WorldWideScience

Sample records for sin afectacion vertebral

  1. Primary epidural lymphoma without vertebral involvement in a HIV-positive patient; Linfoma epidural primario sin afectacion vertebral en un paciente VIH positivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. O.; Grive, E.; Quiroga, S.; Rovira, A. [Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron. Barcelona. (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    Epidural involvement is rarely associated with lymphoma, it being more typical of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma in advanced stages of the disease. The invasion of the epidural space is usually caused by the extension of a paravertebral mass or by the affected vertebrae. However, the epidural space alone can be involved. We present a case of epidural lymphoma in a patient who presented with clinical evidence of spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance disclosed the existence of an epidural mass compressing and displacing the spinal cord without involving the adjacent vertebra or the associated paravertebral mass. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. AFECTACIONES PSICOLÓGICAS QUE EXPERIMENTAN ADOLESCENTES AFRODESCENDIENTES CON PADRES EMBARCADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Danila Mc coy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación ha abordado las afectaciones psicológicas que experimentan adolescentes afrodescendientes con padres embarcados. Con una metodología tanto cuantitativa como cualitativa, con 70 estudiantes de primero a quinto año del Colegio Moravo de la ciudad de Bluefields, mediante la aplicación de encuestas y grupos focales. Entre los principales resultados, se puede mencionar que desde la perspectiva de los adolescentes que les afecta la ausencia de sus padres en los siguientes niveles: Mucho 40 %, poco en un 37 % y nada en 23 %. Sin embargo, a pesar de la distancia, el 72 % plantea que es buena la relación con sus progenitores, el 21 % que es regular y el 7 % es indiferente. También están conscientes de los sacrificios que hacen sus padres para mejorar su nivel de vida. Valoran que el apoyo percibido de forma económica que corresponde a 54%, emocional 44% y 1% espiritual; solamente el 1 % manifestó no sentirse apoyado. En relación al rendimiento académico, el 50 % alto, el 46 % medio y 4 % bajo. Estos datos coinciden con las valoraciones de los docentes. Para enfrentar la ausencia de los padres, realizan diferentes actividades, el 49% deportiva, 4% en grupos religiosos y 47% en actividades sociales. En relación a las conductas adquiridas, manifestaron estar aislados, rebeldes, indisciplinados, distraídos, independientes. El 86% se identifican con una de estas conductas mientras que el 14% dicen no manifestar ninguna de ellas. Summary This research has addressed the psychological effects experienced by Afrodescendant adolescents with shipped-out parents. It’s focused on a quantitative and qualitative methodology, with 70 students from first to fifth year of the Moravian School in the city of Bluefields, by conducting surveys and focus groups. Among the main results, it can be mentioned that from the perspective of adolescents that are affected by the absence of their parents we find the following levels: A lot 40%, little

  3. Sin Nombre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    steder, de aldrig har stiftet bekendtskab med. Og når man besøger stederne i virkeligheden, vil filmenes typer og stereotyper påvirke mødet og kontakten. I denne artikel vil jeg vise, hvordan en film, Sin nombre (spansk: Uden navn), behandler to af den globaliserede verdens grundlæggende spørgsmål: a...... kun vedkommende, fordi den tager vigtige samfundsmæssige og eksistentielle spørgsmål op, men også fordi den, som kritikerne har påpeget, rent æstetisk er af høj kvalitet. Farver, lyd og de intense scener støtter en god fortælling....

  4. Afectaciones Psicológicas, Estrategias de Afrontamiento y Niveles de Resiliencia de Adultos Expuestos al Conflicto Armado en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Hewitt Ramirez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las afectaciones psicológicas, estrategias de afrontamiento y niveles de resiliencia de 677 adultos ex - puestos al conflicto armado en un municipio colombiano. Los participantes del estudio fueron seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio por afijación proporcional. Se aplicaron el cuestionario de síntomas, prueba de estrés postraumático y escalas de estrategias de afrontamiento y resiliencia. Las principales afectaciones psicológicas encontradas son el sen - timiento de que alguien trata de hacerle daño, consumo de alcohol, alteraciones del estado de ánimo y síntomas de estrés postraumático. Las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas son la religión y esperar que las cosas se arreglen solas. El nivel de resiliencia es moderado. La percepción de salud es baja y la necesidad de atención es alta.

  5. Vigilar sin castigar (Medios).

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Agila, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Los imaginarios de las ciudades fronterizas se levantan sobre el mito de ciudades violentas sin historia. Los protagonistas no son otros que bandidos y extranjeros de paso. Siempre son ‘los foráneos’ los culpables. Y el conveniente juego de ‘vigilar sin castigar’ el contrabando y el tráfico de drogas que se repite cotidiano en vibrantes puntos de control como Rumichaca o Huaquillas.

  6. When deviance becomes sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Senekal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a brief exposition is given o f what sin and deviance entail. This perspective is approached in terms of what is called the logovision premise. This premise essentially maintains that human perception of reality is primarily mediated through words and that only God's words allow us to see reality as it truly is. Thus we are enabled to respond appropriately to reality - especially evaluative reality. By then applying God’s words to the issues involved in the study of deviance, more clarity is hopefully achieved. This is done by discussing the respective characteristics of sin and deviance and by briefly exploring the relationship between these two phenomena. Finally some of the implications for the study o f social deviance are discussed.

  7. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  8. 10 years of SIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-11-15

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world.

  9. 10 years of SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world

  10. Un conocer sin cegamientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferrante

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reseña el libro La construcción de marcas de reconocimiento en sociedades ocularcentristas: el caso de mujeres ciegas del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey de Brenda Araceli Bustos García. Se describe el problema de investigación en el cual se inserta la tesis que nutre el libro y se recorre la trama argumental. Finalmente, se realiza una valoración positiva del modo de construcción del objeto de estudio, el cual promueve un conocer sin cegamientos. 

  11. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-01-01

    Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas d...

  12. El comercio compensatorio y sus potenciales afectaciones al principio de no discriminación establecido en los acuerdos de la OMC

    OpenAIRE

    Villacís Naranjo, Raúl Xavier

    2015-01-01

    En la última década el Ecuador replanteó su política comercial e inició operaciones de comercio compensatorio principalmente con Venezuela y China; se incorporó al ALBA y adoptó el SUCRE como mecanismo para realizar operaciones de intercambio comercial bajo los principios de complementariedad y solidaridad. En este contexto, existe la posibilidad de generar potenciales afectaciones a los principios del sistema multilateral de comercio, específicamente el de no discriminación. En ese sentido, ...

  13. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  14. Personas sin hogar y discapacidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Panadero Herrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los principales resultados del primer trabajo de investigación específico sobre personas sin hogar y discapacidad llevado a cabo en España.  Dicho estudio se llevó a cabo en dos fases secuenciales. La Fase 1 perseguía cuantificar la existencia de discapacidad entre el colectivo de personas sin hogar para, en la Fase 2, profundizar en la situación de estas personas. Los resultados de la Fase 1, en la que se recogió información sobre 695 personas, mostraron una importante presencia de discapacidad entre las personas sin hogar.  Un 12 % de las personas sin hogar tenía certificado de discapacidad, aunque el porcentaje de discapacidad podría ser muy superior si se considera la percepción de profesionales y usuarios (al menos el 23 %. Los resultados de la Fase 2, en la que se comparaba la situación y características de las personas sin hogar con (81 participantes y sin ella (48 participantes, apuntaron importantes implicaciones de la existencia de la discapacidad entre las personas sin hogar, como una mayor cronificación de la propia situación, mayores dificultades de acceso al empleo, mayor vulnerabilidad a accidentes y agresiones y otros delitos.

  15. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral. Secondary

  16. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  17. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas diversificadas que emplean alimentos locales y se han convertido en un recurso, por su contribución para mitigarlo. Se exponen las principales afectaciones ocurridas por el cambio climático y la caracterización del período 2000-2010 en la ganadería en el país. También se presentan los principales retos de los sistemas agroforestales y los resultados productivos de cuando se emplean recursos fitogenéticos herbáceos y arbóreos en diferentes sistemas de producción ganadera, así como las propuestas de sistemas resilientes de alimentación basados en los recursos fitogenéticos forrajeros herbáceos y arbóreos que deben utilizarse como resultado de la innovación tecnológica en las áreas ganaderasThe phenomena of desertification and land degradation, water, soil and atmospheric contamination, loss of biological diversity, depletion of the ozone layer, deforestation, planet warming and others, have led to a crossroads of human existence. The objective of this work is to analyze the adaptation of the main production systems before the affectations of climate change in Cuba and the results of diversified farms which use local feedstuffs and have become a resource, for their contribution to mitigate it. The main affectations occurred due to climate change and the characterization of the period 2000-2010 in the livestock production of the country are presented. The work also shows the main challenges of agroforestry systems and the productive

  18. The ethics of sin taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pleiotropic roles of Clostridium difficile sin locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junjun; Dupuy, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression. The C. difficile genome carries two sinR homologs in the operon that we named sinR and sinR’, coding for SinR (112 aa) and SinR’ (105 aa), respectively. In this study, we constructed and characterized sin locus mutants in two different C. difficile strains R20291 and JIR8094, to decipher the locus’s role in C. difficile physiology. Transcriptome analysis of the sinRR’ mutants revealed their pleiotropic roles in controlling several pathways including sporulation, toxin production, and motility in C. difficile. Through various genetic and biochemical experiments, we have shown that SinR can regulate transcription of key regulators in these pathways, which includes sigD, spo0A, and codY. We have found that SinR’ acts as an antagonist to SinR by blocking its repressor activity. Using a hamster model, we have also demonstrated that the sin locus is needed for successful C. difficile infection. This study reveals the sin locus as a central link that connects the gene regulatory networks of sporulation, toxin production, and motility; three key pathways that are important for C. difficile pathogenesis. PMID:29529083

  20. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  1. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Estudio del álbum sin palabras

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Andreu, Emma

    2015-01-01

    [spa] Estudio del Álbum Sin Palabras tiene como objetivo principal definir, analizar y categorizar los álbumes sin palabras destinados principalmente al público infantil y juvenil dando a conocer sus características, peculiariades y diversidad tipológica, para facilitar las tareas de análisis y de mediación de investigadores, educadores, bibliotecarios y cualquier persona interesada en los libros con imágenes. En el capítulo titulado «Un nuevo mapa para los Libros Sin Palabras» situamos e...

  4. Unscented Kalman filter for SINS alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhanxin; Gao Yanan; Chen Jiabin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the filter accuracy for the nonlinear error model of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) alignment, Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented for simulation with stationary base and moving base of SINS alignment.Simulation results show the superior performance of this approach when compared with classical suboptimal techniques such as extended Kalman filter in cases of large initial misalignment.The UKF has good performance in case of small initial misalignment.

  5. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  6. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  7. Sin Stocks in Self Managed Superannuation Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Phillips

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical or responsible investing has attracted much attention over the last decade. Financial planners can nowadvise clients on a broad range of ethical investment products and some financial planning firms have this astheir sole activity. Interestingly, the alter ego of ethical investing, sin or vice investing, has attracted far lessattention. Recent research shows that ‘sinful’ investments can generate very strong returns and shouldcertainly not be avoided by investors without a full evaluation of the consequences of excluding theseinvestments from the portfolio. This paper extends these findings into the field of self managedsuperannuation funds operating within an Australian context. The prevalence of sinful investments within asample of SMSFs and the returns that may be generated by a portfolio consisting of sinful Australian equitiesis examined. Analysis reveals that the SMSF investors within the sample do not include very many sin stocksin their portfolios. However, it does not appear as though SMSF trustees are missing an important investmentopportunity because the analysis reveals that an equally-weighted portfolio of all vice or sin shares is unlikelyto generate superior returns.

  8. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  9. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  10. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This translation of the toolbook published in the 'US-ART' series, offers invaluable help to medical radiologists in the diagnostic imaging and evaluation of complex vertebral traumas which are on the rise, inter alia due to increasingly dangerous leisure sports. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Yannis DionyssiotisRhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature.Keywords: vertebral fracture...

  13. Advertising and the Seven Sins of Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....

  14. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly....... No gender-related differences were found in any of the relationships. Neither static histomorphometry nor biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies is a good predictor of vertebral bone strength.......The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...

  15. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  16. Monarcas y súbditos ''sin cualidades''

    OpenAIRE

    Raminelli, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    En Brasil, no siempre los primeros colonizadores disponían del honor necesario para recibir los beneficios concedidos por el Rey. En general, cuando no se trataba de mestizos y mulatos, las elites locales se originaban en las antiguas cepas judías. Mismo siendo súbditos sin cualidad, los reyes les concedieron perdón y algunos privilegios. Los títulos de caballero concedidos a los mestizos e hijos ilegítimos permiten de alguna forma vislumbrar la debilidad de las fuerzas que unían a las partes...

  17. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  18. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  19. En Caracas: una radio sin antena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Angola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuenta la experiencia única de la radio comunitaria Parque Central de Caracas (1994 donde al decir de su director y concesionario de la estación se necesitó compromiso, esfuerzo, romanticismo y comunidad. Creada como un sistema de seguridad y publicidad surgió por iniciativa de la Asociación de vecinos de la Etapa 1 donde viven más de 12 mil personas Funciona sin estar dentro de los patrones transmisor-Antena-Receptor, no se encuentra regulada por ninguna ley, son a decir de Marañón el medio de comunicación más libre del país donde la comunidad se expresa por sobre la economía, la técnica y la ley.

  20. Un mundo sin límites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba, Joaquín Mª

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XVI, las nuevas ediciones del Atlas de Ptolomeo publicadas en Roma o Venecia solían incluir un mapamundi modificado sin cesara a medida que descubridores y navegantes alcanzaban nuevos y antes desconocidos horizontes. La temprana circunnavegación de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522 confirmaba con su esferidad, que el mundo no tenía límites. Durante aquel siglo magnífico, la literatura española de viajes al Oriente Próximo islámico tenía que ser menos señalada. La casi perenne guerra contra el Imperio Otomano, señor de una buena parte de las costas mediterráneas, y sobre todo la empresa de América y los viajes de exploración y conquista que aquella demandaba, …

  1. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  2. Vertebral basilar artery dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients (ten male, one female; range, 2-56 years) presented with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms and were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) (eta=11), arteriography (eta=11), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (eta=6). Angiography showed dissection of a vertebral artery (eta=8), a basilar artery (eta=1), or a combination of both (eta=2). On CT and/or MR images, infarctions were demonstrated in ten of 11 cases. Most frequently involved were the thalmus (eta=7), cerebellum (eta=6), occipital lobes (eta=4), and pons (eta=3). The site of infarction did not correlate with the side or site of angiographic abnormality. In six cases evaluated by all modalities, MR imaging showed more extensive and widespread infarction than did CT and also showed whether or not the infarcts were hemorrhagic. MR imaging was able to demonstrate the presence of intramural dissecting hematoma prior to angiography and to indicate whether or not flow was reconstituted on follow-up examination

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  5. JUAN SIN MIEDO VA A LA ESCUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez-Anchía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base la lectura del cuento "Juan Sin Miedo" realizada por tres sujetos adolescentes, pretendo responder a la pregunta sobre los principales temores que enfrenta la población costarricense adolescente en la actualidad. Las respuestas giran en torno a tres núcleos significativos: el miedo a la exclusión económica y social, materializada en el trato discriminatorio hacia quienes no se adecuan a los criterios impuestos por la sociedad de consumo; el miedo a la escuela, en tanto excluye a quienes no se ajustan a la norma esperada de desempeño académico; y el miedo al otro, en particular a la calle y la escuela como espacios de violencia. Concluyo señalando que, detrás de dichos temores, es posible leer un anhelo de pertenencia; de aprecio sincero y gratuito, en que no medie el rendimiento académico de la persona; así como un anhelo de seguridad en el entorno cercano.

  6. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Mark D; Phade, Sachin V; Naughton, Peter; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Escobar, Guillermo; Berguer, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are uncommon and are usually associated with trauma or dissection. Primary cervical vertebral aneurysms are even rarer and are not well described. The presentation and natural history are unknown and operative management can be difficult. Accessing aneurysms at the skull base can be difficult and, because the frail arteries are often afflicted with connective tissue abnormalities, direct repair can be particularly challenging. We describe the presentation and surgical management of patients with primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. In this study we performed a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients with primary aneurysms within the extracranial vertebral artery. Between January 2000 and January 2011, 7 patients, aged 12-56 years, were noted to have 9 primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. All had underlying connective tissue or another hereditary disorder, including Ehler-Danlos syndrome (n=3), Marfan's disease (n=2), neurofibromatosis (n=1), and an unspecified connective tissue abnormality (n=1). Eight of 9 aneurysms were managed operatively, including an attempted bypass that ultimately required vertebral ligation; the contralateral aneurysm on this patient has not been treated. Open interventions included vertebral bypass with vein, external carotid autograft, and vertebral transposition to the internal carotid artery. Special techniques were used for handling the anastomoses in patients with Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Although endovascular exclusion was not performed in isolation, 2 hybrid procedures were performed. There were no instances of perioperative stroke or death. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and occur in patients with hereditary disorders. Operative intervention is warranted in symptomatic patients. Exclusion and reconstruction may be performed with open and hybrid techniques with low morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. The seven sins of memory: implications for self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Chiao, Joan Y; Mitchell, Jason P

    2003-10-01

    We examine the relation between memory and self by considering errors of memory. We draw on the idea that memory's imperfections can be classified into seven basic categories or "sins." Three of the sins concern different types of forgetting (transience, absent-mindedness, and blocking), three concern different types of distortion (misattribution, suggestibility, and bias), and one concerns intrusive memories (persistence). We focus in particular on two of the distortion-related sins, misattribution and bias. By describing cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies that illuminate these memory sins, we consider how they might bear on the relation between memory and self.

  8. Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteo...

  9. Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  10. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  11. THE HEIDELBERG CATECHISM ON HUMAN SIN AND MISERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Produced by SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein .... invites us to look at sin in terms of our fundamental alienation from God. And if sin-talk is therefore ..... the social structures created by the human race, but that we nevertheless have a measure of free ...

  12. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  13. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  14. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  15. SIN3A mutations are rare in men with azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, T; Koh, E; Tsujimura, A; Miyagawa, Y; Minase, G; Ueda, Y; Namiki, M; Sengoku, K

    2015-11-01

    A loss of function of the murine Sin3A gene resulted in male infertility with Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) phenotype in mice. Here, we investigated the relevance of this gene to human male infertility with azoospermia caused by SCOS. Mutation analysis of SIN3A in the coding region was performed on 80 Japanese patients. However, no variants could be detected. This study suggests a lack of association of SIN3A gene sequence variants with azoospermia caused by SCOS in humans. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Operability of glioblastomas: "sins of action" versus "sins of non-action".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Schiariti, Marco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Salmaggi, Andrea; Castiglione, Melina; Acerbi, Francesco; Tringali, Giovanni; Farinotti, Mariangela; Broggi, Morgan; Roberto, Cordella; Maccagnano, Elio; Broggi, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Despite prognosis of glioblastomas is still poor, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resections are associated with longer life expectancy. However, the surgical indications, at present, are far from uniform and the concept of operability is extremely surgeon-dependant. The results of glioblastoma resection in 104 patients operated on between March 2005 and April 2011 were reviewed with the aim to shed some light on the limits between 'sins of action' (operating upon complex tumors causing a permanent severe deficit) and 'sins of non-action' (considering inoperable tumors that can be resected with good results). Fifty-five patients (54.4 %) (Group 1) presented with a 'disputable' surgical indication because of one or more of the following clinico-radiological aspects: involvement of motor and language areas (39.4 %), deep location (7.7 %), corpus callosum infiltration (13.4 %), or major vessels encasement (8.6 %). Forty-six (42.5 %) patients (Group 2) presented with an 'indisputable' surgical indication (readily accessible tumors in non-eloquent areas). Overall mortality was 2.9 %. The mean overall survival was 19.8 months and not significantly different in the two Groups (20.4 Group 2 and 19.5 months for Group 1; p = 0.7). Patients with GTR and <72 years had a longer survival (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Seventy patients (69.3 %) showed an uneventful post-operative course, without statistical significance difference between Group 1 and 2. The gross total removal of glioblastoma with many complexities (Group 1) was found to be feasible with acceptable mortality, morbidity and long-term survival rates.

  17. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  18. Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine translation output over four years. ... Journal Home > Vol 46 (2016) > ... We believe users should be made aware of the risks they unknowingly take when using online MT.

  19. SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.

  20. THE POSTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF sin(i) VALUES FOR EXOPLANETS WITH MT sin(i) DETERMINED FROM RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; Turner, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) observations of an exoplanet system giving a value of M T sin(i) condition (i.e., give information about) not only the planet's true mass M T but also the value of sin(i) for that system (where i is the orbital inclination angle). Thus, the value of sin(i) for a system with any particular observed value of M T sin(i) cannot be assumed to be drawn randomly from a distribution corresponding to an isotropic i distribution, i.e., the presumptive prior distribution. Rather, the posterior distribution from which it is drawn depends on the intrinsic distribution of M T for the exoplanet population being studied. We give a simple Bayesian derivation of this relationship and apply it to several 'toy models' for the intrinsic distribution of M T , on which we have significant information from available RV data in some mass ranges but little or none in others. The results show that the effect can be an important one. For example, even for simple power-law distributions of M T , the median value of sin(i) in an observed RV sample can vary between 0.860 and 0.023 (as compared to the 0.866 value for an isotropic i distribution) for indices of the power law in the range between -2 and +1, respectively. Over the same range of indices, the 95% confidence interval on M T varies from 1.0001-2.405 (α = -2) to 1.13-94.34 (α = +2) times larger than M T sin(i) due to sin(i) uncertainty alone. More complex, but still simple and plausible, distributions of M T yield more complicated and somewhat unintuitive posterior sin(i) distributions. In particular, if the M T distribution contains any characteristic mass scale M c , the posterior sin(i) distribution will depend on the ratio of M T sin(i) to M c , often in a non-trivial way. Our qualitative conclusion is that RV studies of exoplanets, both individual objects and statistical samples, should regard the sin(i) factor as more than a 'numerical constant of order unity' with simple and well-understood statistical

  1. The seven sins in academic behavior in the natural sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-01-02

    "Seven deadly sins" in modern academic research and publishing can be condensed into a list ranging from poorly described experimental or computational setups to falsification of data. This Essay describes these sins and their ramifications, and serves as a code of best practice for researchers in their quest for scientific truth. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  3. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  4. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  5. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality...... for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates....

  6. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Vertebral Compression Fracture after Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy for Primary Spinal and Paraspinal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT was effective therapy for inoperable spinal and paraspinal sarcomas. However, a significant adverse event following radiotherapies is vertebral compression fractures (VCFs. In this study, we investigated the incidence of and risk factors for post-C-ion RT VCFs in patients with spinal or paraspinal sarcomas. Material and Methods. Thirty consecutive patients with spinal or paraspinal sarcomas treated with C-ion RT were retrospectively reviewed. Various clinical parameters and the Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS were used to evaluate the risk factors for post-C-ion RT VCFs. Results. The overall incidence of VCFs was 23% (median time: 7 months. Patients with VCFs showed a markedly higher SINS score (median value, 9 points than those without VCF (5 points. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the SINS score was 0.88, and the optimum SINS cut-off score was 8 points. The cumulative incidence of VCFs at 1 year was 9% for patients with a SINS score under 8 points, versus 80% for those with a SINS score of 8 points or higher (p<0.0001. Conclusions. In patients with a SINS score of 8 points or higher, referral to a spine surgeon for stabilization and multidisciplinary discussion is appropriate.

  7. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  8. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  9. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  11. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  12. The original risk: overtheologizing ethics and undertheologizing sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The project of articulating a theological ethics on the basis of liturgical anthropology is bound to fail if the necessary consequence is that one has to quit the forum of critical modern rationality. The risk of Engelhardt's approach is to limit rationality to a narrow vision of reason. Sin is not to be understood as the negation of human holiness, but as the negation of divine holiness. The only way to renew theological ethics is to understand sin as the anthropological and ethical expression of the biblical message of the justification by faith only. Sin is therefore a secondary category, which can only by interpreted in light of the positive manifestation of liberation, justification, and grace. The central issue of Christian ethics is not ritual purity or morality, but experience, confession and recognition of our own injustice in our dealing with God and men.

  13. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  14. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  15. Prediction of the electron redundant SinNn fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihui; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-05-01

    The stabilities and electronic structures of SimAln-mNn and SinNn (n = 16, 20, m = 12 and n = 24, m = 16) fullerene-like cages have been investigated using density functional method B3LYP and the second-order perturbation theory MP2. The results show that the SimAln-mNn and SinNn fullerenes are more stable than the AlN counterparts. Comparing with the corresponding AlnNn cages, one silicon atom in each Si2N2 square protrudes and the excess electrons reside as lone pair electrons at the outside of the protrudent Si atoms. Analyses on the electronic structures suggest that the Sisbnd N bonds are covalent bonding with strong polarity. The ELF (electron localization function) shows large electron pair probability between Si and N atoms. The orbital interactions between Si and N are stronger than that between Al and N atoms; the overlap integral is 0.40 per Sisbnd N bond in SinNn and 0.34 per Alsbnd N bond in AlnNn. The AIM (atoms in molecule) charges on the Al atoms in AlnNn and SimAln-mNn are 2.37 and 2.40. The charges on the in-plane and protrudent Si atoms are about 2.88 and 1.50 respectively. Considering the large local dipole moments around the protrudent Si atoms, the electrostatic interactions are also favorable to the SiN cages.

  16. The deadly sins of high technology: Superphenix, Eurotunnel, Ariane 5.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.; Jeanmougin, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of civil or military high technology projects (Superphenix reactor, English Channel tunnel, Ariane 5 launcher, etc..), mainly of European origin, this book reveals seven systematic sins in the realization of these projects: an abolishment of controls, a premature construction, a manumission of suppliers, a no-share of risks attitude, political manipulations, fraudulence and secrecy. (J.S.)

  17. Resisting the therapeutic reduction: on the significance of sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2007-01-01

    Sin-talk, though politically incorrect, is indispensable. Placing human life under the "hermeneutic of sin" means acknowledging that one ought to aim flawlessly at God, and that one can fail in this endeavor. None of this can be appreciated within the contemporary post-Christian, mindset, which has attempted to reduce religion to morality and culture. In such a secular context, the guilt-feelings connected with the recognition of sin are considered to be harmful; the eternal benefit of a repentance is disregarded. Nevertheless, spirituality appears to have therapeutic benefits. Therefore attempts are made to re-locate within healthcare a religion shorn of its transcendent claims, so as then to harvest the benefits of a spirituality "saved from sin". This reduction of religiosity to its therapeutic function is nourished by a post-modern constructivist construal of religion. This article critically examines the dis-ingenuity marring such recasting, as well as the incoherence of related attempts to reduce transcendence to solidarity, and to re-shape the significance of religious rituals.

  18. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La osteomielitis vertebral piógena (OVP es una localización poco frecuente (2-7% Se confirma con el aislamiento de un microorganismo de una vértebra, disco intervertebral, absceso epidural o paravertebral. Se describe una serie de casos por la infrecuente presentación de esta enfermedad, que puede ser consulta inicial en los servicios de clínica médica y por su sintomatología inespecífica que supone una dificultad diagnóstica. Tanto la columna lumbar como la dorsal fueron los sitios más afectados. El dolor dorsolumbar y la paraparesia fueron los síntomas más frecuentes de presentación. En ocho pacientes se aislaron Staphylococcus aureus, en uno Escherichia coli y en el restante Haemophylus sp. Se observó leucocitosis sólo en tres pacientes, y en dos velocidad de sedimentación globular mayor de 100 mm/h. Los diez pacientes presentaron imágenes características de osteomielitis vertebral piógena en la resonancia nuclear magnética. Dentro de las complicaciones, los abscesos paravertebrales y epidurales fueron los más frecuentes (en cinco enfermos. Además, un paciente presentó empiema pleural. De los diez pacientes de esta serie, siete recibieron inicialmente tratamiento médico empírico y luego específico para el germen aislado. En los restantes el tratamiento fue guiado de acuerdo al antibiograma. A dos enfermos fue necesario realizarles laminectomía descompresiva por compromiso de partes blandas y a otros dos estabilización quirúrgica por inestabilidad espinal, observándose buena evolución en todos los casos. Esta serie demuestra que, ante un paciente con dolor dorsolumbar y síntomas neurológicos se deberá tener en cuenta esta entidad para evitar un retraso en el tratamiento.Pyogenic osteomyelitis seldom affects the spine (2-7%. It is diagnosed by the isolation of a bacterial agent in the vertebral body, the intervertebral disks or from paravertebral or epidural abscesses. We report a retrospective study of ten

  19. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  20. Ja kun sinä helluni (2/4, 3/4 F)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Laulun sanat: Ja kun sinä helluni, meillen tuut, älä ketäkään tervehtele, aja vain hevoses tallin eteen äläkä ujostele! Ja kun sinä, helluni, meillen tuut, niin tule sinä illalla hiljaa! Tule sinä naapurin pellon poikki ja älä sinä polje viljaa!

  1. Afectaciones Psicológicas, Estrategias de Afrontamiento y Niveles de Resiliencia de Adultos Expuestos al Conflicto Armado en Colombia/Psychological Symptoms, Coping Strategies and Resilience in Adults Exposed to the Colombian Armed Conflict/Afetações Psicológicas, Estratégicas de Enfrentamento e Níveis de Resiliência de Adultos Expostos ao Conflito Armado na Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Hewitt Ramirez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las afectaciones psicológicas, estrategias de afrontamiento y niveles de resiliencia de 677 adultos expuestos al conflicto armado en un municipio colombiano. Los participantes del estudio fueron seleccionados mediante muestreo aleatorio por afijación proporcional. Se aplicaron el cuestionario de síntomas, prueba de estrés postraumático y escalas de estrategias de afrontamiento y resiliencia. Las principales afectaciones psicológicas encontradas son el sentimiento de que alguien trata de hacerle daño, consumo de alcohol, alteraciones del estado de ánimo y síntomas de estrés postraumático. Las estrategias de afrontamiento más empleadas son la religión y esperar que las cosas se arreglen solas. El nivel de resiliencia es moderado. La percepción de salud es baja y la necesidad de atención es alta.

  2. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasa D; Schiopu M; Tunas A; Baz R; Hancu Anca

    2016-01-01

    An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification) at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10) the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2....

  3. Hemifacial spasm; The value of vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hak Seok; Kim, Myung Soon; Han, Yong Pyo

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of vertebral angiography in assesment of hemifacial spasm, We reviewed retrospectively the vertebral angiography of 28 patients (30 cases) with surgically proved hemifacial spasm but normal CT scans of posterior fossa. There were 9 males and 19 females. Angiography revealed vascular focus of hemifacial spasm located at anterior inferior cerebellar artery , posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and vertebral artery in 19, 9, and 2 cases respectively. Right side was involved in 20 cases. All involved vessels were elongated, tortuous, and dilated. In conclusion, vertebral angiography was valuable in evaluating hemifacial spasm of vascular origin in the posterior fossa

  4. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ∼3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  5. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in El-Sin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Al-Rayyes, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides levels have been determined in El-Sin water for the period of 1995 and 1996. water samples were collected from four sites, which are the main drinking water sources of the area. Radon concentration was found to vary between 0.88 Bq/1 in Lattakia main water supply site and 8.4 Bq/1 in El-Sin springs.The highest values found for other radionuclides were 51.6 mBq/1, 18.6 mB/1 and 24.8 mBq/1 for sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and total uranium (sup 2 sup 3 sup 4 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U) respectively. These levels are much lower than the maximum permissible levels in drinking water set by international organization.(author)

  6. Notes on "bioethics and sin" by Jean-Francois Collange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozby, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Placing the notion of sin in the context of a meontic account of evil, and emphasizing the effect of sin on the sinner himself, this commentary exposes the insufficiency of restricting oneself to human efforts at atonement, and of thus underemphasizing the role of Christ. Collange's claim that the teaching of "predestination" is rooted in Paul and that the doctrine of merits and indulgences is rooted in Augustine is criticized, and Luther's "forensic" understanding is linked with Augustine, rather than with Paul. Collange's reduction of the concern for holiness to respect and trust is contrasted with holiness's essential context of loving unification with God. The commentary closes by exposing the unsatisfactory scantiness of Collange's treatment of cloning, health-care economy, and of the evils of life.

  7. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhui; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuelong; Wu, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN) membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ˜3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  8. ¿Cirugía coronaria sin bomba para todos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Melero Tejedor

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En la pasada década importantes desarrollos técnicos han hecho posible que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea se convierta en un procedimiento rutinario y reproducible. Se presenta la evolución de esta técnica en nuestro hospital durante estos 10 años, el protocolo quirúrgico utilizado, los resultados obtenidos y las motivaciones para extender su uso a todos los pacientes. A pesar de las controversias suscitadas, se espera que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea continúe expandiéndose y los futuros cirujanos cardíacos deben estar preparados para ello.

  9. Adaptive Federal Kalman Filtering for SINS/GPS Integrated System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 缪玲娟

    2003-01-01

    A new adaptive federal Kalman filter for a strapdown integrated navigation system/global positioning system (SINS/GPS) is given. The developed federal Kalman filter is based on the trace operation of parameters estimation's error covariance matrix and the spectral radius of update measurement noise variance-covariance matrix for the proper choice of the filter weight and hence the filter gain factors. Theoretical analysis and results from simulation in which the SINS/GPS was compared to conventional Kalman filter are presented. Results show that the algorithm of this adaptive federal Kalman filter is simpler than that of the conventional one. Furthermore, it outperforms the conventional Kalman filter when the system is undertaken measurement malfunctions because of its possession of adaptive ability. This filter can be used in the vehicle integrated navigation system.

  10. The black Arab as a substitution for sin and guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Radmilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the Black Arab as a form of guilt and sin is a well-established memorial pattern throughout the Mediterranean world, having already existed for more than 3000 years. This text is focused on two different types of interpretation of the Black Stone and its semantic relation with the symbolized figure of Black Arab in the oral traditions of Mediterranean peoples - Jewish religion and Islamic eschatology. The transformation of the signification of the Black Stone was transferred to the Islamic religion in the act of pilgrimage. The Jewish practice of transferring sin and guilt is related with the Iranian-Manichean Ahura Mazda-Ahriman, and the ancient Greek goddess Hecate. All manifestations of the Black Arab left a deep trace on Slavic spiritual life through the Slavic gods Chernobog, Triglav and Toyan and consequently on the deeply rooted conception of all Slavic peoples that the Black Arab was a black demon of death and the underworld.

  11. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    en otros lugares, en el Silúrico-Devónico de Europa y de América del Norte Sin embargo, algunas espinas aisladas hacen pensar en el género Sinacanthus del Devónico inferior de China. Los Placodermos son representados por el Rhenanido Bolivosteus chacomensis Goujet et al, conocido por dos neurocráneos bien conservados Este género es muy similar a Gemuendina (Devónico inferior de Alemania por la forma general del neurocráneo, aunque su cinturón pectoral difiere netamente Los Chondrichthyos se encuentran entre los Vertebrados más abundantes del Devónico de Bolivia. Se caracterizan por espinas aisladas y elementos endoesqueléticos recubiertos de cartílago calcificado prismático. Entre ellos, regiones occipitales aisladas del neurocráneo se asocian aquí a Pucapampella rodrigas n g., n sp , porque se diferencian de todos los neurocráneos conocidos de Chondrichthyos devónicos, principalmente por su fisura occipital continua ventralmente que los separa completamente del resto del cráneo Su superficie ventral fuertemente cóncava evoca sobretodo a los Chimeroideos y hace pensar que pueden haber pertenecido a algún Bradyodonte primitivo. Los Actinopterygios sólo son representados por algunas escamas aisladas, del final del Devónico, las cuales sugieren el género Moythomasia Los restos de Vertebrados más abundantes en los nodulos del Devónico de Bolivia son extraños elementos óseos en forma de zampona, atribuidos aquí al género Zamponiopteron n.g Estos elementos que nunca han sido descritos en otros lugares salvo en Bolivia, se pueden interpretar como aletas pares anquilosadas de algún Chondrichthyos desconocido. Se ha reconocido tres especies en este género, pero éstas corresponden solamente a tipos morfológicos y no existe ninguna certeza acerca de su pertenencia a especies biológicas diferentes. Toda conclusión general de orden paleobiogeográfico sobre esta fauna sería prematura Sin embargo, cabe señalar que ella abarca una mezcla de

  12. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  13. Chick Hairy1 protein interacts with Sap18, a component of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Raquel P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate adult axial skeleton, trunk and limb skeletal muscles and dermis of the back all arise from early embryonic structures called somites. Somites are symmetrically positioned flanking the embryo axial structures (neural tube and notochord and are periodically formed in a anterior-posterior direction from the presomitic mesoderm. The time required to form a somite pair is constant and species-specific. This extraordinary periodicity is proposed to depend on an underlying somitogenesis molecular clock, firstly evidenced by the cyclic expression of the chick hairy1 gene in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm with a 90 min periodicity, corresponding to the time required to form a somite pair in the chick embryo. The number of hairy1 oscillations at any given moment is proposed to provide the cell with both temporal and positional information along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis. Nevertheless, how this is accomplished and what biological processes are involved is still unknown. Aiming at understanding the molecular events triggered by the somitogenesis clock Hairy1 protein, we have employed the yeast two-hybrid system to identify Hairy1 interaction partners. Results Sap18, an adaptor molecule of the Sin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex, was found to interact with the C-terminal portion of the Hairy1 protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay and the Hairy1/Sap18 interaction was independently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We have characterized the expression patterns of both sap18 and sin3a genes during chick embryo development, using in situ hybridization experiments. We found that both sap18 and sin3a expression patterns co-localize in vivo with hairy1 expression domains in chick rostral presomitic mesoderm and caudal region of somites. Conclusion Hairy1 belongs to the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcriptional repressor proteins. Our results indicate that during chick somitogenesis

  14. Homenaje a la columna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Brodsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exiliado en Estados Unidos desde comienzos de la década del setenta, el poeta ruso Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996, adquiere en 1977 la nacionalidad norteamericana. Al año siguiente, una década antes de recibir el Premio Nobel, asiste como miembro de la delegación de Estados Unidos a una reunión internacional del PEN Club, en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, reunión a la que asiste también Mario Vargas Llosa. "Homenaje a la columna vertebral" es la crónica de esa experiencia y de su primera y probablemente única visita a Latinoamérica.

  15. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  16. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  17. Imaging of vertebral fracture in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Jozwiak, E.; Lewinski, A.; Bieganski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral collapses are the most frequent fractures in osteoporosis. They are often overlooked, although their presence is a strong risk factor for development of new fractures. Lateral radiographs of the spine are the accepted standard for assessment of fractures. Qualitative (visual), semiquantitative and quantitative (morphometric) techniques are useful in determining the compressive deformities of vertebral bodies. In the present paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods are discussed. The improvement of scan quality allows to use DXA technique to diagnose the fractures, in both - the visual and the morphometric way. The vertebral morphologic assessment also seems to be an important diagnostic tool in pediatric osteoporosis. Application of multidetector CT and especially MR in vertebral imaging of osteoporosis, improves the sensitivity of fracture detection and enables the differentiation of benign from malignant vertebral body collapses. (author)

  18. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  19. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  20. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...

  1. Is n sin θ conserved along the light path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Sepehrinia, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Snell’s law states that the quantity n{sin}θ is unchanged in refraction of light passing from one medium to another. We inquire whether this is true in the general case where the speed of light varies continuously within a medium. It turns out to be an instructive exercise in application of Snell’s law and Fermat’s principle. It also provides good pedagogical problems in calculus of variations to deal with the subtleties of a variable domain of integration and inclusion of constraints. The final result of these exercises is that, contrary to an initial expectation, the answer to the question in the title is negative.

  2. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  3. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  4. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianlin; Liang Lihua; Wang Yujia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  5. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  6. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  7. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  8. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  9. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2 beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Kelley

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of (anti B) d 0 versus B d 0 decays to J/ψK s 0 . In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198±17 B d 0 /(anti B) d 0 decays were observed in p(anti p) collisions at √s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B 0 or (anti B) 0 ) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2β)=1.8±1.1(stat.)±0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B 0 -(anti B) 0 system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model

  10. The Doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin: Separating Good From Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Arnold S; Malosh, Ryan E; Petrie, Joshua G; Martin, Emily T

    2017-06-15

    The term "original antigenic sin" was coined approximately 60 years ago to describe the imprinting by the initial first influenza A virus infection on the antibody response to subsequent vaccination. These studies did not suggest a reduction in the response to current antigens but instead suggested anamnestic recall of antibody to earlier influenza virus strains. Then, approximately 40 years ago, it was observed that sequential influenza vaccination might lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). This conclusion was largely dismissed after an experimental study involving sequential administration of then-standard influenza vaccines. Recent observations have provided convincing evidence that reduced VE after sequential influenza vaccination is a real phenomenon. We propose that such reduction in VE be termed "negative antigenic interaction," given that there is no age cohort effect. In contrast, the potentially positive protective effect of early influenza virus infection later in life continues to be observed. It is essential that we understand better the immunologic factors underlying both original antigenic sin and negative antigenic interaction, to support development of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  13. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  14. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song; Shimai, Kotaro; Lu, Tsai-Ming; Li, Fang; Fujimoto, Satoko; Ishikawa, Masato; Liu, Shiping; Sasagawa, Yohei; Zhang, Guojie; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yu, Jr-Kai; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Khaitovich, Philipp; Irie, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages that pattern the bodyplan (the phylotype hypothesis); however, there has been no quantitative testing of this idea with a phylum-wide comparison of species. Here, based on data from early-to-late embryonic transcriptomes collected from eight chordates, we suggest that the phylotype hypothesis would be better applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates.

  15. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M

    2017-06-01

    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  16. CT study of vertebral metastasis: re-realization of the diagnostic role of the vertebral pedicle sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Jiang Bo; Chen Yingming; Zhang Chaohui

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the essence of the vertebral pedicle sign of vertebral metastasis on plain film, and to explore the useful CT signs for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods: The CT scans of the spine obtained in 48 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients with vertebral tuberculosis, and 11 with vertebral myeloma, were analyzed. The CT findings were correlated with the abnormalities seen on plain films in 34 of the 48 patients (66 vertebrae involved) with vertebral metastasis. Results: 66 vertebrae were involved in the group of metastasis. Of the 28 vertebrae whose vertebral body were completely destroyed, 15 were seen bilateral pedicles destruction; Of the 22 vertebrae with lateral destruction of the body, 16 were noticed unilateral pedicle destruction which located posterior to the involved side of the body. Of the 62 micro-metastatic foci, 56 were scattered in the vertebral body. In the 19 para-spinal soft-tissue masses of vertebral tuberculosis, 5 were noticed calcifications and 12 with postcontrast rings enhancement. The rates of vertebral pedicle destruction of vertebral metastasis and myeloma were not statistically different (X 2 = 0.03, P > 0.50). The locations of destruction of vertebral body in vertebral metastasis and myeloma had no statistical difference (X 2 = 3.52, P > 0.10), but they differed from that in tuberculosis (X 2 = 39.32, P < 0.001). The distribution of lesions within the vertebrae of metastasis and tuberculosis was similar, but was quite different from myeloma. Conclusion: The vertebral metastasis initially occurs in the vertebral body. The vertebral pedicle sign on plain film of vertebral metastasis is the outcome of the posterior invasion of the tumor in the vertebral body, which is of no differential significance for vertebral metastasis and myeloma. Para-spinal soft tissue mass, location of destruction of vertebral body, and the distribution of lesions within the vertebrae may help

  17. At finde sin stemme på dansk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete

    2013-01-01

    At finde sin stemme på dansk/ Finding your voice in Danish It is a general experience of foreigners in Denmark that Danes and other speakers of Danish tend to switch into English when the foreigners try to use and practice their Danish. In this article, I focus on foreign knowledge workers working...... at Danish universities and their experiences with finding their voice in Danish in an environment where English is frequently used. At CIP, Centre for Internationalisation and Parallel Language Use, we are developing a format for Danish courses aimed at foreign knowledge workers. Central to the development...... of the course is how to make it possible for the participants to practice their Danish and have a voice in Danish outside the classroom. In this article, I discuss different reasons why people switch into English when speaking with learners of Danish and the implications it may have, both for the learners...

  18. Loss of the SIN3 transcriptional corepressor results in aberrant mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüttemann Maik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SIN3 is a transcriptional repressor protein known to regulate many genes, including a number of those that encode mitochondrial components. Results By monitoring RNA levels, we find that loss of SIN3 in Drosophila cultured cells results in up-regulation of not only nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes, but also those encoded by the mitochondrial genome. The up-regulation of gene expression is accompanied by a perturbation in ATP levels in SIN3-deficient cells, suggesting that the changes in mitochondrial gene expression result in altered mitochondrial activity. In support of the hypothesis that SIN3 is necessary for normal mitochondrial function, yeast sin3 null mutants exhibit very poor growth on non-fermentable carbon sources and show lower levels of ATP and reduced respiration rates. Conclusions The findings that both yeast and Drosophila SIN3 affect mitochondrial activity suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for SIN3 in the control of cellular energy production.

  19. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zhaohua; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin; Meng Bin; Chen Kangwu; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P 0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P 0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  20. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  1. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph; Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram

    2008-01-01

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) 0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 ± 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 ± 1.9 vs +0.7 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 ± 4.2 vs -0.8 ± 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 ± 0.11 vs +0.01 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 ± 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 ± 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  2. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  3. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  4. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  5. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    . We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100....... Therefore, patients who discontinue denosumab should rapidly transition to an alternative antiresorptive treatment. Clinicaltrails.gov: NCT00089791 (FREEDOM) and NCT00523341 (Extension). © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  6. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chinghsiung; Lin Shinnkuang E-mail: sk1943@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chang Yeujhy

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome.

  7. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  8. Electronic properties of a new structured Sin/O superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is a material which dominants the semiconductor industry and has a well-established processing technology based on it. However, silicon has an indirect-bandgap and is not efficient in light emitting. This limits its applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we proposed a new structural model for the silicon-based superlattice, i.e., the Sin/O one. The model consists of alternating films of n-layers of Si and a monolayer of oxygen along z-direction, together with a surface cell of Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction in the x-y plane. The importance of employing such a Si(001 (2×1 reconstruction is that all the electrons at interface can be strongly bonded. Our results showed interesting electronic properties, e.g., the band folding and large band gap of bulk Si, when the thickness of the silicon layers was increased (but still thin. Our structure might also offer other interesting properties.

  9. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological.

  10. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  11. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  13. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Chenelle, Andrew G.; Origitano, Thomas C.; Bova, Davide

    2003-01-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  14. Early Christian spiritualties of sin and forgiveness according to 1 John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G. van der Merwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to investigate the possible lived experiences created by this text. The text revolves around the experience of fellowship with God (1:6, 7 who is characterised as ‘light’. For the author of 1 John, sin disrupts this fellowship. He creates an awareness and a ‘spirituality of sin and guilt’ in the lives of his readers through the use of the experiential metaphor of darkness in a dialectic combination with light and the two false negations ‘do not have sin’ (sin as a noun and ‘do not sin’ (sin as a verb. This fellowship is re-established through living in the light: the confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin. The author creates a spirituality of confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin through descriptive cultic (blood of Jesus and expiation, forensic (paraclete, atypical (cleans, expiation, paraclete and all-inclusive (all [twice], whole, anyone language. Thus, in his rhetoric, the author uses metaphor, dialectic, sacrificial, forensic, atypical and all-inclusive language to facilitate a variety of ‘lived experiences’ within his readers. Firstly, he wants them to feel guilty about their sins and consequently, after they have confessed their sins, to strengthen their faith. Secondly, he wants to encourage them to believe that they can experience the forgiveness of their sins and, by doing so, know that they have eternal life (5:13 and can experience fellowship with God and, mutually, with one another.

  15. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  16. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  17. Diseño, sin ambigüedades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Flórez Polo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compila y amplía algunos textos de artículos, ensayos y conferencias de los autores como una reflexión sobre la dimensión disciplinaria del Diseño ante la importancia de desarrollar o precisar sus alcances, limitaciones y características como modo de pensar y facilitar su inserción como factor de desarrollo social y productivo. A partir de un depurado o más preciso uso del vocabulario relacionado, y para reducir los riesgos de distorsión en su interpretación se explícita el sentido de la terminología utilizada y los conceptos propuestos. El trabajo se presenta en dos partes. En la primera, acotada en este artículo (sin pretender definir el Diseño se intenta clarificar su naturaleza como recurso del pensamiento creativo, analizando los principales aspectos que caracterizan o definen su esencia como actividad distintiva de la especie, en su relación social y con el medio. En la segunda, en un artículo consecutivo, se propone un conjunto de descriptores —categorías, variables o factores— que al establecer y precisar las particularidades de lo que es o puede ser el Diseño como disciplina permiten: a.- en lo general, diferenciarla frente a otras disciplinas, profesiones, ejercicios, oficios, ciencias y saberes reconocidos tradicionalmente como tales; y, b.- en lo específico, tomar conciencia sobre su singularidad, y entenderla como un recurso innovador para modificar nuestra relación individual y social con el entorno como seres pensantes, autónomos, responsables de nuestras necesidades y posibilidades y por los efectos que de su satisfacción y ejercicio se derivan.

  18. Original Mycobacterial Sin, a consequence of highly homologous antigens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A O; Michel, A; Rutten, V

    2017-05-01

    The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals. It also takes an in-depth view into assessing the genetic similarities and relationships between atypical mycobacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and how they might explain the immunological imprint of environmental mycobacteria in directing the hosts' immune response upon subsequent exposure to other classes of mycobacteria. The outcome of this review suggests that genetic closeness between particular atypical mycobacteria and MTBC usually indicate a higher level of homology for certain shared protective antigens. This ultimately results in a higher level of cross reactive immune responses as compared with other atypical mycobacteria that are further away genetically. This would explain the different effects of environmental mycobacteria on MTBC that have been reported in the different studies. In other words the direction of the host immune system in response to exposure to MTBC would depend on the type of environmental mycobacteria that was encountered in the initial exposure. We also explain these mycobacterial interactions in the context of the phenomenon of "Original Mycobacterial Sin". The effects of these inevitable mycobacterial interactions on field diagnosis and control by vaccination and how to circumvent them are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A mechanical perspective on vertebral segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truskinovsky, L.; Vitale, G.; Smit, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a characteristic feature of the vertebrate body plan. The prevailing paradigm explaining its origin is the 'clock and wave-front' model, which assumes that the interaction of a molecular oscillator (clock) with a traveling gradient of morphogens (wave) pre-defines spatial

  20. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  1. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  2. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical or biophysical principles can be applied to study biological structures in their modern or fossil form. Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its microstructures such as lacuna and canaliculi to ...

  3. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  4. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  5. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  7. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  8. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  9. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  10. Methods to score vertebral deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Raymakers, J. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to compare four different scoring methods for vertebral deformities: the semiquantitative Kleerekoper score and three quantitative scores (according to Minne, Melton and Raymakers) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral

  11. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  12. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-01-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components. (orig.) [de

  13. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  14. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  15. MR imaging of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouliamos, A.D.; Kehagias, D.T.; Lahanis, S.; Moulopoulou, E.S.; Kalovidouris, A.A.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.j. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece); Athanassopoulou, A.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Asklipiion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is one of the most common manifestations of tuberculosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the main imaging modality for the diagnosis, the demonstration of the extent of the disease, and follow-up studies. Vertebral destruction involving two consecutive levels with sparing of the intervertebral disc, disc herniation into the vertebral body, epidural involvement, and paraspinal abscess are the most common MRI findings suggestive of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  16. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzur,Edmundo

    1996-01-01

    Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of t...

  17. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  18. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  19. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  20. Calvin’s modification of Augustine’s doctrine of original sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine was Calvin’s main source of reference in the “Insti- tutes”. However, his treatment of Augustine’s views was not uncritical. This article discusses the way in which Calvin modi- fied Augustine’s doctrine of original sin. The main differences can be attributed to different theological aims. Augustine deve- loped his doctrine of original sin against the teachings of the Manicheans and Pelagians, whereas Calvin shifted the focus to knowledge of God and the self. Calvin understood original sin noetically as religious and moral blindness – whereas Augus- tine viewed sexual concupiscence as the main principle of original sin. Augustine made a considerable effort to explain that sin does not find its origin in God. God foresaw the fall, but did not compel it. Calvin located sin in God’s eternal decree and permission. Augustine, furthermore, understood the transmis- sion of original sin biologically, whereas Calvin ascribed it to God’s eternal permissive will. These differences culminated in a different understanding of the meaning of Jesus’ virgin birth. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of Calvin’s noetic approach to original sin.

  1. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters Victoria Wahl-Jensen,1 Jennifer...Ye, C., J. Prescott , R. Nofchissey, D. Goade, and B. Hjelle. 2004. Neutralizing antibodies and Sin Nombre virus RNA after recovery from hantavirus

  2. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  3. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate, with or without laminectomy, for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability caused by congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Takeshi; Kanazono, Shinichi; Yoshigae, Yuki; Sharp, Nicholas J H; Muñana, Karen R

    2007-07-01

    To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in dogs with thoracic spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomalies. Retrospective clinical study. Dogs (n=9) with thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Medical records (1995-1996; 2000-2006) of 9 dogs with a myelographic diagnosis of spinal canal stenosis and/or vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly that were surgically managed by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy were reviewed. Data on pre- and postoperative neurologic status, diagnostic findings, surgical techniques, and outcomes were retrieved. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1, 2, and 6 months. Long-term outcome was assessed by means of clinical examination or owner telephone interviews. Spinal cord compression was confirmed by myelography, and in 2 dogs, dynamic compression by stress myelography. Eight dogs regained the ability to ambulate postoperatively. One dog with a partial recovery regained voluntary movement but did not become ambulatory. Spinal cord injury secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly may have a good outcome when treated by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy. Adequate stabilization of the vertebrae and improved neurologic outcome were achieved in most dogs. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate with or without laminectomy is an effective treatment for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

  4. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  5. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  6. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide

    2001-01-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  7. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  8. Measurement of sin2θw and ϱ in deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutens, P. G.; Merritt, F. S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Messner, R. L.; Novikoff, D. B.; Purohit, M. V.; Blair, R. E.; Sciulli, F. J.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Fisk, H. E.; Fukushima, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Kondo, T.; Rapidis, P. A.; Yovanovitch, D. D.; Bodek, A.; Coleman, R. N.; Marsh, W. L.; Fackler, O. D.; Jenkins, K. A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe a high statistics measurement from deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering of the electroweak parameters ϱ and sin2θw, performed in the Fermilab narrow-band neutrino beam. Our measurement uses a radius-dependent cut in y = EH/Ev which reduces the systematic error in sin2θw, and incorporates electromagnetic and electroweak radiative corrections. In a renormalization scheme where sin2θw ≡ 1-m2W/m2Z, a value of sin2θw = 0.242+/-0.011+/-0.005 is obtained fixing ϱ = 1. If both sin2θw and ϱ are allowed to vary in a fit to our data, we measure ϱ = 0.991 +/- 0.025 +/- 0.009. Present address: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

  9. The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L

    1999-03-01

    Though often reliable, human memory is also fallible. This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic "sins": transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. The first three sins involve different types of forgetting, the next three refer to different types of distortions, and the final sin concerns intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget. Evidence is reviewed concerning each of the 7 sins from relevant sectors of psychology (cognitive, social, and clinical) and from cognitive neuroscience studies that include patients with focal brain damage or make use of recently developed neuroimaging techniques. Although the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, it is argued instead that they are by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.

  10. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Untreated vertebral compression fractures can have serious clinical consequences and impose a considerable impact on patients' quality of life and on caregivers. Since non-surgical management of these fractures has limited effectiveness, vertebral augmentation procedures are gaining acceptance in clinical practice for pain control and fracture stabilization. The objective of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer. We performed a systematic review of health economic studies to identify relevant studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty with non-surgical management for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer. We also performed a primary cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the clinical benefits and costs of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty compared with non-surgical management in the same population. We developed a Markov model to forecast benefits and harms of treatments, and corresponding quality-adjusted life years and costs. Clinical data and utility data were derived from published sources, while costing data were derived using Ontario administrative sources. We performed sensitivity analyses to examine the robustness of the results. In addition, a 1-year budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontario administrative sources. Two scenarios were explored: (a) an increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario, maintaining the current proportion of kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty; and (b) no increase in the total number of vertebral augmentation procedures performed among patients with cancer in Ontario but an increase in the proportion of kyphoplasties versus vertebroplasties. The base case considered each of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty

  11. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  12. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  13. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CT and MRI of vertebral haemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braitinger, S.; Weigert, F.; Held, P.; Obletter, N.; Breit, A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective comparative study of CT and MRI was carried out involving 38 vertebral haemangiomas; this revealed a typical signal pattern on MRI from benign lesions. It consists of a hyper-intense signal from the bone marrow affecting the T 1 /T 2 sequences; this may be focal or involve the entire vertebral body. These characteristic signals were compared with CT images of the spine. The areas of bone that produce the high intensity signals on MRI appear on CT as spongey patterns with hypertrophic trabeculae surrounding mostly areas with negative absorption values. An analysis of the changes in the spongiosa has revealed three clearly defined types. The signals derived from haemangiomas extending beyond the bone have an intensity of normal spongiosa; this corresponds with an absence of fat, as demonstrated by CT. Extra-osseous components have low intensity T 1 signals that increase in T 2 sequences. (orig.) [de

  15. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  16. Vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    October and November 1980 vertebrate ecology study accomplishments are outlined in this report. The report provides a listing of food items found in the crops of Mourning Doves collected at the WIPP Site during 1979 and a listing of small mammal digestive tracts and reproductive tracts that have been removed, labeled and preserved. Scaled Quail collection results are also reported. Each specimen was weighed and sexed and the crop contents of each specimen was removed for analysis

  17. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  18. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brenes

    Full Text Available Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis, and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans. We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively, but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  19. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  20. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  1. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such 'orientation-selective' neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates.

  2. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  4. Dma1-dependent degradation of SIN proteins during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs

    2014-07-15

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe septation initiation network (SIN) is required for cytokinesis during vegetative growth and for spore formation during meiosis. Regulation of the SIN during mitosis has been studied extensively, but less is known about its meiotic regulation. Here, we show that several aspects of SIN regulation differ between mitosis and meiosis. First, the presence of GTP-bound Spg1p is not the main determinant of the timing of Cdc7p and Sid1p association with the spindle pole body (SPB) during meiosis. Second, the localisation dependencies of SIN proteins differ from those in mitotic cells, suggesting a modified functional organisation of the SIN during meiosis. Third, there is stage-specific degradation of SIN components in meiosis; Byr4p is degraded after meiosis I, whereas the degradation of Cdc7p, Cdc11p and Sid4p occurs after the second meiotic division and depends upon the ubiquitin ligase Dma1p. Finally, Dma1p-dependent degradation is not restricted to the SIN, as we show that Dma1p is needed for the degradation of Mcp6p (also known as Hrs1p) during meiosis I. Taken together, these data suggest that stage-specific targeted proteolysis plays an important role in regulating meiotic progression. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  6. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity.

  7. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Marcia, S.; Guarnieri, G.; Pereira, V.

    2015-01-01

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications

  8. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  9. Evaluation on vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by MRI and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yu; Shen Huiliang; Fang Xiutong; Zhang Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with acute or sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVC-F) by MRI, and to provide basis for diagnosis of OVCF. Methods: The clinical data of a total of 66 patients with OVCF underwent vertebroplasty (76 fracture of vertebral bodies) were selected. The vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of OVCF patients were detected by MRI. Results: There were 57 vertebral endplate injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (75% ). There were only 27 vertebral bodies with vertebral endplate injury in 57 fracture vertebral bodies with endplate injury (47% ), and 22 vertebral with superior and inferior vertebral endplate injury (39% ), and 8 vertebral bodies with inferior vertebral endplate injury (14% ). There were 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (63% ). There were 22 intervertebral disc injury located above the fracture of the lumbar spine in 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury (45% ), and 19 fracture vertebral bodies with upper and lower intervertebral disc injury (40% ), and 7 intervertebral injuries located below the fracture of the lumbar spine (15% ). Conclusion: Vertebral endplate injury is frequently associated with the adjacent intervertebral disk injury. The clinical diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized in the fracture vertebral endplate damage and adjacent intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  10. Modulación del crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación hemicircunferencial vertebral asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero García, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo está basado en la posibilidad de controlar el desarrollo asimétrico de los cartílagos de crecimiento vertebral, mediante la realización de una fisiodesis hemivertebral, con electrocoagulación, videoasistida por toracoscópica. Se realizará en cinco niveles torácicos, con un abordaje anterior mínimamente invasivo. Por lo tanto, planteamos como hipótesis de trabajo que La destrucción de las fisis de crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación, videoasistida por vía toracosc...

  11. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Precision Measurement of sin$^{2}\\theta$$_{w}$ from Semileptonic Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wotschack, Jorg

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring the electroweak mixing parameter sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory $^{1}$ as precisely as possible: first, its value may be predicted by models of Grand Unification;$^{2}$ second, precise measurements of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ from different processes would test the validity of electroweak radiative corrections. $^{3,$}$. Different methods have been used to determine sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, over a large range of $Q^{2}$ values. FIGURE 1 gives a compilation of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ with remarkable agreement between the results. At present, it is most precisely determined in semileptonic neutrino-nucleon scattering from the ratio of neutral current (NC) to charged current (CC) cross and in proton-antiproton collisions from the W boson mass. $^{10,11}$.

  13. Nuclear effects and the NuTeV sin2 θW measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, K.S.; Zeller, G.P.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; Barbaro, L. de; Barbaro, P. de; Bernstein, R.H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R.B.; Fleming, B.T.; Frey, R.; Formaggio, J.A.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D.A.; Johnson, R.A.; Kim, J.H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McDonald, J.; McNulty, C.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Radescu, V.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tzanov, M.; Vakili, M.; Vaitaitis, A.; Yang, U.K.; Yu, J.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    NuTeV measures sin 2 θ W by comparing neutral and charged current cross-sections on a heavy nuclear target, and finds a value of sin 2 θ W (on-shell) = 0.2277 ± 0.0013(stat) ± 0.0009(syst), approximately 3σ from the predicted value. We discuss the possibility that nuclear effects on parton distribution functions or cross-sections may be responsible for the discrepancy

  14. Interaction between NBS1 and the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex through specific domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS is a chromosomal-instability syndrome. The NBS gene product, NBS1 (p95 or nibrin, is a part of the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex. SIN1 is a component of the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex mediating the activation of Akt. Here we show that NBS1 interacted with mTOR, Rictor, and SIN1. The specific domains of mTOR, Rictor, or SIN1 interacted with the internal domain (a.a. 221-402 of NBS1. Sucrose density gradient showed that NBS1 was located in the same fractions as the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex. Knockdown of NBS1 decreased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and its downstream targets. Ionizing radiation (IR increased the NBS1 levels and activated Akt activity. These results demonstrate that NBS1 interacts with the mTOR/Rictor/SIN1 complex through the a.a. 221-402 domain and contributes to the activation of Akt activity.

  15. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data

  16. [Development and application of artificial vertebral body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Zheng-Chao; Niu, Bin-Bin; Li, Yu-Huan; He, Xi-Jing

    2017-12-25

    Artificial vertebral body has achieved good results in treating spinal tumors, tuberculosis, fracture and other diseases. Currently, artificial vertebral body with variety of kinds and pros and cons, is generally divided into two types: fusion type and movable type. The former according to whether the height could be adjusted and strength of self-stability is divided into three types: support-fixed type, adjust-fixed type and self-fixed type. Whether the height of self-fixed type could be adjusted is dependent on structure of collar thread rotation. The latter is due to mobile device of ball-and-socket joints or hollow structures instead of the disc which retains the activity of the spine to some extent. Materials of artificial vertebral body include metals, ceramics, biomaterials, polymer composites and other materials. Titanium with a dominant role in the metal has developed to the third generation, but there are still defects such as poor surface bioactivity; ceramics with the representative of hydroxyapatite composite, magnetic bioceramics, polycrystalline alumina ceramics and so on, which have the defects of processing complex and uneven mechanical properties; biological material is mainly dominated by xenogeneic bone, which is closest to human bone in structure and properties, but has defects of low toughness and complex production; polymer composites according to biological characteristics in general consists of biodegradable type and non-biodegradable type which are respectively represented by poly-lactide and polyethylene, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although the design and materials of prosthesis have made great progress, it is difficult to fully meet requirements of spinal implants and they need be further optimized. 3D printing technology makes process of the complex structure of prosthesis and individual customization possible and has broad development prospects. However, long production cycles and high cost of defect should be overcome

  17. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  18. Homology in vertebrates bone mineral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in bull and sheep bones as well as in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established and crystal phases in all the bones have identical structure (homology). The result becomes to be an important contribution to fundamental science such as biological evolution and to be useful in medical practice and solution of radiobiological problems connected with vertebrates and man. (author)

  19. A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Death and Sin in the Works of St. Augustine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem kakaie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Death has been an everlasting human question. It has been regarded as one of the existential and human epistemic concerns both in religions and various philosophical and theological schools. The question of death in the works of Saint Augustine has been largely dismissed by scholars. Scrutinizing his oeuvre indicates that compared to his predecessors and based on his approach to Christianity, specifically to St. Paul’s doctrines, Augustine is more attentive to the relation between death and sin. In his works, he justifies death based on the original sin as well as those everyday sins that committed by human being throughout her life, identifying sin as the cause of death. Accordingly, he prefers moral causes rather than natural causes resulting in death. Augustine contends that there are three types of death, i.e. corporeal death (the separation of soul and body, spiritual death (separation of human being and God due to sin, and the eternal death (in which soul remains in body, bearing the burden of eternal corporeal punishment away from God. He believes that God created a human being in a way according to which she would have benefited from eternal life if she had not sinned. However, now not only corporeal death but also the eternal death of soul are the consequences of sins. He opines that all human race, Except Jesus and his mother are the heirs of the original sin committed by Adam and Eve. In this way, every human being is born sinful, contaminated by the original. According to this viewpoint, the human race cannot be perceived as naturally innocent or away from intellectual mistake and deviation. Rather, human being and her thoughts and deeds can be understood only based on the doctrine of fall. In addition, the Adam’s original sin in not merely an event but it is a complicated circumstance imposed by God as a punishment of Adam and Eve due to their disobedience which is followed by different types of death as well as such

  20. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  1. Vertebral morphometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a key feature of overt osteoporosis. Different X-ray morphometric techniques have been developed for quantification of changes in vertebral body shape. In recent years, a new method was implemented based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry, MXA, is a source of lower radiation and there is no image distortion. Several aspects of its application are under heavy discussion: image quality, accuracy and precision, reference databases, age changes in vertebral shape. The differential diagnosis of vertebral fracture/deformity is difficult. MXA has prove its value in large epidemiological studies on prevalence of vertebral deformities, as well in assessing the effects of different diseases and medications on vertebral body architecture. MXA is a promising method for future research and clinical work. (author)

  2. CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis (34 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenbing; Liao Qinghou; Wu Shiqiang; Huang Tao; Deng Yufang; Liu Jianming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis. Methods: 34 patients with vertebral tuberculosis proved by clinic or pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Of these patients, 20 were performed with CT examination and 24 with MRI, 10 with both CT and MRI. The results were compared mutually. Results: The CT features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement. The MRI features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, intervertebral disc destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement, sub-ligamental spread. Conclusion: Vertebral tuberculosis showed multiple characteristics on CT and MRI. CT is useful in showing sequester and calcification, and MRI is useful in showing sub-ligamental spread, epidural and spinal cord involvement. Combining CT with and MRI is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vertebral tuberculosis. (authors)

  3. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kevin J.; Ross, E. Raymond S.; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had e...

  4. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vertebral metastases: characteristic MRI findings due to epidural carcinomatous inflitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzelmann, A.; Palmie, S.; Freund, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of lumbar vertebral metastasis associated with anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, we have observed that infiltrations tend to respect the midline. This study led to the systematic recognition of these phenomena in vertebral metastases. Materials and Methods: 11 Patients with 17 vertebral metastases and adjacent anterior epidural infiltration were reviewed retrospectively. All cases were studied by MRI. The routinely used imaging technique included spin echo (SE) T 1 and T 2 weighted sequences in the sagittal plane native and T 1 -SE without and with Gd-DTPA in the axial planes. The radiological findings of these phenomena and the anatomy were studied. Results: We observed these phenomena to be uni- or bilateral in 88.3% of all cases with intraspinal anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, especially in that part of the vertebral body where the basal vertebral venous plexus was located. Conclusion: We conclude that vertebral metastases respect the midline. We interpret this fact as being due the anatomy of the vertebral body and especially its stabilization by the posterior longitudinal ligament. These findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of vertebral body metastases with epidural infiltration in contrast to intraspinal processes which proceed with the destruction of the vertebral body. (orig.) [de

  6. Use of cervical vertebral dimensions for assessment of children growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old) who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3) method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and chronological age and between bone age and chronological age. However no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (pmaturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed.

  7. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  8. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  10. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  11. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  12. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  13. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  14. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean ± standard error cement volume was 5.1 ± 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of o vs. -1.0 ± 2.7 o , P o , P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 ± 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  16. Light adaptation and the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-07-15

    Lamprey are cyclostomes, a group of vertebrates that diverged from lines leading to jawed vertebrates (including mammals) in the late Cambrian, 500 million years ago. It may therefore be possible to infer properties of photoreceptors in early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We show that lamprey rods and cones respond to light much like rods and cones in amphibians and mammals. They operate over a similar range of light intensities and adapt to backgrounds and bleaches nearly identically. These correspondences are pervasive and detailed; they argue for the presence of rods and cones very early in the evolution of vertebrates with properties much like those of rods and cones in existing vertebrate species. The earliest vertebrates were agnathans - fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We have previously shown that rods and cones in lamprey respond to light much like photoreceptors in other vertebrates and have a similar sensitivity. We now show that these affinities are even closer. Both rods and cones adapt to background light and to bleaches in a manner almost identical to other vertebrate photoreceptors. The operating range in darkness is nearly the same in lamprey and in amphibian or mammalian rods and cones; moreover background light shifts response-intensity curves downward and to the right over a similar range of ambient intensities. Rods show increment saturation at about the same intensity as mammalian rods, and cones never saturate. Bleaches decrease

  17. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more

  18. Epigenetic activation of SIN1 promotes NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis by affecting the epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhongwu; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Yuemei; Zang, Bao; Hui, Hongxia; You, Zhenbing; Wang, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) interacting protein 1 (SIN1) is an essential component of mTORC2. Previous studies have shown that SIN1 is a key regulator of Akt pathway which plays an important role in various pathological conditions including cancer. While its effects and mechanisms on the progression of NSCLC remain unknown. In this study, we report that SIN1 is able to promote the growth and migration of NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of SIN1 promoted A549 and H1299 cells proliferation by both MTT and colony formation assays. Consistently, knockdown of SIN1 inhibited the proliferation of these cells. In transwell assay, overexpression of SIN1 increased the migration of A549 and H1299 cells, while SIN1 knockdown reduced their migration. In a tumor xenograft model, overexpression of SIN1 promoted tumor growth of A549 cells in vivo, while SIN1 knockdown suppresses the tumor growth. We also found a mechanistic link between SIN1 and H3K4me3, H3K4me3 is involved in SIN1 upregulation. Moreover, SIN1 can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via induction epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which subsequently leads to transcriptional downregulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Together, our results reveal that SIN1 plays an important role in NSCLC and SIN1 is a potential biomarker and a promising target in the treatment of NSCLC.

  19. Transformation of a metaphor: semantic shift in a Cantonese term 'Chi Sin' denoting insanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J Y W; Chen, E Y H

    2015-03-01

    The historical evolution of the existing terms used to describe insanity may be able to shed light on the formation of stigma towards psychosis patients. In Hong Kong, a widely used Cantonese term for insanity 'Chi Sin' provides a unique example because of its neutral original sense, as it literally means misconnection in a network circuit. We attempt to trace the origin and subsequent evolution of the term 'Chi Sin' from its early use to the present day to understand how local Hong Kong people have attached increasingly negative connotations to this scientific term since the mid-20th century. We sampled as many newspapers and magazines published in Hong Kong from 1939 to June 2014 as possible, and sampled 7 popular local movies from the 1950s and 1960s. We also searched all the newspapers published in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and Mainland China from January 1998 to June 2014, and searched several other local historical resources. In one early use of 'Chi Sin' in 1939, the term was only used in a technical sense to describe 'short circuiting'. We found that the development of the telephone system, the Strowger system, in Hong Kong is closely related to the evolution of the semantics of the term 'Chi Sin'. The original meaning of short circuitry of the term 'Chi Sin' is no longer used, and it has become a dead metaphor through repeated use with negative emotional connotations. This illustrates some of the factors facilitating the emergence of a metaphor with subsequent semantic drift.

  20. Fuzzy adaptive integration scheme for low-cost SINS/GPS navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Hossein; Keighobadi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Due to weak stand-alone accuracy as well as poor run-to-run stability of micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors, special approaches are required to integrate low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with global positioning system (GPS), particularly in long-term applications. This paper aims to enhance long-term performance of conventional SINS/GPS navigation systems using a fuzzy adaptive integration scheme. The main concept behind the proposed adaptive integration is the good performance of attitude-heading reference system (AHRS) in low-accelerated motions and its degradation in maneuvered or accelerated motions. Depending on vehicle maneuvers, gravity-based attitude angles can be intelligently utilized to improve orientation estimation in the SINS. Knowledge-based fuzzy inference system is developed for decision-making between the AHRS and the SINS according to vehicle maneuvering conditions. Inertial measurements are the main input data of the fuzzy system to determine the maneuvering level during the vehicle motions. Accordingly, appropriate weighting coefficients are produced to combine the SINS/GPS and the AHRS, efficiently. The assessment of the proposed integrated navigation system is conducted via real data in airborne tests.

  1. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  2. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  3. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  4. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  5. Vertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between roentgenological deformities of the vertebral column and clinical manifestations of vertebral fractures in patients with RA, treated with glucocorticosteroids (Cs). In all outpatients of Utrecht University Hospital with RA, who were currently using Cs (n = 52),

  6. Preoperative MRI evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Wu Chungen; Li Minghua; Li Yuehua; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging examination in guiding the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: A total of 286 patients with vertebral hemangiomas detected on spine MRI in authors' Department were enrolled in this study. The patient's age, the lesion's size and location, the clinical symptoms, MRI findings, etc. were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 336 vertebral bodies were affected in 286 patients. The lesions were mainly located at the lumbar spine (43.15%) and the thoracic spine (37.80%). The highest incidence of disease was seen in 50-59 years old patients (34.62%). The mean diameter of the lesions was 14.56 mm. Solitary lesion was seen in 85.66% of patients, while two vertebral bodies involved were seen in 10.14% of patients. Twelve cases (4.20%) simply presented as back pain at the related vertebral bodies. Two patients showed signs due to spinal cord compression. All aggressive vertebral hemangiomas were manifested as iso-lower signal on T1-weighted images and higher signal on T2-weighted images. Simple PVP was performed in 4 cases, and subtotal tumor excision together with PVP was carried out in two patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Conclusion: Evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas with MRI performed prior to percutaneous vertebroplasty is very helpful in guiding the selection of therapeutic scheme. (authors)

  7. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  8. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  9. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....84 Special rules—vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1) The...

  10. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  11. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertebral artery injury in all patients who have fractures involving the transverse foraminae of the cervical spine, those with facet joint dislocations, and those with fractures involving the first to the third cervical vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury using CTA in ...

  13. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  14. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  15. Síndrome urémico hemolítico asociado a diarrea sin trombocitopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Balestracci

    2017-09-01

    Conclusiones: La prevalencia de SUH D+ sin trombocitopenia fue del 5,6% y la mayoría de los casos fueron leves; sin embargo, el requerimiento de diálisis en uno de ellos señala que la normalización del recuento de plaquetas no siempre es un marcador preciso de resolución de la enfermedad. Nuestros resultados también confirman que el momento de presentación de los pacientes con SUH D+ sin trombocitopenia está usualmente alejado de los primeros síntomas intestinales, por lo que es necesario un alto índice de sospecha diagnóstica.

  16. Production and characterization of Si-N films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.; Cavaleiro, A.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Si-N films were deposited by sputtering from an Si 3 N 4 target with different deposition pressures and negative substrate bias. The films were amorphous and showed a ''featureless'' morphology. A high oxygen content was detected in unbiased films. For these films the Si/N ratio was very high compared with the target composition, whereas for biased films the opposite was observed. Si-N films presented cohesive failures for loads as high as 21 N and adhesive failure at 45 N when they were analysed by scratch test. Very high hardness (45 GPa) was obtained, particularly for biased films. Unbiased films were softer, which is attributed to the formation of silicon oxide and/or to a lower compressive stress level. (orig.)

  17. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  18. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  19. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  20. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc

  2. Sucesos vitales estresantes en mujeres en situación sin hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cabrera, José Juan; Rodríguez Moreno, Sara Isabel; Roca Morales, Pablo; Panadero Herrero, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Las Personas Sin Hogar (PSH) forman parte de un colectivo especialmente vulnerable al padecimiento de Sucesos Vitales Estresantes (SVE) a lo largo de la vida. Además, los escasos datos indican que las Mujeres Sin Hogar (MSH) presentan una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir dichos sucesos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la prevalencia de SVE en un grupo de 138 MSH de la ciudad de Madrid. Los resultados apuntan que las MSH experimentan un número muy elevado de SVE tanto en la infancia/adole...

  3. Moving State Marine SINS Initial Alignment Based on High Degree CKF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new moving state marine initial alignment method of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is proposed based on high-degree cubature Kalman filter (CKF, which can capture higher order Taylor expansion terms of nonlinear alignment model than the existing third-degree CKF, unscented Kalman filter and central difference Kalman filter, and improve the accuracy of initial alignment under large heading misalignment angle condition. Simulation results show the efficiency and advantage of the proposed initial alignment method as compared with existing initial alignment methods for the moving state SINS initial alignment with large heading misalignment angle.

  4. Cambios microestructurales y reológicos de masas y panes sin gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Flores, José Octavio

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de la microestructura de las masas y panes sin gluten nos permite predecir el comportamiento de estos durante los procesos de elaboración y por ende la maquinabilidad de los mismos. Se hizo un análisis reológico de masas sin gluten y un análisis de perfil de textura (TPA) a los panes elaborados a partir de estas, también se tomaron imágenes por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido, tanto de las masas como de los panes. Para hacer el perfil reológico se hicieron ensayos osci...

  5. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X G; Sun, Y; Boonen, S; Nicholson, P H.F.; Dequeker, J [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  6. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J.; Brys, P.; Felsenberg, D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  7. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  9. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the ci......-of-events approach. In addition we use information on father's location as an instrument. We find that the sorting effect dominates. Moving to the countryside is therefore not a cheap way to prolong relationships....

  10. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade interobservadores de uma nova escala para orientação da conduta terapêutica nas metástases vertebrais: escore SINS (Spine Instability Neoplastic Score Evaluación de la reproducibilidad interobservador de una nueva escala para la orientación de la conducta terapêutica de las metástasis vertebrales: puntuación SINS Assessment of interobserver reproducibility of a new scale for management guidance in spinal metastasis: SINS score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Sousa Sales da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto na conduta e quantificar a reprodutibilidade interobservador do escore SINS. Além disso, determinar sua aplicabilidade em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Compilou-se uma apresentação com 20 casos de lesões secundárias da coluna, que foi analisada por 10 observadores. Estes definiram a estabilidade de cada lesão e, após a apresentação do sistema SINS, os mesmos casos foram apresentados aos mesmos observadores para que novamente determinassem a estabilidade da lesão. Os dados colhidos foram analisados por meio do cálculo do Kappa de Fleiss e da correlação intraclasse. RESULTADOS: Obtivemos concordância moderada interobservador com o uso do escore SINS. CONCLUSÕES: O sistema é aplicável em nosso meio. Houve mudança de opinião quanto à estabilidade da lesão após a apresentação do escore aos observadores.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto en la conducta y cuantificar la reproducibilidad interobservador de la escala SINS. Además de eso, determinar la aplicabilidad de la clasificación en nuestro medio. MÉTODOS: Se compiló una presentación de 20 casos de lesiones secundarias de la columna vertebral que fue examinada por 10 observadores. Estos definieron la estabilidad de cada lesión y después de la presentación de la puntuación SINS, los mismos casos fueron presentados a los mismos observadores para que de nuevo determinasen la estabilidad de la lesión. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados mediante el cálculo de Kappa de Fleiss y de la correlación intraclasse. RESULTADOS: Obtuvimos concordancia moderada interobservador con el uso de la puntuación SINS. CONCLUSIONES: La puntuación es aplicable en nuestro medio. Hubo un cambio de opinión en cuanto a la estabilidad de la lesión después de la presentación de la puntuación a los observadores.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on the management and quantify the inter-observer reproducibility of SINS Score. Also, determine its applicability to our milieu

  11. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  12. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  13. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  14. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  16. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  17. El Palacio sin máscara: La lectura de quien no estuvo allí.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Abad Faciolince

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un análisis de la obra "El Palacio sin máscara" referido a la toma del Palacio de Justicia por parte de guerrilleros y la masacre ocurrida por parte de los militares. En la obra se retrata la realidad, se poda la información de todo ruido para dejar ver la verdad.

  18. Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

  19. High precision measurement of sin2theta/sub W/ in semi-leptonic neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, C.

    1985-01-01

    The experiment has provided what is presently the most accurate measurement of sin 2 theta/sub W/. The errors are still too large for a significant test of the standard model and the measured value is in agreement with the measured values of M/sub W/ and M/sub Z/. On the other hand, this result can constrain the Grand Unified models. The standard SU(5) model predicts sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.214 +/- 0.004 (the error comes from the uncertainty on Lambda/sub MS/), in very good agreement with the measured value. While this model has big problems with the proton lifetime, it could be saved by its supersymmetric extension. In the minimal SU(5) SUSY model (with 2 Higgs supermultiplets) sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.233 +/- 0.004, [12] in bad agreement with the measured value. The addition of other Higgs supermultiplets increases the value of sin 2 theta/sub W/. Unless some unexpected large contribution from higher-twist terms occurs, the present measurement can already bring a significant constraint on Grand Unified models

  20. Sin$\\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in semi-inclusive electroproduction on longitudinally polarized nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, K.A.; Bianchi, N.; Kotzinian, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the $sin \\phi$ azimuthal asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep-inelastic lepton scattering off longitudinally polarized nucleon target arising from the time reversal odd structures. The order 1/Q contributions of the leading twist and twist-three distribution and fragmentation functions to that asymmetry for the certain kinematical conditions are numerically estimated.

  1. Decrease in Accuracy of a Rotational SINS Caused by its Rotary Table's Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We call a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS that uses the rotation auto-compensation technique (which is a common method to reduce the effect of the bias errors of inertial components a ‘rotational SINS’. In a rotational SINS, the rotary table is an important component, rotating the inertial sensor assembly back and forth in azimuth to accomplish error modulation. As a consequence of the manufacturing process, errors may exist in rotary tables which decrease the navigation accuracy of rotational SINSs. In this study, the errors of rotary tables are considered in terms of installation error, wobble error and angular error, and the models of these errors are established for the rotational SINS. Next, the propagation characteristics of these errors in the rotational SINS are analysed and their effects on navigation results are discussed. Finally, the theoretical conclusions are tested by numerical simulation. This paper supplies a good reference for the development of low-cost rotational SINSs, which usually have low accuracy rotary tables and which may be used in robots, intelligent vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  2. Do Schacter's Seven Sins of Memory Apply to Ratings of Children's Emotional and Behavioral Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; Donnelly, Reesa; McKinney, Cliff; Baksh, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Schacter (2001) proposes that there are seven memory malfunctions that occur in everyday life and that affect individuals' ability to recall occurrences in their lives. Given that these sins affect other areas of memory, it is likely that they may affect the ratings that informants provide when they are recalling characteristics of the emotional…

  3. Absolute Absolution: The Forgiveness of Original Sin by Ministers of Government Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Traces the evolution of public schooling as an attempt by progressives and others to absolve citizens of Original Sin and unweave the world view of traditional Christianity. Argues that the removal from schools of Christian beliefs about morality, labor, self-control, and death signals a wish to collectivize the American masses and restore a…

  4. SINs and SOMs: Neural microcircuits for size tuning in the zebrafish and mouse visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Barker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many animals, a fast and reliable circuit for discriminating between predator-sized objects and edible (prey-sized objects is necessary for survival. How are receptive fields in visual brain areas organized to extract information about size? Recent studies from the zebrafish optic tectum and the mouse visual cortex suggest de novo shaping of receptive fields by subtypes of inhibitory neurons. Del Bene et al. (2010 describe a population of GABAergic neurons in the zebrafish optic tectum (Superficial Interneurons, SINs that are necessary for size filtering during prey capture. Adesnik et al. (2012 describe a somatostatin-expressing interneuron population (SOMs that confers surround suppression on layer II/III pyramidal cells in mouse V1. Strikingly both the SINs and the SOMs, display size-dependent response properties. Increasing visual stimulus size increases excitatory input to these neurons. Dampening SIN or SOM activity alters tuning of neighboring circuits such that they lose preference for small objects. Both results provide exciting evidence for mechanisms of size filtering in visual circuits. Here we review the roles of the SINs and the SOMs and speculate on the similarity of such spatial filters across species.

  5. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  6. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  7. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Galaktionov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  9. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Sabedotti, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  10. Construction of Δm2--sin2 2θ plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the two-flavor approximation, the probability for a neutrino to oscillate from one flavor to the other is given by Ρ νa → νb = sin 2 2θ sin 2 (1.27 Δm 2 L/E ν ) where θ is the mixing angle, Δm 2 = |m νa 2 - m νb 2 | is measured in (eV/c 2 ) 2 , L, the distance from the source, is measured in km, and E, the beam energy, is measured in GeV. If either Δm 2 or sin 2 2Θ is zero, there is no oscillation. They might also have small, non-zero values, causing the oscillations to be so small as to be unobservable in a particular experiment. They may also have values which allow us to determine the probability of oscillation, but so far no compelling evidence for oscillation exists. The universal method of portraying what region of parameter space is explored by a neutrino oscillation experiment is to mark off an area on a Δm 2 vs. sin 2 2θ plot. Typically, a line is graphed, with the claim that if the experiment finds not evidence of oscillation, one can, for example, be 90% certain that Δm 2 and sin 2 2θ lie within the region below and to the left of the line. Since these plots are so widely used, it is useful to understand the process by which they are created

  11. SinEx DB: a database for single exon coding sequences in mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Roddy; Ortiz, Rodrigo; Ossandon, F; Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Sepúlveda, Rene; González, Carolina; Holmes, David S

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genes are typically interrupted by intragenic, noncoding sequences termed introns. However, some genes lack introns in their coding sequence (CDS) and are generally known as 'single exon genes' (SEGs). In this work, a SEG is defined as a nuclear, protein-coding gene that lacks introns in its CDS. Whereas, many public databases of Eukaryotic multi-exon genes are available, there are only two specialized databases for SEGs. The present work addresses the need for a more extensive and diverse database by creating SinEx DB, a publicly available, searchable database of predicted SEGs from 10 completely sequenced mammalian genomes including human. SinEx DB houses the DNA and protein sequence information of these SEGs and includes their functional predictions (KOG) and the relative distribution of these functions within species. The information is stored in a relational database built with My SQL Server 5.1.33 and the complete dataset of SEG sequences and their functional predictions are available for downloading. SinEx DB can be interrogated by: (i) a browsable phylogenetic schema, (ii) carrying out BLAST searches to the in-house SinEx DB of SEGs and (iii) via an advanced search mode in which the database can be searched by key words and any combination of searches by species and predicted functions. SinEx DB provides a rich source of information for advancing our understanding of the evolution and function of SEGs.Database URL: www.sinex.cl. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  13. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly.

  14. Medullar compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Catling, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This is case of a 41 years old feminine patient in whom a unique primary bone tumor injury was demonstrated, diagnosed as a bone hemangioma, located at T-7, with grew and compressed the spinal cord. These bone vascular and frequently observed in the radiological studies and autopsies, in a sporadic form are only symptomatic, growing and affecting the nervous roots and the spinal cord. The clinical history of the patient is described with the preoperative studies and magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery: The medical literature of these primary bony injuries is reviewed and as they are treated. Objectives: to present the clinical history of a patient who consults having medullar compression syndrome caused by an unusual extra-medullar tumor injury, of bony origin, primary and benign, with clinical controls 8 years after the operation and without evidence of tumor recurrences. The medical literature of this bone pathology is reviewed. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was treated surgically successfully, because spinal cord was decompressed without neurological sequels. Vertebral instability was not observed and nor diagnosed. The patient was periodically taken care of with last control of magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery and last medical control 8 years later. Medical publications are extensively reviewed

  15. Vertebral bony tumor of giant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Carling, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This is a report of a 37 years old, masculine patient, in whom a unique primary bone injury was demonstrated, located at T-11, diagnosed as a giant cells tumor (osteoclastoma). Location is described in the literature as unusual. The clinical presentation of the injury is described, as the initial radiological studies and magnetic resonance images 8 years after surgical treatment, with no neoplasic recurrences. The medical literature of these primary bone injuries and its treatment was also reviewed. Objectives: to present a patient with an unusual extramedullar tumor injury, of primary bone origin, benign, treated surgically and who has a post surgical follow-up of 8 years. Local tumor recurrence and not pulmonary metastasis was demonstrated. The medical literature of this bone pathology that affects the spine in an infrequent manner, was also reviewed, specially the related to medical, surgical and radio-therapeutic treatments. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was successfully operated, because the expansive tumor was totally drawn out, without neurological injury; inter operating or post-operating vertebral instability was not observed or diagnosed. The patient was controlled in periodic form, with last medical checkup and of magnetic resonance 8 years after the surgery. The medical publications existing are reviewed

  16. Organotin Exposure and Vertebrate Reproduction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin (OTs compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are tetrabutyltin, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride, triphenyltin hydroxide, dibutyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monobutyltin, and azocyclotin.

  17. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  18. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  19. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  20. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  1. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  2. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Greig

    Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.

  4. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der; Munster, B.C. van; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  5. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  6. The Vertebral Formula of the African Sideneck Turtle ( Pelusios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelusios castaneus), was carried out with the view of deriving its vertebral formula which could be useful in the comparative systematic anatomy of sea and freshwater turtles as well as in paleontological and archaeological investigations. A total ...

  7. Associations between the Cervical Vertebral Column and Craniofacial Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment of the cerv......Aim. To summarize recent studies on morphological deviations of the cervical vertebral column and associations with craniofacial morphology and head posture in nonsyndromic patients and in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Design. In these recent studies, visual assessment...... of the cervical vertebral column and cephalometric analysis of the craniofacial skeleton were performed on profile radiographs of subjects with neutral occlusion, patients with severe skeletal malocclusions and patients with OSA. Material from human triploid foetuses and mouse embryos was analysed histologically....... Results. Recent studies have documented associations between fusion of the cervical vertebral column and craniofacial morphology, including head posture in patients with severe skeletal malocclusions. Histological studies on prenatal material supported these findings. Conclusion. It is suggested...

  8. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

  9. Relevant signs of stable and unstable thoracolumbar vertebral column trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehweiler, J.A.; Daffner, R.H.; Osborne, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    One-hundred and seventeen patients with acute thoracolumbar vertebral column fracture or fracture-dislocations were analyzed and classified into stable (36%) and unstable (64%). Eight helpful roentgen signs were observed that may serve to direct attention to serious underlying, often occult, fractures and dislocations. The changes fall into four principal groups: abnormal soft tissues, abnormal vertebral alignment, abnormal joints, and widened vertebral canal. All stable and unstable lesions showed abnormal soft tissues, while 70% demonstrated kyphosis and/or scoliosis, and an abnormal adjacent intervertebral disk space. All unstable lesions showed one or more of the following signs: displaced vertebra, widened interspinous space, abnormal apophyseal joint(s), and widened vertebral canal. (orig.)

  10. Global patterns of Leptospira prevalence in vertebrate reservoir hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2016-01-01

    leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...

  11. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  12. MR manifestations of vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Yong Eun; Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of a vertebral artery injury occurring from major cervical spine trauma. Conventional MR findings of 63 patients and 63 control subjects were compared to detect a possible change in the vertebral arteries resulted from trauma. Plain films, CT and clinical records were also reviewed to correlate the degree of cervical spine injury with vascular change. Nine cases of absent flow signals in vessel lumen were observed in eight patients and one was observed in the control group. Patients more frequently demonstrated other abnormalities such as intraluminal linear signals (n=3) or focal luminal narrowing (n=9) but there was no statistical significance. There was a close relationship between degree of cord damage and occlusion of the vertebral artery. Conventional MR imaging is useful in the detection of vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spine trauma.

  13. Origins of the Vertebrate Erythro/Megakaryocytic System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Bartůněk, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, Oct 18 (2015) ISSN 2314-6141 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1419 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : erythrocytes * thrombocytes * vertebrate Erythro/Megakaryocytic System * progenitors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Clinical and radiological evaluation in vertebral artery dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çabalar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vertebral artery dissection (VAD is reported more frequently as a cause of young cerebrovascular accidents. It can occur spontaneously or following a neck manipulation and trauma. The patients were 3 females (mean age: 35±26 years and 7 males (mean age: 37.71±4.96 years. Only 2 patients described neck trauma. Cerebellar findings were prominent in all cases. On radiological investigation, vascular changes of vertebral arteries were detected bilaterally in 2 cases, right in 5 and left in 3 cases. All the cases were treated with anticoagulant therapy and cured but 1 with sequela. Prognosis of vertebral artery dissection is generally good by early diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we reported clinical and radiological properties of 10 vertebral artery dissection cases.

  15. An interesting case report of vertebral artery dissection following polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our report displays select images related to this case report and emphasizes the consideration of routine imaging in head and neck traumatic injuries to diagnose internal carotid and/or vertebral artery dissections much earlier.

  16. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  17. Use of cervical vertebral dimensions for assessment of children growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Paula Caldas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3 method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (p0.05 was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that the method for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed.

  18. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  20. Risk of vertebral compression fractures in multiple myeloma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha, D.; Thomas, Baum; Jan, Kirschke S.; Subburaj, Karupppasamy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model to predict vertebral bone strength in vitro using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, to serve as a complementing tool to assess fracture risk. In addition, it also aims to differentiate MM patients with and without vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) by performing FE analysis on vertebra segments (T1?L5) obtained from in vivo routine MDCT imaging scans....

  1. Prevalence of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures on multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, Tommaso; Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Maria Francesca; Rimondi, Eugenio; Rinaldi, Giovanni; Sverzellati, Nicola; Gavelli, Giampaolo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures in patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest and/or abdomen. Materials and methods: 323 consecutive patients (196 males, 127 females) with a mean age of 62.6 years (range 20-88) who had undergone chest and/or abdominal MDCT were evaluated. Sagittal reformats of the spine obtained from thin section datasets were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for vertebral fractures. Morphometric analysis using electronic calipers was performed on vertebral bodies which appeared abnormal upon visual inspection. A vertebral body height loss of 15% or more was considered a fracture and graded as mild (15-24%), moderate (25-49%) or severe (more than 50%). Official radiology reports were reviewed and whether the vertebral fractures had been reported or not was noted. Results: 31 out of 323 patients (9.5%) had at least 1 vertebral fracture and 7 of those patients had multiple fractures for a total of 41 fractures. Morphometric grading revealed 10 mild, 16 moderate and 15 severe fractures. Prevalence was higher in women (14.1%) than men (6.6%) and increased with patients age with a 17.1% prevalence in post-menopausal women. Only 6 out 41 vertebral fractures (14.6%) had been noted in the radiology final report while the remaining 35 (85.45) had not. Conclusion: although vertebral fractures represent frequent incidental findings on multidetector CT studies and may be easily identified on sagittal reformats, they are often underreported by radiologists, most likely because of unawareness of their clinical importance.

  2. Magnetic resonance angiography of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimura, Tatsuo; Saito, Kenichi; Nakayama, Hisato; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Kato, Shoichi; Ito, Haruhide.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the screening study of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries using the conventional head and neck coils, 500 consecutive MRAs of the cervical vessels were performed using 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance unit with circularly polarized head coil. The 5 cm-thick imaging plane was placed in coronal fashion including both carotid and vertebral arteries. The imaging sequence was three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging with steady precession (FISP). In 10 patients with failed head coil examination, 10 patients with possible carotid and vertebral diseases and 10 volunteers, the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries were examined with the Helmholtz neck coil. Both 3D- and 2D-FISP were performed in each case. The imaging plane was placed in oblique sagittal fashion. In 458 out of 500 cases (91.6%), the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries were successfully depicted using head coil. In 20 patients with high shoulders, the carotid bifurcations were out of range of the head coil. In these cases, carotid bifurcations and the origins of the carotid and vertebral arteries were successfully revealed using a neck coil. To evaluate the stenotic lesions and tortuous vessels, 2D-FISP sequence seemed to be more suitable than 3D-FISP. Compared with conventional angiography, MRA caused overestimation of the degree of stenotic lesions. For screening examination of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries, most cases can be evaluated only with the conventional head coil. If depiction of the carotid bifurcation fails and the examination of carotids or vertebrals down to the aortic arch is needed, neck coil examination is required. (author)

  3. Early prenatal diagnosis of a lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristavu, Anda Ioana; Furnica, Cristina; Ifrim, Mona Mihaela; Popovici, Razvan Mihai

    2018-04-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a rare type of lumbar hernia with associated abnormalities of the vertebral bodies, ribs, and trunk muscles. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature, all of which were diagnosed after birth. We present a case of LCVS diagnosed early in the second trimester of pregnancy using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound. In our case, the associated anomalies were: multiple costovertebral anomalies, lumbar hernia, anal imperforation, left hand supernumerary digit, and clubfoot.

  4. Osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaetà, Gloria; Mazzantini, Maurizio; Menconi, Agnese; Bottai, Vanna; Falossi, Francesca; Celauro, Ilenia; Guido, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare condition characterized by the occurrence of fragility fractures, most commonly vertebral, in late pregnancy or the early postpartum period. The prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of this osteoporosis are unknown, although there are several hypotheses attempting to explain the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy associated osteoporosis. In this paper we present two cases of young women who developed severe PAO with vertebral fractur...

  5. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development,...

  6. How can mathematics help us explore vertebrate segmentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Ruth E.; Schnell, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of gene products oscillating during the formation of vertebral segments, much attention has been directed toward eluciating the molecular basis of the so-called segmentation clock. What research has told us is, that even in the most simple vertebrates, enormously complicated gene networks act in each cell to give rise to oscillations, and that cell-cell communication synchronizes these oscillations between neighboring cells. A number of theories have been proposed to expla...

  7. Recent discoveries of Uruguayan Mesozoic vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M.; Perea, D.; Rinderknetch, A.; Ubilla, M.; Da Silva, J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, new discoveries of Uruguayan Mesozoic vertebrates have been made, as well as the reinterpretation of already known remains. Its taxonomical and biostratigraphical significance justifies this communication. Concerning the Tacuarembo Formation, on one hand a dipnoan prearticular tooth plate has been reinterpreted as belonging to Ceratodus africanus Haug 1905, a species typical of Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous deposits of Saharan Africa. This is the second dipnoan taxon recorded in the Tacuarembo Formation, uncovering a previously unrecognized dipnoan diversity in the mid-Mesozoic of South America. On the other hand, a few theropod tooth were confidently identified at the familial level for the first time in our country. The remains include two striated premaxillary tooth crowns, the characters of which, close to Ceratosaurus Marsh 1884, allow to refer them to the family Ceratosauridae, this being the oldest South American record of the family. The striated teeth show strong affinities with those of Late Jurassic ceratosaurids from North America, Iberian Peninsula and Tanzania, which is in accordance with recent proposals about the age of the Lower Member of the Tacuarembo Formation. Concerning the Guichon Formation, we comunicate here in the most important discovery of dinosaur remains in Uruguay. It consist in spatially associated remains from several individuals, including fifty caudal vertebra and several epiphysis, metatarsals and astragali. These materials belong to a titanosaurid sauropod, the characters of which are similar to those of certain Campanian-Maastrichtian titanosaurids. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments referable to Sphaerovum Mones 1980 - a typical Campanian-Maastrichtian oogenus- were found. This finding represents the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation, and suggests a younger age for this unit than early proposed

  8. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  9. Opportunities and costs for preventing vertebrate extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Güneralp, Burak; Gusset, Markus; Skolnik, Ben; Parr, Michael; Byers, Onnie; Johnson, Kevin; Young, Glyn; Flesness, Nate; Possingham, Hugh; Fa, John E

    2015-03-16

    Despite an increase in policy and management responses to the global biodiversity crisis, implementation of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets still shows insufficient progress [1]. These targets, strategic goals defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), address major causes of biodiversity loss in part by establishing protected areas (Target 11) and preventing species extinctions (Target 12). To achieve this, increased interventions will be required for a large number of sites and species. The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) [2], a consortium of conservation-oriented organisations that aims to protect Critically Endangered and Endangered species restricted to single sites, has identified 920 species of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, conifers and reef-building corals in 588 'trigger' sites [3]. These are arguably the most irreplaceable category of important biodiversity conservation sites. Protected area coverage of AZE sites is a key indicator of progress towards Target 11 [1]. Moreover, effective conservation of AZE sites is essential to achieve Target 12, as the loss of any of these sites would certainly result in the global extinction of at least one species [2]. However, averting human-induced species extinctions within AZE sites requires enhanced planning tools to increase the chances of success [3]. Here, we assess the potential for ensuring the long-term conservation of AZE vertebrate species (157 mammals, 165 birds, 17 reptiles and 502 amphibians) by calculating a conservation opportunity index (COI) for each species. The COI encompasses a set of measurable indicators that quantify the possibility of achieving successful conservation of a species in its natural habitat (COIh) and by establishing insurance populations in zoos (COIc). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiological evaluation of the cranio vertebral junction; Avaliacao radiologica da transicao cranio-vertebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Silvia Marcal Benicio de; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Cabeca e Pescoco]. E-mail: sbm@uol.com.br; Schettini, Marianna Cunha; Lima, Sergio Santos [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mourao, Maria Lucia; Mendonca, Renato Adam [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Neuroradiologia

    2005-04-15

    The cranio vertebral junction (CVJ) comprises the occiput, atlas, their joints and ligaments. Besides conventional x-rays other imaging methods are need for the assessment of CVJ including high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provide specific parameters such as field of view, slice thickness and incremental movement of the patient. A dynamic study is also important to assess the stability of the cranio vertebral junction and the effect upon the bulbomedullary junction. The aim of this study is to review the techniques used in the evaluation of the CVJ, the semiological parameters, and the most frequent disorders affecting this region. We review the literature and present conventional x-ray, CT and MRI images from the didactic file of the Radiology service 'Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, of cases with normal anatomy and the main congenital and acquired disorders of the CVJ. In daily practice, CVJ disorders are diagnoses using CT and MRI scans of the head and cervical spine. It is essential to be familiar with these conditions in order to preform specific tests which will allow a detailed study of the CVJ, thus providing the basis for the treatment, whenever indicated. (author)

  11. Automatic vertebral identification using surface-based registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Jeannette L.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2000-06-01

    This work introduces an enhancement to currently existing methods of intra-operative vertebral registration by allowing the portion of the spinal column surface that correctly matches a set of physical vertebral points to be automatically selected from several possible choices. Automatic selection is made possible by the shape variations that exist among lumbar vertebrae. In our experiments, we register vertebral points representing physical space to spinal column surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. The vertebral points are taken from the posterior elements of a single vertebra to represent the region of surgical interest. The surface is extracted using an improved version of the fully automatic marching cubes algorithm, which results in a triangulated surface that contains multiple vertebrae. We find the correct portion of the surface by registering the set of physical points to multiple surface areas, including all vertebral surfaces that potentially match the physical point set. We then compute the standard deviation of the surface error for the set of points registered to each vertebral surface that is a possible match, and the registration that corresponds to the lowest standard deviation designates the correct match. We have performed our current experiments on two plastic spine phantoms and one patient.

  12. Ancient deuterostome origins of vertebrate brain signalling centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Ariel M; Mullarkey, Erin E; Aronowicz, Jochanan; Assimacopoulos, Stavroula; Grove, Elizabeth A; Lowe, Christopher J

    2012-03-14

    Neuroectodermal signalling centres induce and pattern many novel vertebrate brain structures but are absent, or divergent, in invertebrate chordates. This has led to the idea that signalling-centre genetic programs were first assembled in stem vertebrates and potentially drove morphological innovations of the brain. However, this scenario presumes that extant cephalochordates accurately represent ancestral chordate characters, which has not been tested using close chordate outgroups. Here we report that genetic programs homologous to three vertebrate signalling centres-the anterior neural ridge, zona limitans intrathalamica and isthmic organizer-are present in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. Fgf8/17/18 (a single gene homologous to vertebrate Fgf8, Fgf17 and Fgf18), sfrp1/5, hh and wnt1 are expressed in vertebrate-like arrangements in hemichordate ectoderm, and homologous genetic mechanisms regulate ectodermal patterning in both animals. We propose that these genetic programs were components of an unexpectedly complex, ancient genetic regulatory scaffold for deuterostome body patterning that degenerated in amphioxus and ascidians, but was retained to pattern divergent structures in hemichordates and vertebrates. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  13. Evolution of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade activation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Trevor D; Hunt, David M

    2017-11-01

    We examine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the activation steps of vertebrate phototransduction, for both agnathan and jawed vertebrate taxa. We expand the number of taxa analysed and we update the alignment and tree building methodology from a previous analysis. For each of the four primary components (the G-protein transducin alpha subunit, Gα T , the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6, and the alpha and beta subunits of the cGMP-gated ion channel, CNGC), the phylogenies appear consistent with expansion from an ancestral proto-vertebrate cascade during two rounds of whole-genome duplication followed by divergence of the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. In each case, we consider possible scenarios for the underlying gene duplications and losses, and we apply relevant constraints to the tree construction. From tests of the topology of the resulting trees, we obtain a scenario for the expansion of each component during 2R that accurately fits the observations. Similar analysis of the visual opsins indicates that the only expansion to have occurred during 2R was the formation of Rh1 and Rh2. Finally, we propose a hypothetical scenario for the conversion of an ancestral chordate cascade into the proto-vertebrate phototransduction cascade, prior to whole-genome duplication. Together, our models provide a plausible account for the origin and expansion of the vertebrate phototransduction cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The pre-vertebrate origins of neurogenic placodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitua, Philip Barron; Gainous, T Blair; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Winchell, Christopher J; Hudson, Clare; Kamata, Kaori; Nakagawa, Masashi; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Levine, Michael

    2015-08-27

    The sudden appearance of the neural crest and neurogenic placodes in early branching vertebrates has puzzled biologists for over a century. These embryonic tissues contribute to the development of the cranium and associated sensory organs, which were crucial for the evolution of the vertebrate "new head". A previous study suggests that rudimentary neural crest cells existed in ancestral chordates. However, the evolutionary origins of neurogenic placodes have remained obscure owing to a paucity of embryonic data from tunicates, the closest living relatives to those early vertebrates. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis exhibits a proto-placodal ectoderm (PPE) that requires inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and expresses the key regulatory determinant Six1/2 and its co-factor Eya, a developmental process conserved across vertebrates. The Ciona PPE is shown to produce ciliated neurons that express genes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a G-protein-coupled receptor for relaxin-3 (RXFP3) and a functional cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGA), which suggests dual chemosensory and neurosecretory activities. These observations provide evidence that Ciona has a neurogenic proto-placode, which forms neurons that appear to be related to those derived from the olfactory placode and hypothalamic neurons of vertebrates. We discuss the possibility that the PPE-derived GnRH neurons of Ciona resemble an ancestral cell type, a progenitor to the complex neuronal circuit that integrates sensory information and neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates.

  15. iDNA screening: Disease vectors as vertebrate samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; de Thoisy, Benoit; Catzeflis, François; Valière, Sophie; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Bloodmeal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes. On the other hand, this existing expertise has not yet been applied to investigate vertebrate fauna per se. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of hematophagous dipterans as vertebrate samplers. Blood-fed sand flies and mosquitoes were collected in Amazonian forest sites and analysed using high-throughput sequencing of short mitochondrial markers. Bloodmeal identifications highlighted contrasting ecological features and feeding behaviour among dipteran species, which allowed unveiling arboreal and terrestrial mammals of various body size, as well as birds, lizards and amphibians. Additionally, lower vertebrate diversity was found in sites undergoing higher levels of human-induced perturbation. These results suggest that, in addition to providing precious information on disease vector host use, dipteran bloodmeal analyses may represent a useful tool in the study of vertebrate communities. Although further effort is required to validate the approach and consider its application to large-scale studies, this first work opens up promising perspectives for biodiversity monitoring and eco-epidemiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Differential preservation of vertebrates in Southeast Asian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Louys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, describing cave systems and their attendant vertebrate accumulations in diverse geological, biogeographical, and environmental settings. While each cave system is unique, we find that the accumulation and preservation of vertebrate remains are highly dependent on local geology and environment. These factors notwithstanding, we find the dominant factor responsible for faunal deposition is the presence or absence of biological accumulating agents, a factor directly dictated by biogeographical history. In small, isolated, volcanic islands, the only significant accumulation occurs in archaeological settings, thereby limiting our understanding of the palaeontology of those islands prior to human arrival. In karstic landscapes on both oceanic and continental islands, our understanding of the long-term preservation of vertebrates is still in its infancy. The formation processes of vertebrate-bearing breccias, their taphonomic histories, and the criteria used to determine whether these represent syngenetic or multiple deposits remain critically understudied. The latter in particular has important implications for arguments on how breccia deposits from the region should be analysed and interpreted when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  17. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates: reproductive error or chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, K P

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenesis, the development of an embryo from a female gamete without any contribution of a male gamete, is very rare in vertebrates. Parthenogenetically reproducing species have, so far, only been found in the Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Facultative parthenogenesis, switching between sexual and clonal reproduction, although quite common in invertebrates, e.g. Daphnia and aphids, seems to be even rarer in vertebrates. However, isolated cases of parthenogenetic development have been reported in all vertebrate groups. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates has only been found in captive animals but might simply have been overlooked in natural populations. Even though its evolutionary impact is hard to determine and very likely varies depending on the ploidy restoration mechanisms and sex-determining mechanisms involved, facultative parthenogenesis is already discussed in conservation biology and medical research. To raise interest for facultative parthenogenesis especially in evolutionary biology, I summarize the current knowledge about facultative parthenogenesis in the different vertebrate groups, introduce mechanisms of diploid oocyte formation and discuss the genetic consequences and potential evolutionary impact of facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates.

  18. X-ray image segmentation for vertebral mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Said

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to extract the parameters determining vertebral motion and its variation during flexion-extension movements using a computer vision tool for estimating and analyzing vertebral mobility. To compute vertebral body motion parameters we propose a comparative study between two segmentation methods proposed and applied to lateral X-ray images of the cervical spine. The two vertebra contour detection methods include (1) a discrete dynamic contour model (DDCM) and (2) a template matching process associated with a polar signature system. These two methods not only enable vertebra segmentation but also extract parameters that can be used to evaluate vertebral mobility. Lateral cervical spine views including 100 views in flexion, extension and neutral orientations were available for evaluation. Vertebral body motion was evaluated by human observers and using automatic methods. The results provided by the automated approaches were consistent with manual measures obtained by 15 human observers. The automated techniques provide acceptable results for the assessment of vertebral body mobility in flexion and extension on lateral views of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  19. Vertebral deformity arising from an accelerated "creep" mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jin; Pollintine, Phillip; Gomm, Edward; Dolan, Patricia; Adams, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Vertebral deformities often occur in patients who recall no trauma, and display no evident fracture on radiographs. We hypothesise that vertebral deformity can occur by a gradual creep mechanism which is accelerated following minor damage. "Creep" is continuous deformation under constant load. Forty-five thoracolumbar spine motion segments were tested from cadavers aged 42-92 years. Vertebral body areal BMD was measured using DXA. Specimens were compressed at 1 kN for 30 min, while creep in each vertebral body was measured using an optical MacReflex system. After 30 min recovery, each specimen was subjected to a controlled overload event which caused minor damage to one of its vertebrae. The creep test was then repeated. Vertebral body creep was measurable in specimens with BMD Creep was greater anteriorly than posteriorly (p creep by 800 % (anteriorly), 1,000 % (centrally) and 600 % (posteriorly). In 34 vertebrae with complete before-and-after data, anterior wedging occurring during the 1st creep test averaged 0.07° (STD 0.17°), and in the 2nd test (after minor damage) it averaged 0.79° (STD 1.03°). The increase was highly significant (P creep test was proportional to the severity of damage, as quantified by specimen height loss during the overload event (r (2) = 0.51, p creep to such an extent that it makes a substantial contribution to vertebral deformity.

  20. Bicarbonate Plays a Critical Role in the Generation of Cytotoxicity during SIN-1 Decomposition in Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Shirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1 is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO− in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s in the medium, rather than ONOO−, exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that significant cytotoxicity persists after SIN-1 decomposes in bicarbonate, a component of the culture medium, but not in NaOH. Cytotoxic SIN-1-decomposed bicarbonate, which lacks both oxidizing and nitrosating activities, degrades to innocuous state over time. The extent of SIN-1 cytotoxicity, irrespective of its fresh or decomposed state, appears to depend on the total number of initial SIN-1 molecules per cell, rather than its concentration, and involves oxidative/nitrosative stress-related cell damage. These results suggest that, despite its low abundance, the bicarbonate-dependent cytotoxic substance that accumulates in the medium during SIN-1 breakdown is the cytotoxic entity of SIN-1.

  1. NMR imaging of the vertebral column and the spinal canal. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, Michael; Uhlenbrock, Detlev; Wanke, Isabel; Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    2009-01-01

    The book on the MRT (magnetic resonance tomography) of the vertebral cord and spinal canal covers the following topics: physics fundamentals and application; malformation of the spinal canal; degenerative vertebral column diseases; vertebral column and spinal canal carcinomas; inflammatory diseases of the vertebral column and the spinal canal; applicability of MRT in case of acute spinal cord traumata; vascular diseases of the spinal canal

  2. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami, Parag M.; Heatwole, Eric V.; Boorstein, Jeffrey M.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, has recently been used effectively for the treatment of symptomatic vertebral body compression fractures. Primary indications for vertebroplasty include osteoporotic compression fracture, osteolytic vertebral metastasis and myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma. We present a case and extend the indication of percutaneous vertebroplasty in a patient with a vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta. (orig.)

  3. Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, Parag M.; Heatwole, Eric V.; Boorstein, Jeffrey M. [Center for Vascular and Interventional Radiology, St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States); McGraw, Kevin J. [Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty, a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, has recently been used effectively for the treatment of symptomatic vertebral body compression fractures. Primary indications for vertebroplasty include osteoporotic compression fracture, osteolytic vertebral metastasis and myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma. We present a case and extend the indication of percutaneous vertebroplasty in a patient with a vertebral body compression fracture secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta. (orig.)

  4. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  5. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the “Velocity and Attitude” matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  6. "... As we forgive those who trespass against us...": theological reflections on sin and guilt in the hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kurt W

    2005-08-01

    In general parlance the term sin has lost its existential meaning. Originally a Jewish-Christian term within a purely religious context, referring to a wrongdoing with regard to God, sin has slowly become reduced to guilt in the course of the secularization process. Guilt refers to a wrongdoing, especially with regard to fellow human beings. It also refers to errors of judgement with what can be tragic consequences. These errors can occur whenever human beings are called upon to act, including the hospital environment. A Christian hospital has to address the issue of how to deal not only with guilt-ridden misdemeanors, but also with wrongdoing unto God, which overshadows every instance of guilt-ridden human behavior. Here, as in every parish, the Church Service is the place to acknowledge sin, confess sin, and forgive sin, beyond the boundaries of the parish itself.

  7. Quantum solitons and their relation with fermion fields for the (sin phi)sub(2)-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebkov, A.K.; Sushko, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Schema of canonical quantization of the/sin phi/sub(2)-self-interaction is developed systematically, which takes into account from the very beginning the existence of solitons in corresponding classical dynamical system. Correct definition of quantum soliton is given. The connection between the descriptions of quantum solitons on the basis of the proposed quantization schema and in terms of fermion fields is demonstrated

  8. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  9. Escrituras de Oseira (AHN sin relación con este monasterio (S. XI-XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaní Martínez, Miguel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The edition of nine monastic documents never published previously in any form, belonging to the Osera fund, but without any apparent relation to this monastery, increases the knowledge about the referred monasteries.

    La edición de nueve documentos monásticos inéditos pertenecientes al fondo de Oseira, pero sin relación aparente con este monasterio, complementará el conocimiento de los monasterios referidos.

  10. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.

  11. Juan Gelman: Del poeta-legislador a una lengua sin estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Dalmaroni

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La poesía de Gelman transforma el mandato de la tradición de la poesía política con que se inicia su obra, al reemplazarlo por la construcción de una lengua sin estado. La voz de esa tradición se desliza hacia una lengua que problematiza el reconocimiento pero resulta -a la vez- de una disonancia legible, y que se lee en las formas de una voz desalineada respecto de un sujeto, e imaginada como superposición entre figuras que proporcionan, desde el nivel de la representación, orientación constructivas de la escritura e indicación de lectura: el niño; el extranjero sin estado y sin lengua (inmigrante, exiliado, judío, etc.; el estado instable del español literario de la época de la conquista y especialmente el de los místicos; las locas o el loco, el incestuoso. Se propone leer esas figuras como una constelación móvil de confusiones que opera siempre en torno de la identidad: que la toma y la abandona en un movimiento que discute y, a la vez, utiliza las figuras sin estado que ocurren y a un tiempo se sustituyen entre sí. La identidad no resulta negada sino reemplazada cada vez que se le entrega, como en una estrategia momentánea de reposo, el terreno del poema.

  12. Recordando a Erlang : un breve paseo (sin esperas) por la Teoría de Colas

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado de la Torre, Rosario

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo tiene un doble objetivo : por una parte, dar cuenta de la celebración del centenario de la Teoría de Colas ; por otra, presentar una breve introducción a lo más clásico de dicha teoría, que pueda resultar de utilidad para aquellos que teniendo unos conocimientos elementales de probabilidad desean introducirse en ella de manera rápida y sin demasiadas complicaciones.

  13. A Fuzzy Adaptive Tightly-Coupled Integration Method for Mobile Target Localization Using SINS/WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile target localization for enclosed environments has been a growing interest. In this paper, we have proposed a fuzzy adaptive tightly-coupled integration (FATCI method for positioning and tracking applications using strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and wireless sensor network (WSN. The wireless signal outage and severe multipath propagation of WSN often influence the accuracy of measured distance and lead to difficulties with the WSN positioning. Note also that the SINS are known for their drifted error over time. Using as a base the well-known loosely-coupled integration method, we have built a tightly-coupled integrated positioning system for SINS/WSN based on the measured distances between anchor nodes and mobile node. The measured distance value of WSN is corrected with a least squares regression (LSR algorithm, with the aim of decreasing the systematic error for measured distance. Additionally, the statistical covariance of measured distance value is used to adjust the observation covariance matrix of a Kalman filter using a fuzzy inference system (FIS, based on the statistical characteristics. Then the tightly-coupled integration model can adaptively adjust the confidence level for measurement according to the different measured accuracies of distance measurements. Hence the FATCI system is achieved using SINS/WSN. This innovative approach is verified in real scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed positioning system has better accuracy and stability compared with the loosely-coupled and traditional tightly-coupled integration model for WSN short-term failure or normal conditions.

  14. Clinical application of multislice spiral CT angiography in evaluation of anomalous vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Rui; Liu Jun; Zhang Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of 16-slice spiral computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) in evaluation of anomalous vertebral artery. Methods: MSCTA data from 32 patients with anomalous vertebral artery were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 22 cases had vertebral artery course variation (bended into the C 5 , C 4 or C 3 foramen transversarium), 7 cases had variation in the prevertebral segments of vertebral arteries, 15 patients had unilateral vertebral congenital stenosis, 1 case had double vertebral artery branch, 1 case had vertebral arterial fenestration, and 2 cases had vertebral artery in one side that did not converged upon basilar artery and unilateral vertebral artery formed basilar artery. Conclusion: MSCTA is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for the diagnosis of vertebral artery variations. (authors)

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE CARAMELOS DE UCHUVA SIN SACAROSA ADICIONADOS CON CALCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIA ELENA VALENCIA G

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de la adición de calcio sobre los atributos de calidad de un caramelo blando a base de fruto de uchuva sin sacarosa, comparándolo con uno similar sin calcio. Se emplea calcio lácteo como ingrediente funcional, el cual se incorpora a granel, con el objetivo de alcanzar un valor diario de referencia mayor del 20% en una porción de 15 g de producto, según la normativa colombiana. El calcio afecta principalmente la acidez del producto (, la elasticidad (>, la cohesividad (. El caramelo adicionado presentó contenidos de 292,5 ± 9 mg Ca/porción, correspondiente a un 20 % del valor diario de referencia, lo cual permite identificar al producto con el descriptor 'Excelente fuente de calcio'. Los caramelos blandos de uchuva sin azúcar adicionados con calcio, representan una alternativa económica para cubrir necesidades de calcio en la dieta de la población

  16. A Novel Scheme for DVL-Aided SINS In-Motion Alignment Using UKF Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV. This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF. Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment.

  17. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  18. Under-reporting of osteoporotic vertebral fractures on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Alexandra L.; Al-Busaidi, Aisha; Sparrow, Patrick J.; Adams, Judith E.; Whitehouse, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are frequently asymptomatic. They are often not diagnosed clinically or radiologically. Despite this, prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures predict future osteoporotic fractures and are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Appropriate management of osteoporosis can reduce future fracture risk. Fractures on lateral chest radiographs taken for other conditions are frequently overlooked by radiologists. Our aim was to assess the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of vertebral fracture and identify the frequency with which significant fractures are missed. Materials and methods: The thoracic CT scans of 100 consecutive male and 100 consecutive female patients over 55 years were reviewed. CT images were acquired on General Electric Lightspeed multi-detector (MD) CT scanners (16 or 32 row) using 1.25 mm slice thickness. Midline sagittal images were reconstructed from the 3D volume images. The presence of moderate (25-40% height loss) or severe (>40% height loss) vertebral fractures between T1 and L1 was determined using an established semi-quantitative method and confirmed by morphological measurement. Results were compared with the formal CT report. Results: Scans of 192 patients were analysed (95 female; 97 male); mean age 70.1 years. Thirty-eight (19.8%) patients had one or more moderate to severe vertebral fractures. Only 5 (13%) were correctly reported as having osteoporotic fractures in the official report. The sensitivity of axial CT images to vertebral fracture was 0.35. Conclusion: Incidental osteoporotic vertebral fractures are under-reported on CT. The sensitivity of axial images in detecting these fractures is poor. Sagittal reformations are strongly recommended to improve the detection rate

  19. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishikawa Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoichi KishikawaKishikawa Orthopaedic Clinic, Saga City, Saga, JapanPurpose: The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.Methods: In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103, while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93. All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks.Results: Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest

  20. Cervical vertebral stenosis associated with a vertebral arch anomaly in the Basset Hound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, S; De Risio, L; Lowrie, M; Mauler, D; Beltran, E; Giedja, A; Kenny, P J; Gielen, I; Garosi, L; Volk, H

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, treatment results, and histopathological findings of a previously undescribed vertebral malformation in the Basset Hound. Retrospective case series study. Eighteen Basset Hounds presented for evaluation of a suspected cervical spinal cord problem. All dogs underwent computed tomography myelography or magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region. Thirteen male and 5 female Basset Hounds between 6 months and 10.8 years of age (median: 1.4 years) were studied. Clinical signs varied from cervical hyperesthesia to nonambulatory tetraparesis. Imaging demonstrated a well-defined and smooth hypertrophy of the dorsal lamina and spinous process of ≥ 2 adjacent vertebrae. Although this bony abnormality could decrease the ventrodorsal vertebral canal diameter, dorsal midline spinal cord compression was predominantly caused by ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. The articulation between C4 and C5 was most commonly affected. Three dogs were lost to follow-up, 10 dogs underwent dorsal laminectomy, and medical management was initiated in 5 dogs. Surgery resulted in a good outcome with short hospitalization times (median: 4.5 days) in all dogs, whereas medical management produced more variable results. Histopathology confirmed ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and demonstrated the fibrocartilaginous nature of this anomaly. Dorsal lamina and spinous process hypertrophy leading to ligamentum flavum hypertrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of Basset Hounds with cervical hyperesthesia or myelopathy. Prognosis after decompressive surgery is favorable. Although a genetic component is suspected, additional studies are needed to determine the specific etiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Vertebral column regionalisation in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, A; Perrott, M R; Davie, P S; Preece, M A; Wybourne, B; Ruff, N; Huysseune, A; Witten, P E

    2017-10-01

    Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle. Anatomy and composition of the skeletal tissues of the vertebral column were analysed using Alizarin red S whole-mount staining and histological sections. Six regions, termed I-VI, are recognised in the vertebral column of specimens of both temperature groups. Postcranial vertebrae (region I) carry neural arches and parapophyses but lack ribs. Abdominal vertebrae (region II) carry neural arches and ribs that articulate with parapophyses. Elastic- and fibrohyaline cartilage and Sharpey's fibres connect the bone of the parapophyses to the bone of the ribs. In the transitional region (III) vertebrae carry neural arches and parapophyses change stepwise into haemal arches. Ribs decrease in size, anterior to posterior. Vestigial ribs remain attached to the haemal arches with Sharpey's fibres. Caudal vertebrae (region IV) carry neural and haemal arches and spines. Basidorsals and basiventrals are small and surrounded by cancellous bone. Preural vertebrae (region V) carry neural and haemal arches with modified neural and haemal spines to support the caudal fin. Ural vertebrae (region VI) carry hypurals and epurals that represent modified haemal and neural arches and spines, respectively. The postcranial and transitional vertebrae and their respective characters are usually recognised, but should be considered as regions within the vertebral column of teleosts

  2. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2017-08-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10 weeks of development. Human embryos (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized using Amira 3D ® reconstruction and Cinema 4D ® remodelling software. Vertebral bodies were identifiable as loose mesenchymal structures between the dense mesenchymal intervertebral discs up to 6 weeks and then differentiated into cartilaginous structures in the 7th week. In this week, the dense mesenchymal neural processes also differentiated into cartilaginous structures. Transverse processes became identifiable at 6 weeks. The growth rate of all vertebral bodies was exponential and similar between 6 and 10 weeks, whereas the intervertebral discs hardly increased in size between 6 and 8 weeks and then followed vertebral growth between 8 and 10 weeks. The neural processes extended dorsolaterally (6th week), dorsally (7th week) and finally dorsomedially (8th and 9th weeks) to fuse at the midthoracic level at 9 weeks. From there, fusion extended cranially and caudally in the 10th week. Closure of the foramen magnum required the development of the supraoccipital bone as a craniomedial extension of the exoccipitals (neural processes of occipital vertebra 4), whereas a growth burst of sacral vertebra 1 delayed closure until 15 weeks. Both the cranial- and caudal-most vertebral bodies fused to form the basioccipital (occipital vertebrae 1-4) and sacrum (sacral vertebrae 1-5). In the sacrum, fusion of its so-called alar processes preceded that of the bodies by at least 6 weeks. In conclusion, the highly ordered and substantial changes in shape of the vertebral bodies leading to the formation of the vertebral canal make the development of the spine an excellent, continuous staging system for

  3. Insights from amphioxus into the evolution of vertebrate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meulemans

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Central to the story of vertebrate evolution is the origin of the vertebrate head, a problem difficult to approach using paleontology and comparative morphology due to a lack of unambiguous intermediate forms. Embryologically, much of the vertebrate head is derived from two ectodermal tissues, the neural crest and cranial placodes. Recent work in protochordates suggests the first chordates possessed migratory neural tube cells with some features of neural crest cells. However, it is unclear how and when these cells acquired the ability to form cellular cartilage, a cell type unique to vertebrates. It has been variously proposed that the neural crest acquired chondrogenic ability by recruiting proto-chondrogenic gene programs deployed in the neural tube, pharynx, and notochord. To test these hypotheses we examined the expression of 11 amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis. Consistent with cellular cartilage as a vertebrate novelty, we find that no single amphioxus tissue co-expresses all or most of these genes. However, most are variously co-expressed in mesodermal derivatives. Our results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm.

  4. Micromechanics of the human vertebral body for forward flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haisheng; Nawathe, Shashank; Fields, Aaron J; Keaveny, Tony M

    2012-08-09

    To provide mechanistic insight into the etiology of osteoporotic wedge fractures, we investigated the spatial distribution of tissue at the highest risk of initial failure within the human vertebral body for both forward flexion and uniform compression loading conditions. Micro-CT-based linear elastic finite element analysis was used to virtually load 22 human T9 vertebral bodies in either 5° of forward flexion or uniform compression; we also ran analyses replacing the simulated compliant disc (E=8 MPa) with stiff polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, E=2500 MPa). As expected, we found that, compared to uniform compression, forward flexion increased the overall endplate axial load on the anterior half of the vertebra and shifted the spatial distribution of high-risk tissue within the vertebra towards the anterior aspect of the vertebral body. However, despite that shift, the high-risk tissue remained primarily within the central regions of the trabecular bone and endplates, and forward flexion only slightly altered the ratio of cortical-to-trabecular load sharing at the mid-vertebral level (mean±SD for n=22: 41.3±7.4% compression; 44.1±8.2% forward flexion). When the compliant disc was replaced with PMMA, the anterior shift of high-risk tissue was much more severe. We conclude that, for a compliant disc, a moderate degree of forward flexion does not appreciably alter the spatial distribution of stress within the vertebral body. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Vertebral fractures in children with Type I Osteogenesis imperfecta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Andrea M; Terrazas, Claudia V; Sáez, Josefina; Reyes, María L

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an hereditary disease affecting conective tissue, mainly associated to growth retardation and pathological fractures. OI type I (OI type I), is the mildest, most often, and homogeneous in its fenotype. Vertebral fractures are the most significant complications, associated to skeletical and cardiopulmonary morbidity. To characterize clinically a cohort of children with OI type I. A cohort of OI type I children younger than 20 year old was evaluated. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiological data were registered. Sixty seven patients were included, 55% male, 69% resident in the Metropolitan Region. The mean age of diagnose was 2.9 years, 70% presented vertebral fractures on follow-up, mostly thoracic, and 50% before the age of 5 years. Fifty percentage presented vertebral fractures at diagnose, which was about the age of 5 years. Bone metabolic parameters were in the normal range, without significant change at the moment of vertebral fractures. Calcium intake was found to be below American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations at the time of the first fracture. In this study OI type I has an early diagnose, and vertebral fractures show a high incidence, mostly in toddlers. Calcium intake was found to be below reccomended values, and should be closely supervised in these patients.

  6. Combined endovascular and surgical treatment in vertebral arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakstad, P.H.; Haakonsen, M.; Magnaes, B.; Hetland, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl with a right-sided congenital arteriovenous fistula in the neck was admitted with signs of cardial incompensation. Her fistula was fed from the right vertebral artery in antegrade as well as retrograde directions. A steal from the intracranial arteries was established. In addition, smaller feeding arteries from the neck were found. She was operated on with ligation of the right vertebral artery proximal to the fistula but the attempted ligation of the artery cranially to the fistula was unsuccessful. She was therefore embolized by the formation of a plug of platinum fiber coils in the upper right vertebral artery. Catheterization was performed from the left vertebral artery via the basilar artery. Persisting minor feeders to the fistula from cervical arteries were embolized in a second session. Finally, surgical extirpation of the fistula was performed together with the operative ligation of a crossover feeding artery from the left vertebral artery. Her heart size, heart rate and blood pressure were successively normalized. (orig.)

  7. Endovascular treatment of three traumatic lesions of the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, Victor Raul; Medina V, Francisco Jose

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to expose the results of the endovascular treatment of three traumatic lesions of the vertebral artery. Methods: in the period from October 2005 to May 2006, three patients with traumatic lesions in the vertebral artery were treated by endovascular therapy with an age average of 32 years. All the procedures were carried out using subtraction digital angiography under anesthesiology supervision and were started with a 5,000 IU heparin bolus, previous antiplatelet medication with clopidogrel. For the treatment of the lesions covered stents and coils were used. results: there were three documented cases of traumatic lesions of the vertebral artery treated by endovascular therapy, in two cases arteriovenous fistulas were identified (between vertebral artery and internal jugular vein) with associated pseudo aneurysms, and in one case a pseudo aneurysm without fistula was found. The first patient was treated with placement of a covered stent, in a second patient the lesion was occluded with coils and a third patient required stent and coils with satisfactory repair of the lesions. Complications were not presented as a result of the procedures. Conclusions: the endovascular treatment for traumatic lesions of the vertebral artery is an alternative with minimum morbidity and reasonable costs avoiding the open surgery and conserving the permeability of the vessel when it is possible

  8. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of the shut-off steps of vertebrate phototransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hardip R.; Chuah, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Different isoforms of the genes involved in phototransduction are expressed in vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors, providing a unique example of parallel evolution via gene duplication. In this study, we determine the molecular phylogeny of the proteins underlying the shut-off steps of phototransduction in the agnathan and jawed vertebrate lineages. For the G-protein receptor kinases (GRKs), the GRK1 and GRK7 divisions arose prior to the divergence of tunicates, with further expansion during the two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R); subsequently, jawed and agnathan vertebrates retained different subsets of three isoforms of GRK. For the arrestins, gene expansion occurred during 2R. Importantly, both for GRKs and arrestins, the respective rod isoforms did not emerge until the second round of 2R, just prior to the separation of jawed and agnathan vertebrates. For the triplet of proteins mediating shut-off of the G-protein transducin, RGS9 diverged from RGS11, probably at the second round of 2R, whereas Gβ5 and R9AP appear not to have undergone 2R expansion. Overall, our analysis provides a description of the duplications and losses of phototransduction shut-off genes that occurred during the transition from a chordate with only cone-like photoreceptors to an ancestral vertebrate with both cone- and rod-like photoreceptors. PMID:29321241

  10. A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the first publication on vertebrates of India (Blanford 1888–1890, a huge wealth of information has been compiled on the vertebrate fauna of various biogeographic zones of the country, especially the Western Ghats.  The state of Kerala comprising of a land area of 38,863km2, 590km coastline, an intricate system of backwaters along the coast, tropical moist forests of the Western Ghats, the highly undulating terrain, and the tropical monsoon is a unique geographical and environmental entity rich in biodiversity.  A region-specific checklist that summarises and documents the current status of vertebrate diversity provides benchmark data for documentation and appreciation of biodiversity at regional level.  Further, with the current rate of global biodiversity loss and concordant conservation efforts, the taxonomic community has a greater responsibility to make scientific information available to scientists, policy makers, politicians, research students and all relevant stakeholders, an attempt that has been made in the present paper.  The State of Kerala has 1847 species of vertebrates in 330 families and 81 orders, of which 386 are endemic to the Western Ghats region (of the Western Ghats - Sri Lanka Hotspot, and 205 species as threatened. Six hundred and eighty species of vertebrates of Kerala have been listed in the various schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, while 148 are listed in the different appendices of CITES.  

  11. CT diagnosis in the evaluation of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emori, Takumi; Kadoya, Satoru; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Ito, Shotaro; Kwak, Ryungchan

    1984-01-01

    The diagnostic capability of the CT scan of the vertebral trauma and a comparison with the results of a routine roentgenogram and tomogram were studied in 11 patients. In total, there were 15 fractured vertebrae: 3 in the upper cervical, 3 in the lower cervical, and 9 in the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar vertebrae. In the detailed evaluation of the vertebral fractures, CT provided more information than plain films in all 15 fractured vertebrae, with a better visualization of the spinal bony details, particularly at the upper cervical, thoracic, and thoraco-lumbar levels, where the interpretation of the spinal abnormalities is usually difficult because of adjacent structures such as the skull and thorax. Only CT was able to demonstrate impingements on the vertebral canal by bony fragments. Post-traumatic syringomyelia was incidentally demonstrated in one patient on a plain CT. In 6 patients, conventional tomography was done, but no additional information with regard to spinal instability and spinal-cord compression was obtained. The usage of sagittal tomography was also limited, because it required a change in the patient's position, which might worsen the neurological deficits. On the other hand, a plain roentgenogram and conventional tomography were superior in the evaluation of spinal malalignment and fractures running horizontally. In summary, both plain roentgenograms and CT images provided detailed information about vertebral injury, whereas conventional tomography is judged to be inferior and not always necessary. Based on these results, our new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches using CT for the vertebral injuries were presented. (author)

  12. Birth and death of gene overlaps in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makałowska Izabela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between five and fourteen per cent of genes in the vertebrate genomes do overlap sharing some intronic and/or exonic sequence. It was observed that majority of these overlaps are not conserved among vertebrate lineages. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain gene overlap origination the evolutionary basis of these phenomenon are still not well understood. Here, we present results of the comparative analysis of several vertebrate genomes. The purpose of this study was to examine overlapping genes in the context of their evolution and mechanisms leading to their origin. Results Based on the presence and arrangement of human overlapping genes orthologs in rodent and fish genomes we developed 15 theoretical scenarios of overlapping genes evolution. Analysis of these theoretical scenarios and close examination of genomic sequences revealed new mechanisms leading to the overlaps evolution and confirmed that many of the vertebrate gene overlaps are not conserved. This study also demonstrates that repetitive elements contribute to the overlapping genes origination and, for the first time, that evolutionary events could lead to the loss of an ancient overlap. Conclusion Birth as well as most probably death of gene overlaps occurred over the entire time of vertebrate evolution and there wasn't any rapid origin or 'big bang' in the course of overlapping genes evolution. The major forces in the gene overlaps origination are transposition and exaptation. Our results also imply that origin of overlapping genes is not an issue of saving space and contracting genomes size.

  13. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  14. Magnetic resonance tomography of the vertebral column and spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Brueckmann, H.; Bunke, J.; Giesecke, J.; Heinzerling, J.; Kunze, V.; Mirvis, S.E.; Weidner, A.; Wolf, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to all the aspects pertinent to diagnostic procedures in the vertebral column and spinal canal this pocket book provides complete coverage of congenital and acquired disorders in the fields of orthopedics, neurology and neurosurgery - including malformations of the spinal canal, degenerative vertebral diseases, tumours, inflammatory changes and vascular diseases, to mention only a few. The authors discuss the question of how image qualities can be influenced and the most information obtained from the different pulse sequences. They outline future development trends and give advice on the reduction of artefacts. The principles that must be adhered to in surgical intervention and nmr imaging for the post-operative assessment of vertebral disk syndromes and tumours are just as important an issue here as is the information the surgeon expects to obtain through diagnostic nmr imaging and the recommendations to be given by the radiologist. (orig.) With 265 figs [de

  15. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Diana, A.; Testoni, S.; Olzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy [it

  16. 'Fingerprints' of vertebral trauma - a unifying concept based on mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Deeb, Z.L.; Rothfus, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Vertebral fractures, like fractures in the peripheral skeleton, occur in predictable and reproducible patterns that are related to the kind of force applied to the affected bone. The same force applied to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar column will result in injuries which appear quite similar. A review of 621 injuries to the vertebral column revealed that there are basically four mechanisms of injury: flexion, extension, shearing, and torque (rotation). These injuries may occur by themselves or in combination with one another. The severity and extent of damage produced by any mechanism is dependent upon the incident force, the position of the patient at the time of injury, and the velocity of the patient. Thus, there is a pattern of recognizable signs which span the spectrum from mild soft tissue damage to severe skeletal and ligamentous disruption. These patterns are termed the 'fingerprints' of the injury, and this presentation illustrates the four basic types of vertebral injury producing those 'fingerprints'. (orig.)

  17. The vertebrate fauna of Ichauway, Baker County, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.L.; Steen, D.A.; Stober, J.M.; Freeman, Mary C.; Golladay, S.W.; Conner, L.M.; Cochrane, J.

    2006-01-01

    Less than 4% of the once extensive Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) ecosystem remains today. Although longleaf pine habitats are recognized for their high species diversity, few published accounts document the vertebrate faunas of remaining tracts. Here we report on the vertebrate species richness of lchauway, an 11,300-ha property in Baker County, GA. The property includes ca. 7300 ha of longleaf pine with native ground cover, along with more than 30 seasonal wetlands and ca. 45 km of riparian habitat associated with Ichawaynochaway Creek, Big Cypress Creek, and the Flint River. The fauna includes 61 species of fish, 31 amphibians, 53 reptiles, 191 birds, and 41 mammals. Despite the relative isolation of the property from other natural ecosystems, the vertebrate fauna of lchauway is remarkably diverse and may offer an example of reference conditions to guide restoration of longleaf pine forests, associated seasonal wetlands, and riparian areas elsewhere in the southeastern U S.

  18. The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Brian; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liaotao; Zhu, You'an

    2014-01-01

    An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes. PMID:24921626

  19. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial vertebral artery (20 cases)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiras, J; Marciano, S; Vega Molina, J; Touboul, J; Poirier, B; Bories, J

    1985-07-01

    Spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery is an infrequent cause of vertebro basilar ischemic strokes. Previously reported cases concern essentially occlusion of the basilar artery. Only 14 cases of spontaneous dissecting aneurysm concern the extracranial vertebral artery among these eight were angiographically documented. In this study based upon 15 patients (20 dissecting aneurysms), the authors discuss etiological factors, such as hypertension or fibromuscular dysplasia: on clinical findings they insist upon the diagnostic value of preliminary symptoms, cervical pain or posterior headaches; the most frequent angiographic appearance was a long and irregular stenosis of one or two segments of the vertebral artery. The prognosis of these aneurysms most often appears favourable in this group.

  1. Stent assisted coil embolization of a dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery: a case involving a patient with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong; Cho, Jae Kwoeng; Park, Jeong Hoon; Koo, Yong Woon; Baik, Seung Kug

    2002-01-01

    A dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery may be treated conservatively, surgically, or using an endovascular approach. Proximal clipping, wrapping or trapping are surgical treatment methods, and endovascular treatment with coils and balloons is performed where a dissecting aneurysm is located near the midline or the appropriate surgical manipulation is difficult. As the contralateral vertebral artery of this patient was hypoplastic, the stent-assisted coil embolization technique was employed to preserve the ipsilateral vertebral artery. We describe a clinical case of dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery occurring in a patient in whom a hypoplastic contralateral vertebral artery was successfully treated

  2. Vertebral Fractures and Spondylosis in Men - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmin Gülbahar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vertebral fractures and spondylosis and bone mineral density in men older than 60 years. Material and Method: Thirty-two men with back and low back pain aged over 60 years were included into the study. Thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were taken and, anterior, central and posterior heights of each vertebral body from T4 to L5 was measured and than the number of vertebral fractures was assessed. Osteophyte and disc scores were used for evaluation of spondylosis. Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry. Measurements were obtained from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femoral region. Results: Significant positive correlations were found between vertebral fracture and osteophyte score and bone mineral density of total femoral region. When osteophyte score and total femoral bone mineral density were taken into consideration, there were no significant correlations between other parameters and vertebral fracture. Significant positive correlations were observed between osteophyte score and bone mineral density and t scores of L1-4. Also there were significant positive correlations between disc score and both bone mineral density and t scores of L1-4. Significant positive correlation was also found between femoral bone density and body weight. Conclusion: Finally, lumbar bone mineral density increases with spinal degenerative changes, but the increase in bone mineral density can not prevent sub clinic vertebral fractures. Especially, in the men who have intensive spinal degenerative changes, the measurement of lumbar bone mineral density is not enough for determining the fracture risk. Measurement of femoral bone mineral density and evaluation of clinic risk factors are more important for determining the fracture risk. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:1-6

  3. Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huwart, Laurent, E-mail: huwart.laurent@wanadoo.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Foti, Pauline, E-mail: pfoti@hotmail.fr [Department of Biostatistics, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Andreani, Olivier, E-mail: andreani.olivier@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.hauger@chubordeaux.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Pellegrin, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Cervantes, Elodie, E-mail: elodie.cervantes@live.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Brunner, Philippe, E-mail: pbrunner@chpg.mc [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Princesse Grasse de Monaco (Monaco); Boileau, Pascal, E-mail: boileau.p@chu-nice.fr [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France); Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr [Department of Radiology, Hôpital Archet 2, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Nice (France)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty.

  4. Vertebral split fractures: Technical feasibility of percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwart, Laurent; Foti, Pauline; Andreani, Olivier; Hauger, Olivier; Cervantes, Elodie; Brunner, Philippe; Boileau, Pascal; Amoretti, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of vertebral split fractures remains controversial, consisting of either corset or internal fixation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of vertebral split fractures. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this study. Sixty-two consecutive adult patients who had post-traumatic vertebral split fractures (A2 according to the AO classification) without neurological symptoms were prospectively treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty. All these procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance by using only local anaesthesia. Postoperative outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. Results: Vertebroplasty was performed on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, creating a cement bridge between the displaced fragment and the rest of the vertebral body. Seven discal cement leakages (11%) were observed, without occurrence of adjacent vertebral compression fractures. The mean VAS measurements ± standard deviation (SD) significantly decreased from 7.9 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 day, 2.2 ± 2.0 at 1 month, and 1.8 ± 1.4 at 6 months (P < 0.001). The mean ODI scores ± SD had also a significant improvement: 62.3 ± 17.2 preoperatively and 15.1 ± 6.0 at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study suggests that type A2 vertebral fractures could be successfully treated by CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty

  5. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  6. Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: La demencia tipo Alzheimer es una de las causas más frecuentes de dependencia en población mayor, a lo que se une, la considerable demanda de cuidados. Además, cuando el cuidador es un familiar o una persona sin formación especializada, el cuidado tiene un impacto sobre su salud. Para conocer las necesidades de estos cuidadores y evaluar el nivel de sobrecarga o malestar del cuidador, se realiza la propuesta del Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer (IPSO-CA24. Método: En base a las respuestas de 255 cuidadores, se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mediante análisis de fiabilidad, análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Resultados: Los análisis factoriales informan de una estructura de seis factores relacionados (Reacción ante el diagnóstico, Salud física, Sintomatología psicológica (cuidador, Sintomatología conductual (enfermo, Conocimientos de la enfermedad y Nivel de dependencia, con una fiabilidad entre 0,75 y 0,93, que explican el 66,52% de la varianza total. También se obtiene apoyo para su validez convergente. Conclusiones: El IPSO-CA24 viene a dar respuesta a la necesidad de un instrumento que permita una valoración multidimensional de la sobrecarga del cuidador familiar sin formación especializada. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  7. Calcium isotopic composition of high-latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin., becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.

  8. Test of 10 GHz sin-cosin microwave reflectometer on CASTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, F.; Kletecka, P.

    1994-09-01

    The first microwave reflectometric device is described used at the CASTOR tokamak to measure fast density fluctuations. The device operates at the frequency of 10.26 GHz which makes it possible to detect fluctuations near the plasma periphery. The device was proved to work properly during the whole tokamak discharge despite the fact that the reflected signal level varied strongly. The construction of the reflectometric device is described as is its use of the so-called sin-cosin detection system, and the results obtained are discussed. (Z.S.) 8 figs., 3 refs

  9. A precision measurement of sin2θw in neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Barbaro, P. de; Sakumoto, W.K.; Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle is reported from the ratio of the neutral current to charged current inclusive cross-sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using the on-shell definition, the value obtained is currently the most accurate determination of sin 2 θ w in a single experiment. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet wide-band neutrino beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  10. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estud...

  11. Measurement of sin2β in Tree Dominated B0 Decays and Ambiguity Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The most recent results from the B-factories on the time-dependent CP asymmetries measured in B 0 -decays mediated by b→cc-bar s quark-transitions are reviewed. The Standard Model interpretation of the results in terms of the parameter sin2β leads to a four-fold ambiguity on the unitarity triangle β which can be reduced to a two-fold ambiguity by measuring the sign of the parameter cos2β. The results on cos2β obtained so far are reviewed

  12. Del fin de la guerra fria al comienzo de la guerra sin fin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Jean Pierre

    2006-01-01

    El Profesor Ferrier nos describe los acontecimientos de la sociedad internacional en los ultimos 15 años y señala la profunda diferencia entre "la estabilidad" durante la guerra fría y la "revolucion" que se ha producido en el escenario internacional a partir de la caida del muro de Berlin. Hace especial referencia al comportamiento de la superpotencia (Estados Unidos) y su guerra sin fin contra los "nuevos enemigos" en los diferentes teatros internacionales en su lucha por imponer el "Bien" ...

  13. Superconducting ring magnets of the PIOTRON Pi-meson therapy facility at SIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maix, R K; Meyer, G; Roman, T; Horvath, I; Vecsey, G; Zellweger, J

    1982-01-01

    Negative Pi-mesons seem to be very promising for cancer therapy, because of their well defined penetration depth and their enhanced energy deposition in the absorption region. A prototype Pi-meson therapy facility, called PIOTRON, has been constructed at SIN, where also pion beams of sufficient intensity are available. The central part of this system are two ring magnets, consisting each of 60 superconducting flat coils, with the aid of which 60 pion beams can be guided around a heavy iron shield and focused on the patient. In this paper the fabrication and the initial operation of these magnets is discussed.

  14. Sarcoidosis aguda: Variante de Síndrome de Löfgren sin eritema nodoso

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Gerardo; Facal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    El síndrome de Löfgren, es una variante aguda de la sarcoidosis, que se caracteriza por fiebre, eritema nodoso, adenomegalias hiliares pulmonares y artritis. En general, tiene un curso benigno y autolimitado, que contrasta con las formas crónicas que requieren uso de corticoides y tienen tendencia a la recidiva. Se describe aquí el caso clínico de un paciente joven, de sexo masculino, con artritis pero sin eritema nodoso, lo que dificultó el planteo diagnóstico de síndrome de Löfgren. Se real...

  15. Diversidad de sistemas planetarios sin gigantes gaseosos en discos de baja masa

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, María Paula

    2013-01-01

    Como indica el título de esta tesis, el objetivo general de nuestro trabajo es poder analizar la diversidad de sistemas planetarios que podrían formarse alrededor de estrellas de tipo solar y sin gigantes gaseosos. Nuestro interés particular es estudiar estos sistemas en discos de baja masa, pues podemos asegurar que en ellos no hay posibilidad de formar planetas gigantes gaseosos. Para poder lograr este análisis desarrollamos simulaciones de N-cuerpos orientadas a estudiar el proceso de form...

  16. [Successful treatment of surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) with systemic immunosuppresive agents and amniotic membrane grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, M; Franco-Benito, M; García-Ruiz-de-Morales, J M; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Del Barrio-Manso, I

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old female who developed a necrotizing sclerokeratitis affecting her left eye after uncomplicated cataract surgery. She had no previous history of systemic autoimmune disease. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotic granulomatosis with an increased number of plasma cells. Surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) is a serious entity which requires prompt and aggressive therapy to prevent its potential devastating ocular consequences. Conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane grafting may be necessary to temporarily interrupt local immunologic events in severe cases. However, associated systemic immunomodulatory therapy seems to be mandatory (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2009; 84: 577-580).

  17. Clima organizacional y disposici?n al cambio en una entidad sin ?nimo de lucro

    OpenAIRE

    G?nzalez-Rubio, Daniella; Quintanilla, Karen

    2017-01-01

    El prop?sito de la investigaci?n fue describir el clima organizacional y la actitud hacia el cambio de los colaboradores de la Fundaci?n Compasi?n y Amor, entidad sin ?nimo de lucro, con el fin de generar una propuesta que contribuya al desarrollo organizacional. Se realiz? una investigaci?n cuantitativa y descriptiva con 15 colaboradores de la Fundaci?n, los que tienen contrato directo y est?n en cargo administrativo y los voluntarios que no tienen contrato. Se dise?? y aplic? una bater?a c...

  18. «El castigo sin venganza», a la conquista del repertorio

    OpenAIRE

    Mancebo Salvador, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    El artículo da cuenta de todos los montajes de El castigo sin venganza de Lope de Vega, desde su estreno en 1632 hasta 2014, tanto en España como en el extranjero. Se recogen las representaciones de la pieza en el ámbito profesional y en el escolar, con especial atención a los espectáculos de las escuelas de arte escénico (ESAD) y de las universidades. Se analizan los signos que intervinieron en las más destacadas puestas en escena desde el reparto a la escenografía, vestuario, música, versió...

  19. Alteraciones emocionales en la enfermedad de Parkinson idiopático sin demencia

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado González, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Actualmente la enfermedad de Parkinson ha comenzado a ser considerada como una patología de carácter neuroconductual cognitivo que se encuentra relacionada con alteraciones emocionales como la depresión, ansiedad y apatía que contribuyen a desmejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes que padecen esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar y analizar las alteraciones emocionales (depresión, ansiedad y apatía) en pacientes con EP sin demencia en est...

  20. Pájaros enjaulados: homosexualidad y prisión en Hombres sin mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Saborido, Emilio José

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en la interacción entre homosexualidad y prisión en la novela del cubano Carlos Montenegro titulada “Hombres sin mujer” (1938). A partir de una aproximación sociológica al hecho literario, se analizan estructuralmente las nociones y prácticas homosexuales carcelarias, teniendo en cuenta especialmente sus componentes y la creación de categorías auto-explicativas o etnocategorías, el orden en el que se constituyen estos elementos y los conflictos que los a...

  1. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González; Ivonne Vizcarra-Bordi

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un est...

  2. Los Estados Unidos de Obama: entre el idealismo y el regreso al containment sin enemigo global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García Duarte

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El ascenso de Obama al poder representaba, sin duda, un cambio radical en relación con la política internacional desplegada por el presidente George W. Bush y su doctrina sobre la guerra preventiva. En una perspectiva de más largo plazo podría, además, significar un giro hacia el idealismo después de un largo período de predominio del realismo, muy intensamente desarrollado durante la guerra fría, mediante la doctrina del containment. La prevalencia de la diplomacia y la restitución del

  3. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  4. Stenosis of the thoracolumbar vertebral canal in a Basset Hound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigen, Ø.; Hagen, G.; Kolbjørnsen, Ø.

    1990-01-01

    A three-month-old female basset hound was referred to the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine with a history of progressive paresis of the pelvic limbs. Following neurological examination and the study of myelograms, extradural masses causing spinal cord compressions at the T 12.13 and T 13 -L 1 junctions were diagnosed. At necropsy bone-tissue of the vertebral laminae was found to have formed stenoses of the vertebral canal producing compressions of the spinal cord. Irreversible tissue-damage was observed in histological sections prepared from the compressed areas of the spinal cord

  5. Shark-bitten vertebrate coprolites from the Miocene of Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J.; Smith, Joshua B.

    2010-05-01

    Coprolites (fossilized feces) preserve a wide range of biogenic components, from bacteria and spores to a variety of vertebrate tissues. Two coprolites from the Calvert Cliffs outcrop belt (Miocene-aged Chesapeake Group), MD, USA, preserve shark tooth impressions in the form of partial dental arcades. The specimens are the first known coprolites to preserve vertebrate tooth marks. They provide another example of trace fossils providing evidence of prehistoric animal behaviors that cannot be directly approached through the study of body fossils. Shark behaviors that could account for these impressions include: (1) aborted coprophagy, (2) benthic or nektonic exploration, or (3) predation.

  6. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  7. Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome with congenital lumbar hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lucky; Mala, Tariq Ahmed; Gupta, Rahul; Malla, Shahid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Lumbo-costo-vertebral syndrome (LCVS) is a set of rare abnormalities involving vertebral bodies, ribs, and abdominal wall. We present a case of LCVS in a 2-year-old girl who had a progressive swelling over left lumbar area noted for the last 12 months. Clinical examination revealed a reducible swelling with positive cough impulse. Ultrasonography showed a defect containing bowel loops in the left lumbar region. Chest x-ray showed scoliosis and hemivertebrae with absent lower ribs on left side. Meshplasty was done.

  8. Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of degenerative vertebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokarev, V.S.; Savchenko, A.P.; Ternovoj, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    CT and roentgenography were used for the investigation of 78 patients with the radicular syndrome. The state of the intervertebral disks, intervertebral joints and cerebrospinal canal in degenerative vertebral diseases was assessed. CT permits the detection of hernia, protrusion of the intervertebral disks, deformity of the intervertebral joints, and the narrowing of the cerebrospinal canal as a result of degenerative changes, as well as establishing the cause of the affection of neural structures in the cerebrospinal canal, radicular holes. CT possesses some advantages over roentgenography in the diagnosis of degenerative vertebral diseases

  9. Gout and the Risk of Non-vertebral Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoyoung C; Paik, Julie M; Liu, Jun; Curhan, Gary C; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies suggest an association between osteoporosis, systemic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Conflicting findings exist on the association between hyperuricemia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether gout, a common inflammatory arthritis, affects fracture risk. Using data from a US commercial health plan (2004-2013), we evaluated the risk of non-vertebral fracture (ie, forearm, wrist, hip, and pelvis) in patients with gout versus those without. Gout patients were identified with ≥2 diagnosis codes and ≥1 dispensing for a gout-related drug. Non-gout patients, identified with ≥2 visits coded for any diagnosis and ≥1 dispensing for any prescription drugs, were free of gout diagnosis and received no gout-related drugs. Hip fracture was the secondary outcome. Fractures were identified with a combination of diagnosis and procedure codes. Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of non-vertebral fracture in gout patients versus non-gout, adjusting for more than 40 risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. Among gout patients with baseline serum uric acid (sUA) measurements available, we assessed the risk of non-vertebral fracture associated with sUA. We identified 73,202 gout and 219,606 non-gout patients, matched on age, sex, and the date of study entry. The mean age was 60 years and 82% were men. Over the mean 2-year follow-up, the incidence rate of non-vertebral fracture per 1,000 person-years was 2.92 in gout and 2.66 in non-gout. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.12) for non-vertebral fracture and 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.07) for hip fracture in gout versus non-gout. Subgroup analysis (n = 15,079) showed no association between baseline sUA and non-vertebral fracture (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.15), adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity score, and number of any prescription drugs. Gout was not associated with a risk of non-vertebral

  10. Diagnosis of ischemic vertebral collapse using selective spinal angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, J.; Kovac, V.

    1981-01-01

    During the year of 1980 we observed 3 patients with a vertebral collapse of indistinct origin. As there was no recent trauma in the past history, selective spinal angiography (SSA) was used to clarify the diagnosis. In each of the three cases we found evident rarefaction, in some places even an occlusion of the arteries of the adjacent affected vertebra. On the bases of this finding we concluded that this might be an ischemic vertebral collapse, an entity which had been under discussion long ago but not exactly confirmed so far. (orig.) [de

  11. Bilateral Medial Medullary Infarction with Nondominant Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Gui-lian; Du, Ju-mei; Ma, Zhu-lin

    2015-09-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare stroke subtype. Here, we report a case with bilateral MMI caused by nondominant vertebral artery occlusion confirmed by brain digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging basi-parallel-anatomical-scanning. We highlight that anterior spinal arteries could originate from a unilateral vertebral artery (VA). Radiologists and neurologists should pay attention to the nondominant VA as bilateral MMI may be induced by occlusion of nondominant VA that supplies the bilateral anteromedial territories of the medulla. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vertebral Osteophyte as Possible Etiology of Aortoenteric Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Matthew; Ciocca, Rocco G; Hacker, Robert I

    2018-05-01

    Aortoenteric fistula (AEF) and aortoenteric erosion (AEE) are deadly and difficult to diagnose. We present here a case report of a patient with a delayed diagnosis of AEF whose preoperative imaging revealed a large vertebral osteophyte which likely directed the aortic impulse into the duodenum. We believe this is the first report documenting an anatomical explanation for AEF/AEE and conclude that the presence of vertebral osteophytes should be considered a risk factor when assessing preoperative likelihood of AEF/AEE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  16. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  17. A structured workflow for mapping human Sin3 histone deacetylase complex interactions using Halo-MudPIT AP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Thornton, Janet L; Eubanks, Cassandra G; Adams, Mark K; Miah, Sayem; Boanca, Gina; Liu, Xingyu; Katt, Maria; Parmely, Tari; Florens, Laurence A; Washburn, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Although a variety of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) strategies have been used to investigate complex interactions, many of these are susceptible to artifacts due to substantial overexpression of the exogenously expressed bait protein. Here we present a logical and systematic workflow that uses the multifunctional Halo tag to assess the correct localization and behavior of tagged subunits of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex prior to further AP-MS analysis. Using this workflow, we modified our tagging/expression strategy with 21.7% of the tagged bait proteins that we constructed, allowing us to quickly develop validated reagents. Specifically, we apply the workflow to map interactions between stably expressed versions of the Sin3 subunits SUDS3, SAP30 or SAP30L and other cellular proteins.  Here we show that the SAP30 and SAP30L paralogues strongly associate with the core Sin3 complex, but SAP30L has unique associations with the proteasome and the myelin sheath.  Next, we demonstrate an advancement of the complex NSAF (cNSAF) approach, in which normalization to the scaffold protein SIN3A accounts for variations in the proportion of each bait capturing Sin3 complexes and allows a comparison between different baits capturing the same protein complex. This analysis reveals that although the Sin3 subunit SUDS3 appears to be used in both SIN3A and SIN3B based complexes, the SAP30 subunit is not used in SIN3B based complexes. Intriguingly, we do not detect the Sin3 subunits SAP18 and SAP25 among the 128 high-confidence interactions identified, suggesting that these subunits may not be common to all versions of the Sin3 complex in human cells. This workflow provides the framework for building validated reagents to assemble quantitative interaction networks for chromatin remodeling complexes and provides novel insights into focused protein interaction networks. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Kyphoplasty for vertebral augmentation in the elderly with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: scenarios and review of recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Timothy; Heyde, Christoph E; Bednar, Grace; Nguyen, David; Volpi, Elena; Przkora, Rene

    2013-11-01

    Vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis are among the most common fractures in the elderly. The treatment focuses on pain control, maintenance of independence, and management of the osteoporosis. Elderly patients often encounter adverse effects to pain medications, do not tolerate bed rest, and are not ideal candidates for invasive spinal reconstructive surgery. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) has become popular as a less-invasive alternative. However, studies have questioned the effectiveness of these procedures. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using relevant search terms including osteoporosis, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, elderly, kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Two elderly patients presented with a fracture of their third and first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. One patient progressed well with conservative treatment, whereas the other patient was hospitalized secondary to pain after conservative measures failed to offer improvement. The hospitalized patient subsequently opted for a kyphoplasty and was able to resume his normal daily activities after the procedure. Selecting patients on an individual case-by-case basis can optimize the effectiveness and outcomes of a vertebral augmentation. This process includes the documentation of an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with the aide of imaging studies, including the acuity of the fracture as well as the correlation with the physical examination findings. Patients who are functional and improving under a conservative regimen are not candidates for kyphoplasty. However, if the conservative management is not successful after 4 to 6 weeks and the patient is at risk to become bedridden, an augmentation should be considered. A kyphoplasty procedure may be preferred over vertebroplasty, given the lower risk profile and better outcomes regarding spinal alignment. Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  19. Demo 94. Campana de vacío : hinchar un globo sin soplar y cocer un huevo en el Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Martínez, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: a) Hinchar un globo sin soplar: Experimentar la relación entre el volumen y la presión de los gases. Demostrar que es posible hinchar un globo sin insuflar aire en su interior, reduciendo la presión (atmosférica). b) Cocer un huevo en el Everest: Comprobar la disminución del punto de ebullición del agua al reducir la presión (atmosférica)

  20. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology: certain invertebrates could be used as "vertebrate samplers" and deliver DNA-based information on many aspects of vertebrate ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Schubert, Grit

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population and conservation biologists. Here, we identify some invertebrate characteristics that will likely influence iDNA retrieval and elaborate on the potential uses of invertebrate-derived information. We hypothesize that beyond inventorying local faunal diversity, iDNA should allow for more profound insights into wildlife population density, size, mortality, and infectious agents. Based on the similarities of iDNA with other low-quality sources of DNA, a general technical framework for iDNA analyses is proposed. As it is likely that no such thing as a single ideal iDNA sampler exists, forthcoming research efforts should aim at cataloguing invertebrate properties relevant to iDNA retrieval so as to guide future usage of the invertebrate tool box. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Study of Large sin2φBs with High Mass Fourth Generation t'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chien Yi

    2009-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts the CP violation phase φ SM Bs -M 12 ≅ (V * ts V tb ) in B s (bar) B s mixing is very small, of O(λ 2 η) ∼ -0.02, any finite value of φ Bs measured at the Tevatron would mean New Physics. Recent hints for finite sin2φ Bs have appeared from CDF and D 0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II. We consider the possibility to account for it with the 4 th generation t' quark. Considering recent direct search bounds, we set the mass to be near the unitarity bound of 600 GeV. Combining the measurement values of Δm Bs with B(B d → X s l + l - , together with typical f Bs values, we find a sizable sin2φ SM4 B s ∼ -0.3. Using a typical value of m b' = 580 GeV, we get a narrow range of values, 0.089 t'b | + → π + ν(bar)ν) and Δm D 0. Finally, we use the ZFITTER code to check the global fit deviation. (author)

  2. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  3. SinCHet: a MATLAB toolbox for single cell heterogeneity analysis in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiannong; Smalley, Inna; Schell, Michael J; Smalley, Keiran S M; Chen, Y Ann

    2017-09-15

    Single-cell technologies allow characterization of transcriptomes and epigenomes for individual cells under different conditions and provide unprecedented resolution for researchers to investigate cellular heterogeneity in cancer. The SinCHet ( gle ell erogeneity) toolbox is developed in MATLAB and has a graphical user interface (GUI) for visualization and user interaction. It analyzes both continuous (e.g. mRNA expression) and binary omics data (e.g. discretized methylation data). The toolbox does not only quantify cellular heterogeneity using S hannon P rofile (SP) at different clonal resolutions but also detects heterogeneity differences using a D statistic between two populations. It is defined as the area under the P rofile of S hannon D ifference (PSD). This flexible tool provides a default clonal resolution using the change point of PSD detected by multivariate adaptive regression splines model; it also allows user-defined clonal resolutions for further investigation. This tool provides insights into emerging or disappearing clones between conditions, and enables the prioritization of biomarkers for follow-up experiments based on heterogeneity or marker differences between and/or within cell populations. The SinCHet software is freely available for non-profit academic use. The source code, example datasets, and the compiled package are available at http://labpages2.moffitt.org/chen/software/ . ann.chen@moffitt.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

  5. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Drzik, Milan [International Laser Center, Ilkovicova 3, 841-04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  6. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gefang; Cheng Yongde; Wu Chungen; Zhang Ji; Gu Yifeng; Li Minghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate the clinical efficiency and safety of patients receiving percutaneous vertebroplasty due to multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review eighty-six osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients including 23 with three and more levels of vertebroplasty. The outcome was considered carefully by pre and postoperatively the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)for pain relief, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)for the improvement activity of daily life and also the accompanied imaging information. Results: All procedures were performed successfully. Three patients had a transient high blood pressure and dyspnea, and recovered after sublingual nitroglycerin. The VAS and ODI improved from a mean preoperative score of 8.58±1.12 and 81.43 ±12.54 to a mean postoperative score of 3.03±0.98 and 31.04±11.11 one day afterward. Asymptomatic cement leakage rate was 17.8% with no major complications occurred during operation or post-operation. Five patients had new symptomatic vertebral fracture (s) during follow-up in one year. Conclusions: Vertebroplasty with cement to treat multi-level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures in the elderly is safe and effective, providing immediate and long-term pain relief with improvement in quality of life. Due to the risk of fat embolism, the limitation of three per session must be kept strictly. (authors)

  7. Vertebrate reservoirs of arboviruses: myth, synonym of amplifier, or reality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuno, G.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Junglen, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Plyusnin, A.; Gubler, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 185. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : insect-specific virus * arbovirus * transmission mechanism * vertebrate reservoir * origin of arbovirus * virus maintenance * zoonosis * host range Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  8. Allergenicity of vertebrate tropomyosins: Challenging an immunological dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, J; Daschner, A; Cuéllar, C

    With the exception of tilapia tropomyosin, other anecdotic reports of tropomyosin recognition of vertebrate origin are generally not accompanied by clinical significance and a dogmatic idea is generally accepted about the inexistence of allergenicity of vertebrate tropomyosins, based mainly on sequence similarity evaluations with human tropomyosins. Recently, a specific work-up of a tropomyosin sensitised patient with seafood allergy, demonstrated that the IgE-recognition of tropomyosin from different fish species can be clinically relevant. We hypothesise that some vertebrate tropomyosins could be relevant allergens. The hypothesis is based on the molecular evolution of the proteins and it was tested by in silico methods. Fish, which are primitive vertebrates, could have tropomyosins similar to those of invertebrates. If the hypothesis is confirmed, tropomyosin should be included in different allergy diagnosis tools to improve the medical protocols and management of patients with digestive or cutaneous symptoms after fish intake. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed dispersal by vertebrates in Madagascar's forests: review and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates in Madagascar's forests: review and future directions. ... provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  10. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kevin J; Ross, E Raymond S; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N

    2006-10-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had eroded into the bifurcation of the inferior vena cava and the left common iliac vein. In three cases the aortic bifurcation was also involved. The fibrosis was so severe that dissecting out the arteries and veins to provide access to the relevant disc proved impossible. Formal division of the left common iliac vein and artery with subsequent repair was our solution. Anterior inter-vertebral disc displacement was associated with severe vascular injury. Preventing anterior disc displacement is essential in disc design. In the event of anterior displacement, disc removal should be planned with a Vascular Surgeon.

  11. MRI evaluation and treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Otani, Koji

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI findings and the prognosis of the fractured vertebral body in the patients with fresh osteoporotic compression vertebral fractures. Subjects were 8 cases, 11 vertebrae. All of the cases were treated with no bed rest and no corset. MRI and radiographs were taken within 1 week after injury. MRI signal intensity of the fractured vertebral body altered low on T1WI at acute phase. When the fractured vertebrae were enhanced at whole area with Gd-DTPA at acute phase, the vertebrae showed no progression of wedge deformity by follow up radiographs. On the other hand, when the fractured vertebrae were not enhanced at whole area, the vertebrae showed progression of wedge deformity. These findings suggests that vertebral fractures in osteoporosis should be taken MRI including GD-DTPA in acute phase after injury. When the fractured vertebrae are enhanced with Gd-DTPA in whole body at acute phase, the fracture may need no special treatment. In conclusion, Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI may be useful to determine the prognosis of the osteoporotic compression fracture. (author)

  12. LncRNAs in vertebrates: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Allison C; Shkumatava, Alena

    2015-10-01

    Beyond the handful of classic and well-characterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), more recently, hundreds of thousands of lncRNAs have been identified in multiple species including bacteria, plants and vertebrates, and the number of newly annotated lncRNAs continues to increase as more transcriptomes are analyzed. In vertebrates, the expression of many lncRNAs is highly regulated, displaying discrete temporal and spatial expression patterns, suggesting roles in a wide range of developmental processes and setting them apart from classic housekeeping ncRNAs. In addition, the deregulation of a subset of these lncRNAs has been linked to the development of several diseases, including cancers, as well as developmental anomalies. However, the majority of vertebrate lncRNA functions remain enigmatic. As such, a major task at hand is to decipher the biological roles of lncRNAs and uncover the regulatory networks upon which they impinge. This review focuses on our emerging understanding of lncRNAs in vertebrate animals, highlighting some recent advances in their functional analyses across several species and emphasizing the current challenges researchers face to characterize lncRNAs and identify their in vivo functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  13. PICTORIAL ESSAY Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery indeed a rare finding? Braham van der Merwe, Christelle Ackermann, Shaun Scheepers, Sulaiman Moosa. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Tygerberg, Western Cape. Braham van der Merwe, MB ChB , DA (SA).

  14. Respiratory physiology of vertebrates: life with and without oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nilsson, Göran E

    2010-01-01

    ... sensing, uptake and transport in a textbook style. Subsequently, the reader is shown important examples of extreme respiratory performance, such as diving and high-altitude survival in mammals and birds, air breathing in fish, and those few vertebrates that can survive without any oxygen at all for several months, showing how evolution has s...

  15. Global patterns in threats to vertebrates by biological invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellard, C.; Genovesi, P.; Jeschke, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss have recently been challenged. Fundamentally, we must know where species that are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) live, and the degree to which they are threatened. We report the first study linking 1372 vertebrates threatened by more than 200 IAS from the completely revised Global Invasive Species Database. New maps of the vulnerability of threatened vertebrates to IAS permit assessments of whether IAS have a major influence on biodiversity, and if so, which taxonomic groups are threatened and where they are threatened. We found that centres of IAS-threatened vertebrates are concentrated in the Americas, India, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. The areas in which IAS-threatened species are located do not fully match the current hotspots of invasions, or the current hotspots of threatened species. The relative importance of biological invasions as drivers of biodiversity loss clearly varies across regions and taxa, and changes over time, with mammals from India, Indonesia, Australia and Europe are increasingly being threatened by IAS. The chytrid fungus primarily threatens amphibians, whereas invasive mammals primarily threaten other vertebrates. The differences in IAS threats between regions and taxa can help efficiently target IAS, which is essential for achieving the Strategic Plan 2020 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. PMID:26817767

  16. Clinical characteristics of unruptured vertebral artery dissections presenting with headaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Homare; Mizuniwa, Yoshitaka; Kouno, Takao; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Furuya, Yu; Taguchi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 13 cases of patients with unruptured dissections of the vertebral artery who were treated at our hospital after presenting with headaches. We identified 13 patients who had headache alone at the time of onset and who were diagnosed as having vertebral artery dissection using three-dimensional CT, MRI, MR angiography (MRA), or angiography from November 2007 to October 2009. Primary radiographic investigations showed the 'pearl and string' sign in two cases, dilatation in eight, and the string sign alone in three cases. Following initial conservative treatment, 11 cases exhibited radiographic improvement, but two cases underwent surgical treatment because of progressive vertebral artery dissection. A definitive diagnosis was made using primary investigations in nine cases and dynamic changes on radiographic investigations in four cases. The headache was located posteriorly in all cases, but some patients had mild headaches. Clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of vertebral artery dissection even if the headache is mild at onset. Radiographic investigations are important for a definitive diagnosis and in deciding whether to intervene surgically. (author)

  17. Biogeochemistry of vertebrate decomposition in a forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decomposing plants and animals provide critical nutrients for ecosystems, including forests. During vertebrate decay, the rapid release of limiting nutrients, including N, P, C, and S fundamentally transforms the soil environment by stimulating endogenous organisms. The goal of this study was t...

  18. Comparative aspects of hypoxia tolerance of the ectothermic vertebrate heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesser, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    This chapter reviews cardiac contractile performance and its regulation during hypoxia/anoxia with regard to cellular metabolism and energy state, in particular hypoxia-tolerant ectothermic vertebrates. Overall the contractile performance of the hypoxic isolated heart muscle varies in a way...

  19. The efficacy of radiotherapy for 59 patients with vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Liting; Liu Xinfan; Li Yexiong; Yu Zihao; Yin Weibo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indication, total dose and efficacy of radiotherapy for vertebral hemangiomas. Methods: Between 1967 and 2000, 59 patients (36 female, 23 male) with vertebral hemangioma were treated with deep X-ray, electron beam, 60 Co or 6-8MV X-ray with a total dose ranging from 28 to 90 Gy and a median of 40 Gy. Results: Of the 54 evaluable cases, the overall response rate was 87.0%. The response rates were 90.2% and 83.3%, respectively, for patients treated with 34-40 Gy and more than 40 Gy (χ 2 =0.41, P=0.608). Among the 9 patients with paraplegic patients, 4 achieved complete response, 4 partial response, and only one showed no response to the treatment. Conclusions: Radiotherapy is effective and safe for symptomatic vertebral hemangioma, on condition of a suitable total dose range of 30 to 40 Gy. Patients with asymptomatic or minor symptomatic lesion should be watched and followed rather than giving immediate treatment. Radiation therapy shows slow and delayed improvement in vertebral hemangioma and the symptoms are gradually relieved or disappear in three months to seven years with a median interval of 1.5 years, even though diagnostic images show no or only minor changes after treatment

  20. The MRI appearances of early vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.A.T.; Sandoe, J.A.T.; Rao, A.S.; Crimmins, D.W.; Baig, W.; Rankine, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances in patients with a clinical history suggestive of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis who underwent MRI very early in their clinical course. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the database of spinal infections from a spinal microbiological liaison team was performed over a 2 year period to identify cases with clinical features suggestive of spinal infection and an MRI that did not show features typical of vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. All patients had positive microbiology and a follow up MRI showing typical features of spinal infection. Results: In four cases the features typical of spinal infection were not evident at the initial MRI. In three cases there was very subtle endplate oedema associated with disc degeneration, which was interpreted as Modic type I degenerative endplate change. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was continued prior to repeat MRI examinations. The mean time to the repeat examination was 17 days with a range of 8-22 days. The second examinations clearly demonstrated vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis. Conclusion: Although MRI is the imaging method of choice for vertebral osteomyelitis and discitis in the early stages, it may show subtle, non-specific endplate subchondral changes; a repeat examination may be required to show the typical features.

  1. Supine vs decubitus lateral patient positioning in vertebral fracture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggiosi, Margaret Anne; Finigan, Judith; Peel, Nicola; Eastell, Richard; Ferrar, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In vertebral fracture assessment (VFA), lateral scans are obtained with the patient positioned supine (C-arm densitometers) or lateral decubitus (fixed-arm densitometers). We aimed to determine the impact of positioning on image quality and fracture definition. We performed supine and decubitus lateral VFA in 50 postmenopausal women and used the algorithm-based qualitative method to identify vertebral fractures. We compared the 2 techniques for the identification of fractures (kappa analysis) and compared the numbers of unreadable vertebrae (indiscernible endplates) and vertebrae that were projected obliquely (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). The kappa score for agreement between the VFA techniques (to identify women with vertebral fractures) was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.99), and for agreement with fracture assessments made from radiographs, kappa was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.57-0.94) for both supine and decubitus lateral VFA. There were more unreadable vertebrae with supine lateral (48 vertebrae in supine lateral compared with 14 in decubitus lateral; p=0.001), but oblique projection was less common (93 vertebrae compared with 145 in decubitus lateral; p=0.002). We conclude that there were significantly different projection effects with supine and decubitus lateral VFA, but these differences did not influence the identification of vertebral fractures in our study sample. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Rare Case: Gastric Cancer; Involving Primery Thoracal Vertebral Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Primery bone metastases rarely occur in gastric cancer. Bone metastases indicate that the prognosis is bad. In that article we present a case that is diagnosed as a gastric cancer with primary bone metasteses that caused pathologic thoracal vertebral fracture seenby computer ised tomography.

  3. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  4. Connexin43 orthologues in vertebrates: phylogeny from fish to man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A. G.; van Eijk, Marleen; Wilders, Ronald; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Opthof, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is widely expressed in all vertebrate species; however, in ventricular myocardium, Cx43 expression is restricted to mammalian species only, where it provides the molecular correlate for both electrical conduction and synchronization of the repolarization

  5. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wayne; Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut

  6. Domain combination of the vertebrate-like TLR gene family ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Framingham Heart Study, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Framingham 01702, USA ... with the acquired immune responses (Pasare and Medzhitov ... There are two structural types of TLRs: the vertebrate-like ... The evolutionary positions of all ..... rules, that might be selective pressure exerted by pathogens.

  7. Vertebral Artery Dissection Causing Stroke After Trampoline Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Courtney S; Lim, Rodrick K; Prasad, Asuri Narayan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report a case of a 4-year-old boy who had been playing on the trampoline and presented to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and ataxia, and had a vertebral artery dissection with subsequent posterior circulation infarcts. This study is a chart review. The patient presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of vomiting and gait unsteadiness. A computed tomography scan of his head revealed multiple left cerebellar infarcts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram of his head and neck demonstrated multiple infarcts involving the left cerebellum, bilateral thalami, and left occipital lobe. A computed tomography angiogram confirmed the presence of a left vertebral artery dissection. Vertebral artery dissection is a relatively common cause of stroke in the pediatric age group. Trampoline use has been associated with significant risk of injury to the head and neck. Patients who are small and/or young are most at risk. In this case, minor trauma secondary to trampoline use could be a possible mechanism for vertebral artery dissection and subsequent strokes. The association in this case warrants careful consideration because trampoline use could pose a significant risk to pediatric users.

  8. Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative therapeuctic efficacy of vertebral mobilization technique in the management of mechanical low back pain. ... Pre- and post-treatment pain scores among the subjects were compared to determine if there was any significant difference in the severity of pain. The difference in the severity of pain perception before and ...

  9. Relationship between cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gina; Woodside, Donald; Tompson, Bryan; Hunter, W Stuart; Posluns, James

    2011-05-01

    The cervical vertebrae have been proposed as a method of determining biologic maturity. The purposes of this study were to establish a pattern of mandibular growth and to relate this pattern to the stages of cervical vertebral maturation. Cephalometric radiographs, taken annually from ages 9 to 18 years, were evaluated for 90 boys from the Burlington Growth Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mandibular lengths were measured from articulare to gnathion, and incremental growth was determined. Cervical vertebral maturation stages were assessed by using a 6-stage method. Advanced, average, and delayed maturation groups were established. The prepubertal mandibular growth minimum velocity occurred during cervical stages 1 through 4 (P = 0.7327). Peak mandibular growth velocity occurred most frequently during stage 4 in all 3 maturation groups, with a statistical difference in the average and delayed groups (P cervical stages 1 through 6 does not occur annually; time spent in each stage varies depending on the stage and the maturation group. Cervical vertebral maturation stages cannot accurately identify the mandibular prepubertal growth minimum and therefore cannot predict the onset of the peak in mandibular growth. The cervical vertebral maturation stages should be used with other methods of biologic maturity assessment when considering both dentofacial orthopedic treatment and orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Turkish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Güvenç; Ozer, Törün; Hamamci, Nihal

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages in Turkish subjects. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed. The final study population consisted of 590 Turkish subjects. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with computer software. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation. For a better understanding of the relationship between cervical vertebral maturation indexes and dental age, percentage distributions of the studied teeth were also calculated. Strict correlations were found between dental and cervical vertebral maturation of Turkish subjects. For males, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, central incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar, first molar, and second molar. For females, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, canine, second premolar, first premolar, central incisor, first molar, and second molar. Dental maturation stages can be used as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  12. The preliminary report on percutaneous vertebroplasty for cervical vertebral metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Jin Peng; Yi Yuhai; Xie Zonggui; Xie Zhiyong; Zhang Xuping; Zhang Dianxing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the treating effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for cervical vertebral metastasis, and to explore the cervical vertebral technique of percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods: Eleven cases with single cervical vertebral metastasis underwent PVP, including C2 in 1 case, C3 in 2 cases, C4 in 4 cases, C5 in 3 cases, and C6 in 1 case. PVP was performed with the instruments and PMMA made in China. Anterolateral route was used under the guidance of fluoroscopy in 10 cases, and posterolateral route was used under the guidance of CT combined with fluoroscopy in 1 case of C 2 vertebra. PMMA was injected in the paste period. CT scans were performed before and after the procedures. Results: The successful puncturing of PVP was obtained in 100%. The percentage of lesion PMMA filling was more than 50% demonstrated by CT. The clinical data of 11 cases was followed up for 7 to 12 months. The rate of marked or complete pain relief was demonstrated in all cases (CR in 6 cases, PR in 5 cases) within 7 days, 7/10 in 6 months, and 5/9 in 12 months, respectively, after operation. There was no bleeding of the puncturing route or leakage of PMMA related complications with clinical performance. Conclusion: The clinical effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty for cervical vertebral metastasis was satisfied

  13. Sin práctica no hay discurso, sin cuerpo no hay saber: Sobre legitimidades en las teorías de la descolonización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ximena Postigo

    2016-03-01

    En todo proceso de descolonización del saber, tan importante como la afirmación de una autonomía epistemológica y práctica es el reconocimiento del lugar de enunciación desde el que esta se produce. Una teoría de la descolonización elaborada desde la observación de los movimientos sociales no es semejante a una producida desde el propio movimiento social. En el primer caso, la teoría de lo de-colonial no deriva ni nace de una práctica. Walter Mignolo, por ejemplo, quien define su propuesta teórica como “la intervención de un pensador de-colonial”, escribe desde este lugar. En el segundo caso, la teoría se piensa desde y para el movimiento de los cuerpos. Así, Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui –para quien postulados como los de Mignolo dan cuenta de otra forma de colonialismo­– sostiene que un pensamiento de la descolonización es inimaginable sin una práctica descoloniozadora. En este contexto interno-externo, una mirada al Estado Plurinacional desde intervenciones como las de Mignolo tiende a una idealización binaria que no contribuye al proceso descolonizador sino, más bien, a una rearticulación del pensamiento occidental. A su vez, esta idealización es desmentida por discursos internos que ven en el gobierno de Evo Morales una incoherencia entre el discurso y la práctica. Este artículo explora todas estas instancias, reconociendo en las teorías producidas desde la lucha los pilares del Estado Plurinacional, y en las tensiones entre poderosos aquello que más bien, oscurece el valor del movimiento social.

  14. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  15. Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Platelet Glycoprotein 4 (CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S. Holmes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Platelet glycoprotein 4 (CD36 (or fatty acyl translocase [FAT], or scavenger receptor class B, member 3 [SCARB3] is an essential cell surface and skeletal muscle outer mitochondrial membrane glycoprotein involved in multiple functions in the body. CD36 serves as a ligand receptor of thrombospondin, long chain fatty acids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs and malaria-infected erythrocytes. CD36 also influences various diseases, including angiogenesis, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, malaria, diabetes, steatosis, dementia and obesity. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in significant changes in fatty acid and oxidized lipid uptake. Comparative CD36 amino acid sequences and structures and CD36 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate CD36 sequences shared 53–100% identity as compared with 29–32% sequence identities with other CD36-like superfamily members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. At least eight vertebrate CD36 N-glycosylation sites were conserved which are required for membrane integration. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and predicted secondary structures were also studied. Three CD36 domains were identified including cytoplasmic, transmembrane and exoplasmic sequences. Conserved sequences included N- and C-terminal transmembrane glycines; and exoplasmic cysteine disulphide residues; TSP-1 and PE binding sites, Thr92 and His242, respectively; 17 conserved proline and 14 glycine residues, which may participate in forming CD36 ‘short loops’; and basic amino acid residues, and may contribute to fatty acid and thrombospondin binding. Vertebrate CD36 genes usually contained 12 coding exons. The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate CD36 gene with vertebrate

  16. A new classification for cervical vertebral injuries: influence of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.; Brown, R.R.; Goldberg, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Computed tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be superior to radiography in identifying cervical vertebral injuries. However, many of these injuries may not be clinically significant, and require only minimal symptomatic and supportive treatment. It is therefore imperative that radiologists and spine surgeons have criteria for distinguishing between those injuries requiring surgical stabilization and those that do not. The authors propose a new classification of cervical vertebral injuries into two categories: major and minor.Design and patients. A data base, acquired on 1052 separate cervical injuries in 879 patients seen between 1983 and 1998, was reviewed. Four categories of injury based on mechanism [hyperflexion (four variants), hyperextension (two variants), rotary (two variants), and axial compression (five variants)] were identified. ''Major'' injuries are defined as having either radiographic or CT evidence of instability with or without associated localized or central neurologic findings, or have the potential to produce the latter. ''Minor'' injuries have no radiographic and/or CT evidence of instability, are not associated with neurologic findings, and have no potential to cause the latter.Results and conclusions. Cervical injury should be classified as ''major'' if the following radiographic and/or CT criteria are present: displacement of more than 2 mm in any plane, wide vertebral body in any plane, wide interspinous/interlaminar space, wide facet joints, disrupted posterior vertebral body line, wide disc space, vertebral burst, locked or perched facets (unilateral or bilateral), ''hanged man'' fracture of C2, dens fracture, and type III occipital condyle fracture. All other types of fractures may be considered ''minor''. (orig.)

  17. MRI and MR angiography of vertebral artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascalchi, M.; Bianchi, M.C.; Mangiafico, S.; Ferrito, G.; Puglioli, M.; Marin, E.; Mugnai, S.; Canapicchi, R.; Quilici, N.; Inzitari, D.

    1997-01-01

    A review of 4,500 angiograms yielded 11 patients with dissection of the vertebral arteries who had MRI and (in 4 patients) MR angiography (MRA) in the acute phase of stroke. One patient with incidental discovery at arteriography of asymptomatic vertebral artery dissection and two patients with acute strokes with MRI and MRA findings consistent with vertebral artery dissection were included. Dissection occurred after neck trauma or chiropractic manipulation in 4 patients and was spontaneous in 10. Dissection involved the extracranial vertebral artery in 9 patients, the extra-intracranial junction in 1, and the intracranial artery in 4. MRI demonstrated infarcts in the brain stem, cerebellum, thalamus or temporo-occipital regions in 7 patients with extra- or extra-intracranial dissections and a solitary lateral medullary infarct in 4 patients (3 with intracranial and 1 with extra-intracranial dissection). In 2 patients no brain abnormality related to vertebral artery dissection was found and in one MRI did not show subarachnoid haemorrhage revealed by CT. Intramural dissecting haematoma appeared as crescentic or rounded high signal on T1-weighted images in 10 patients examined 3-20 days after the onset of symptoms. The abnormal vessel stood out in the low signal cerebrospinal fluid in intracranial dissections, whereas it was more difficult to detect in extracranial dissections because of the intermediate-to-high signal of the normal perivascular structures and slow flow proximal and distal to the dissection. In two patients examined within 36 h of the onset, mural thickening was of intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal on spin-density and T2-weighted images. MRA showed abrupt stenosis in 2 patients and disappearance of flow signal at and distal to the dissection in 5. Follow-up arteriography, MRI or MRA showed findings consistent with occlusion of the dissected vessel in 6 of 8 patients. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  18. A new classification for cervical vertebral injuries: influence of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daffner, R.H.; Brown, R.R.; Goldberg, A.L. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Allegheny University Hospitals, Allegheny General, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2000-03-30

    Objective. Computed tomography (CT) has been demonstrated to be superior to radiography in identifying cervical vertebral injuries. However, many of these injuries may not be clinically significant, and require only minimal symptomatic and supportive treatment. It is therefore imperative that radiologists and spine surgeons have criteria for distinguishing between those injuries requiring surgical stabilization and those that do not. The authors propose a new classification of cervical vertebral injuries into two categories: major and minor.Design and patients. A data base, acquired on 1052 separate cervical injuries in 879 patients seen between 1983 and 1998, was reviewed. Four categories of injury based on mechanism [hyperflexion (four variants), hyperextension (two variants), rotary (two variants), and axial compression (five variants)] were identified. ''Major'' injuries are defined as having either radiographic or CT evidence of instability with or without associated localized or central neurologic findings, or have the potential to produce the latter. ''Minor'' injuries have no radiographic and/or CT evidence of instability, are not associated with neurologic findings, and have no potential to cause the latter.Results and conclusions. Cervical injury should be classified as ''major'' if the following radiographic and/or CT criteria are present: displacement of more than 2 mm in any plane, wide vertebral body in any plane, wide interspinous/interlaminar space, wide facet joints, disrupted posterior vertebral body line, wide disc space, vertebral burst, locked or perched facets (unilateral or bilateral), ''hanged man'' fracture of C2, dens fracture, and type III occipital condyle fracture. All other types of fractures may be considered ''minor''. (orig.)

  19. Vertebral physitis: a radiographic diagnosis to be separated from discospondylitis: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M.M.; O'Callaghan, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was initiated to investigate the incidence, radiographic appearance and progression of vertebral physitis, a condition the authors propose as a separate radiographic diagnosis from discospondylitis. From 30 dogs with an initial radiographic diagnosis of discospondylitis, six dogs (five less than two years old) had radiographic signs believed to represent vertebral physitis. Bone lysis initially confined to the caudal physeal zone of affected vertebrae and sparing the vertebral endplates characterized the vertebral physitis lesions. Subsequent collapse of the caudoventral vertebral body and reactive spondylosis arising only from the caudal vertebral margins followed as the lesions progressed. By contrast, discospondylitis lesions originated as symmetric lysis of the vertebral endplates with reactive sclerosis in both vertebral bodies, and subsequent symmetric spondylosis. As a result of the differing radiographic patterns demonstrated by the physitis and discospondylitis lesions the author's also propose an alternative pathogenesis from that which is generally accepted for discospondylitis

  20. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, H.C.; van Munster, B.C.; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine

  1. El problema del crecimiento sostenible ¿cómo crecer sin destruirse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Saravia Rios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available De una u otra forma las organizaciones perciben el crecer como una meta necesaria en la planeación estratégica y cuando se logra el crecimiento buscado se supone una gestión exitosa. Sin embargo, en ocasiones no hay claridad sobre lo que significa crecer, cuáles son sus efectos y no se comprende con profundidad el significado de una buena gestión. Es común ver a las organizaciones formular preguntas como:¿Crecer significa vender más?, ¿Hasta dónde puedo crecer? ¿Crecer es tener mayor infraestructura y personal? ¿Qué tan rentable seré creciendo? o presentando afirmaciones como: “la meta del plan estratégico para este año es crecer un 20%, eso nos posicionará como el número uno en el sector”. La meta de una organización debe ser: ser sostenible y el crecer, puede ser una estrategia para lograrla, sin embargo, el crecer por sí mismo no necesariamente genera sostenibilidad, por esto, si una organización lo entiende como su meta puede comprometer su viabilidad. El problema del crecimiento tiene varias dimensiones de análisis que involucran todas las instancias de una organización, por ejemplo, se necesita tener acceso a la información del mercado y el entorno, se necesita tener la inteligencia para comprender esta información, se necesita una estructura organizacional dinámica, flexible e innovadora, es necesario comprender cómo los diferentes procesos interactúan y qué recursos necesitan. Para entender el crecer como una estrategia, se hace necesaria su formalización, y el uso de herramientas que permitan su manejo, estas herramientas deberán incluir las diferentes dimensiones de análisis. Mediante el uso de estos modelos, una organización puede diseñar una estrategia de crecimiento coherente con sus metas, y sin el riesgo de comprometer su estabilidad.

  2. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  3. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  4. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaro; Ogura, Mitsuo; Nii, Satomi; Hirooka, Kazutake

    2017-01-01

    It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt). Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (P kinB ) region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt) or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A) relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C) in an inverted orientation (SinR-1) between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of P kinB . Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8) consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the '-35' and '-10' regions of P kinB . Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T) in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of P kinB , suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  5. Research on the Strategy of Motion Constraint-Aided ZUPT for the SINS Positioning System of a Shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of position and orientation for shearers is a key technology in realizing an automated, fully-mechanized, coal mining face. Since Global Positioning System (GPS signal cannot arrive at the coal mine underground, wireless sensor network positioning system cannot operate stably in the coal mine; thus a strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is used to measure the position and orientation of the shearer. Aiming at the problem of the SINS accumulative error, this paper proposes a positioning error correction method based on the motion constraint-aided SINS zero velocity updated (ZUPT model. First of all, a stationary state detection model of the shearer is built with median filter based on the acceleration and angular rate measured by the SINS. Secondly, the motion of the shearer is analyzed using coal mining technology, then the motion constraint model of the shearer is established. In addition, the alternate action between the motion constraint model and the ZUPT model is analyzed at the process of movement and cessation of the shearer, respectively; hence, the motion constraint-aided SINS ZUPT model is built. Finally, by means of the experimental platform of the SINS for the shearer, the experimental results show that the maximum position error with the positioning model proposed in this paper is 1.6 m in 180 s, and increases by 92.0% and 88.1% compared with the single motion constraint model and single ZUPT model, respectively. It can then restrain the accumulative error of the SINS effectively.

  6. Gene duplications and losses among vertebrate deoxyribonucleoside kinases of the non-TK1 Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutahir, Zeeshan; Christiansen, Louise Slot; Clausen, Anders R.

    2016-01-01

    , among vertebrates only four mammalian dNKs have been studied for their substrate specificity and kinetic properties. However, some vertebrates, such as fish, frogs, and birds, apparently possess a duplicated homolog of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). In this study, we characterized a family of d...... substrate specificities and subcellular localization are likely the drivers behind the evolution of vertebrate dNKs...

  7. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA) in patients with cervical spine fractures. Method.

  8. Threshold stoichiometry for beam induced nitrogen depletion of SiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmers, H.; Weijers, T.D.M.; Elliman, R.G.; Uribasterra, J.; Whitlow, H.J.; Sarwe, E.-L.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the stoichiometry of silicon nitride films as a function of the number of incident ions using heavy ion elastic recoil detection (ERD) show that beam-induced nitrogen depletion depends on the projectile species, the beam energy, and the initial stoichiometry. A threshold stoichiometry exists in the range 1.3>N/Si≥1, below which the films are stable against nitrogen depletion. Above this threshold, depletion is essentially linear with incident fluence. The depletion rate correlates non-linearly with the electronic energy loss of the projectile ion in the film. Sufficiently long exposure of nitrogen-rich films renders the mechanism, which prevents depletion of nitrogen-poor films, ineffective. Compromising depth-resolution, nitrogen depletion from SiN films during ERD analysis can be reduced significantly by using projectile beams with low atomic numbers

  9. Cost of global warming may be 'sin' taxes on CO 2 use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, Cliff.

    1995-01-01

    One suggested solution for curbing carbon dioxide emissions and thus stopping the so-called greenhouse effect is taxing the emissions. A meeting in Maastrict, The Netherlands, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that greenhouse emissions are putting the worlds climate at serious risk. The panel called on both industry and governments to act 'urgently' to deal with the threat. For some who have been watching world temperature closely, all of this concern may seem a bit strange. Worldwide temperatures had cooled by approximately 0.08 degrees Fahrenheit in the five years between 1987 and 1992, perhaps the strongest arguments for global warming come from surface temperature measurement, taken primarily at weather stations, show a steady march toward warmer temperatures since 1980 or so. Despite the satellite record and other evidence that nothing of global warming are yet appearing CO 2 sin taxes seem a likely possibility in at least some European countries and perhaps in Canada. (author)

  10. LA ESFERA AFECTIVA EN LA EDUCACIÓN DE LOS MENORES SIN AMPARO FAMILIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alybé Moreno-Aurioles Matamoros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan los principios y categorías que sustentan el tratamiento educativo en la atención a las necesidades educativas especiales originadas por el fenómeno desamparo familiar, desde la concepción de familia, teniendo en cuenta que en los centros de asistencia social donde son atendidos los menores sin amparo familiar se debe cumplir con las funciones establecidas para la familia en nuestra sociedad. Se reflejan elementos que obligatoriamente deben tenerse en cuenta para favorecer el desarrollo de la esfera afectiva como las vivencias, actividad, educación, enfatizando en las características de esta esfera, base de la personalidad, unida a la cognitiva.

  11. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-10-15

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 {mu}m thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 deg. C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  12. Recent results of μCF experiments at SIN [Swiss Institute For Nuclear Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Bistirlich, J.

    1986-09-01

    Important topics concerning Muon Catalyzed Fusion were investigated in experiments at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN), including transient and steady state rates for the main dμt cycle as well as detailed information about the competing dμd and tμt fusion branches. The basic kinetic parameters were determined and striking features of the resonant dμt formation process were revealed (density effect, epithermal behavior). DT sticking was measured with independent techniques, i.e., detection of fusion neutrons as well as μHe x-rays after fusion. Fusion yields per muon of 113 +- 10 were observed at liquid conditions, yields exceeding 200 are anticipated for optimal conditions from our results. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membranea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamüller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 μm thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 °C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  14. residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zamorano Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordarán los itinerarios y las prácticas residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez, ese punto de convergencia de inmigrantes nacionales y capitales internacionales y ahora, una de las más importantes ciudades maquiladoras del país. A partir de 51 historias de vida con trabajadoras de esta industria, se comparan los itinerarios residenciales de familias monoparentales con los de familias biparentales. Esta comparación permite ver las desventajas de las primeras para ingresar al mercado de la vivienda, que no se explican únicamente por factores de orden económico, sino también moral y práctico.

  15. Lithography-based fabrication of nanopore arrays in freestanding SiN and graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Yang, Wayne; Dekker, Cees

    2018-04-01

    We report a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of nanopore arrays on freestanding SiN and graphene membranes based on electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By controlling the dose of the single-shot electron-beam exposure, circular nanopores of any size down to 16 nm in diameter can be fabricated in both materials at high accuracy and precision. We demonstrate the sensing capabilities of these nanopores by translocating dsDNA through pores fabricated using this method, and find signal-to-noise characteristics on par with transmission-electron-microscope-drilled nanopores. This versatile lithography-based approach allows for the high-throughput manufacturing of nanopores and can in principle be used on any substrate, in particular membranes made out of transferable two-dimensional materials.

  16. COMUNICACIÓN, CONOCIMIENTO Y PODER SIN AGENDA SOBRE LA SEGURIDAD CIUDADANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Picón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reflexiona analíticamente sobre la comunicación, el poder y el conocimiento sin agenda sobre la seguridad ciudadana. En la comunicación está surgiendo el “Paradigma de comunicación de seguridad”, con fuertes bases éticas, moral y ciudadana, como mecanismo de colaboración mutua y prioridad en las relaciones de comunicación. Las relaciones de poder se basan en el “Paradigma de la dialógica” promoviendo espacios de diálogo y discusión. En el conocimiento se crearían condiciones y estrategias apropiadas para promoverse, articulando programas tanto a nivel local, sectorial, institucional y universitario, para brindar un esarrollo de la seguridad ciudadana con una fuerte base científica.

  17. Adolfo Bioy casares y Mario Bellatin: sobre cartas sin cuerpo y acantilados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fernandes Cipreste

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una lectura de dos escritores hispanoamericanos – Adolfo Bioy Casares y Mario Bellatin – con el propósito de reflexionar sobre discursos de poder, incluido el ámbito de la Crítica Latinoamericana. Se entienden las experiencias de los personajes de sus obras, y también el ethos de ambos los autores, como una existência ética y estética que resiste a los intentos de categorizaciones. La propuesta se hace a la luz del concepto de Comunidad, del filósofo italiano Roberto Esposito, y de la discusión de Hugo Achugar sobre lo local y lo global en América Latina. Dos imágenes inspiran ese análisis: la carta sin cuerpo en Dormir al sol, de Casares; y el acantilado de Bellatin en Los fantasmas del masajista.

  18. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Martin, Hal D.; Stapp, Annette M.; Stanfield, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)

  19. Autoprotección del aluminio anodizado sin sellar expuesto a la atmósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, E.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed anodised specimens with three different film thicknesses were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Iberoamérica with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m sup>-2 day-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coatings during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. Keywords

    Para confirmar o rebatir la idea, muy difundida, de que la operación de sellado es imprescindible para garantizar una buena resistencia del aluminio anodizado a la corrosión atmosférica, se expusieron muestras de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, en 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 684 mg m-2 d-1 de cloruros. Por las más variadas técnicas, desde la microscopía electrónica de barrido o transmisión a la medida directa por gravimetría, pasando por los ensayos normalizados de control de calidad del sellado y la medida indirecta por técnicas electroquímicas, se demuestra la capacidad de autosellado, durante la exposición a la atmósfera, de los recubrimientos anódicos sin sellar. Sorprendentemente, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en recubrimientos protectores de otra naturaleza, la calidad de los anodizados mejora con el envejecimiento.

  20. Composition, structure and properties of SiN x films fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wan, G.J.; Leng, Y.X.; Chen, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) thin films are of special interest in both scientific research and industrial applications due to their remarkable properties such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness, high hardness and good dielectric properties. In this work, SiN x films were fabricated by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity single crystal silicon targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effect of N 2 partial pressure on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations, surface morphology, surface free energy, optical and mechanical properties were investigated. We showed that with increased N 2 partial pressure, the N to Si ratio (N/Si) in the film increased and N atoms are preferentially incorporated in the NSi 3 stoichiometric configuration. It leads the Si-N network a tendency to chemical order. Films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The film surface transformed from a loose granular structure with microporosity to a homogeneous, continuous, smooth and dense structure. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurs as the N 2 fraction is increased. The reduced surface roughness and the increased N incorporation in the film give rise to the increased contact angle with double-distilled water from 24 o to 49.6 o . To some extent, the SiN x films deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering are hydrophilic in nature. The as-deposited SiN x films exhibit good optical transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap E opt can be varied from 1.68 eV for a-Si to 3.62 eV for SiN x films, depending on the synthesis parameters. With the increase of the N/Si atomic ratio, wear resistance of the SiN x films was improved, a consequence of increased hardness and elastic modulus. The SiN x films have lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction, where the SiN x films experienced only fatigue wear

  1. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  2. [Control levels of Sin3 histone deacetylase for spontaneous and UV-induced mutagenesis in yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovka, I Iu; Kozhina, T N; Fedorova, I V; Peshekhonov, V T; Evstiukhina, T A; Chernenkov, A Iu; Korolev, V G

    2014-01-01

    SIN3 gene product operates as a repressor for a huge amount of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sin3 protein with a mass of about 175 kDa is a member of the RPD3 protein complex with an assessed mass of greater than 2 million Da. It was previously shownthat RPD3 gene mutations influence recombination and repair processes in S. cerevisiae yeasts. We studied the impacts of the sin3 mutation on UV-light sensitivity and UV-induced mutagenesis in budding yeast cells. The deletion ofthe SIN3 gene causes weak UV-sensitivity of mutant budding cells as compared to the wild-type strain. These results show that the sin3 mutation decreases both spontaneous and UV-induced levels of levels. This fact is hypothetically related to themalfunction of ribonucleotide reductase activity regulation, which leads to a decrease in the dNTP pool and the inaccurate error-prone damage bypass postreplication repair pathway, which in turn provokes a reduction in the incidence of mutations.

  3. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate body plan: the problem of head segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Irie, Naoki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The basic body plan of vertebrates, as typified by the complex head structure, evolved from the last common ancestor approximately 530 Mya. In this review, we present a brief overview of historical discussions to disentangle the various concepts and arguments regarding the evolutionary development of the vertebrate body plan. We then explain the historical transition of the arguments about the vertebrate body plan from merely epistemological comparative morphology to comparative embryology as a scientific treatment on this topic. Finally, we review the current progress of molecular evidence regarding the basic vertebrate body plan, focusing on the link between the basic vertebrate body plan and the evolutionarily conserved developmental stages (phylotypic stages).

  4. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: MRI evaluation of vertebral and disk malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitling, Magnus; Rabin, Michael; Lemire, Edmond G.

    2006-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized primarily by vertebral malsegmentation, carpal/tarsal coalition, and a dysmorphic appearance. Differentiating SSS from other congenital scoliosis syndromes requires evaluation of the vertebrae, ribs, soft tissues, and spinal cord. The enhanced resolution over plain radiographs seen with MRI allows more detailed assessment of vertebral malformation and surrounding anatomy. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of congenital scoliosis might be enhanced using this technology. We report on a 12-year-old girl of unaffected parents with SSS who was evaluated with MRI sequences of the spine to show various types of malsegmentation. Additionally, there is the new finding of fusion of teeth, with developmental failure of a canine incisor. (orig.)

  5. Multiple vertebral fractures in an elderly male with macroprolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Magaš

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinemia is associated with increased bone loss both in men and women. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple osteoporotic vertebral fractures due to long-lasting hypogonadism caused by prolactinoma. The patient was treated with transphenoidal surgery, small doses of dopamine agonists, teriparatide, calcium and vitamin D supplements. Treatment led to increase in bone mineral density and decrease in lumbar pain intensity. This case highlights that clinicians should bear in mind the fact that osteoporotic vertebral fractures in men may be linked with hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia. These conditions can be effectively treated. Therefore, detailed medical history and appropriate endocrinological evaluation should be performed in all male patients with osteoporotic fractures.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W.C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography or CT. Computed tomography delineated the size, shape and site of the fracture fragment. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all cases. Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures may be difficult to visualize on MR imaging. Careful review of radiographs, supplemented by targeted CT, is necessary for the correct diagnosis and management of this entity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Diagnostics Radiology and Organ Imaging; Yip, D.K.H.; Leong, J.C.Y. [University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; Griffith, J.F. [Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1998-02-01

    Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography or CT. Computed tomography delineated the size, shape and site of the fracture fragment. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all cases. Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures may be difficult to visualize on MR imaging. Careful review of radiographs, supplemented by targeted CT, is necessary for the correct diagnosis and management of this entity. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY: PRELIMINARY NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ZOBOLI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy. The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae? and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.. A bird bone fragment is also reported and referred to Palaeortyx cf. brevipes (Galliformes. The assemblage can be related to the “Oschiri fauna”, one of the oldest endemic insular fauna known in the Mediterranean. The age of the Laerru vertebrates is early-middle Burdigalian, between 18.8 and 18.3 Ma, corresponding to the mammal unit of the main land MN3. The predominance of ruminants confirms the good capacity of these mammals to colonize insular environments.

  9. Climate change and the ecology and evolution of Arctic vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilg, Olivier; Kovacs, Kit M.; Aars, J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is taking place more rapidly and severely in the Arctic than anywhere on the globe, exposing Arctic vertebrates to a host of impacts. Changes in the cryosphere dominate the physical changes that already affect these animals, but increasing air temperatures, changes in precipitation......, and ocean acidification will also affect Arctic ecosystems in the future. Adaptation via natural selection is problematic in such a rapidly changing environment. Adjustment via phenotypic plasticity is therefore likely to dominate Arctic vertebrate responses in the short term, and many such adjustments have...... already been documented. Changes in phenology and range will occur for most species but will only partly mitigate climate change impacts, which are particularly difficult to forecast due to the many interactions within and between trophic levels. Even though Arctic species richness is increasing via...

  10. Globalisation reaches gene regulation: the case for vertebrate limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Aimée

    2005-08-01

    Analysis of key regulators of vertebrate limb development has revealed that the cis-regulatory regions controlling their expression are often located several hundred kilobases upstream of the transcription units. These far up- or down-stream cis-regulatory regions tend to reside within rather large, functionally and structurally unrelated genes. Molecular analysis is beginning to reveal the complexity of these large genomic landscapes, which control the co-expression of clusters of diverse genes by this novel type of long-range and globally acting cis-regulatory region. An increasing number of spontaneous mutations in vertebrates, including humans, are being discovered inactivating or altering such global control regions. Thereby, the functions of a seemingly distant but essential gene are disrupted rather than the closest.

  11. Evolutionarily conserved elements in vertebrate, insect, worm, and yeast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siepel, Adam; Bejerano, Gill; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted a comprehensive search for conserved elements in vertebrate genomes, using genome-wide multiple alignments of five vertebrate species (human, mouse, rat, chicken, and Fugu rubripes). Parallel searches have been performed with multiple alignments of four insect species (three...... species of Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae), two species of Caenorhabditis, and seven species of Saccharomyces. Conserved elements were identified with a computer program called phastCons, which is based on a two-state phylogenetic hidden Markov model (phylo-HMM). PhastCons works by fitting a phylo......-HMM to the data by maximum likelihood, subject to constraints designed to calibrate the model across species groups, and then predicting conserved elements based on this model. The predicted elements cover roughly 3%-8% of the human genome (depending on the details of the calibration procedure) and substantially...

  12. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: MRI evaluation of vertebral and disk malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitling, Magnus; Rabin, Michael [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Lemire, Edmond G. [University of Saskatchewan, Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized primarily by vertebral malsegmentation, carpal/tarsal coalition, and a dysmorphic appearance. Differentiating SSS from other congenital scoliosis syndromes requires evaluation of the vertebrae, ribs, soft tissues, and spinal cord. The enhanced resolution over plain radiographs seen with MRI allows more detailed assessment of vertebral malformation and surrounding anatomy. Diagnosis of the underlying cause of congenital scoliosis might be enhanced using this technology. We report on a 12-year-old girl of unaffected parents with SSS who was evaluated with MRI sequences of the spine to show various types of malsegmentation. Additionally, there is the new finding of fusion of teeth, with developmental failure of a canine incisor. (orig.)

  13. Vertebral sarcoidosis: long-term follow-up with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, M. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Larbi, A.; Malghem, J.; Vande Berg, B.; Dallaudiere, B. [University Hospitals St Luc, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Vertebral involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and its clinical and imaging features are non-specific. Indeed, because the lesions are hard to differentiate from metastatic disease based on imaging alone, a histological confirmation is advised. Fatty replacement is a well-known finding indicating stabilization and healing in both benign and malignant conditions. It can be used as an indicator of a favorable disease course and response to treatment. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with multifocal vertebral sarcoidosis lesions and long-term follow-up showing progressive and gradual fatty involution on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during 4 years of steroid treatment with a final favorable outcome. (orig.)

  14. Management of symptomatic vertebral haemangioma in a resource challenged environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, Augustine A; Balogun, James A; Adeleye, Amos O; Adeoye, Peter O; Okolo, Clement A; Ogbole, Godwin I

    2010-07-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are benign lesions and often asymptomatic. They are more common in the thoracic spine where they may become symptomatic with varying presentations. We present two teenage girls who presented with progressive, nontraumatic paraparesis with no background history of chronic cough or underlying medical illness. The radiologic investigations were suggestive of vertebral haemangiomas of the thoracic spine. They had surgery: transthoracic approach with corpectomy and fusion with iliac crest autograft. The posterior stabilisation in the first patient was with Rush nails and circlage wire and only circlage wire in the second patient. The first patient's post-operative recovery was complicated by graft extrusion necessitating re-opening thoracotomy and graft replacement. They are, however, both ambulant at discharge and have remained so 13 and 15 months post-surgery. We have presented two cases with rewarding outcomes in the face of 'adaptive' instrumentation due to limited resources.

  15. Use of cervical vertebral maturation to determine skeletal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky W K; Alkhal, Hessa A; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age in the circumpubertal period by correlating it to the hand-wrist method (HWM). Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese subjects were randomly selected. Their ages were 10 to 15 years for girls and 12 to 17 years for boys, so they were within the circumpubertal period. Skeletal ages were assessed according to the CVM method and the HWM. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age (Spearman r = 0.9521 [boys] and 0.9408 [girls]). All patients in cervical vertebral stage 3 of the CVM corresponded to stages MP3-FG or MP3-G (around the peak of the growth spurt) in the HWM. The CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period, providing information for timing of growth modification.

  16. Global patterns of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Clinton N.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Joppa, Lucas N.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying priority areas for biodiversity is essential for directing conservation resources. Fundamentally, we must know where individual species live, which ones are vulnerable, where human actions threaten them, and their levels of protection. As conservation knowledge and threats change, we must reevaluate priorities. We mapped priority areas for vertebrates using newly updated data on >21,000 species of mammals, amphibians, and birds. For each taxon, we identified centers of richness for all species, small-ranged species, and threatened species listed with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Importantly, all analyses were at a spatial grain of 10 × 10 km, 100 times finer than previous assessments. This fine scale is a significant methodological improvement, because it brings mapping to scales comparable with regional decisions on where to place protected areas. We also mapped recent species discoveries, because they suggest where as-yet-unknown species might be living. To assess the protection of the priority areas, we calculated the percentage of priority areas within protected areas using the latest data from the World Database of Protected Areas, providing a snapshot of how well the planet’s protected area system encompasses vertebrate biodiversity. Although the priority areas do have more protection than the global average, the level of protection still is insufficient given the importance of these areas for preventing vertebrate extinctions. We also found substantial differences between our identified vertebrate priorities and the leading map of global conservation priorities, the biodiversity hotspots. Our findings suggest a need to reassess the global allocation of conservation resources to reflect today’s improved knowledge of biodiversity and conservation. PMID:23803854

  17. Analysis of Long Bone and Vertebral Failure Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-14

    and alter the injury pattern. Classified on an anatomical, kinesiologic , £s and pathologic basis, the vertebral body fracture patterns may...814. Boyde, A. (1972) Scanning electron microscope studies of bone. In Bourne, G.H. (ed): The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone. New York...Eyring, E.J. (1969) The biochemistry and physiology of intervertebral disk. Clin. Orthop. Rel, Res. 67: 16-18. Fick, R. (1904) Handbuch der Anatomie

  18. Hemiparesis caused by vertebral artery compression of the medulla oblongata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Phyo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Yokochi, Masayuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with progressive left hemiparesis due to the vascular compression of the medulla oblongata. Metrizamide CT cisternography revealed the left vertebral artery to be compressing and distorting the left lateral surface of the medulla. This compression was relieved surgically, and the symptoms improved postoperatively. Neurological and symptomatic considerations are discussed in relation to the topographical anatomy of the lateral corticospinal tract. (author)

  19. Study on radiation modifiers with zebrafish as a vertebrate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Jixiao; Ni Jin; Cai Jianming; Shen Jianliang

    2010-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model system has been used in a series of biomedical experiments by scientists. It offers distinctive benefits as a laboratory model system, especially for embryonic development, gene expression, drug screening and human disease model. In this paper, the typical radiation modifiers, such as Amifostine, DF-1, AG1478, Flavopiridol and DNA repair proteins involved in biomedical process by use of zebrafish have been reviewed. (authors)

  20. Vertebrate predator-prey interactions in a seasonal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Berg, Thomas B; Forchhammer, Mads

    2008-01-01

    erminea predation and stabilising predation from the generalist predators, in Zackenbergdalen mainly the arctic fox Alopex lagopus. In Zackenbergdalen, however, the coupling between the specialist stoat and the lemming population is relatively weak. During summer, the predation pressure is high......The High Arctic, with its low number of species, is characterised by a relatively simple ecosystem, and the vertebrate predator-prey interactions in the valley Zackenbergdalen in Northeast Greenland are centred around the collared lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus and its multiple predators...

  1. Axial dynamics during locomotion in vertebrates: lesson from the salamander

    OpenAIRE

    GOSSARD, JEAN-PIERRE; DUBUC, RÉJEAN; KOLTA, ARLETTE; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Ijspeert, Auke; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Ryczko, Dimitri

    2010-01-01

    Much of what we know about the flexibility of the locomotor networks in vertebrates is derived from studies examining the adaptation of limb movements during stepping in various conditions. However, the body movements play important roles during locomotion: they produce the thrust during undulatory locomotion and they help to increase the stride length during legged locomotion. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge about the flexibility in the neuronal circuits controlling the body...

  2. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  3. EARLY MIOCENE INSULAR VERTEBRATES FROM LAERRU (SARDINIA, ITALY): PRELIMINARY NOTE

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ZOBOLI; GIAN LUIGI PILLOLA

    2017-01-01

    A new vertebrate assemblage was discovered in an Early  Miocene lacustrine deposit near the village of Laerru (northern Sardinia, Italy). The assemblage is composed by mammals, reptiles and a bird. The mammals are represented by three ruminants (cf. Sardomeryx oschiriensis, Pecora indet. small size and Pecora indet. very small size) and one dormouse (Peridyromys aff. murinus) while reptiles are represented by turtles (Trionychidae?) and crocodiles (cf. Diplocynodon sp.). A bird bone fragment ...

  4. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  5. Comparative anatomy of the vestibular nuclear complex in submammalian vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A synopsis of the literature on the natural history of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) in lower vertebrates is presented in an attempt to assess the knowledge available. The review discloses that there is considerable descriptive information that is widely dispersed in the literature. However, information about the topology, number, and cellular composition of the cell groups that compose the VNC is sketchy. Major cytological and hodological information is still needed to establish which parts of the VNC actually are homologous.

  6. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali; Bowman, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  7. Neofunctionalization in vertebrates: the example of retinoic acid receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Escriva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of gene duplications in establishing vertebrate innovations is one of the main challenges of Evo-Devo (evolution of development studies. Data on evolutionary changes in gene expression (i.e., evolution of transcription factor-cis-regulatory elements relationships tell only part of the story; protein function, best studied by biochemical and functional assays, can also change. In this study, we have investigated how gene duplication has affected both the expression and the ligand-binding specificity of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, which play a major role in chordate embryonic development. Mammals have three paralogous RAR genes--RAR alpha, beta, and gamma--which resulted from genome duplications at the origin of vertebrates. By using pharmacological ligands selective for specific paralogues, we have studied the ligand-binding capacities of RARs from diverse chordates species. We have found that RAR beta-like binding selectivity is a synapomorphy of all chordate RARs, including a reconstructed synthetic RAR representing the receptor present in the ancestor of chordates. Moreover, comparison of expression patterns of the cephalochordate amphioxus and the vertebrates suggests that, of all the RARs, RAR beta expression has remained most similar to that of the ancestral RAR. On the basis of these results together, we suggest that while RAR beta kept the ancestral RAR role, RAR alpha and RAR gamma diverged both in ligand-binding capacity and in expression patterns. We thus suggest that neofunctionalization occurred at both the expression and the functional levels to shape RAR roles during development in vertebrates.

  8. Vertebral artery dissection in weightlifter with performance enhancing drug use

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Andrew; Dovey, Julie; Ash-Miles, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a transient ischaemic attack secondary to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a young male body builder. This occurred following weight training with weights across the back and shoulders. The patient was also known to take multiple performance enhancing agents including anabolic steroids, slimming agents, stimulants and human growth hormone. Cases of VAD have been described with cervical manipulation in the past and an association between the use of anabolic stero...

  9. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  10. Bias in phylogenetic reconstruction of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B S; Campbell, D L

    2000-08-01

    Two spurious nodes were found in phylogenetic analyses of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences in comparison with well-established vertebrate relationships. These spurious reconstructions were well supported in bootstrap analyses and occurred independently of the method of phylogenetic analysis used (parsimony, distance, or likelihood). Use of this data set of vertebrate rhodopsin sequences allowed us to exploit established vertebrate relationships, as well as the considerable amount known about the molecular evolution of this gene, in order to identify important factors contributing to the spurious reconstructions. Simulation studies using parametric bootstrapping indicate that it is unlikely that the spurious nodes in the parsimony analyses are due to long branches or other topological effects. Rather, they appear to be due to base compositional bias at third positions, codon bias, and convergent evolution at nucleotide positions encoding the hydrophobic residues isoleucine, leucine, and valine. LogDet distance methods, as well as maximum-likelihood methods which allow for nonstationary changes in base composition, reduce but do not entirely eliminate support for the spurious resolutions. Inclusion of five additional rhodopsin sequences in the phylogenetic analyses largely corrected one of the spurious reconstructions while leaving the other unaffected. The additional sequences not only were more proximal to the corrected node, but were also found to have intermediate levels of base composition and codon bias as compared with neighboring sequences on the tree. This study shows that the spurious reconstructions can be corrected either by excluding third positions, as well as those encoding the amino acids Ile, Val, and Leu (which may not be ideal, as these sites can contain useful phylogenetic signal for other parts of the tree), or by the addition of sequences that reduce problems associated with convergent evolution.

  11. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participate...

  12. Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montes -y-Gómez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Web es sin lugar a dudas el repositorio de información más grande jamás construido por el ser humano. Con más de cuatro mil millones de páginas indexadas por los motores de búsqueda públicos, la Web representa el mayor y más amplio corpus textual disponible en la actualidad. Por su valor lingüístico, dado que contiene información en más de 1 500 lenguajes, este corpus está siendo usado con gran éxito en muchas tareas de procesamientodel lenguaje natural. En particular, varios métodos de minería de datos se han aplicado para extraer de la Web algunos tipos de patrones lingüísticos útiles para tareas como la traducción automática y búsqueda de respuestas. En este artículo presentamos un método que permite encontrar combinaciones de palabras significativas a los diferentes sentidos atribuibles a una palabra polisémica. Los experimentos realizados, aunque preliminares, muestran el gran potencial del método propuesto para encontrar estas colocaciones por sentido usando la Web como corpus, así como la viabilidad de la incorporación de dichas colocaciones en sistemas de desambiguación del sentido de las palabras, que pueden a su vez ser usados en sistemas de traducción automática y recuperación de información.There is no doubt that the Web is the biggest information repository ever before constructed by human beings. With more than four billion pages index-linked by the public search engines, the Web represents the biggest and the widest textual corpus available in our days. Because his high linguistic value, because contains information in more than 1500 different languages, this corpus is being used with great success in many tasks related to the natural language process. In particular, several methods of data mining have been applied to extract from the Web some types of linguistic patterns which are useful for a diversity of tasks, such as automatic translations and answer search systems. In this work we presenta

  13. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Compression Fracture: Analysis of Vertebral Body Volume by CT Volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, A.; Tanigawa, N.; Kariya, S.; Kojima, H.; Shomura, Y.; Sawada, S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between volume of vertebral bodies with compression fracture (measured by CT volumetry) before percutaneous vertebroplasty, the amount of bone cement injected, and the effect of treatment. Material and Methods: We examined 49 consecutive patients, with 104 vertebral body compression fractures, who underwent percutaneous injection of bone cement. Vertebral body volume was measured by CT volumetry. The patient's pain level was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and after the procedure. Improvement in VAS was defined as the decrease in VAS after the procedure. Relationships between vertebral body volume, the amount of bone cement, and the effect of treatment were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient test. Results: Average vertebral body volume was 26.3 ±8.1 cm 3 ; average amount of bone cement was 3.2 ±1.1 ml; and average improvement in VAS was 4.9 ±2.7. The vertebral body volume was greater if a larger amount of bone cement was injected. There was a significant positive correlation between vertebral body volume and amount of bone cement ( r ∼ 0.44; P <0.0001). However, there was no correlation between vertebral body volume and improvement in VAS, or between amount of bone cement and improvement in VAS. Conclusion: In percutaneous vertebroplasty for vertebral body compression fracture, there is a positive correlation between vertebral body volume and amount of bone cement, but improvement in VAS does not correlate with vertebral body volume or amount of bone cement

  14. Vertebrate Reservoirs of Arboviruses: Myth, Synonym of Amplifier, or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Kuno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid succession of the pandemic of arbovirus diseases, such as dengue, West Nile fever, chikungunya, and Zika fever, has intensified research on these and other arbovirus diseases worldwide. Investigating the unique mode of vector-borne transmission requires a clear understanding of the roles of vertebrates. One major obstacle to this understanding is the ambiguity of the arbovirus definition originally established by the World Health Organization. The paucity of pertinent information on arbovirus transmission at the time contributed to the notion that vertebrates played the role of reservoir in the arbovirus transmission cycle. Because this notion is a salient feature of the arbovirus definition, it is important to reexamine its validity. This review addresses controversial issues concerning vertebrate reservoirs and their role in arbovirus persistence in nature, examines the genesis of the problem from a historical perspective, discusses various unresolved issues from multiple points of view, assesses the present status of the notion in light of current knowledge, and provides options for a solution to resolve the issue.

  15. MRI appearances of inflammatory vertebral osteitis in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kanberoglu, Kaya; Mihmanli, Ismail; Cokyuksel, Oktay [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University (Turkey); Kanberoglu, Ayfer [Department of Physical Medicine, SSK Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-03-01

    Background: Undiagnosed and early ankylosing spondylitis (AS), especially in adolescent patients suffering from back pain, may present with the finding of vertebral osteitis on MRI. Aims: To identify the early MRI changes of vertebral osteitis in AS. Patients and methods: Five patients (three boys, two girls) aged 11-20 years (mean 15.4 years) suffering from back pain underwent MRI of the thoracolumbar spine. There was no initial diagnosis of AS. After clinical and radiological suspicion of AS, MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints was performed. Results: During the course of AS, destructive and reactive changes affect the discovertebral junctions that are initially seen in the thoracolumbar area. At this stage plain radiography of the spinal column may be normal. On MR images, inflammatory osteitis of the vertebrae is seen as hypointense areas on T1-weighted images and hyperintense areas on T2-W images. The lesions enhance homogenously with contrast material. Conclusions: Awareness of the MRI appearances of vertebral osteitis is helpful in suspecting AS. Radiological examination of the SI facilitates the diagnosis and unnecessary further imaging can be avoided. (orig.)

  16. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Dong

    Full Text Available Chemosensory receptors (CR are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates.

  17. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yokoyama, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications.

  18. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications

  19. The uranium content in the blood of some vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.C.; Hanifa, A.; Goswami, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The method of fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in the blood of some vertebrates like lata fish (Ophiocephalus punctatus - class Pisces), toad (Bufo melanostictus -class Amphibia) and man (Homo Sapiens - class Mammalia). The uranium content in the blood of these vertebrates has been found to range from 0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre. However, the concentration in toad is found to be the lowest (0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.40 ± 0.022 microgram/litre) as compared to that in fish (0.50 ± 0.027 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre) and man (0.33 ± 0.023 to 0.74 ± 0.034 microgram/litre). The intervariation among the different classes of vertebrates as regards uranium concentration has been found to be statistically significant. (author)

  20. Individualized management for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANG Yan-guo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the individualized management strategy for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Methods Eighteen patients with intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms were treated with different surgical methods. Results Eighteen patients underwent different surgical treatment. Five patients underwent complete occlusion of the aneurysm and parent artery by coiling, 5 were treated by stent -assisted coiling (3 densely packed coiling and 2 non-densely packed coiling, 4 underwent stent-only therapy and 3 of them presented hemodynamic improvement after surgery, 3 were treated by direct surgical clipping, and 1 underwent occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass. Two aneurysms ruptured immaturely, in which one patient died on the third day after operation and one patient occurred moderate disablity. Only 1 patient who underwent complete occlusion of aneurysm and parent artery presented temporarily ischemic symptoms. No adverse effects were seen in other patients. Seventeen patients were followed up for 1 month to 3 years, and all the aneurysms were stable. Conclusion There are many kinds of therapeutic methods for intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. The patients should be treated according to several factors such as the clinical manifestations, aneurysm configuration, and relationship with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The treatment should be individualized.