000 videos related to e-cigarettes were captured. Videos were posted by approximately 10,000 unique YouTube accounts, viewed more than 100 million times, rated over 380,000 times, and commented on more than 280,000 times. More than 2200 new videos were being uploaded every month by June 2013. The top 1% of most-viewed videos accounted for 44% of total views. Text fields for the majority of videos mentioned websites (70.11%); many referenced health (13.63%), safety (10.12%), smoking cessation (9.22%), or top e-cigarette brands (33.39%). The number of e-cigarette-related YouTube videos was projected to exceed 65,000 by the end of 2014, with approximately 190 million views. Conclusions YouTube is a major

  16. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  17. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. 210 Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with 208 Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO 3 , HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The 210 Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of 210 Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of 210 Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 μSv from 210 Po and 210

  18. Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Are Present in Electronic Cigarette Cartomizer Fluid and Aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Monique; Villarreal, Amanda; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Lin, Sabrina; Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. Methods Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed...

  19. The lightest market in the world: light and mild cigarettes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, Mary; Chapman, Simon

    2008-05-01

    This article reviews the history of the introduction and use of light and mild labeled cigarettes in Japan, the "lightest" market in the world. Systematic keyword and opportunistic Web site searches were conducted on tobacco industry internal documents relevant to Japan, supplemented with relevant material from the tobacco trade and sociological literatures. Certain "market quirks" of the Japanese society benefited the tobacco industry in promoting its light and mild cigarettes. Japan's is a trend-conscious society with a penchant for new fashion and products. The Japanese are innovative, with the propensity to transform concepts into something characteristically their own marked by a distinct cultural style, such as the concept of keihaku tansho ("light-thin-short-small"). With big-budget sophisticated advertising, tobacco companies developed a lucrative market for mild, light, and ultra-low-tar cigarettes. Smokers had a preference for charcoal filters, which they believed protected them. Tar numbers meant little to smokers. The transnational tobacco companies capitalized on consumer concerns about the health hazards of smoking to promote low-tar cigarettes as a safer alternative. This may be one factor that explains why smoking prevalence in Japan remains high. Light and mild cigarettes are popular in Japan because Japanese smokers believe low tar/nicotine cigarette with charcoal filters protect them and help mollify their health concerns about smoking.

  20. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  1. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Toward automated e-cigarette surveillance: Spotting e-cigarette proponents on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Sabbir, A K M

    2016-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are a popular emerging tobacco product. Because e-cigs do not generate toxic tobacco combustion products that result from smoking regular cigarettes, they are sometimes perceived and promoted as a less harmful alternative to smoking and also as means to quit smoking. However, the safety of e-cigs and their efficacy in supporting smoking cessation is yet to be determined. Importantly, the federal drug administration (FDA) currently does not regulate e-cigs and as such their manufacturing, marketing, and sale is not subject to the rules that apply to traditional cigarettes. A number of manufacturers, advocates, and e-cig users are actively promoting e-cigs on Twitter. We develop a high accuracy supervised predictive model to automatically identify e-cig "proponents" on Twitter and analyze the quantitative variation of their tweeting behavior along popular themes when compared with other Twitter users (or tweeters). Using a dataset of 1000 independently annotated Twitter profiles by two different annotators, we employed a variety of textual features from latest tweet content and tweeter profile biography to build predictive models to automatically identify proponent tweeters. We used a set of manually curated key phrases to analyze e-cig proponent tweets from a corpus of over one million e-cig tweets along well known e-cig themes and compared the results with those generated by regular tweeters. Our model identifies e-cig proponents with 97% precision, 86% recall, 91% F-score, and 96% overall accuracy, with tight 95% confidence intervals. We find that as opposed to regular tweeters that form over 90% of the dataset, e-cig proponents are a much smaller subset but tweet two to five times more than regular tweeters. Proponents also disproportionately (one to two orders of magnitude more) highlight e-cig flavors, their smoke-free and potential harm reduction aspects, and their claimed use in smoking cessation. Given FDA is

  3. Per-pack price reductions available from different cigarette purchasing strategies: United States, 2009–2010☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F.; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Following cigarette excise tax increases, smokers may use cigarette price minimization strategies to continue their usual cigarette consumption rather than reducing consumption or quitting. This reduces the public health benefits of the tax increase. This paper estimates the price reductions for a wide-range of strategies, compensating for overlapping strategies. Method We performed regression analysis on the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N = 13,394) to explore price reductions that smokers in the United States obtained from purchasing cigarettes. We examined five cigarette price minimization strategies: 1) purchasing discount brand cigarettes, 2) using price promotions, 3) purchasing cartons, 4) purchasing on Indian reservations, and 5) purchasing online. Price reductions from these strategies were estimated jointly to compensate for overlapping strategies. Results Each strategy provided price reductions between 26 and 99 cents per pack. Combined price reductions were possible. Additionally, price promotions were used with regular brands to obtain larger price reductions than when price promotions were used with generic brands. Conclusion Smokers can realize large price reductions from price minimization strategies, and there are many strategies available. Policymakers and public health officials should be aware of the extent that these strategies can reduce cigarette prices. PMID:24594102

  4. Sports Promotion and Teen Smoking and Drinking: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul N.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of adolescents examined the link between sports promotion and advertising of alcohol and tobacco and teen smoking and drinking behaviors. Data analysis found an association between exposure to sporting events and cigarette use and beer consumption. Watching stock car racing was related to cigarette use; football and basketball to beer use.…

  5. Promoting Barrier Performance and Cathodic Protection of Zinc-Rich Epoxy Primer via Single-Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingrong Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of single-layer graphene sheets (Gr on the corrosion protection of zinc-rich epoxy primers (ZRPs was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS were used to characterize morphology and composition of the coatings after immersion for 25 days. The cross-sectional SEM images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirmed that the addition of single-layer graphene facilitated assembling of zinc oxides on the interface between the coating and the steel. The open circuit potential (OCP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements revealed that both the cathodic protection and barrier performance of the ZRP were enhanced after addition of 0.6 wt. % Gr (Gr0.6-ZRP. In addition, the cathodic protection property of the Gr0.6-ZRP was characterized quantitatively by localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS in the presence of an artificial scratch on the coating. The results demonstrate that moderate amounts of single-layer graphene can significantly improve corrosion resistance of ZRP, due to the barrier protection and cathodic protection effects.

  6. A difference that makes a difference: young adult smokers' accounts of cigarette brands and package design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, J

    2008-04-01

    To explore young adult smokers' construction of meaning and identity in accounts of cigarette brands and cigarette package design, and the processes by which positive associations with a brand may be reinforced and sustained. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 21 smokers aged 18-23 in Norway, where advertising for tobacco has been banned since 1975. Cigarette brand and cigarette package design appear as an integrated part of young smokers' constructions of smoker identities, enabling the communication of personal characteristics, social identity and positions in hierarchies of status. Through branding and package design tobacco companies appear to be able to promote their products in a country where advertising is banned, by means of similar principles that make advertising effective: by creating preferences, differentiation and identification.

  7. Cigarette and e-liquid demand and substitution in e-cigarette-naïve smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Bickel, Warren K

    2018-06-01

    Behavioral economic methods allow experimental manipulation of price and examination of its effects on tobacco product purchasing. These methods may be used to examine tobacco product abuse liability and to prospectively model possible effects of price regulation. In the present study, we examined multiple measures of behavioral economic demand for cigarettes and e-liquid for use in a second-generation electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in e-cigarette-naïve cigarette smokers. Twenty-five smokers received an e-cigarette (eGo ONE CT), sampled study e-liquid (24 mg/mL nicotine), and completed recurring sessions in which they used an experimental income to purchase real-world supplies of cigarettes and/or e-liquid. Participants also completed self-report measures of drug effects/liking. When products were available alone, we observed lower demand for e-liquid than for cigarettes. This effect was magnified when cigarettes and e-liquid were available concurrently. In additional assessments, e-liquid served as a partial substitute for cigarettes, but cigarettes did not serve as a substitute for e-liquid. Finally, participants rated e-liquid more poorly than cigarettes on several dimensions of drug effects/liking (any effects, liking, desire, and probability of continued use). We conclude that e-cigarette-naïve smokers value cigarettes more highly than e-liquid across multiple contexts and measurements. Nonetheless, participants still valued e-liquid positively and purchased it frequently, both as a substitute for cigarettes and independently of cigarettes. To understand the variables that influence transitions from exclusive smoking to either dual cigarette/e-cigarette use or exclusive e-cigarette use, future work should systematically examine the role of duration of e-liquid exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The impact of cigarette taxes and advertising on the demand for cigarettes in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Limin; Ross, Hana

    2009-06-01

    Cigarette consumption in Ukraine is increasing while the cigarettes are becoming more affordable due to low taxes and raising income. The impact of cigarette prices and taxes on cigarette consumption is unclear due to the limited research evidence using the local data. This study estimates the sensitivity of Ukraine population to cigarette prices and the affordability of cigarettes using the macro level data in order to predict the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy. Monthly time-series data available from 1997 to 2006 in Ukraine were used to estimate the generalized least square model with an AR(1) process to investigate the impact of cigarette price/tax, household income, the affordability of cigarettes and the volume of tobacco advertising on Ukraine domestic cigarette sales while controlling for other factors. Our analyses demonstrate a strong positive association between cigarette sales and household income as well as a strong positive association between cigarette sales and tobacco advertising activity. The population is found to have relatively low sensitivity to cigarette prices and cigarette taxes, but the impact of cigarettes' affordability is statistically significant, even though also of low magnitude. We speculate that the lower sensitivity to cigarette prices among Ukraine population is caused by wide price variation allowing smokers to avoid a price increase by brand substitution as well as by low costs of cigarettes, high social acceptance of smoking and limited effort to control tobacco use in Ukraine. Narrowing the cigarette price choices and increasing cigarette prices above the level of inflation and income growth by adopting the appropriate tax policy would likely increase the effectiveness of this tool for controlling the smoking rate in Ukraine as well as yield additional budget revenue gains. In addition, imposing advertising restriction may further help reducing the smoking prevalence.

  9. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter of matrix metalloproteinase-2, 8 genes with bladder cancer risk in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Kapoor, Rakesh; Mittal, Rama D

    2013-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are expressed in melanocytes and their overexpression has been linked to tumor development, progression, and metastasis. At the genetic level, following functional promoter polymorphisms are known to modify the gene transcription: -1306 C > T, -735 C > T in MMP2, and 799 C > T in MMP8 gene. Hence we hypothesize that functional polymorphisms in the 2 MMP SNPs in promoter region may modulate the risk for bladder cancer (BC) progression in North Indian population. Genotyping for these polymorphisms were done in a group of 200 BC and 200 age matched, similar ethnicity unrelated healthy controls using PCR-based methods. Two-sided χ(2), Cox-regression was utilized to evaluate the associations between genotype and various clinical and epidemiologic factors. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression, adjusting for known BC confounders such as age and gender. Survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival were assessed using the log rank test. Individuals with MMP2 (-1306) TT genotype as well as T allele were at higher risk of BC (P, 0.042; OR, 2.85; P, 0.001; OR, 1.76). This effect was even more apparent in case of CT+TT (P T were associated with high risk of recurrence in BCG treated patients (HR, 4.32; P, 0.006 and HR, 2.06; P, 0.047) thus showing reduced recurrence free survival (CT+TT/CC = 34/45 months; log rank P, 0.039). Our data suggested that variant allele of MMP2 1306C > T was associated with high risk of tumor recurrence and reduced recurrence free survival in superficial BC patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Flavors on the Propagation of E-Cigarette-Related Information: Social Media Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qingpeng; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Tsui, Kwok Leung

    2018-03-23

    Modeling the influence of e-cigarette flavors on information propagation could provide quantitative policy decision support concerning smoking initiation and contagion, as well as e-cigarette regulations. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of flavors on e-cigarette-related information propagation on social media. We collected a comprehensive dataset of e-cigarette-related discussions from public Pages on Facebook. We identified 11 categories of flavors based on commonly used categorizations. Each post's frequency of being shared served as a proxy measure of information propagation. We evaluated a set of regression models and chose the hurdle negative binomial model to characterize the influence of different flavors and nonflavor control variables on e-cigarette-related information propagation. We found that 5 flavors (sweet, dessert & bakery, fruits, herbs & spices, and tobacco) had significantly negative influences on e-cigarette-related information propagation, indicating the users' tendency not to share posts related to these flavors. We did not find a positive significance of any flavors, which is contradictory to previous research. In addition, we found that a set of nonflavor-related factors were associated with information propagation. Mentions of flavors in posts did not enhance the popularity of e-cigarette-related information. Certain flavors could even have reduced the popularity of information, indicating users' lack of interest in flavors. Promoting e-cigarette-related information with mention of flavors is not an effective marketing approach. This study implies the potential concern of users about flavorings and suggests a need to regulate the use of flavorings in e-cigarettes. ©Jiaqi Zhou, Qingpeng Zhang, Daniel Dajun Zeng, Kwok Leung Tsui. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 23.03.2018.

  12. Deadly Attraction - Attentional Bias toward Preferred Cigarette Brand in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaradzka, Ewa; Bielecki, Maksymilian

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that biases in visual attention might be evoked by affective and personally relevant stimuli, for example addiction-related objects. Despite the fact that addiction is often linked to specific products and systematic purchase behaviors, no studies focused directly on the existence of bias evoked by brands. Smokers are characterized by high levels of brand loyalty and everyday contact with cigarette packaging. Using the incentive-salience mechanism as a theoretical framework, we hypothesized that this group might exhibit a bias toward the preferred cigarette brand. In our study, a group of smokers ( N = 40) performed a dot probe task while their eye movements were recorded. In every trial a pair of pictures was presented - each of them showed a single cigarette pack. The visual properties of stimuli were carefully controlled, so branding information was the key factor affecting subjects' reactions. For each participant, we compared gaze behavior related to the preferred vs. other brands. The analyses revealed no attentional bias in the early, orienting phase of the stimulus processing and strong differences in maintenance and disengagement. Participants spent more time looking at the preferred cigarettes and saccades starting at the preferred brand location had longer latencies. In sum, our data shows that attentional bias toward brands might be found in situations not involving choice or decision making. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of formation and maintenance of attentional biases to stimuli of personal relevance and might serve as a first step toward developing new attitude measurement techniques.

  13. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  14. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  15. Yeast Srs2 Helicase Promotes Redistribution of Single-Stranded DNA-Bound RPA and Rad52 in Homologous Recombination Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisina De Tullio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Srs2 is a super-family 1 helicase that promotes genome stability by dismantling toxic DNA recombination intermediates. However, the mechanisms by which Srs2 remodels or resolves recombination intermediates remain poorly understood. Here, single-molecule imaging is used to visualize Srs2 in real time as it acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA bound by protein factors that function in recombination. We demonstrate that Srs2 is highly processive and translocates rapidly (∼170 nt per second in the 3′→5′ direction along ssDNA saturated with replication protein A (RPA. We show that RPA is evicted from DNA during the passage of Srs2. Remarkably, Srs2 also readily removes the recombination mediator Rad52 from RPA-ssDNA and, in doing so, promotes rapid redistribution of both Rad52 and RPA. These findings have important mechanistic implications for understanding how Srs2 and related nucleic acid motor proteins resolve potentially pathogenic nucleoprotein intermediates.

  16. Yeast Srs2 Helicase Promotes Redistribution of Single-Stranded DNA-Bound RPA and Rad52 in Homologous Recombination Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tullio, Luisina; Kaniecki, Kyle; Kwon, Youngho; Crickard, J Brooks; Sung, Patrick; Greene, Eric C

    2017-10-17

    Srs2 is a super-family 1 helicase that promotes genome stability by dismantling toxic DNA recombination intermediates. However, the mechanisms by which Srs2 remodels or resolves recombination intermediates remain poorly understood. Here, single-molecule imaging is used to visualize Srs2 in real time as it acts on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bound by protein factors that function in recombination. We demonstrate that Srs2 is highly processive and translocates rapidly (∼170 nt per second) in the 3'→5' direction along ssDNA saturated with replication protein A (RPA). We show that RPA is evicted from DNA during the passage of Srs2. Remarkably, Srs2 also readily removes the recombination mediator Rad52 from RPA-ssDNA and, in doing so, promotes rapid redistribution of both Rad52 and RPA. These findings have important mechanistic implications for understanding how Srs2 and related nucleic acid motor proteins resolve potentially pathogenic nucleoprotein intermediates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  18. Menthol cigarette pricing at military and community retail outlets in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara A; Haddock, Christopher K; Hyder, Melissa L; Taylor, Jennifer E; Lando, Harry A; Kaipust, Christopher M

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette prices at military exchanges historically have been discounted. DoD Instruction 1330.9 has mandated that prices be within 5% of the price offered in the local community since 2001. Because minorities are highly represented in the military, we determined whether menthol cigarette prices, the leading choice of African Americans, were compliant with the instruction. We collected, via telephone, menthol cigarette price data from 48 randomly selected US military installation exchanges and matched local area Walmarts. We collected prices after taxes to determine the cost to consumer. Newport was selected as the index brand for menthol cigarettes because it is the leading and second leading brand smoked by African Americans and by Hispanics, respectively and has the second overall highest market share in the US. Smokers purchasing menthols at exchanges would realize average savings of 22.78%. There were no significant differences in savings based on military service (F = 1.850, p = 0.152) or US Census Division (F = 1.226, p = 0.311: data not shown). In addition, not a single exchange price was compliant with the DoD instruction. Newport menthol cigarettes at military exchanges cost substantially less than the nearest Walmart, with an average savings of 23%. Our findings demonstrate that menthol cigarettes are substantially discounted on military installations, in a manner similar to other cigarette prices, and that DoD Instruction 1330.09 is not enforced.

  19. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  20. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  1. E-Cigarette Marketing Exposure Is Associated With E-Cigarette Use Among US Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Clendennen, Stephanie L; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarettes are currently the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. However, unlike conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes are not subject to marketing restrictions. This study investigates the association between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and susceptibility and use of e-cigarettes in youth. Data were obtained from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Participants were 22,007 US middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between e-cigarette marketing (internet, print, retail, and TV/movies) and current and ever use as well as susceptibility to use e-cigarettes among never e-cigarette users. Exposure to each type of e-cigarette marketing was significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever and current use of e-cigarettes among middle and high school students. Exposure was also associated with susceptibility to use of e-cigarettes among current nonusers. In multivariate models, as the number of channels of e-cigarette marketing exposure increased, the likelihood of use and susceptibility also increased. Findings highlight the significant associations between e-cigarette marketing and e-cigarette use among youth and the need for longitudinal research on these relationships. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  3. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  4. Labelling of electronic cigarettes: regulations and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Federico; Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Barton, Stephen J; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade e-cigarettes have established themselves in the global market. E-cigarettes triggered much interest in relation to their content and efficacy as smoking cessation tools, but less attention has been paid to users and environmental safety warnings and guidance. Several regulations have been introduced to promote their safe handling and disposal. From May 2016, liquids and cartridges will be regulated by European Community Directives (ECDs) 2001/83/EC and 93/42/EEC, or 2014/40/EU if marketed as tobacco-related products. Currently, manufacturers and distributors must abide by the Chemical (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP) or Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations (CLP), the latter replacing CHIP in June 2015. In this work, the compliance of marketed e-liquids and e-cigarettes with current European Union and UK legislations is assessed. E-liquids and e-cigarettes (21 and 9 brands, respectively) were evaluated. Evidence of non-compliance was found in relation to the CHIP/CLP toxic (13%) and environmental (37%) pictograms, tactile warning (23%), nominal amount of solution (30%), supplier contact telephone number and address (40%). None of the evaluated e-cigarettes displayed information on the correct disposal/recycling of batteries in line with the ECD 2006/66/EC. More stringent enforcement of regulations is needed to ensure not only the user's safety and awareness, but also the safeguarding of the environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  6. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lauxen, Isabel; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad) or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad), plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization. PMID:26978651

  7. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos

    Full Text Available Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad, plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization.

  8. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged e-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, and age) and state-level (smoke-free laws, cigarette taxes, medical marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. E-cigarettes and National Adolescent Cigarette Use: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-02-01

    E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing among adolescents in the United States, with some suggesting that e-cigarettes are the cause of declining youth cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that the decline in youth smoking changed after e-cigarettes arrived on the US market in 2007. Data were collected by using cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based samples of sixth- through 12th-graders from 2004-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (samples ranged from 16 614 in 2013 to 25 324 in 2004). Analyses were conducted by using interrupted time series of ever (≥1 puff) and current (last 30 days) cigarette smoking. Logistic regression was used to identify psychosocial risk factors associated with cigarette smoking in the 2004-2009 samples; this model was then applied to estimate the probability of cigarette smoking among cigarette smokers and e-cigarette users in the 2011-2014 samples. Youth cigarette smoking decreased linearly between 2004 and 2014 (P = .009 for ever smoking and P = .05 for current smoking), with no significant change in this trend after 2009 (P = .57 and .23). Based on the psychosocial model of smoking, including demographic characteristics, willingness to wear clothing with a tobacco logo, living with a smoker, likelihood of smoking in the next year, likelihood of smoking cigarettes from a friend, and use of tobacco products other than cigarettes or e-cigarettes, the model categorized e-cigarette-only users (between 11.0% in 2012 and 23.1% in 2013) as current smokers. The introduction of e-cigarettes was not associated with a change in the linear decline in cigarette smoking among youth. E-cigarette-only users would be unlikely to have initiated tobacco product use with cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10 9 , 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10 9 , and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10 9 part. cm −3 for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10 10 , 5.2 × 10 10 and 2.3 × 10 10 particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number concentrations and size distributions

  12. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Sara, E-mail: s.marini@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Buonanno, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy); Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  13. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. Objective This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Methods Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter’s streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. Results While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. Conclusions These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. PMID:27956376

  14. E-Cigarette Social Media Messages: A Text Mining Analysis of Marketing and Consumer Conversations on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Saffer, Adam J; Wilcox, Gary B; Chung, Arnold DongWoo; Mackert, Michael S; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-12

    As the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) rises, social media likely influences public awareness and perception of this emerging tobacco product. This study examined the public conversation on Twitter to determine overarching themes and insights for trending topics from commercial and consumer users. Text mining uncovered key patterns and important topics for e-cigarettes on Twitter. SAS Text Miner 12.1 software (SAS Institute Inc) was used for descriptive text mining to reveal the primary topics from tweets collected from March 24, 2015, to July 3, 2015, using a Python script in conjunction with Twitter's streaming application programming interface. A total of 18 keywords related to e-cigarettes were used and resulted in a total of 872,544 tweets that were sorted into overarching themes through a text topic node for tweets (126,127) and retweets (114,451) that represented more than 1% of the conversation. While some of the final themes were marketing-focused, many topics represented diverse proponent and user conversations that included discussion of policies, personal experiences, and the differentiation of e-cigarettes from traditional tobacco, often by pointing to the lack of evidence for the harm or risks of e-cigarettes or taking the position that e-cigarettes should be promoted as smoking cessation devices. These findings reveal that unique, large-scale public conversations are occurring on Twitter alongside e-cigarette advertising and promotion. Proponents and users are turning to social media to share knowledge, experience, and questions about e-cigarette use. Future research should focus on these unique conversations to understand how they influence attitudes towards and use of e-cigarettes. ©Allison J Lazard, Adam J Saffer, Gary B Wilcox, Arnold DongWoo Chung, Michael S Mackert, Jay M Bernhardt. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 12.12.2016.

  15. Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina Mahavera; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Hoe, Victor Cw

    2016-12-01

    The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022-2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement 'Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes' were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045-2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.

  16. Smokers? and E-Cigarette Users? Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Par...

  17. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  18. Promoting mechanism of N-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes for O2 dissociation and SO2 oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqiu; Yin, Shi; Chen, Yang; Cen, Wanglai; Li, Jianjun; Yin, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Although heteroatom doping in carbon based catalysts have recently received intensive attentions, the role of the intrinsically porous structure of practical carbon materials and their potential synergy with doping atoms are still unclear. To investigate the complex effects, a range of N-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were used to investigate their potential use for O2 dissociation and the subsequent SO2 oxidation using density functional theory. It is found that graphite N doping can synergize with the outer surface of SWCNTs to facilitate the dissociation of O2. The barrier for the dissociation on dual graphite N-doped SWCNT-(8, 8) is as low as 0.3 eV, and the subsequent SO2 oxidation is thermodynamically favorable and kinetically feasible. These results spotlight on developing promising carboncatalyst via utilization of porous gemometry and heteroatom-doping of carbon materials simultaneously.

  19. Use of social media to circumvent sales and advertising ban of electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Güner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There are no legal electronic cigarette products available in Turkey. According to the law whether including tobacco or not products that resemble tobacco products can not be advertised, promoted and sold through internet.However the use of electronic cigarettes are frequently observed. This study was carried out in order to find out the sales outlet and advertising media of the publicly available products. Methods Internet search of the key words "e-cigarettes and electronic cigarettes" in Turkish language was carried out . The survey of the forum and websites identified were further analyzed to detect the presence of advertising, promotion and trading elements. Results There were 94 websites and one social forum with 69,354 members on electronic cigarettes in Turkish language. Of the websites 95 % had advertising and facilitated online sales. Social media forum had a section for beginners which was accessible by non-member, containing information about the device, liquids and usage. Under the heading" starter kit for beginners" 143 brands were promoted. The suppliers were introduced under 74 headings and 44774 messages. 25 suppliers sold e-cigarettes through the forum by 221 various advertising. Online shopping section was consisted of 1990 topics and 179.100 messages. The forum also facilitated exchange of products between members, as well as international sales without customs. All the websites had Turkish domain names and used regular shipping companies for the delivery of the products. The social media forum had an international hosting. Advertising contained false claims about the safety of the products referring to reputable international organizations.Social media forum provided home-made recipes and the names and adresses of chemical supplier companies. Conclusions Social media was extensively used for the sale and advertising of electronic cigarettes that were not licenced in Turkey. Laws need to be enforced not only in

  20. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  1. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  2. Cigarette design and marketing features are associated with increased smoking susceptibility and perception of reduced harm among smokers in 27 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the role of cigarette design and marketing characteristics in initial smoking, cigarette brand choice and the perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands among adults in the European Union in 2012. Data were from the Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1) survey conducted in 2012 (n=26 566). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between cigarette design/marketing features with aspects of initial smoking (among current and former smokers), cigarette brand choice and perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands (among current smokers; pmarketing strategies that may increase the attractiveness of tobacco products or promote perceptions of harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Reduced harm or another gateway to smoking? source, message, and information characteristics of E-cigarette videos on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Kim, Sookyong; Hove, Thomas; Huh, Jung Yoon

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely promoted on the Internet, but little is known about what kinds of information about them are available online. This study examines message, source, and health information characteristics of e-cigarette videos on the popular online video-sharing platform YouTube. A content analysis of 365 e-cigarette videos indicates that 85% of the videos were sponsored by marketers. These videos highlight e-cigarettes' economic and social benefits, featuring a low level of fear appeal and negative message valence and a high level of marketing information about e-cigarette products. They also convey certain health claims that have been proscribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the prevalence of which warrants ongoing monitoring and regulatory guidelines for online e-cigarette marketing.

  4. Characterisation of mainstream and passive vapours emitted by selected electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Otmar; Bianchi, Ivana; Barahona, Francisco; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have achieved growing popularity since their introduction onto the European market. They are promoted by manufacturers as healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, however debate among scientists and public health experts about their possible impact on health and indoor air quality means further research into the product is required to ensure decisions of policymakers, health care providers and consumers are based on sound science. This study investigated and characterised the impact of 'vaping' (using electronic cigarettes) on indoor environments under controlled conditions using a 30m(3) emission chamber. The study determined the composition of e-cigarette mainstream vapour in terms of propylene glycol, glycerol, carbonyls and nicotine emissions using a smoking machine with adapted smoking parameters. Two different base recipes for refill liquids, with three different amounts of nicotine each, were tested using two models of e-cigarettes. Refill liquids were analysed on their content of propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine and qualitatively on their principal flavourings. Possible health effects of e-cigarette use are not discussed in this work. Electronic cigarettes tested in this study proved to be sources for propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine, carbonyls and aerosol particulates. The extent of exposure differs significantly for active and passive 'vapers' (users of electronic cigarettes). Extrapolating from the average amounts of propylene glycol and glycerol condensed on the smoking machine filter pad to the resulting lung-concentration, estimated lung concentrations of 160 and 220mgm(-3) for propylene glycol and glycerol were obtained, respectively. Vaping refill liquids with nicotine concentrations of 9mgmL(-1) led to vapour condensate nicotine amounts comparable to those of low-nicotine regular cigarettes (0.15-0.2mg). In chamber studies, peak concentrations of 2200μgm(-3) for propylene glycol, 136μgm(-3) for glycerol and 0.6

  5. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  7. Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Use: Associations With Conventional Cigarette and Hookah Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E; Soule, Eric K; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Tomar, Scott L

    2015-08-01

    The emerging trends and rapid growth of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents are being monitored closely. The trends are critical as policy to prevent uptake among adolescents is considered. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of e-cigarette use and potential correlates for use. Associations between e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and hookah are assessed. This study used data from the 2013 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated in 2014 and differences were determined based on CIs. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to identify correlates of e-cigarette use among participants based on demographic and other tobacco products used. There were no sex differences in middle school, whereas male high school students reported higher use than their female counterparts. Cigarette smoking and hookah use were significantly associated with ever and current e-cigarette use among both middle and high school students. Although e-cigarettes are being assessed as a potential replacement product for traditional tobacco, evidence from this study indicates the possibility of multiple product use among adolescents. E-cigarettes are not only associated with traditional cigarettes, but also with hookahs, a similar emerging product that offer tobacco flavors that may appeal to adolescents. Notably, many e-cigarette users also reported no cigarette or hookah use. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Use of E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Blettner, Maria; Singer, Susanne

    2016-12-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a consumer product whose benefits and risks are currently debated. Advocates of the "tobacco harm reduction" strategy emphasize their potential as an aid to smoking cessation, while advocates of the precautionary principle emphasize their risks instead. There have been only a few studies to date on the prevalence of e-cigarette use in Germany. In May 2016, in collaboration with Forsa, an opinion research firm, we carried out a survey among 4002 randomly chosen persons aged 14 and older, asking them about their consumption of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine, reasons for using e-cigarettes, plans for future use, estimation of danger compared to that of tobacco products, smoking behavior, and sociodemographic features. 1.4% of the respondents used e-cigarettes regularly, and a further 2.2% had used them regularly in the past. 11.8% had at least tried them, including 32.7% of smokers and 2.3% of persons who had never smoked. 24.5% of ex-smokers who had quit smoking after 2010 had used e-cigarettes at least once. 20.7% of the respondents considered electronic cigarettes less dangerous than conventional cigarettes, 46.3% equally dangerous, and 16.1% more dangerous. An extrapolation of these data to the general population suggests that about one million persons in Germany use e-cigarettes regularly and another 1.55 million have done so in the past. The consumption of electronic cigarettes in Germany is not very widespread, but it is not negligible either. Nearly 1 in 8 Germans has tried e-cigarettes at least once. Regular consumers of e-cigarettes are almost exclusively smokers and ex-smokers.

  9. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  10. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  11. Thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes promote human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in low serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    One strategy used for the regeneration of bone is the development of cell culture substrates and scaffolds that can control osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In recent investigations, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been utilized as scaffolds for osteoblastic cell cultures; however, there are only a few reports describing the proliferation of osteoblastic cells on thin CNT films; in particular, the effects of serum concentration on cell proliferation have not been studied. In the present study, we prepared culture dishes with homogeneous thin or thick films of non-modified CNTs and examined the effect of serum concentrations on human osteoblastic cells (Saos-2) proliferation in these culture dishes. We demonstrated that the ratio of cell proliferation was strongly affected by the concentration of serum. Interestingly, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) thin films were found to be the most effective substrate for the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in low concentrations of serum. Thus, thin SWNT films may be used as an effective biomaterial for the culture of Saos-2 cells in low serum concentrations.

  12. A single disulfide bond disruption in the β3 integrin subunit promotes thiol/disulfide exchange, a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihie Levin

    Full Text Available The integrins are a family of membrane receptors that attach a cell to its surrounding and play a crucial function in cell signaling. The combination of internal and external stimuli alters a folded non-active state of these proteins to an extended active configuration. The β3 subunit of the platelet αIIbβ3 integrin is made of well-structured domains rich in disulfide bonds. During the activation process some of the disulfides are re-shuffled by a mechanism requiring partial reduction of some of these bonds; any disruption in this mechanism can lead to inherent blood clotting diseases. In the present study we employed Molecular Dynamics simulations for tracing the sequence of structural fluctuations initiated by a single cysteine mutation in the β3 subunit of the receptor. These simulations showed that in-silico protein mutants exhibit major conformational deformations leading to possible disulfide exchange reactions. We suggest that any mutation that prevents Cys560 from reacting with one of the Cys(567-Cys(581 bonded pair, thus disrupting its ability to participate in a disulfide exchange reaction, will damage the activation mechanism of the integrin. This suggestion is in full agreement with previously published experiments. Furthermore, we suggest that rearrangement of disulfide bonds could be a part of a natural cascade of thiol/disulfide exchange reactions in the αIIbβ3 integrin, which are essential for the native activation process.

  13. Identification of factors promoting ex vivo maintenance of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by long-term single-cell quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Drew, Erin; Endele, Max; Loeffler, Dirk; Hoppe, Philipp S; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Schauberger, Bernhard; Hinzen, Christoph; Skylaki, Stavroula; Theodorou, Marina; Kieslinger, Matthias; Lemischka, Ihor; Moore, Kateri; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during ex vivo culture is an important prerequisite for their therapeutic manipulation. However, despite intense research, culture conditions for robust maintenance of HSCs are still missing. Cultured HSCs are quickly lost, preventing their improved analysis and manipulation. Identification of novel factors supporting HSC ex vivo maintenance is therefore necessary. Coculture with the AFT024 stroma cell line is capable of maintaining HSCs ex vivo long-term, but the responsible molecular players remain unknown. Here, we use continuous long-term single-cell observation to identify the HSC behavioral signature under supportive or nonsupportive stroma cocultures. We report early HSC survival as a major characteristic of HSC-maintaining conditions. Behavioral screening after manipulation of candidate molecules revealed that the extracellular matrix protein dermatopontin (Dpt) is involved in HSC maintenance. DPT knockdown in supportive stroma impaired HSC survival, whereas ectopic expression of the Dpt gene or protein in nonsupportive conditions restored HSC survival. Supplementing defined stroma- and serum-free culture conditions with recombinant DPT protein improved HSC clonogenicity. These findings illustrate a previously uncharacterized role of Dpt in maintaining HSCs ex vivo. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of MMP2 Gene Promoter on the Risk of Development and Metastasis of lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshvary Ravan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available     Background & aim: The high incidence and poor prognosis of the lung cancer makes it aa a major health problem in the last few decades. Determination of frequency of different histopathology types of primary lung cancer has great importance in creating integrated treatment programs and recognized the effective factors causing the disease. Overexpression of MMPs has a direct relation with invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors in different tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of MMP-2 gene promoter polymorphism with lung cancer and metastases in patients with lung cancer and compared with the control groups by the PCR-RFLP method.   Methods: In the present case-control study, The MMP-2 polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP in 50 patients with lung cancer and 77 cohort sample. All samples were taken under supervision of a physician. DNA isolation was performed using DNA extraction kit (Cinnagen, Iran. MMP9 gene was amplified by specific primers and PCR product was digested with FSPBI restriction enzyme. Data were analysis using Chi square by the SPSS software.   Results: The examination of allelic and genotypic distribution in patients with lung cancer and control showed that the allele frequency of C and T in patients with lung cancer were 90 and 10% (P=0.04 and in the control were 80.15 and 30% (P=0.05 respectively. Also genotype frequency of CC, CT and TT in patients with lung cancer were 82, 16 and 2 (P=0.05 and in the control were 69.93, 31.16, 3.1 percentage respectively (P=0.5. No significant difference was seen in comparison of genotype groups in non-metastatic and control. Comparison of homozygous CC genotype and control were confirmed the direct involvement of c allele in metastasis   Conclusion: It seems that individuals with C allele can increase susceptibility to lung cancer. Also these findings indicate that CC genotype as a risk factor facilitating the spread of

  15. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  16. Nicotine delivery, tolerability and reduction of smoking urge in smokers following short-term use of one brand of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Yan, X Sherwin

    2015-09-30

    This randomized, partially single-blinded, 6-period crossover clinical study of adult smokers compared the nicotine pharmacokinetics, impacts on smoking urge and tolerability of various formulations of one brand of e-cigarettes with that of a tobacco cigarette. Five e-cigarettes with different e-liquid formulations containing 1.6 % and 2.4 % nicotine and a conventional tobacco cigarette were randomized among 24 subjects under two exposure sessions consisting of a 30-min controlled and a one-hour ad lib use period to assess plasma nicotine levels, impacts on smoking urge and adverse events. The 30-min controlled use session comprised an intensive use of the e-cigarettes with a total of 50 puffs taken every 30 s for comparison to a single conventional cigarette having a typical machine-measured nicotine yield (~0.8 mg). Ad lib product use conditions provided insight into more naturalistic product use behaviors and their accompanying smoking urge reductions. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by the Principal Investigator. Significant (p e-cigarette use and significant (p E-cigarette and cigarette nicotine plasma levels were comparable for up to one hour of use. After both sessions (90 min), nicotine exposure was the highest for the cigarette, with all e-cigarettes showing 23 % to 53 % lower plasma concentrations. During controlled use, peak reduction in smoking urge for e-cigs occurred later than for the cigarette. After completion of both sessions, significant smoking urge reduction persisted for most of the tested e-cigarettes, albeit at levels lower than that provided by the tobacco cigarette. Nicotine content, vehicle differences, and the presence of menthol did not significantly affect smoking urge reduction by the e-cigarettes. No subjects were discontinued due to AEs. The most frequently reported AEs events included cough, throat irritation, headache, and dizziness. Blood plasma nicotine levels obtained from short-term use of e-cigarettes containing 1

  17. Application of Nanoparticle Iron Oxide in Cigarette for Simultaneous CO and NO Removal in the Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the unique temperature and oxygen profiles in a burning cigarette, a novel approach is proposed in this paper to use a single oxidant/catalyst in the cigarette filler for simultaneous removal of carbon monoxide (CO and nitric oxide (NO in mainstream smoke. A nanoparticle iron oxide is identified as a very active material for this application due to its multiple functions as a CO catalyst, as a CO oxidant, and in its reduced forms as a NO catalyst. The multiple functions of the nanoparticle iron oxide are characterized in a flow tube reactor and the working mechanisms of these multiple functions for CO and NO removal in a burning cigarette are explained. The effect of smoke condensate on the catalyst are examined and discussed. The advantage of in situ generation of the catalyst during the cigarette burning process is illustrated. The test results of nanoparticle iron oxide for CO and NO removal in cigarettes are presented.

  18. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  20. Promotion of the oxidation of carbon monoxide at stepped platinum single-crystal electrodes in alkaline media by lithium and beryllium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelsma, Chantal; Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Garcia, Gonzalo; Garcia-Araez, Nuria; Strmcnik, Dusan; Marković, Nenad M; Koper, Marc T M

    2010-11-17

    The role of alkali cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), and Be(2+)) on the blank voltammetric response and the oxidative stripping of carbon monoxide from stepped Pt single-crystal electrodes in alkaline media has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. A strong influence of the nature of the cation on both the blank voltammetric profile and the CO oxidation is observed and related to the influence of the cation on the specific adsorption of OH on the platinum surface. Especially Li(+) and Be(2+) cations markedly affect the adsorption of OH and thereby have a significant promoting effect on CO(ads) oxidation. The voltammetric experiments suggest that, on Pt(111), the influence of Li(+) (and Be(2+)) is primarily through a weakening of the repulsive interactions between the OH in the OH adlayer, whereas in the presence of steps also, the onset of OH adsorption is at a lower potential, both on steps and on terraces.

  1. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  2. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  3. [E-Cigarettes – Friend or Foe?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russi, Erich W

    2015-07-01

    Not nicotine, but an abundant amount of toxic chemicals produced by the combustion of tobacco are the cause of well-known health problems. E-cigarette vapor contains no or only minimal quantities of potentially harmful substances. Hence it can be assumed that vaping in adults is much less harmful than smoking of cigarettes. Furthermore, no data exist that e-cigarettes will encourage youngsters to become cigarette smokers. E-cigarette vaping has the potential to reduce the daily number of cigarettes smoked or facilitates cessation of smoking in heavily nicotine-dependent smokers, who keep on smoking despite a structured smoking cessation program. Health professionals should be aware of this type of nicotine substitution, since the controversial discussion is often emotional and not evidence-based.

  4. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e-cigarette

  5. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  6. Electronic Cigarettes Are as Toxic to Skin Flap Survival as Tobacco Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Aline Sabrina; Reinikovaite, Viktorija; Schmidt, Eric P; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Deleyiannis, Frederic White-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular. However, information about the health risks associated with e-cigarette use is sparse. Currently, no published studies examine the effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure on microcirculation or perfusion. Using a rat skin flap model, we examined the toxic microcirculatory effects e-cigarettes may have in comparison with tobacco cigarettes. Fifty-eight rats were randomized to either exposure to room air, tobacco cigarette smoke, medium-nicotine content (1.2%) e-cigarette vapor, or a high-nicotine content (2.4%) e-cigarette vapor. After 4 weeks of exposure, a random pattern, 3 × 9 cm skin flap was elevated on the dorsum of the rats. At 5 weeks, flap survival was evaluated quantitatively, and the rats were euthanized. Plasma was collected for nicotine and cotinine analysis, and flap tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis. Evaluation of the dorsal skin flaps demonstrated significantly increased necrosis in the vapor and tobacco groups. The average necrosis within the groups was as follows: control 19.23%, high-dose vapor 28.61%, medium-dose vapor 35.93%, and tobacco cigarette 30.15%. Although the e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette groups did not differ significantly, each individual group had significantly more necrosis than the control group (Pe-cigarette exposure groups had similar amounts of flap necrosis and hypoxia when compared with the tobacco cigarette exposure group. Nicotine-containing e-cigarette vapor is similarly toxic to skin flap survival as tobacco cigarettes.

  7. Prevalence and Perceptions of Electronic Cigarette Use during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Camerota, Marie; Propper, Cathi

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The current study is the first to assess pregnant women's perceptions of e-cigarettes and the prevalence of e-cigarette use during pregnancy, using a national sample of pregnant women (N = 445) recruited online. Methods An online survey was used to assess the prevalence and perceptions of e-cigarette use among pregnant women, including perceptions of e-cigarette safety. Results In our sample, 5.62% (n = 25) of women solely used tobacco cigarettes, 6.52% (n = 29) solely used e-cigarettes, 8.54% (n = 38) used both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and 79.33% (n = 353) used neither tobacco cigarettes nor e-cigarettes during their current pregnancy. Overall, 64.27% (n = 286) of participants viewed e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Having seen advertisements for e-cigarettes increased likelihood of viewing them as safer than tobacco cigarettes (OR [Odds Ratio] = 2.5, p many women use e-cigarettes during pregnancy as tobacco cigarettes, that pregnant women view e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes, and that these views may be influenced by exposure to e-cigarette advertisements.

  8. Decrease in Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer Patients Due to Insertion of a Single Guanine Base in Promoter Sequences of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Gene (in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hojati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion or deletion of a guanine in -1607 at promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme creates two allelic types for this gene in the population: 2G and 1G, respectively. 2G allele contains an extra binding site for ETS transcription factors that this may increase the level of gene expression. Therefore, aim of this study was investigation of the single Guanine insertion in the promoter gene and its association with colorectal cancer patient survival rate and tumor progression. Methods: Blood samples from 150 colorectal patients and 100 cases were extracted. The mean follow-up was 25 months (12-36 months. Cases and patients were genotyped using genomic DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP. Results: Colorectal cancer patients were divided in two groups; with activity of metastasis (M+ and without activity of metastasis (M-. 2G allele in metastasis group (55% showed more frequency rather than controls (23%. Survival analyses showed that 3 years survival patients rate in the patients without metastasis activity carrying 1G allele (homo and heterozygote was 81% and for 2G homozygote is 66% (p=0.04. The survival rate dependent to cancer was 90% and 71%, respectively (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that patients carrying 1G allele show a better survival rate dependent on cancer as compared to patients who do not carry this allele.

  9. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  11. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De Le?n, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product d...

  12. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.

  13. E-cigarettes: scientific and political controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Yussuf Saloojee

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The e-cigarette is touted as a disruptive technology that could make combustible cigarettes obsolete. The product, its science and politics though are controversial. Intervention or response Published journal articles, reports and conference presentations on e-cigarettes were located using PubMed, plus conference, industry and other websites. These were critically reviewed. Results and lessons learnt A number of contenti...

  14. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing w...

  15. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  16. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  17. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  18. Taking Sides in E-cigarette Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annechino, Rachelle; Antin, Tamar

    2016-11-01

    In the last ten years, an eclectic mix of electronic nicotine delivery products ('e-cigarettes') and practices have proliferated in the US with little restriction, producing a vast array of vaping mechanisms, flavors, and styles. At the same time, anti-tobacco movements have targeted e-cigarettes as a threat to public health and advocated for restricting e-cigarettes in much the same way as conventional cigarettes. While anti-vaping proponents associated with public health movements have typically regarded e-cigarettes as primarily harmful products that should be suppressed, vaping advocates regard e-cigarettes as harm reduction products that should be readily accessible to smokers. Distrust between these two warring "sides" animates the controversy over e-cigarettes. In our role as researchers conducting a qualitative study on e-cigarette use, we encountered suspicion and anger from members of an e-cigarette forum who felt that pro-vaping perspectives were often misrepresented by researchers. As a result, we dropped our initial plan to host a group discussion of questions directly related to our study on the forum. Nevertheless, the incident illuminated how vaping advocates have resisted dominant narratives regarding tobacco and nicotine use, destabilized nicotine product categories and challenged interpretations of nicotine use that dichotomize pleasure and health.

  19. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  1. Electronic cigarette inhalation alters innate immunity and airway cytokines while increasing the virulence of colonizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, John H; Lyes, Matthew; Sladewski, Katherine; Enany, Shymaa; McEachern, Elisa; Mathew, Denzil P; Das, Soumita; Moshensky, Alexander; Bapat, Sagar; Pride, David T; Ongkeko, Weg M; Crotty Alexander, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    Electronic (e)-cigarette use is rapidly rising, with 20 % of Americans ages 25-44 now using these drug delivery devices. E-cigarette users expose their airways, cells of host defense, and colonizing bacteria to e-cigarette vapor (EV). Here, we report that exposure of human epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface to fresh EV (vaped from an e-cigarette device) resulted in dose-dependent cell death. After exposure to EV, cells of host defense-epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils-had reduced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Mouse inhalation of EV for 1 h daily for 4 weeks led to alterations in inflammatory markers within the airways and elevation of an acute phase reactant in serum. Upon exposure to e-cigarette vapor extract (EVE), airway colonizer SA had increased biofilm formation, adherence and invasion of epithelial cells, resistance to human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and up-regulation of virulence genes. EVE-exposed SA were more virulent in a mouse model of pneumonia. These data suggest that e-cigarettes may be toxic to airway cells, suppress host defenses, and promote inflammation over time, while also promoting virulence of colonizing bacteria. Acute exposure to e-cigarette vapor (EV) is cytotoxic to airway cells in vitro. Acute exposure to EV decreases macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial function. Inhalation of EV alters immunomodulating cytokines in the airways of mice. Inhalation of EV leads to increased markers of inflammation in BAL and serum. Staphylococcus aureus become more virulent when exposed to EV.

  2. How the industry is marketing menthol cigarettes: the audience, the message and the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Pearson, Jennifer; Celcis, Nathalie; Vallone, Donna; Villanti, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Despite declines in overall US cigarette consumption, the menthol cigarette market share has increased in recent years. Advertising contributes to menthol initiation and use, but little has been done to characterise menthol cigarette advertising outside of the point of sale. Two full-service advertising firms were used to develop a library of menthol cigarette advertisements (ads) over a 9-month period (June 2012-February 2013) in the USA. The volume of ads, media channel (direct mail, print, online, email), estimated spend and households reached was summarised overall and by brand in 2013. Direct mail, email and print ads were coded for content and the target audience of print publications was examined. Over the study period, 205 menthol cigarette ads were identified with estimated expenditures exceeding US$31 million, with 70% spent on direct mail ads. Over 90% of ads promoted Camel, Marlboro and Newport menthol cigarettes. A majority (87%) of direct mail ads contained coupons or other incentives known to appeal to price-sensitive customers. Only two brands' print ads appeared during this period: Newport ads focused on themes of sociability and sexuality, and were placed in magazines targeting African-Americans and younger consumers; American Spirit print ads were placed in general interest magazines and predominantly stressed the 'natural' aspects of their brand. The tobacco industry continues to spend millions of dollars promoting menthol cigarettes through channels that preferentially target vulnerable subgroups, such as African-Americans and younger consumers. Public health campaigns to educate and combat the influence of menthol advertising are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna

    2015-07-01

    Despite the internet's broad reach and potential to influence consumer behaviour, there has been little examination of the volume, characteristics, and target audience of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. A full-service advertising firm was used to collect all online banner/video advertisements occurring in the USA and Canada between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. The advertisement and associated meta-data on brand, date range observed, first market, and spend were downloaded and summarised. Characteristics and themes of advertisements, as well as topic area and target demographics of websites on which advertisements appeared, were also examined. Over a 1-year period, almost $2 million were spent by the e-cigarette and tobacco industries on the placement of their online product advertisements in the USA and Canada. Most was spent promoting two brands: NJOY e-cigarettes and Swedish Snus. There was almost no advertising of cigarettes. About 30% of all advertisements mentioned a price promotion, discount coupon or price break. e-Cigarette advertisements were most likely to feature messages of harm reduction (38%) or use for cessation (21%). Certain brands advertised on websites that contained up to 35% of youth (audience. Online banner/video advertising is a tactic used mainly to advertise e-cigarettes and cigars rather than cigarettes, some with unproven claims about benefits to health. Given the reach and accessibility of online advertising to vulnerable populations such as youth and the potential for health claims to be misinterpreted, online advertisements need to be closely monitored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Risk factors for e-cigarette, conventional cigarette, and dual use in German adolescents: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about risk factors that are associated with e-cigarette use in adolescents. Multilevel mixed-effects regressions were performed to assess the relationship between factors that might be associated with e-cigarette, conventional cigarette and dual use in a cohort of 2693 German adolescents (mean age=12.5 years; SD=0.6). Risk factors were assessed in October 2010 and life time e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use were assessed 26 months later. Use of e-cigarettes as well as use of conventional cigarette and dual use were associated with higher sensation seeking scores, and higher odds of having friends and parents who smoke conventional cigarettes, with conventional cigarette use additionally with male gender, being older, having higher odds of siblings who smoke conventional cigarettes, and less likely for adolescents who attend a Gymnasium, secondary school with a strong emphasis on academic learning. The use of conventional cigarettes at baseline did not predict e-cigarette use at follow-up. Lifetime prevalence of e-cigarette use was 4.7%, of conventional cigarette use 18.4%. A quarter of e-cigarette users (23.8%) never smoked a conventional cigarette. Data indicate that e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use share many but not all risk factors. E-cigarettes could counteract the process of denormalization of smoking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia A. Wackowski; Michelle T. Bover Manderski; Cristine D. Delnevo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  6. Perceptions of "Natural" and "Additive-Free" Cigarettes and Intentions to Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J.; Lewis, M. Jane; Adkison, Sarah E.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael

    2017-01-01

    In August 2015, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warning letters to cigarette manufacturers promoting brands as "natural" or "additive-free" because of concerns that such marketing claims might mislead consumers into believing that these brands are less dangerous to smoke than others. The current study examined…

  7. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  8. Reduction of carboxyhaemoglobin levels in the venous blood of cigarette smokers following the administration of carbogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Graham; Kondor, Natalie; Yousefi, Vandad; Green, Alex; Wong, Frances; Aquino-Parsons, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have high carboxyhaemoglobin levels which can promote tumour radioresistance. Inhalation of carbogen gas shortens the half-life of carboxyhaemoglobin, increasing tumour radiosensitivity in animal models. Breathing 2.5% carbogen for 30 min results in a greater reduction in venous blood COHb levels than breathing 5% carbogen for 7 min

  9. Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarette use in a southeast London adult sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)