Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Yun-Shien
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at http://gap.stat.sinica.edu.tw/Software/GAP.
Coherence method of identifying signal noise model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vavrin, J.
1981-01-01
The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)
Iterative deblending of simultaneous-source data using a coherency-pass shaping operator
Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Mao, Weijian; Zhang, Dong; Li, Chao; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Yangkang
2017-10-01
Simultaneous-source acquisition helps greatly boost an economic saving, while it brings an unprecedented challenge of removing the crosstalk interference in the recorded seismic data. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative method to separate the simultaneous source data based on a coherency-pass shaping operator. The coherency-pass filter is used to constrain the model, that is, the unblended data to be estimated, in the shaping regularization framework. In the simultaneous source survey, the incoherent interference from adjacent shots greatly increases the rank of the frequency domain Hankel matrix that is formed from the blended record. Thus, the method based on rank reduction is capable of separating the blended record to some extent. However, the shortcoming is that it may cause residual noise when there is strong blending interference. We propose to cascade the rank reduction and thresholding operators to deal with this issue. In the initial iterations, we adopt a small rank to severely separate the blended interference and a large thresholding value as strong constraints to remove the residual noise in the time domain. In the later iterations, since more and more events have been recovered, we weaken the constraint by increasing the rank and shrinking the threshold to recover weak events and to guarantee the convergence. In this way, the combined rank reduction and thresholding strategy acts as a coherency-pass filter, which only passes the coherent high-amplitude component after rank reduction instead of passing both signal and noise in traditional rank reduction based approaches. Two synthetic examples are tested to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. In addition, the application on two field data sets (common receiver gathers and stacked profiles) further validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Kaho; Ohshima, Masashi; Nomura, Takanori
2014-01-01
The simultaneous measurement method of a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution using low-coherence digital holography with a vertical scanning is proposed. The proposed method consists of a combination of digital holography and low-coherence interferometry. The introduction of a datum plane enables the measurement of both a refractive index distribution and a thickness distribution. By the optical experiment, the potential of the proposed method is confirmed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng
2010-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.
Cimalla, Peter; Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Hoefer, Aline; Wittig, Dierk; Funk, Richard; Koch, Edmund
2011-03-01
Spectral domain dual-band optical coherence tomography for simultaneous imaging of rodent retina in the 0.8 μm and 1.3 μm wavelength region and non-invasive monitoring of the posterior eye microstructure in the field of retinal degeneration research is demonstrated. The system is illuminated by a supercontinuum laser source and allows three-dimensional imaging with high axial resolution better than 3.8 μm and 5.3 μm in tissue at 800 nm and 1250 nm, respectively, for precise retinal thickness measurements. A fan-shaped scanning pattern with the pivot point close to the eye's pupil and a contact lens are applied to obtain optical access to the eye's fundus. First in vivo experiments in a RCS (royal college of surgeons) rat model with gene-related degeneration of the photoreceptor cells show good visibility of the retinal microstructure with sufficient contrast for thickness measurement of individual retinal layers. An enhanced penetration depth at 1250 nm is clearly identifiable revealing sub-choroidal structures that are not visible at 800 nm. Furthermore, additional simultaneous imaging at 1250 nm improves image quality by frequency compounding speckle noise reduction. These results are encouraging for time course studies of the rodent retina concerning its development related to disease progression and treatment response.
Coherent states for quadratic Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez C, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes
2011-01-01
The coherent states for a set of quadratic Hamiltonians in the trap regime are constructed. A matrix technique which allows us to directly identify the creation and annihilation operators will be presented. Then, the coherent states as simultaneous eigenstates of the annihilation operators will be derived, and will be compared with those attained through the displacement operator method. The corresponding wavefunction will be found, and a general procedure for obtaining several mean values involving the canonical operators in these states will be described. The results will be illustrated through the asymmetric Penning trap.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André
2013-01-01
We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....
Dubey, Satish Kumar; Singh Mehta, Dalip; Anand, Arun; Shakher, Chandra
2008-01-01
We demonstrate simultaneous topography and tomography of latent fingerprints using full-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The swept-source OCT system comprises a superluminescent diode (SLD) as broad-band light source, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as frequency tuning device, and a compact, nearly common-path interferometer. Both the amplitude and the phase map of the interference fringe signal are reconstructed. Optical sectioning of the latent fingerprint sample is obtained by selective Fourier filtering and the topography is retrieved from the phase map. Interferometry, selective filtering, low coherence and hence better resolution are some of the advantages of the proposed system over the conventional fingerprint detection techniques. The present technique is non-invasive in nature and does not require any physical or chemical processing. Therefore, the quality of the sample does not alter and hence the same fingerprint can be used for other types of forensic test. Exploitation of low-coherence interferometry for fingerprint detection itself provides an edge over other existing techniques as fingerprints can even be lifted from low-reflecting surfaces. The proposed system is very economical and compact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheppard, L W; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A; Vuksanovic, V
2011-01-01
We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate (∼10 cm 2 ) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 deg. C or 42 deg. C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p < 0.05) and the myogenic spectral peak became more prominent. During heating, there was a significant (p < 0.05) general increase in spectral energy, associated with vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p < 0.05) phase coherence exists between blood flow and IHR in the respiratory and myogenic frequency intervals. Cooling did not affect this phase coherence in any of the frequency intervals, whereas heating enhanced the phase coherence in the respiratory and myogenic intervals. This can be explained by the reduction in vascular resistance produced by heating, a process where myogenic mechanisms play a key role. We conclude that the mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature change, are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verônica Castro Lima
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate technical aspects and the clinical relevance of a simultaneous confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a high-speed, high-resolution, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT device for retinal imaging. The principle of confocal scanning laser imaging provides a high resolution of retinal and choroidal vasculature with low light exposure. Enhanced contrast, details, and image sharpness are generated using confocality. The real-time SDOCT provides a new level of accuracy for assessment of the angiographic and morphological correlation. The combined system allows for simultaneous recordings of topographic and tomographic images with accurate correlation between them. Also it can provide simultaneous multimodal imaging of retinal pathologies, such as fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, infrared and blue reflectance (red-free images, fundus autofluorescence images, and OCT scans (Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany. The combination of various macular diagnostic tools can lead to a better understanding and improved knowledge of macular diseases.
Marques, Manuel J; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh
2014-05-01
We report a Talbot bands-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of producing longitudinal B-scan OCT images and en-face scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images of the human retina in-vivo. The OCT channel employs a broadband optical source and a spectrometer. A gap is created between the sample and reference beams while on their way towards the spectrometer's dispersive element to create Talbot bands. The spatial separation of the two beams facilitates collection by an SLO channel of optical power originating exclusively from the retina, deprived from any contribution from the reference beam. Three different modes of operation are presented, constrained by the minimum integration time of the camera used in the spectrometer and by the galvo-scanners' scanning rate: (i) a simultaneous acquisition mode over the two channels, useful for small size imaging, that conserves the pixel-to-pixel correspondence between them; (ii) a hybrid sequential mode, where the system switches itself between the two regimes and (iii) a sequential "on-demand" mode, where the system can be used in either OCT or SLO regimes for as long as required. The two sequential modes present varying degrees of trade-off between pixel-to-pixel correspondence and independent full control of parameters within each channel. Images of the optic nerve and fovea regions obtained in the simultaneous (i) and in the hybrid sequential mode (ii) are presented.
Jiang, Minshan; Liu, Tan; Liu, Xiaojing; Jiao, Shuliang
2014-01-01
We accomplished spectral domain optical coherence tomography and auto-fluorescence microscopy for imaging the retina with a single broadband light source centered at 480 nm. This technique is able to provide simultaneous structural imaging and lipofuscin molecular contrast of the retina. Since the two imaging modalities are provided by the same group of photons, their images are intrinsically registered. To test the capabilities of the technique we periodically imaged the retinas of the same ...
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping
2016-05-18
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers
Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun
2016-01-01
The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.
Shrestha, Sebina; Serafino, Michael J; Rico-Jimenez, Jesus; Park, Jesung; Chen, Xi; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Walton, Brian L; Jo, Javier A; Applegate, Brian E
2016-09-01
Multimodal imaging probes a variety of tissue properties in a single image acquisition by merging complimentary imaging technologies. Exploiting synergies amongst the data, algorithms can be developed that lead to better tissue characterization than could be accomplished by the constituent imaging modalities taken alone. The combination of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) provides access to detailed tissue morphology and local biochemistry. The optical system described here merges 1310 nm swept-source OCT with time-domain FLIM having excitation at 355 and 532 nm. The pulses from 355 and 532 nm lasers have been interleaved to enable simultaneous acquisition of endogenous and exogenous fluorescence signals, respectively. The multimodal imaging system was validated using tissue phantoms. Nonspecific tagging with Alexa Flour 532 in a Watanbe rabbit aorta and active tagging of the LOX-1 receptor in human coronary artery, demonstrate the capacity of the system for simultaneous acquisition of OCT, endogenous FLIM, and exogenous FLIM in tissues.
Coherent spectroscopies on ultrashort time and length scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schneider C.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Three spectroscopic techniques are presented that provide simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution: modified confocal microscopy with heterodyne detection, space-time-resolved spectroscopy using coherent control concepts, and coherent two-dimensional nano-spectroscopy. Latest experimental results are discussed.
Simultaneous Parameters Identifiability and Estimation of an E. coli Metabolic Network Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kese Pontes Freitas Alberton
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This work proposes a procedure for simultaneous parameters identifiability and estimation in metabolic networks in order to overcome difficulties associated with lack of experimental data and large number of parameters, a common scenario in the modeling of such systems. As case study, the complex real problem of parameters identifiability of the Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 dynamic model was investigated, composed by 18 differential ordinary equations and 35 kinetic rates, containing 125 parameters. With the procedure, model fit was improved for most of the measured metabolites, achieving 58 parameters estimated, including 5 unknown initial conditions. The results indicate that simultaneous parameters identifiability and estimation approach in metabolic networks is appealing, since model fit to the most of measured metabolites was possible even when important measures of intracellular metabolites and good initial estimates of parameters are not available.
Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Matthew O. [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Rypina, Irina I. [Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Massachusetts 02543 (United States); Rowley, Clarence W. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2015-08-15
A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that “leak” from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, “data rich” test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or “mesh-free” methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.
Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Matthew O.; Rypina, Irina I.; Rowley, Clarence W.
2015-01-01
A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that “leak” from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, “data rich” test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or “mesh-free” methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea
Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data.
Williams, Matthew O; Rypina, Irina I; Rowley, Clarence W
2015-08-01
A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that "leak" from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, "data rich" test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or "mesh-free" methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.
Cortico-muscular coherence on artifact corrected EEG-EMG data recorded with a MRI scanner.
Muthuraman, M; Galka, A; Hong, V N; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J
2013-01-01
Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides great potential for studying human brain activity with high temporal and spatial resolution. But, due to the MRI, the recorded signals are contaminated with artifacts. The correction of these artifacts is important to use these signals for further spectral analysis. The coherence can reveal the cortical representation of peripheral muscle signal in particular motor tasks, e.g. finger movements. The artifact correction of these signals was done by two different algorithms the Brain vision analyzer (BVA) and the Matlab FMRIB plug-in for EEGLAB. The Welch periodogram method was used for estimating the cortico-muscular coherence. Our analysis revealed coherence with a frequency of 5Hz in the contralateral side of the brain. The entropy is estimated for the calculated coherence to get the distribution of coherence in the scalp. The significance of the paper is to identify the optimal algorithm to rectify the MR artifacts and as a first step to use both these signals EEG and EMG in conjunction with MRI for further studies.
Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy L.; Dabiri, John O.
2017-09-01
We present a method for identifying the coherent structures associated with individual Lagrangian flow trajectories even where only sparse particle trajectory data are available. The method, based on techniques in spectral graph theory, uses the Coherent Structure Coloring vector and associated eigenvectors to analyze the distance in higher-dimensional eigenspace between a selected reference trajectory and other tracer trajectories in the flow. By analyzing this distance metric in a hierarchical clustering, the coherent structure of which the reference particle is a member can be identified. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Additionally, the method is able to assess the relative coherence of the associated structure in comparison to the surrounding flow. Although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems such as neuronal activity, gene expression, or social networks.
Jiang, Minshan; Liu, Tan; Liu, Xiaojing; Jiao, Shuliang
2014-12-01
We accomplished spectral domain optical coherence tomography and auto-fluorescence microscopy for imaging the retina with a single broadband light source centered at 480 nm. This technique is able to provide simultaneous structural imaging and lipofuscin molecular contrast of the retina. Since the two imaging modalities are provided by the same group of photons, their images are intrinsically registered. To test the capabilities of the technique we periodically imaged the retinas of the same rats for four weeks. The images successfully demonstrated lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium with aging. The experimental results showed that the dual-modal imaging system can be a potentially powerful tool in the study of age-related degenerative retinal diseases.
Nonlinear dynamics of a coherent polariton-biexciton system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Trung Dan; Vo Tinh
1994-08-01
The nonlinear dynamics of a coherent interacting polariton-biexciton system in optically excited semiconductors is investigated. We consider the case when two macroscopically coherent modes - a lower branch polariton and a biexciton existing simultaneously in a direct-gap semiconductor. The conditions for exhibiting optical bistability in stationary regime are obtained. Numerical simulation for the nonlinear dynamics equations of the system is also carried out. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs
Coherent radiation from pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, J.L. Jr.
1979-01-01
Interaction between a relativistic electrom stream and a plasma under conditions believed to exist in pulsar magnetospheres is shown to result in the simultaneous emission of coherent curvature radiation at radio wavelengths and incoherent curvature radiation at X-ray wavelengths from the same spatial volume. It is found that such a stream can propagate through a plasma parallel to a very strong magnetic field only if its length is less than a critical length L/sub asterisk/ic. Charge induced in the plasma by the stream co-moves with the stream and has the same limitation in longitudinal extent. The resultant charge bunching is sufficient to cause the relatively low energy plasma particles to radiate at radio wavelengths coherently while the relatively high energy stream particles radiate at X-ray wavelengths incoherently as the stream-plasma system moves along curved magnetic field lines. The effective number of coherently radiating particles per bunch is estimated to be approx.10 14 --10 15 for a tupical pulsar
From quantum coherence to quantum correlations
Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong
2017-06-01
In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.
Coincidence Imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAI Yang-jian; ZHU Shi-yao
2006-01-01
we present a theoretical study of coincidence imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams The equations for the coincidence image formation and interference fringes are derived,from which it is clear that the imaging is due to the corresponding focusing in the two paths .The quality and visibility of the images and fringes can be high simultaneously.The nature of the coincidence imaging and interference between quantum entangled photon pairs and coherent Gaussian beams are different .The coincidence image with coherent Gaussian beams is due to intensity-intensity correspondence,a classical nature,while that with entangled photon pairs is due to the amplitude correlation a quantum nature.
Advantages of coherent feedback for cooling quantum oscillators.
Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo
2012-10-26
We model the cooling of open optical and optomechanical resonators via optical feedback in the linear quadratic Gaussian setting of stochastic control theory. We show that coherent feedback control schemes, in which the resonator is embedded in an interferometer to achieve all-optical feedback, can outperform the best possible linear quadratic Gaussian measurement-based schemes in the quantum regime of low steady-state excitation number. Such performance gains are attributed to the coherent controller's ability to process noncommuting output field quadratures simultaneously without loss of fidelity, and may provide important clues for the design of coherent feedback schemes for more general problems of nonlinear and robust control.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bito, Kotatsu; Okuno, Masanari; Kano, Hideaki; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We have developed a simultaneous measurement system of CARS and CSRS. ► We can obtain information on the electronic resonance effect with the measurement. ► The simultaneous measurement provides us with more reliable spectral information. - Abstract: We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100–1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between the pump and probe radiations, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) can be detected simultaneously. Simultaneous detection of CARS and CSRS enables us to obtain information on the electronic resonance effect that affects differently the CARS and CSRS signals. Simultaneous analysis of the CARS and CSRS signals provides us the imaginary part of χ (3) without introducing any arbitrary parameter in the maximum entropy method (MEM)
Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: evidence for strategy-specific effects.
Dan-Glauser, Elise S; Gross, James J
2013-10-01
One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multichannel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.
Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects
Dan-Glauser, Elise S.; Gross, James J.
2014-01-01
One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, on how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multi-channel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it. PMID:23731438
Bai, Ping
2016-12-20
We investigate a unique type of zero-index medium with both gain and loss (ZIMGL), whose effective permittivity and permeability are both purely imaginary but of opposite signs. We analytically show that, by using a slab of ZIMGL with equal magnitude of loss and gain, simulation realization of a coherent perfect absorber (CPA) and laser, i.e., the so-called CPA laser, can be achieved. Previously the CPA laser was proposed in parity-time (PT) symmetric systems. However, the ZIMGL does not possess the PT symmetry and thus the underlying physics is distinctly different. By designing a photonic crystal (PC) composed of core-shell rods, with loss and gain distributed in either the core or the shell, we have realized such a ZIMGL. The CPA-laser functionality of such a PC is also confirmed in our numerical simulations. Our work provides a different approach for simultaneous realization of CPA and laser besides PT-symmetric systems.
Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Muthalib, Makii; Perrey, Stephane; Galka, Andreas; Granert, Oliver; Wolff, Stephan; Deuschl, Guenther; Raethjen, Jan; Heute, Ulrich; Muthuraman, Muthuraman
2013-01-01
Brain activity can be measured using different modalities. Since most of the modalities tend to complement each other, it seems promising to measure them simultaneously. In to be presented research, the data recorded from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), simultaneously, are subjected to causality analysis using time-resolved partial directed coherence (tPDC). Time-resolved partial directed coherence uses the principle of state space modelling to estimate Multivariate Autoregressive (MVAR) coefficients. This method is useful to visualize both frequency and time dynamics of causality between the time series. Afterwards, causality results from different modalities are compared by estimating the Spearman correlation. In to be presented study, we used directionality vectors to analyze correlation, rather than actual signal vectors. Results show that causality analysis of the fMRI correlates more closely to causality results of oxy-NIRS as compared to deoxy-NIRS in case of a finger sequencing task. However, in case of simple finger tapping, no clear difference between oxy-fMRI and deoxy-fMRI correlation is identified.
Gaertner, Maria; Cimalla, Peter; Meissner, Sven; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Koch, Edmund
2012-07-01
Although several strategies exist for a minimal-invasive treatment of patients with lung failure, the mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome still reaches 30% at minimum. This striking number indicates the necessity of understanding lung dynamics on an alveolar level. To investigate the dynamical behavior on a microscale, we used three-dimensional geometrical and functional imaging to observe tissue parameters including alveolar size and length of embedded elastic fibers during ventilation. We established a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy system that is able to monitor the distension of alveolar tissue and elastin fibers simultaneously within three dimensions. The OCT system can laterally resolve a 4.9 μm line pair feature and has an approximately 11 μm full-width-half-maximum axial resolution in air. confocal fluorescence microscopy visualizes molecular properties of the tissue with a resolution of 0.75 μm (laterally), and 5.9 μm (axially) via fluorescence detection of the dye sulforhodamine B specifically binding to elastin. For system evaluation, we used a mouse model in situ to perform lung distension by application of different constant pressure values within the physiological regime. Our method enables the investigation of alveolar dynamics by helping to reveal basic processes emerging during artificial ventilation and breathing.
Coherent control in simple quantum systems
Prants, Sergey V.
1995-01-01
Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.
Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States
Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.
We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.
Tang, Shaojun; Hemberg, Martin; Cansizoglu, Ertugrul; Belin, Stephane; Kosik, Kenneth; Kreiman, Gabriel; Steen, Hanno; Steen, Judith
2016-01-01
The ability to integrate 'omics' (i.e., transcriptomics and proteomics) is becoming increasingly important to the understanding of regulatory mechanisms. There are currently no tools available to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs)across different 'omics'data types or multi-dimensional data including time courses. We present a model capable of simultaneously identifying DEGs from continuous and discrete transcriptomic, proteomic and integrated proteogenomic data. We show that...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin Jun; Yu Ling-Yao; Liu Xing; Wan Hui; Lin Zi-Yang; Niu Han-Ben
2011-01-01
In broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy with supercontinuum (SC), the simultaneously detectable spectral coverage is limited by the spectral continuity and the simultaneity of various spectral components of SC in an enough bandwidth. By numerical simulations, the optimal experimental conditions for improving the SC are obtained. The broadband time-resolved CARS spectrography based on the SC with required temporal and spectral distributions is realised. The global molecular vibrational spectrum with well suppressed nonresonant background noise can be obtained in a single measurement. At the same time, the measurements of dephasing times of various molecular vibrational modes can be conveniently achieved from intensities of a sequence of time-resolved CARS signals. It will be more helpful to provide a complete picture of molecular vibrations, and to exhibit a potential to understand not only both the solvent dynamics and the solute-solvent interactions, but also the mechanisms of chemical reactions in the fields of biology, chemistry and material science. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Schlueter-Kuck, Kristy; Dabiri, John
2017-11-01
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of techniques that aim to characterize fluid flow kinematics on the basis of Lagrangian trajectories of collections of tracer particles. Most of these techniques depend on presence of tracer particles that are initially closely-spaced, in order to compute local gradients of their trajectories. In many applications, the requirement of close tracer spacing cannot be satisfied, especially when the tracers are naturally occurring and their distribution is dictated by the underlying flow. Moreover, current methods often focus on determination of the boundaries of coherent sets, whereas in practice it is often valuable to identify the complete set of trajectories that are coherent with an individual trajectory of interest. We extend the concept of Coherent Structure Coloring to achieve identification of the coherent set associated with individual Lagrangian trajectories. This algorithm is proven successful in identifying coherent structures of varying complexities in canonical unsteady flows. Importantly, although the method is demonstrated here in the context of fluid flow kinematics, the generality of the approach allows for its potential application to other unsupervised clustering problems in dynamical systems. This work was supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.
Evaluating Extensions to Coherent Mortality Forecasting Models
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Syazreen Shair
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Coherent models were developed recently to forecast the mortality of two or more sub-populations simultaneously and to ensure long-term non-divergent mortality forecasts of sub-populations. This paper evaluates the forecast accuracy of two recently-published coherent mortality models, the Poisson common factor and the product-ratio functional models. These models are compared to each other and the corresponding independent models, as well as the original Lee–Carter model. All models are applied to age-gender-speciﬁc mortality data for Australia and Malaysia and age-gender-ethnicity-speciﬁc data for Malaysia. The out-of-sample forecast error of log death rates, male-to-female death rate ratios and life expectancy at birth from each model are compared and examined across groups. The results show that, in terms of overall accuracy, the forecasts of both coherent models are consistently more accurate than those of the independent models for Australia and for Malaysia, but the relative performance differs by forecast horizon. Although the product-ratio functional model outperforms the Poisson common factor model for Australia, the Poisson common factor is more accurate for Malaysia. For the ethnic groups application, ethnic-coherence gives better results than gender-coherence. The results provide evidence that coherent models are preferable to independent models for forecasting sub-populations’ mortality.
Pan, Y. T.; Xie, T. Q.; Du, C. W.; Bastacky, S.; Meyers, S.; Zeidel, M. L.
2003-12-01
We report an experimental study of the possibility of enhancing early bladder cancer diagnosis with fluorescence-image-guided endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). After the intravesical instillation of a 10% solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid, simultaneous fluorescence imaging (excitation of 380-420 nm, emission of 620-700 nm) and OCT are performed on rat bladders to identify the photochemical and morphological changes associated with uroepithelial tumorigenesis. The preliminary results of our ex vivo study reveal that both fluorescence and OCT can identify early uroepithelial cancers, and OCT can detect precancerous lesions (e.g., hyperplasia) that fluorescence may miss. This suggests that a cystoscope combining 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence and OCT imaging has the potential to enhance the efficiency and sensitivity of early bladder cancer diagnosis.
Vokes, David E; Jackson, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Perez, Jorge A; Su, Jianping; Ridgway, James M; Armstrong, William B; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F
2008-07-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging modality that uses near-infrared light to produce cross-sectional images of tissue with a resolution approaching that of light microscopy. We have previously reported use of OCT imaging of the vocal folds (VFs) during direct laryngoscopy with a probe held in contact or near-contact with the VFs. This aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel OCT system integrated with a surgical microscope to allow hands-free OCT imaging of the VFs, which could be performed simultaneously with microscopic visualization. We performed a prospective evaluation of a new method of acquiring OCT images of the VFs. An OCT system was successfully integrated with a surgical microscope to permit noncontact OCT imaging of the VFs of 10 patients. With this novel device we were able to identify VF epithelium and lamina propria; however, the resolution was reduced compared to that achieved with the standard contact or near-contact OCT. Optical coherence tomography is able to produce high-resolution images of vocal fold mucosa to a maximum depth of 1.6 mm. It may be used in the diagnosis of VF lesions, particularly early squamous cell carcinoma, in which OCT can show disruption of the basement membrane. Mounting the OCT device directly onto the operating microscope allows hands-free noncontact OCT imaging and simultaneous conventional microscopic visualization of the VFs. However, the lateral resolution of the OCT microscope system is 50 microm, in contrast to the conventional handheld probe system (10 microm). Although such images at this resolution are still useful clinically, improved resolution would enhance the system's performance, potentially enabling real-time OCT-guided microsurgery of the larynx.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolin Xiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recent high-throughput efforts such as ENCODE have generated a large body of genome-scale transcriptional data in multiple conditions (e.g., cell-types and disease states. Leveraging these data is especially important for network-based approaches to human disease, for instance to identify coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks that can inform functional disease mechanisms and pathological pathways. Yet, genome-scale network analysis across conditions is significantly hampered by the paucity of robust and computationally-efficient methods. Building on the Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition, we introduce a new algorithmic approach for efficient, parameter-free and reproducible identification of network-modules simultaneously across multiple conditions. Our method can accommodate weighted (and unweighted networks of any size and can similarly use co-expression or raw gene expression input data, without hinging upon the definition and stability of the correlation used to assess gene co-expression. In simulation studies, we demonstrated distinctive advantages of our method over existing methods, which was able to recover accurately both common and condition-specific network-modules without entailing ad-hoc input parameters as required by other approaches. We applied our method to genome-scale and multi-tissue transcriptomic datasets from rats (microarray-based and humans (mRNA-sequencing-based and identified several common and tissue-specific subnetworks with functional significance, which were not detected by other methods. In humans we recapitulated the crosstalk between cell-cycle progression and cell-extracellular matrix interactions processes in ventricular zones during neocortex expansion and further, we uncovered pathways related to development of later cognitive functions in the cortical plate of the developing brain which were previously unappreciated. Analyses of seven rat tissues identified a multi
Xiao, Xiaolin; Moreno-Moral, Aida; Rotival, Maxime; Bottolo, Leonardo; Petretto, Enrico
2014-01-01
Recent high-throughput efforts such as ENCODE have generated a large body of genome-scale transcriptional data in multiple conditions (e.g., cell-types and disease states). Leveraging these data is especially important for network-based approaches to human disease, for instance to identify coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) that can inform functional disease mechanisms and pathological pathways. Yet, genome-scale network analysis across conditions is significantly hampered by the paucity of robust and computationally-efficient methods. Building on the Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition, we introduce a new algorithmic approach for efficient, parameter-free and reproducible identification of network-modules simultaneously across multiple conditions. Our method can accommodate weighted (and unweighted) networks of any size and can similarly use co-expression or raw gene expression input data, without hinging upon the definition and stability of the correlation used to assess gene co-expression. In simulation studies, we demonstrated distinctive advantages of our method over existing methods, which was able to recover accurately both common and condition-specific network-modules without entailing ad-hoc input parameters as required by other approaches. We applied our method to genome-scale and multi-tissue transcriptomic datasets from rats (microarray-based) and humans (mRNA-sequencing-based) and identified several common and tissue-specific subnetworks with functional significance, which were not detected by other methods. In humans we recapitulated the crosstalk between cell-cycle progression and cell-extracellular matrix interactions processes in ventricular zones during neocortex expansion and further, we uncovered pathways related to development of later cognitive functions in the cortical plate of the developing brain which were previously unappreciated. Analyses of seven rat tissues identified a multi-tissue subnetwork of co
Michaud-Belleau, V.; Bergeron, H.; Light, P. S.; Hébert, N. B.; Deschênes, J. D.; Luiten, A. N.; Genest, J.
2016-10-01
The frequency noise and intensity noise of a laser set the performance limits in many modern photonics applications and, consequently, must often be characterized. As lasers continue to improve, the measurement of these noises however becomes increasingly challenging. Current approaches for the characterization of very high-performance lasers often call for a second laser with equal or higher performance to the one that is to be measured, an incoherent interferometer having an extremely long delay-arm, or an interferometer that relies on an active device. These instrumental features can be impractical or problematic under certain experimental conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents an entirely passive coherent interferometer that employs an optical 90° hybrid coupler to perform in-phase and quadrature detection. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the frequency noise power spectral density of a highly-stable 192 THz (1560 nm) fiber laser over five frequency decades. Simultaneously, we are able to measure its relative intensity noise power spectral density and characterize the correlation between its amplitude noise and phase noise. We correct some common misconceptions through a detailed theoretical analysis and demonstrate the necessity to account for normal imperfections of the optical 90° hybrid coupler. We finally conclude that this passive coherent discriminator is suitable for reliable and simple noise characterization of highly-stable lasers, with bandwidth and dynamic range benefits but susceptibility to additive noise contamination.
Belfiori, F.; Rossum, W. van; Hoogeboom, P.
2014-01-01
A coherent two-dimensional (2D) multiple signal classification (MUSIC) processing for the simultaneous estimation of angular and range target positions has been presented. A 2D spatial smoothing technique is also introduced to cope with the coherent behaviour of the received echoes, which may result
Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H Stevie
2012-04-01
To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the involvement of the macula were prospectively investigated with simultaneous fundus autofluorescence and OCT imaging using the Spectralis HRA+OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) within a few weeks after the operation. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the macula showed lines of increased and decreased autofluorescence in 19 cases (57.6%). On OCT, these lines corresponded to the following abnormalities: outer retinal folds, inner retinal folds, and skip reflectivity abnormalities of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band. Other OCT findings, not related to abnormal lines on fundus autofluorescence, consisted of disruption of photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment band and collection of intraretinal or subretinal fluid. The presence of outer retinal folds significantly related to metamorphopsia but did not relate to poor postoperative visual acuity. Partial-thickness retinal folds occur commonly after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair and may represent an important anatomical substrate for postoperative metamorphopsia. Fundus autofluorescence and OCT are both sensitive techniques for the detection of these abnormalities.
Galvanic manifestation of spontaneous coherence in the negative glow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhechev, D; Parvanova, N
2002-01-01
Both the magnetic depolarization of the spontaneous emission from self-aligned states and the discharge galvanic reaction are measured simultaneously in a magnetic field. The observed galvanic peak is ascribed to magnetic destruction of self-aligned ensembles of atoms. This presents galvanic manifestation of coherent conductivity. (letter to the editor)
Measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics using optical coherence tomography
Weiss, Nicolas; El Tayeb El Obied, Khalid; Kalkman, Jeroen; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.
2016-01-01
We report on localized and simultaneous measurement of biofilm growth and local hydrodynamics in a microfluidic channel using optical coherence tomography. We measure independently with high spatio-temporal resolution the longitudinal flow velocity component parallel to the imaging beam and the
Self-Mixing Demodulation for Coherent Phase-Sensitive OTDR System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haijun He
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Ф-OTDR attracts much attention due to its capability of telling the type and position of an intrusion simultaneously. In recent decades, coherent Ф-OTDR has been demonstrated to realize long-distance detection. For coherent Ф-OTDR, there are three typical demodulation schemes in the reported studies. However, they still cannot realize real-time monitoring to satisfy practical demands. A simple and effective demodulation method based on self-mixing has been put forward to demodulate the beat signal in coherent Ф-OTDR. It not only saves a local electrical oscillator and frequency locked loop, but also demodulates the beat signal without residual frequency. Several vibrations with different frequency were separately applied at the same location of a 42.5 km fiber. The spatial resolution of 10 m and frequency response range from 8 Hz to 980 Hz have been achieved. The precise location with signal-to-noise ratio of 21.4 dB and broadband measurement demonstrate the self-mixing scheme can demodulate the coherent Ф-OTDR signal effectively.
Najafi, E.; Devineni, N.; Pal, I.; Khanbilvardi, R.
2017-12-01
An understanding of the climate factors that influence the space-time variability of crop yields is important for food security purposes and can help us predict global food availability. In this study, we address how the crop yield trends of countries globally were related to each other during the last several decades and the main climatic variables that triggered high/low crop yields simultaneously across the world. Robust Principal Component Analysis (rPCA) is used to identify the primary modes of variation in wheat, maize, sorghum, rice, soybeans, and barley yields. Relations between these modes of variability and important climatic variables, especially anomalous sea surface temperature (SSTa), are examined from 1964 to 2010. rPCA is also used to identify simultaneous outliers in each year, i.e. systematic high/low crop yields across the globe. The results demonstrated spatiotemporal patterns of these crop yields and the climate-related events that caused them as well as the connection of outliers with weather extremes. We find that among climatic variables, SST has had the most impact on creating simultaneous crop yields variability and yield outliers in many countries. An understanding of this phenomenon can benefit global crop trade networks.
Localization of Cortical Oscillations Induced by SCS Using Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Sovka
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This paper suggests a method based on coherence analysis and scalp mapping of coherence suitable for more accurate localization of cortical oscillations induced by electric stimulation of the dorsal spinal cord (SCS, which were previously detected using spectral analysis. While power spectral density shows the increase of power during SCS only at small number of electrodes, coherence extends this area and sharpens its boundary simultaneously. Parameters of the method were experimentally optimized to maximize its reliability. SCS is applied to suppress chronic, intractable pain by patients, whom pharmacotherapy does not relieve. In our study, the pain developed in lower back and lower extremity as the result of unsuccessful vertebral discotomy, which is called failed-back surgery syndrome (FBSS. Our method replicated the results of previous analysis using PSD and extended them with more accurate localization of the area influenced by SCS.
Simultaneous classical communication and quantum key distribution using continuous variables*
Qi, Bing
2016-10-01
Presently, classical optical communication systems employing strong laser pulses and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems working at single-photon levels are very different communication modalities. Dedicated devices are commonly required to implement QKD. In this paper, we propose a scheme which allows classical communication and QKD to be implemented simultaneously using the same communication infrastructure. More specially, we propose a coherent communication scheme where both the bits for classical communication and the Gaussian distributed random numbers for QKD are encoded on the same weak coherent pulse and decoded by the same coherent receiver. Simulation results based on practical system parameters show that both deterministic classical communication with a bit error rate of 10-9 and secure key distribution could be achieved over tens of kilometers of single-mode fibers. It is conceivable that in the future coherent optical communication network, QKD will be operated in the background of classical communication at a minimal cost.
Coherence-generating power of quantum dephasing processes
Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo; Zanardi, Paolo
2018-03-01
We provide a quantification of the capability of various quantum dephasing processes to generate coherence out of incoherent states. The measures defined, admitting computable expressions for any finite Hilbert-space dimension, are based on probabilistic averages and arise naturally from the viewpoint of coherence as a resource. We investigate how the capability of a dephasing process (e.g., a nonselective orthogonal measurement) to generate coherence depends on the relevant bases of the Hilbert space over which coherence is quantified and the dephasing process occurs, respectively. We extend our analysis to include those Lindblad time evolutions which, in the infinite-time limit, dephase the system under consideration and calculate their coherence-generating power as a function of time. We further identify specific families of such time evolutions that, although dephasing, have optimal (over all quantum processes) coherence-generating power for some intermediate time. Finally, we investigate the coherence-generating capability of random dephasing channels.
Quantum Coherence, Time-Translation Symmetry, and Thermodynamics
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Matteo Lostaglio
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The first law of thermodynamics imposes not just a constraint on the energy content of systems in extreme quantum regimes but also symmetry constraints related to the thermodynamic processing of quantum coherence. We show that this thermodynamic symmetry decomposes any quantum state into mode operators that quantify the coherence present in the state. We then establish general upper and lower bounds for the evolution of quantum coherence under arbitrary thermal operations, valid for any temperature. We identify primitive coherence manipulations and show that the transfer of coherence between energy levels manifests irreversibility not captured by free energy. Moreover, the recently developed thermomajorization relations on block-diagonal quantum states are observed to be special cases of this symmetry analysis.
Coherence in quantum estimation
Giorda, Paolo; Allegra, Michele
2018-01-01
The geometry of quantum states provides a unifying framework for estimation processes based on quantum probes, and it establishes the ultimate bounds of the achievable precision. We show a relation between the statistical distance between infinitesimally close quantum states and the second order variation of the coherence of the optimal measurement basis with respect to the state of the probe. In quantum phase estimation protocols, this leads to propose coherence as the relevant resource that one has to engineer and control to optimize the estimation precision. Furthermore, the main object of the theory i.e. the symmetric logarithmic derivative, in many cases allows one to identify a proper factorization of the whole Hilbert space in two subsystems. The factorization allows one to discuss the role of coherence versus correlations in estimation protocols; to show how certain estimation processes can be completely or effectively described within a single-qubit subsystem; and to derive lower bounds for the scaling of the estimation precision with the number of probes used. We illustrate how the framework works for both noiseless and noisy estimation procedures, in particular those based on multi-qubit GHZ-states. Finally we succinctly analyze estimation protocols based on zero-temperature critical behavior. We identify the coherence that is at the heart of their efficiency, and we show how it exhibits the non-analyticities and scaling behavior proper of a large class of quantum phase transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, Jinming; Bai, Li; Tench, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene; Proudlock, Frank
2015-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the human retina. Automated analysis of optical coherence tomography images is a challenging task as the images are inherently noisy. In this paper, a novel variational image decomposition model is proposed to decompose an OCT image into three components: the first component is the original image but with the noise completely removed; the second contains the set of edges representing the retinal layer boundaries present in the image; and the third is an image of noise, or in image decomposition terms, the texture, or oscillatory patterns of the original image. In addition, a fast Fourier transform based split Bregman algorithm is developed to improve computational efficiency of solving the proposed model. Extensive experiments are conducted on both synthesised and real OCT images to demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art speckle noise reduction methods and leads to accurate retinal layer segmentation. (paper)
Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.
1999-04-01
Quantification of retinal blood flow may lead to a better understanding of the progression and treatment of several ocular disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Current techniques, such as fluorescein angiography and laser Doppler velocimetry are limited, failing to provide sufficient information to the clinician. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a novel technique using coherent heterodyne detection for simultaneous cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure and blood flow. This technique is capable of high spatial and velocity resolution imaging in highly scattering media. We implemented CDOCT for retinal blood flow mapping in human subjects. No dilation of the pupil was necessary. CDOCT is demonstrated for determining bidirectional flow in sub- 100micrometers diameter vessels in the retina. Additionally, we calculated Doppler broadening using the variance of depth- resolved spectra to identify regions with large velocity gradients within the Xenopus heart. This technique may be useful in quantifying local tissue perfusion in highly vascular retinal tissue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu
2007-01-01
In this paper, we investigate coherence resonance (CR) and noise-induced synchronization in Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neural network with three different types of topologies: regular, random, and small-world. It is found that the additive noise can induce CR in HR neural network with different topologies and its coherence is optimized by a proper noise level. It is also found that as coupling strength increases the plateau in the measure of coherence curve becomes broadened and the effects of network topology is more pronounced simultaneously. Moreover, we find that increasing the probability p of the network topology leads to an enhancement of noise-induced synchronization in HR neurons network.
Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Yadin
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.
The COHERENT Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, Steven Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-09-30
The COHERENT collaboration's primary objective is to measure coherent elastic neutrino- nucleus scattering (CEvNS) using the unique, high-quality source of tens-of-MeV neutrinos provided by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In spite of its large cross section, the CEvNS process has never been observed, due to tiny energies of the resulting nuclear recoils which are out of reach for standard neutrino detectors. The measurement of CEvNS has now become feasible, thanks to the development of ultra-sensitive technology for rare decay and weakly-interacting massive particle (dark matter) searches. The CEvNS cross section is cleanly predicted in the standard model; hence its measurement provides a standard model test. It is relevant for supernova physics and supernova-neutrino detection, and enables validation of dark-matter detector background and detector-response models. In the long term, precision measurement of CEvNS will address questions of nuclear structure. COHERENT will deploy multiple detector technologies in a phased approach: a 14-kg CsI[Na] scintillating crystal, 15 kg of p-type point-contact germanium detectors, and 100 kg of liquid xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Following an extensive background measurement campaign, a location in the SNS basement has proven to be neutron-quiet and suitable for deployment of the COHERENT detector suite. The simultaneous deployment of the three COHERENT detector subsystems will test the N=2 dependence of the cross section and ensure an unambiguous discovery of CEvNS. This document describes concisely the COHERENT physics motivations, sensitivity and plans for measurements at the SNS to be accomplished on a four-year timescale.
SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas Lloyd
2014-01-01
Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.
Coherent states approach to Penning trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, David J; Velazquez, Mercedes
2009-01-01
By using a matrix technique, which allows us to identify directly the ladder operators, the Penning trap coherent states are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. These states are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator. The associated wavefunctions and mean values for some relevant operators in these states are also evaluated. It turns out that the Penning trap coherent states minimize the Heisenberg uncertainty relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)
2014-11-15
A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.
2014-01-01
A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states
Coherent oscillations of a ring of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, I.
1976-07-01
The effect of ring curvature on the coherent perturbations of a ring of relativistic particles is studied within the framework of the linearized Vlasov equation. Finite curvature is shown to have a minor effect on the dynamics of the 'negative mass' mode; the 'transverse' mode in radial direction, however, is found to be coupled with a simultaneous longitudinal density modulation which modifies the dispersion relation. In the limit of small mode frequency (ω/Ω [de
Coherent Code Tracking for Spatial Transmit Diversity DS-CDMA Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. W. Stewart
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Spatial transmit diversity schemes are now well integrated into third-generation cellular mobile communication system specifications. When DS-CDMA-based technology is deployed in typical macro- and microcell environments, multipath diversity and spatial diversity may be exploited simultaneously by a 2D RAKE receiver. The work presented in this paper focuses on taking advantage of spatial transmit diversity in synchronising the 2D RAKE structure. We investigate the use of coherent and noncoherent techniques for tracking the timing parameters of each multipath component. It is shown that both noncoherent and coherent techniques benefit from transmit diversity. Additionally the performance gap between these two techniques increases with the number of antennas.
Electric field and electron density thresholds for coherent auroral echo onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kustov, A.V.; Uspensky, M.V.; Sofko, G.J.; Koehler, J.A.; Jones, G.O.L.; Williams, P.J.S.
1993-01-01
The authors study the threshold dependence of electron density and electric field for the observation of coherent auroral echo onset. They make use of Polar Geophysical Institute 83 MHz auroral radar and the EISCAT facility in Scandanavia, to simultaneously get plasma parameter information and coherent scatter observations. They observe an electron density threshold of roughly 2.5x10 11 m -3 for electric fields of 15 - 20 mV/m (near the Farley-Buneman instability threshold). For electric fields of 5 - 10 mV/m echos are not observed for even twice the previous electron density. Echo strength is observed to have other parametric dependences
Lagrangian motion, coherent structures, and lines of persistent material strain.
Samelson, R M
2013-01-01
Lagrangian motion in geophysical fluids may be strongly influenced by coherent structures that support distinct regimes in a given flow. The problems of identifying and demarcating Lagrangian regime boundaries associated with dynamical coherent structures in a given velocity field can be studied using approaches originally developed in the context of the abstract geometric theory of ordinary differential equations. An essential insight is that when coherent structures exist in a flow, Lagrangian regime boundaries may often be indicated as material curves on which the Lagrangian-mean principal-axis strain is large. This insight is the foundation of many numerical techniques for identifying such features in complex observed or numerically simulated ocean flows. The basic theoretical ideas are illustrated with a simple, kinematic traveling-wave model. The corresponding numerical algorithms for identifying candidate Lagrangian regime boundaries and lines of principal Lagrangian strain (also called Lagrangian coherent structures) are divided into parcel and bundle schemes; the latter include the finite-time and finite-size Lyapunov exponent/Lagrangian strain (FTLE/FTLS and FSLE/FSLS) metrics. Some aspects and results of oceanographic studies based on these approaches are reviewed, and the results are discussed in the context of oceanographic observations of dynamical coherent structures.
Ionospheric Coherence Bandwidth Measurements in the Lower VHF Frequency Range
Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.
2015-12-01
The United States Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 820 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present simultaneous ionospheric coherence bandwidth and S4 scintillation index measurements in the 32 - 44 MHz frequency range collected during the ESCINT equatorial scintillation experiment. 40-MHz continuous wave (CW) and 32 - 44 MHz swept frequency signals were transmitted simultaneously to the RFProp receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in three separate campaigns during the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results show coherence bandwidths as small as ~ 1 kHz for strong scintillation (S4 > 0.7) and indicate a high degree of ionospheric variability and irregularity on 10-m spatial scales. Spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities are also observed and are dominant at low elevation angles. The results are compared to previous measurements and available scaling laws.
Doubly stochastic coherence in complex neuronal networks
Gao, Yang; Wang, Jianjun
2012-11-01
A system composed of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with various topological structures is investigated under the co-presence of two independently additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noises, in which particular attention is paid to the neuronal networks spiking regularity. As the additive noise intensity and the multiplicative noise intensity are simultaneously adjusted to optimal values, the temporal periodicity of the output of the system reaches the maximum, indicating the occurrence of doubly stochastic coherence. The network topology randomness exerts different influences on the temporal coherence of the spiking oscillation for dissimilar coupling strength regimes. At a small coupling strength, the spiking regularity shows nearly no difference in the regular, small-world, and completely random networks. At an intermediate coupling strength, the temporal periodicity in a small-world neuronal network can be improved slightly by adding a small fraction of long-range connections. At a large coupling strength, the dynamical behavior of the neurons completely loses the resonance property with regard to the additive noise intensity or the multiplicative noise intensity, and the spiking regularity decreases considerably with the increase of the network topology randomness. The network topology randomness plays more of a depressed role than a favorable role in improving the temporal coherence of the spiking oscillation in the neuronal network research study.
Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav
2014-01-01
A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressu...
Evidence for color coherence in jet events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CDF Collaboration
1994-06-01
Color coherence effects in p{bar p} collisions are observed and studied with CDF, the Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We demonstrate these effects by measuring spatial correlations between soft and leading jets in multi jet events. Variables sensitive to interference are identified by comparing the data to the predictions of various shower Monte Carlos that are substantially different with respect to the implementation of coherence.
Coherence across consciousness levels: Symmetric visual displays spare working memory resources.
Dumitru, Magda L
2015-12-15
Two studies demonstrate that the need for coherence could nudge individuals to use structural similarities between binary visual displays and two concurrent cognitive tasks to unduly solve the latter in similar fashion. In an overt truth-judgement task, participants decided whether symmetric colourful displays matched conjunction or disjunction descriptions (e.g., "the black and/or the orange"). In the simultaneous covert categorisation task, they decided whether a colour name (e.g., "black") described a two-colour object or half of a single-colour object. Two response patterns emerged as follows. Participants either acknowledged or rejected matches between disjunction descriptions and two visual stimuli and, similarly, either acknowledged or rejected matches between single colour names and two-colour objects or between single colour names and half of single-colour objects. These findings confirm the coherence hypothesis, highlight the role of coherence in preserving working-memory resources, and demonstrate an interaction between high-level and low-level consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaneda, Roman
2003-03-01
A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function. (author)
Dynamic isoperimetry and the geometry of Lagrangian coherent structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froyland, Gary
2015-01-01
The study of transport and mixing processes in dynamical systems is particularly important for the analysis of mathematical models of physical systems. We propose a novel, direct geometric method to identify subsets of phase space that remain strongly coherent over a finite time duration. This new method is based on a dynamic extension of classical (static) isoperimetric problems; the latter are concerned with identifying submanifolds with the smallest boundary size relative to their volume.The present work introduces dynamic isoperimetric problems; the study of sets with small boundary size relative to volume as they are evolved by a general dynamical system. We formulate and prove dynamic versions of the fundamental (static) isoperimetric (in)equalities; a dynamic Federer–Fleming theorem and a dynamic Cheeger inequality. We introduce a new dynamic Laplace operator and describe a computational method to identify coherent sets based on eigenfunctions of the dynamic Laplacian.Our results include formal mathematical statements concerning geometric properties of finite-time coherent sets, whose boundaries can be regarded as Lagrangian coherent structures. The computational advantages of our new approach are a well-separated spectrum for the dynamic Laplacian, and flexibility in appropriate numerical approximation methods. Finally, we demonstrate that the dynamic Laplace operator can be realised as a zero-diffusion limit of a newly advanced probabilistic transfer operator method [9] for finding coherent sets, which is based on small diffusion. Thus, the present approach sits naturally alongside the probabilistic approach [9], and adds a formal geometric interpretation. (paper)
Asymmetric Penning trap coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernandez, David J.
2010-01-01
By using a matrix technique, which allows to identify directly the ladder operators, the coherent states of the asymmetric Penning trap are derived as eigenstates of the appropriate annihilation operators. They are compared with those obtained through the displacement operator method.
Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred
2001-01-01
It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity
Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.
Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D
2003-11-21
We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.
Coherent structures in tokamak plasmas workshop: Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Craddock, G.G.
1992-08-01
Coherent structures have the potential to impact a variety of theoretical and experimental aspects of tokamak plasma confinement. This includes the basic processes controlling plasma transport, propagation and efficiency of external mechanisms such as wave heating and the accuracy of plasma diagnostics. While the role of coherent structures in fluid dynamics is better understood, this is a new topic for consideration by plasma physicists. This informal workshop arose out of the need to identify the magnitude of structures in tokamaks and in doing so, to bring together for the first time the surprisingly large number of plasma researchers currently involved in work relating to coherent structures. The primary purpose of the workshop, in addition to the dissemination of information, was to develop formal and informal collaborations, set the stage for future formation of a coherent structures working group or focus area under the heading of the Tokamak Transport Task Force, and to evaluate the need for future workshops on coherent structures. The workshop was concentrated in four basic areas with a keynote talk in each area as well as 10 additional presentations. The issues of discussion in each of these areas was as follows: Theory - Develop a definition of structures and coherent as it applies to plasmas. Experiment - Review current experiments looking for structures in tokamaks, discuss experimental procedures for finding structures, discuss new experiments and techniques. Fluids - Determine how best to utilize the resource of information available from the fluids community both on the theoretical and experimental issues pertaining to coherent structures in plasmas. Computation - Discuss computational aspects of studying coherent structures in plasmas as they relate to both experimental detection and theoretical modeling
Study on the coherence degree of magnetization reversal in Permalloy single-domain nano-ellipses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Júnior, D.S. Vieira [Departamento Acadêmico de Matemática, Física, e Estatística, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sudeste de Minas Gerais – Campus Rio Pomba, Rio Pomba, Minas Gerais 36180-000 (Brazil); Leonel, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Toscano, D., E-mail: danilotoscano@fisica.ufjf.br [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil); Sato, F.; Coura, P.Z.; Dias, R.A. [Departamento de Física, Laboratório de Simulação Computacional, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais 36036-330 (Brazil)
2017-03-15
Numerical simulations have been performed to study the magnetization reversal in Permalloy nano-ellipses, under combined in-plane magnetic fields along the longitudinal and the transverse directions. We have considered nano-ellipses with two different aspect ratios and five thicknesses: 220×80×t nm{sup 3} and 70×50×t nm{sup 3}, where t ranging from 5 to 25 nm in steps of 5 nm. We found that the mechanism of magnetization reversal is not only dependent on the parameters of the magnetic field pulse but also related to the ellipse dimensions. It is known that the reversal time is related to the mechanism behind the magnetization reversal. In particular, ultrafast magnetization reversals occur by coherent rotation, when applying a field oriented mainly perpendicular to the initial magnetization. In order to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal we have introduced a quantity called “coherence index”. Besides complementing the previous studies by including the effect of the thickness on the magnetization reversal, our results indicate that it is possible to obtain magnetization reversals with high degree of coherence in small nano-ellipses by adjusting the geometric factors of the ellipse and the parameters of the magnetic field pulse simultaneously. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversals in single-domain nano-ellipses were investigated. • A parameter to evaluate the degree of coherence of the magnetization reversal was proposed. • A higher coherence index indicates a complete, coherent, rotation of the magnetization.
Cohering power of quantum operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2017-05-18
Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.
Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjoeholm, M; Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Enevoldsen, K; Courtney, M
2008-01-01
The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 μm continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height at the test station for large wind turbines at Hoevsoere in Western Jutland, Denmark is presented for the first time
Ramasamy, Ranjith; Sterling, Joshua; Manzoor, Maryem; Salamoon, Bekheit; Jain, Manu; Fisher, Erik; Li, Phillip S; Schlegel, Peter N; Mukherjee, Sushmita
2012-01-01
Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) has replaced conventional testis biopsies as a method of choice for obtaining sperm for in vitro fertilization for men with nonobstructive azoospermia. A technical challenge of micro-TESE is that the low magnification inspection of the tubules with a surgical microscope is insufficient to definitively identify sperm-containing tubules, necessitating tissue removal and cytologic assessment. Full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) uses white light interference microscopy to generate quick high-resolution tomographic images of fresh (unprocessed and unstained) tissue. Furthermore, by using a nonlaser safe light source (150 W halogen lamp) for tissue illumination, it ensures that the sperm extracted for in vitro fertilization are not photo-damaged or mutagenized. A focal Sertoli-cell only rodent model was created with busulfan injection in adult rats. Ex vivo testicular tissues from both normal and busulfan-treated rats were imaged with a commercial modified FFOCT system, Light-CT™, and the images were correlated with gold standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. Light-CT™ identified spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules in freshly excised testicular tissue, without the use of exogenous contrast or fixation. Normal adult rats exhibited tubules with uniform size and shape (diameter 328 ±11 μm). The busulfan-treated animals showed marked heterogeneity in tubular size and shape (diameter 178 ± 35 μm) and only 10% contained sperm within the lumen. FFOCT has the potential to facilitate real-time visualization of spermatogenesis in humans, and aid in micro-TESE for men with infertility.
Complexified coherent states and quantum evolution with non-Hermitian Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graefe, Eva-Maria; Schubert, Roman
2012-01-01
The complex geometry underlying the Schrödinger dynamics of coherent states for non-Hermitian Hamiltonians is investigated. In particular, two seemingly contradictory approaches are compared: (i) a complex WKB formalism, for which the centres of coherent states naturally evolve along complex trajectories, which leads to a class of complexified coherent states; (ii) the investigation of the dynamical equations for the real expectation values of position and momentum, for which an Ehrenfest theorem has been derived in a previous paper, yielding real but non-Hamiltonian classical dynamics on phase space for the real centres of coherent states. Both approaches become exact for quadratic Hamiltonians. The apparent contradiction is resolved building on an observation by Huber, Heller and Littlejohn, that complexified coherent states are equivalent if their centres lie on a specific complex Lagrangian manifold. A rich underlying complex symplectic geometry is unravelled. In particular, a natural complex structure is identified that defines a projection from complex to real phase space, mapping complexified coherent states to their real equivalents. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy.
Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Reed, Zachary D; Hodges, Joseph T; Plusquellic, David F
2016-05-16
Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The dual combs were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes where each comb consisted of > 250 teeth with 203 MHz spacing and spanned > 50 GHz region in the near-infrared. The step-recovery diodes are passive devices that provide low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO2, CO, HDO, and H2O in a single spectral region at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robust, compact, low-cost and widely tunable dual-comb systems could enable a network of distributed multiplexed optical sensors.
Luo, Shunlong; Sun, Yuan
2017-08-01
Quantifications of coherence are intensively studied in the context of completely decoherent operations (i.e., von Neuamnn measurements, or equivalently, orthonormal bases) in recent years. Here we investigate partial coherence (i.e., coherence in the context of partially decoherent operations such as Lüders measurements). A bona fide measure of partial coherence is introduced. As an application, we address the monotonicity problem of K -coherence (a quantifier for coherence in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information) [Girolami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.170401], which is introduced to realize a measure of coherence as axiomatized by Baumgratz, Cramer, and Plenio [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401]. Since K -coherence fails to meet the necessary requirement of monotonicity under incoherent operations, it is desirable to remedy this monotonicity problem. We show that if we modify the original measure by taking skew information with respect to the spectral decomposition of an observable, rather than the observable itself, as a measure of coherence, then the problem disappears, and the resultant coherence measure satisfies the monotonicity. Some concrete examples are discussed and related open issues are indicated.
Measuring coherence with entanglement concurrence
Qi, Xianfei; Gao, Ting; Yan, Fengli
2017-07-01
Quantum coherence is a fundamental manifestation of the quantum superposition principle. Recently, Baumgratz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 140401) presented a rigorous framework to quantify coherence from the view of theory of physical resource. Here we propose a new valid quantum coherence measure which is a convex roof measure, for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, essentially using the generalized Gell-Mann matrices. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed coherence measure, coherence concurrence, fulfills all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence measures. Moreover, strong links between the resource frameworks of coherence concurrence and entanglement concurrence is derived, which shows that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement based on two kinds of concurrence. This new coherence measure, coherence concurrence, may also be beneficial to the study of quantum coherence.
Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie
2012-01-01
Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the
Kwon, Osung; Ra, Young-Sik; Kim, Yoon-Ho
2009-07-20
Coherence properties of the photon pair generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser are studied with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Each photon of the pair enters a different input port of the interferometer and the biphoton coherence properties are studied with a two-photon detector placed at one output port. When the photon pair simultaneously enters the interferometer, periodic recurrence of the biphoton de Broglie wave packet is observed, closely resembling the coherence properties of the pump diode laser. With non-zero delays between the photons at the input ports, biphoton interference exhibits the same periodic recurrence but the wave packet shapes are shown to be dependent on both the input delay as well as the interferometer delay. These properties could be useful for building engineered entangled photon sources based on diode laser-pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion.
Yeh, Shu-Hao; Engel, Gregory S.; Kais, Sabre
Recently it has been suggested that the long-lived coherences in some photosynthetic pigment-protein systems, such as the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, could be attributed to the mixing of the pigments' electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. In order to verify whether this is the case and to understand its underlying mechanism, a theoretical model capable of including both the electronic excitations and intramolecular vibrational modes of the pigments is necessary. Our model simultaneously considers the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom, treating the system-environment interactions non-perturbatively by implementing the hierarchical equations of motion approach. Here we report the simulated two-dimensional electronic spectra of vibronically coupled molecular dimers to demonstrate how the electronic coherence lifetimes can be extended by borrowing the lifetime from the vibrational coherences. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund and Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute.
COHERENTLY DEDISPERSED GATED IMAGING OF MILLISECOND PULSARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati
2013-01-01
Motivated by the need for rapid localization of newly discovered faint millisecond pulsars (MSPs), we have developed a coherently dedispersed gating correlator. This gating correlator accounts for the orbital motions of MSPs in binaries while folding the visibilities with a best-fit topocentric rotational model derived from a periodicity search in a simultaneously generated beamformer output. Unique applications of the gating correlator for sensitive interferometric studies of MSPs are illustrated using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) interferometric array. We could unambiguously localize five newly discovered Fermi MSPs in the on-off gated image plane with an accuracy of ±1''. Immediate knowledge of such a precise position enables the use of sensitive coherent beams of array telescopes for follow-up timing observations which substantially reduces the use of telescope time (∼20× for the GMRT). In addition, a precise a priori astrometric position reduces the effect of large covariances in the timing fit (with discovery position, pulsar period derivative, and an unknown binary model), which in-turn accelerates the convergence to the initial timing model. For example, while fitting with the precise a priori position (±1''), the timing model converges in about 100 days, accounting for the effect of covariance between the position and pulsar period derivative. Moreover, such accurate positions allow for rapid identification of pulsar counterparts at other wave bands. We also report a new methodology of in-beam phase calibration using the on-off gated image of the target pulsar, which provides optimal sensitivity of the coherent array removing possible temporal and spacial decoherences.
COHERENTLY DEDISPERSED GATED IMAGING OF MILLISECOND PULSARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, Jayanta; Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India)
2013-03-10
Motivated by the need for rapid localization of newly discovered faint millisecond pulsars (MSPs), we have developed a coherently dedispersed gating correlator. This gating correlator accounts for the orbital motions of MSPs in binaries while folding the visibilities with a best-fit topocentric rotational model derived from a periodicity search in a simultaneously generated beamformer output. Unique applications of the gating correlator for sensitive interferometric studies of MSPs are illustrated using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) interferometric array. We could unambiguously localize five newly discovered Fermi MSPs in the on-off gated image plane with an accuracy of {+-}1''. Immediate knowledge of such a precise position enables the use of sensitive coherent beams of array telescopes for follow-up timing observations which substantially reduces the use of telescope time ({approx}20 Multiplication-Sign for the GMRT). In addition, a precise a priori astrometric position reduces the effect of large covariances in the timing fit (with discovery position, pulsar period derivative, and an unknown binary model), which in-turn accelerates the convergence to the initial timing model. For example, while fitting with the precise a priori position ({+-}1''), the timing model converges in about 100 days, accounting for the effect of covariance between the position and pulsar period derivative. Moreover, such accurate positions allow for rapid identification of pulsar counterparts at other wave bands. We also report a new methodology of in-beam phase calibration using the on-off gated image of the target pulsar, which provides optimal sensitivity of the coherent array removing possible temporal and spacial decoherences.
Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki
2016-04-01
This paper describes a complex correlation mapping algorithm for optical coherence angiography (cmOCA). The proposed algorithm avoids the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and exhibits low noise in vasculature imaging. The complex correlation coefficient of the signals, rather than that of the measured data are estimated, and two-step averaging is introduced. Algorithms of motion artifact removal based on non perfusing tissue detection using correlation are developed. The algorithms are implemented with Jones-matrix OCT. Simultaneous imaging of pigmented tissue and vasculature is also achieved using degree of polarization uniformity imaging with cmOCA. An application of cmOCA to in vivo posterior human eyes is presented to demonstrate that high-contrast images of patients' eyes can be obtained.
Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki
2016-01-01
This paper describes a complex correlation mapping algorithm for optical coherence angiography (cmOCA). The proposed algorithm avoids the signal-to-noise ratio dependence and exhibits low noise in vasculature imaging. The complex correlation coefficient of the signals, rather than that of the measured data are estimated, and two-step averaging is introduced. Algorithms of motion artifact removal based on non perfusing tissue detection using correlation are developed. The algorithms are implemented with Jones-matrix OCT. Simultaneous imaging of pigmented tissue and vasculature is also achieved using degree of polarization uniformity imaging with cmOCA. An application of cmOCA to in vivo posterior human eyes is presented to demonstrate that high-contrast images of patients’ eyes can be obtained. PMID:27446673
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Augulis, Ramūnas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gall, Andrew; Robert, Bruno [Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, Bât 532, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Büchel, Claudia [Institut für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Straße 9, Frankfurt (Germany); Zigmantas, Donatas [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Abramavicius, Darius, E-mail: darius.abramavicius@ff.vu.lt [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)
2015-06-07
Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin–chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Q{sub y} transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Q{sub y} transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.
Imaki, Masaharu; Kojima, Ryota; Kameyama, Shumpei
2018-04-01
We have studied a ground based coherent differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) for vertical profiling of water vapor density using a 1.5μm laser wavelength. A coherent LIDAR has an advantage in daytime measurement compared with incoherent LIDAR because the influence of background light is greatly suppressed. In addition, the LIDAR can simultaneously measure wind speed and water vapor density. We had developed a wavelength locking circuit using the phase modulation technique and offset locking technique, and wavelength stabilities of 0.123 pm which corresponds to 16 MHz are realized. In this paper, we report the wavelength locking circuits for the 1.5 um wavelength.
Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad-211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)
2017-03-18
Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation–which we refer to as additivity relation–between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same. - Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Reciprocity between quantum coherence and mixedness. • Distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite quantum systems. • Additivity relation for distribution of quantum coherence in Dicke and “X” states.
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J [Jemez Springs, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM
2008-08-26
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Ordering states with various coherence measures
Yang, Long-Mei; Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi
2018-04-01
Quantum coherence is one of the most significant theories in quantum physics. Ordering states with various coherence measures is an intriguing task in quantification theory of coherence. In this paper, we study this problem by use of four important coherence measures—the l_1 norm of coherence, the relative entropy of coherence, the geometric measure of coherence and the modified trace distance measure of coherence. We show that each pair of these measures give a different ordering of qudit states when d≥3. However, for single-qubit states, the l_1 norm of coherence and the geometric coherence provide the same ordering. We also show that the relative entropy of coherence and the geometric coherence give a different ordering for single-qubit states. Then we partially answer the open question proposed in Liu et al. (Quantum Inf Process 15:4189, 2016) whether all the coherence measures give a different ordering of states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H.; Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.
1990-01-01
The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, C R; Church, S; Gaier, T; Lai, R; Ruf, C; Wollack, E
2009-01-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawrence, C R [M/C 169-327, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Church, S [Room 324 Varian Physics Bldg, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Gaier, T [M/C 168-314, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lai, R [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Ruf, C [1533 Space Research Building, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Wollack, E, E-mail: charles.lawrence@jpl.nasa.go [NASA/GSFC, Code 665, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2009-03-01
Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.
Teleportation of a Coherent Superposition State Via a nonmaximally Entangled Coherent Xhannel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
@@ We investigate the problemm of teleportation of a superposition coherent state with nonmaximally entangled coherent channel. Two strategies are considered to complete the task. The first one uses entanglement concentration to purify the channel to a maximally entangled one. The second one teleports the state through the nonmaximally entangled coherent channel directly. We find that the probabilities of successful teleportations for the two strategies are depend on the amplitudes of the coherent states and the mean fidelity of teleportation using the first strategy is always less than that of the second strategy.
Coherent structures in a supersonic complex nozzle
Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark
2016-11-01
The jet flow from a complex supersonic nozzle is studied through experimental measurements. The nozzle's geometry is motivated by future engine designs for high-performance civilian and military aircraft. This rectangular jet has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet), and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. The core flow operates at a Mach number of Mj , c = 1 . 6 , and the wall jet is choked (Mj , w = 1 . 0). This high Reynolds number jet flow is comprised of intense turbulence levels, an intricate shock structure, shear and boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. In the present study, stereo PIV measurements are simultaneously sampled with high-speed pressure measurements, which are embedded in the aft deck, and far-field acoustics in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Time-resolved schlieren measurements have indicated the existence of strong flow events at high frequencies, at a Strouhal number of St = 3 . 4 . These appear to result from von Kàrmàn vortex shedding within the nozzle and pervade the entire flow and acoustic domain. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied on the current data to identify coherent structures in the jet and study the influence of this vortex street. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.
Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy.
Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang; Sun, Bo; Steel, Duncan G; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Sham, L J
2009-06-25
A single electron or hole spin trapped inside a semiconductor quantum dot forms the foundation for many proposed quantum logic devices. In group III-V materials, the resonance and coherence between two ground states of the single spin are inevitably affected by the lattice nuclear spins through the hyperfine interaction, while the dynamics of the single spin also influence the nuclear environment. Recent efforts have been made to protect the coherence of spins in quantum dots by suppressing the nuclear spin fluctuations. However, coherent control of a single spin in a single dot with simultaneous suppression of the nuclear fluctuations has yet to be achieved. Here we report the suppression of nuclear field fluctuations in a singly charged quantum dot to well below the thermal value, as shown by an enhancement of the single electron spin dephasing time T(2)*, which we measure using coherent dark-state spectroscopy. The suppression of nuclear fluctuations is found to result from a hole-spin assisted dynamic nuclear spin polarization feedback process, where the stable value of the nuclear field is determined only by the laser frequencies at fixed laser powers. This nuclear field locking is further demonstrated in a three-laser measurement, indicating a possible enhancement of the electron spin T(2)* by a factor of several hundred. This is a simple and powerful method of enhancing the electron spin coherence time without use of 'spin echo'-type techniques. We expect that our results will enable the reproducible preparation of the nuclear spin environment for repetitive control and measurement of a single spin with minimal statistical broadening.
q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan
1994-01-01
By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1
Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T.; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei
2017-10-01
In nonlinear microresonators driven by continuous-wave (cw) lasers, Turing patterns have been studied in the formalism of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with emphasis on their high coherence and exceptional robustness against perturbations. Destabilization of Turing patterns and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos, however, limit the available energy carried in the Turing rolls and prevent further harvest of their high coherence and robustness to noise. Here, we report a novel scheme to circumvent such destabilization, by incorporating the effect of local mode hybridizations, and we attain globally stable Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators with significantly enlarged parameter space, achieving a record-high power-conversion efficiency of 45% and an elevated peak-to-valley contrast of 100. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a fractional frequency sideband nonuniformity measured at 7.3 ×10-14 . We demonstrate the simultaneous microwave and optical coherence of the Turing rolls at different evolution stages through ultrafast optical correlation techniques. The free-running Turing-roll coherence, 9 kHz in 200 ms and 160 kHz in 20 minutes, is transferred onto a plasmonic photomixer for one of the highest-power THz coherent generations at room temperature, with 1.1% optical-to-THz power conversion. Its long-term stability can be further improved by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching an Allan deviation of 6 ×10-10 at 100 s, with a simple computer-aided slow feedback control. The demonstrated on-chip coherent high-power Turing-THz system is promising to find applications in astrophysics, medical imaging, and wireless communications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gopinath, T. [University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics (United States); Mote, Kaustubh R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry (United States); Veglia, Gianluigi, E-mail: vegli001@umn.edu [University of Minnesota, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics (United States)
2015-05-15
We present a new method called DAISY (Dual Acquisition orIented ssNMR spectroScopY) for the simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D oriented solid-state NMR experiments for membrane proteins reconstituted in mechanically or magnetically aligned lipid bilayers. DAISY utilizes dual acquisition of sine and cosine dipolar or chemical shift coherences and long living {sup 15}N longitudinal polarization to obtain two multi-dimensional spectra, simultaneously. In these new experiments, the first acquisition gives the polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA) or heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra, the second acquisition gives PISEMA-mixing or HETCOR-mixing spectra, where the mixing element enables inter-residue correlations through {sup 15}N–{sup 15}N homonuclear polarization transfer. The analysis of the two 2D spectra (first and second acquisitions) enables one to distinguish {sup 15}N–{sup 15}N inter-residue correlations for sequential assignment of membrane proteins. DAISY can be implemented in 3D experiments that include the polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle via I spin coherence (PISEMAI) sequence, as we show for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D PISEMAI–HETCOR and 3D PISEMAI–HETCOR-mixing experiments.
Gopinath, T; Mote, Kaustubh R; Veglia, Gianluigi
2015-05-01
We present a new method called DAISY (Dual Acquisition orIented ssNMR spectroScopY) for the simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D oriented solid-state NMR experiments for membrane proteins reconstituted in mechanically or magnetically aligned lipid bilayers. DAISY utilizes dual acquisition of sine and cosine dipolar or chemical shift coherences and long living (15)N longitudinal polarization to obtain two multi-dimensional spectra, simultaneously. In these new experiments, the first acquisition gives the polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA) or heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra, the second acquisition gives PISEMA-mixing or HETCOR-mixing spectra, where the mixing element enables inter-residue correlations through (15)N-(15)N homonuclear polarization transfer. The analysis of the two 2D spectra (first and second acquisitions) enables one to distinguish (15)N-(15)N inter-residue correlations for sequential assignment of membrane proteins. DAISY can be implemented in 3D experiments that include the polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle via I spin coherence (PISEMAI) sequence, as we show for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D PISEMAI-HETCOR and 3D PISEMAI-HETCOR-mixing experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopinath, T.; Mote, Kaustubh R.; Veglia, Gianluigi
2015-01-01
We present a new method called DAISY (Dual Acquisition orIented ssNMR spectroScopY) for the simultaneous acquisition of 2D and 3D oriented solid-state NMR experiments for membrane proteins reconstituted in mechanically or magnetically aligned lipid bilayers. DAISY utilizes dual acquisition of sine and cosine dipolar or chemical shift coherences and long living 15 N longitudinal polarization to obtain two multi-dimensional spectra, simultaneously. In these new experiments, the first acquisition gives the polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle (PISEMA) or heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra, the second acquisition gives PISEMA-mixing or HETCOR-mixing spectra, where the mixing element enables inter-residue correlations through 15 N– 15 N homonuclear polarization transfer. The analysis of the two 2D spectra (first and second acquisitions) enables one to distinguish 15 N– 15 N inter-residue correlations for sequential assignment of membrane proteins. DAISY can be implemented in 3D experiments that include the polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle via I spin coherence (PISEMAI) sequence, as we show for the simultaneous acquisition of 3D PISEMAI–HETCOR and 3D PISEMAI–HETCOR-mixing experiments
Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji-Rong, Ren; Tao, Zhu; Yi-Shi, Duan
2008-01-01
The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously. The phase singular structures (coherence vortices) of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current, which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously. We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology. The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function
A coherent structure approach for parameter estimation in Lagrangian Data Assimilation
Maclean, John; Santitissadeekorn, Naratip; Jones, Christopher K. R. T.
2017-12-01
We introduce a data assimilation method to estimate model parameters with observations of passive tracers by directly assimilating Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Our approach differs from the usual Lagrangian Data Assimilation approach, where parameters are estimated based on tracer trajectories. We employ the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework to avoid computing the likelihood function of the coherent structure, which is usually unavailable. We solve the ABC by a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify the coherent patterns from tracer trajectory data. Our new method shows remarkably improved results compared to the bootstrap particle filter when the physical model exhibits chaotic advection.
High-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy of Br2.
Chen, Peter C; Wells, Thresa A; Strangfeld, Benjamin R
2013-07-25
In the past, high-resolution spectroscopy has been limited to small, simple molecules that yield relatively uncongested spectra. Larger and more complex molecules have a higher density of peaks and are susceptible to complications (e.g., effects from conical intersections) that can obscure the patterns needed to resolve and assign peaks. Recently, high-resolution coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy has been used to resolve and sort peaks into easily identifiable patterns for molecules where pattern-recognition has been difficult. For very highly congested spectra, however, the ability to resolve peaks using coherent 2D spectroscopy is limited by the bandwidth of instrumentation. In this article, we introduce and investigate high-resolution coherent three-dimensional spectroscopy (HRC3D) as a method for dealing with heavily congested systems. The resulting patterns are unlike those in high-resolution coherent 2D spectra. Analysis of HRC3D spectra could provide a means for exploring the spectroscopy of large and complex molecules that have previously been considered too difficult to study.
Field performance of an all-semiconductor laser coherent Doppler lidar
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian
2012-01-01
We implement and test what, to our knowledge, is the first deployable coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on a compact, inexpensive all-semiconductor laser (SL). To demonstrate the field performance of our SL-CDL remote sensor, we compare a 36 h time series of averaged radial wind speeds...... measured by our instrument at an 80 m distance to those simultaneously obtained from an industry-standard sonic anemometer (SA). An excellent degree of correlation (R2=0.994 and slope=0.996) is achieved from a linear regression analysis of the CDL versus SA wind speed data. The lidar system is capable...
3D deblending of simultaneous source data based on 3D multi-scale shaping operator
Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Mao, Weijian; Gong, Fei; Huang, Weilin
2018-04-01
We propose an iterative three-dimensional (3D) deblending scheme using 3D multi-scale shaping operator to separate 3D simultaneous source data. The proposed scheme is based on the property that signal is coherent, whereas interference is incoherent in some domains, e.g., common receiver domain and common midpoint domain. In two-dimensional (2D) blended record, the coherency difference of signal and interference is in only one spatial direction. Compared with 2D deblending, the 3D deblending can take more sparse constraints into consideration to obtain better performance, e.g., in 3D common receiver gather, the coherency difference is in two spatial directions. Furthermore, with different levels of coherency, signal and interference distribute in different scale curvelet domains. In both 2D and 3D blended records, most coherent signal locates in coarse scale curvelet domain, while most incoherent interference distributes in fine scale curvelet domain. The scale difference is larger in 3D deblending, thus, we apply the multi-scale shaping scheme to further improve the 3D deblending performance. We evaluate the performance of 3D and 2D deblending with the multi-scale and global shaping operators, respectively. One synthetic and one field data examples demonstrate the advantage of the 3D deblending with 3D multi-scale shaping operator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, E; Riles, K
2016-01-01
We present a method for coherently combining short data segments from gravitational-wave detectors to improve the sensitivity of semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves. All-sky searches for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources are computationally limited. The semi-coherent approach reduces the computational cost by dividing the entire observation timespan into short segments to be analyzed coherently, then combined together incoherently. Semi-coherent analyses that attempt to improve sensitivity by coherently combining data from multiple detectors face a computational challenge in accounting for uncertainties in signal parameters. In this article, we lay out a technique to meet this challenge using summed Fourier transform coefficients. Applying this technique to one all-sky search algorithm called TwoSpect, we confirm that the sensitivity of all-sky, semi-coherent searches can be improved by coherently combining the short data segments, e.g., by up to 42% over a single detector for an all-sky search. For misaligned detectors, however, this improvement requires careful attention when marginalizing over unknown polarization parameters. In addition, care must be taken in correcting for differential detector velocity due to the Earth’s rotation for high signal frequencies and widely separated detectors. (paper)
Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2
Hao, Kai
2016-02-29
In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe_{2} (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.
Coherent Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Optical Imaging on the Nanoscale
Kravtsov, Vasily
Optical properties of many materials and macroscopic systems are defined by ultrafast dynamics of electronic, vibrational, and spin excitations localized on the nanoscale. Harnessing these excitations for material engineering, optical computing, and control of chemical reactions has been a long-standing goal in science and technology. However, it is challenging due to the lack of spectroscopic techniques that can resolve processes simultaneously on the nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scales. This thesis describes the fundamental principles, implementation, and experimental demonstration of a novel type of ultrafast microscopy based on the concept of adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing. Simultaneous spatio-temporal resolution on a nanometer-femtosecond scale is achieved by using a near-field nonlinear optical response induced by ultrafast surface plasmon polaritons nanofocused on a metal tip. First, we study the surface plasmon response in metallic structures and evaluate its prospects and limitations for ultrafast near-field microscopy. Through plasmon emission-based spectroscopy, we investigate dephasing times and interplay between radiative and non-radiative decay rates of localized plasmons and their modification due to coupling. We identify a new regime of quantum plasmonic coupling, which limits the achievable spatial resolution to several angstroms but at the same time provides a potential channel for generating ultrafast electron currents at optical frequencies. Next, we study propagation of femtosecond wavepackets of surface plasmon polaritons on a metal tip. In time-domain interferometric measurements we detect group delays that correspond to slowing of the plasmon polaritons down to 20% of the speed of light at the tip apex. This provides direct experimental verification of the plasmonic nanofocusing mechanism and suggests enhanced nonlinear optical interactions at the tip apex. We then measure a plasmon-generated third-order nonlinear optical
Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)
1996-12-31
This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi
2012-01-01
To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)
Optical coherence tomography in conjunction with bronchoscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Takimura, Celso Kiyochi; Lemos Neto, Pedro Alves; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi, E-mail: ascedio@gmail.com [Servico de Endoscopia Respiratoria, Hospital das Clinicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil)
2012-07-01
To evaluate the feasibility of and the potential for using optical coherence tomography in conjunction with conventional bronchoscopy in the evaluation of the airways. Methods: This was a pilot study based on an ex vivo experimental model involving three animals: one adult New Zealand rabbit and two Landrace pigs. An optical coherence tomography imaging catheter was inserted through the working channel of a flexible bronchoscope in order to reach the distal trachea of the animals. Images of the walls of the trachea were systematically taken along its entire length, from the distal to the proximal portion. Results: The imaging catheter was easily adapted to the working channel of the bronchoscope. High-resolution images of cross sections of the trachea were taken in real time, precisely delineating microstructures, such as the epithelium, submucosa, and cartilage, as well as the adventitia of the anterior and lateral tracheal walls. The corresponding layers of the epithelium, mucosa, and cartilage were clearly differentiated. The mucosa, submucosa, and trachealis muscle were clearly identified in the posterior wall. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an optical coherence tomography imaging catheter in combination with a flexible bronchoscope. Optical coherence tomography produces high resolution images that reveal the microanatomy of the trachea, including structures that are typically seen only on images produced by conventional histology. (author)
Linear algebraic theory of partial coherence: discrete fields and measures of partial coherence.
Ozaktas, Haldun M; Yüksel, Serdar; Kutay, M Alper
2002-08-01
A linear algebraic theory of partial coherence is presented that allows precise mathematical definitions of concepts such as coherence and incoherence. This not only provides new perspectives and insights but also allows us to employ the conceptual and algebraic tools of linear algebra in applications. We define several scalar measures of the degree of partial coherence of an optical field that are zero for full incoherence and unity for full coherence. The mathematical definitions are related to our physical understanding of the corresponding concepts by considering them in the context of Young's experiment.
Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics
Mandel, Leonard
1995-01-01
This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi
On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Leif
1979-01-01
It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drobniak, S.; Elsner, J.W. [Tech. Univ. of Czestochowa (Poland). Inst. of Thermal Machinary; El-Kassem, E.S.A. [Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Giza (Egypt)
1998-03-19
This paper describes an experimental study of the relationship between coherent vortical structures and the intensity of heat transport in the initial region of a round, free jet. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and temperature were taken with a four-wire combined probe in a jet that was acoustically stimulated with a frequency corresponding to the jet-column mode. The obtained results suggest that the mutual phase relations between oscillatory and random components of velocity and temperature lead to substantial intensification of the radial heat transport. Due to the same reason the longitudinal heat flux does not reveal a significant change in the presence of coherent structures and, as a result, a much wider spread of the temperature field in comparison with velocity may be observed as a characteristic feature of this flow. It was also observed that heat transfer processes are realized in substantial part by random turbulence generated due to the action of coherent motion. (orig.) With 13 figs., 27 refs.
Store operations to maintain cache coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
2017-08-01
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
Store operations to maintain cache coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin
2017-09-12
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.
Novel adaptive fiber-optics collimator for coherent beam combination.
Zhi, Dong; Ma, Pengfei; Ma, Yanxing; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2014-12-15
In this manuscript, we experimentally validate a novel design of adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC), which utilizes two levers to enlarge the movable range of the fiber end cap. The enlargement of the range makes the new AFOC possible to compensate the end-cap/tilt aberration in fiber laser beam combining system. The new AFOC based on flexible hinges and levers was fabricated and the performance of the new AFOC was tested carefully, including its control range, frequency response and control accuracy. Coherent beam combination (CBC) of two 5-W fiber amplifiers array with simultaneously end-cap/tilt control and phase-locking control was implemented successfully with the novel AFOC. Experimental results show that the average normalized power in the bucket (PIB) value increases from 0.311 to 0.934 with active phasing and tilt aberration compensation simultaneously, and with both controls on, the fringe contrast improves to more than 82% from 0% for the case with both control off. This work presents a promising structure for tilt aberration control in high power CBC system.
Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.
Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A
2013-11-01
As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.
Detecting multiple moving objects in crowded environments with coherent motion regions
Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Radke, Richard J.
2013-06-11
Coherent motion regions extend in time as well as space, enforcing consistency in detected objects over long time periods and making the algorithm robust to noisy or short point tracks. As a result of enforcing the constraint that selected coherent motion regions contain disjoint sets of tracks defined in a three-dimensional space including a time dimension. An algorithm operates directly on raw, unconditioned low-level feature point tracks, and minimizes a global measure of the coherent motion regions. At least one discrete moving object is identified in a time series of video images based on the trajectory similarity factors, which is a measure of a maximum distance between a pair of feature point tracks.
Brignon, Arnaud
2013-01-01
Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme
On P-coherent endomorphism rings
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fercher, A.F.; Andersen, Peter E.
2017-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that is used to peer inside a body noninvasively. Tissue structure defined by tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, and the speed of blood flow, are derived from the characteristics of light remitted by the body. Singly backscattered light...... detected by partial coherence interferometry (PCI) is used to synthesize the tomographic image coded in false colors. A prerequisite of this technique is a low time-coherent but high space-coherent light source, for example, a superluminescent diode or a supercontinuum source. Alternatively, the imaging...... technique can be realized by using ultrafast wavelength scanning light sources. For tissue imaging, the light source wavelengths are restricted to the red and near-infrared (NIR) region from about 600 to 1300 nm, the so-called therapeutic window, where absorption (μa ≈ 0.01 mm−1) is small enough. Transverse...
Electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.
2005-10-01
The recently introduced concept of spatial coherence wavelets is generalized for describing the propagation of electromagnetic fields in the free space. For this aim, the spatial coherence wavelet tensor is introduced as an elementary amount, in terms of which the formerly known quantities for this domain can be expressed. It allows analyzing the relationship between the spatial coherence properties and the polarization state of the electromagnetic wave. This approach is completely consistent with the recently introduced unified theory of coherence and polarization for random electromagnetic beams, but it provides a further insight about the causal relationship between the polarization states at different planes along the propagation path. (author)
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potemkin, F V; Mareev, E I [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khodakovskii, N G [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mikheev, P M
2013-08-31
The dynamics of coherent phonons in fluorine-containing crystals was investigated by pump-probe technique in the plasma production regime. Several phonon modes, whose frequencies are overtones of the 0.38-THz fundamental frequency, were simultaneously observed in a lithium fluoride crystal. Phonons with frequencies of 1 and 0.1 THz were discovered in a calcium fluoride crystal and coherent phonons with frequencies of 1 THz and 67 GHz were observed in a barium fluoride crystal. Furthermore, in the latter case the amplitudes of phonon mode oscillations were found to significantly increase 15 ps after laser irradiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)
Entropic cohering power in quantum operations
Xi, Zhengjun; Hu, Ming-Liang; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2018-02-01
Coherence is a basic feature of quantum systems and a common necessary condition for quantum correlations. It is also an important physical resource in quantum information processing. In this paper, using relative entropy, we consider a more general definition of the cohering power of quantum operations. First, we calculate the cohering power of unitary quantum operations and show that the amount of distributed coherence caused by non-unitary quantum operations cannot exceed the quantum-incoherent relative entropy between system of interest and its environment. We then find that the difference between the distributed coherence and the cohering power is larger than the quantum-incoherent relative entropy. As an application, we consider the distributed coherence caused by purification.
Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)
2016-08-08
We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.
Significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and wavelet linear coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Ge
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This work attempts to develop significance tests for the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence as a follow-up study on Ge (2007. Conventional approaches that are used by Torrence and Compo (1998 based on stationary background noise time series were used here in estimating the sampling distributions of the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence. The sampling distributions are then used for establishing significance levels for these two wavelet-based quantities. In addition to these two wavelet quantities, properties of the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum of, or the phase difference between, two Gaussian white noise series are discussed. It is found that the tangent of the principal part of the phase angle approximately has a standard Cauchy distribution and the phase angle is uniformly distributed, which makes it impossible to establish significance levels for the phase angle. The simulated signals clearly show that, when there is no linear relation between the two analysed signals, the phase angle disperses into the entire range of [−π,π] with fairly high probabilities for values close to ±π to occur. Conversely, when linear relations are present, the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum settles around an associated value with considerably reduced fluctuations. When two signals are linearly coupled, their wavelet linear coherence will attain values close to one. The significance test of the wavelet linear coherence can therefore be used to complement the inspection of the phase angle of the wavelet cross spectrum. The developed significance tests are also applied to actual data sets, simultaneously recorded wind speed and wave elevation series measured from a NOAA buoy on Lake Michigan. Significance levels of the wavelet cross spectrum and the wavelet linear coherence between the winds and the waves reasonably separated meaningful peaks from those generated by randomness in the data set. As
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
WDM-Coherent OCDMA over one single device based on short chip Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings.
Amaya, Waldimar; Pastor, Daniel; Baños, Rocio; Garcia-Munoz, Victor
2011-11-21
We theoretically propose and demonstrate experimentally a Coherent Direct Sequence OCDMA en/decoder for multi-channel WDM operation based on a single device. It presents a broadband spectral envelope and a periodic spectral pattern that can be employed for en/decoding multiple sub-bands simultaneously. Multi-channel operation is verified experimentally by means of Multi-Band Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings with binary phase encoded chips fabricated with 1mm inter-chip separation that provides 4x100 GHz ITU sub-band separation at 1.25 Gbps. The WDM-OCDMA system verification was carried out employing simultaneous encoding of four adjacent sub-bands and two different OCDMA codes. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Wang, Xin; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Hong-Rong; Nori, Franco
2017-12-01
The coherent process that a single photon simultaneously excites two qubits has recently been theoretically predicted by Garziano et al. [L. Garziano, V. Macrì, R. Stassi, O. Di Stefano, F. Nori, and S. Savasta, One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite two or More Atoms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 043601 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.043601]. We propose a different approach to observe a similar dynamical process based on a superconducting quantum circuit, where two coupled flux qubits longitudinally interact with the same resonator. We show that this simultaneous excitation of two qubits (assuming that the sum of their transition frequencies is close to the cavity frequency) is related to the counter-rotating terms in the dipole-dipole coupling between two qubits, and the standard rotating-wave approximation is not valid here. By numerically simulating the adiabatic Landau-Zener transition and Rabi-oscillation effects, we clearly verify that the energy of a single photon can excite two qubits via higher-order transitions induced by the longitudinal couplings and the counter-rotating terms. Compared with previous studies, the coherent dynamics in our system only involves one intermediate state and, thus, exhibits a much faster rate. We also find transition paths which can interfere. Finally, by discussing how to control the two longitudinal-coupling strengths, we find a method to observe both constructive and destructive interference phenomena in our system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, W.; Duan, Z.H.; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2006-01-01
By controlling the irradiance of an extended quasimonochromatic, spatially incoherent source, an optical field is generated that exhibits spatial coherence with phase singularities, called coherence vortices. A simple optical geometry for direct visualization of coherence vortices is proposed, an...
Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams
Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan
2018-02-01
We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.
Liu, Dajun; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan
2018-01-01
Based on the Huygens-Fresnel integral and the relationship of Lorentz distribution and Hermite-Gauss function, the average intensity and coherence properties of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam propagating through oceanic turbulence have been investigated by using numerical examples. The influences of beam parameters and oceanic turbulence on the propagation properties are also discussed in details. It is shown that the partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam with smaller coherence length will spread faster in oceanic turbulence, and the stronger oceanic turbulence will accelerate the spreading of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam in oceanic turbulence.
Coherent photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of semicrystalline polymeric semiconductors
Silva, Carlos; Grégoire, Pascal; Thouin, Félix
In polymeric semiconductors, the competition between through-bond (intrachain) and through-space (interchain) electronic coupling determines two-dimensional spatial coherence of excitons. The balance of intra- and interchain excitonic coupling depends very sensitively on solid-state microstructure of the polymer film (polycrystalline, semicrystalline with amorphous domains, etc.). Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) has emerged as a model material because its photoluminescence (PL) spectral lineshape reveals intricate information on the magnitude of excitonic coupling, the extent of energetic disorder, and on the extent to which the disordered energy landscape is correlated. I discuss implementation of coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. We identify cross peaks between 0-0 and 0-1 excitation peaks, and we measure their time evolution, which we interpret within the context of a hybrid HJ aggregate model. By measurement of the homogeneous linewidth in diverse polymer microstructures, we address the nature of optical transitions within such hynbrid aggregate model. These depend strongly on sample processing, and I discuss the relationship between microstructure, steady-state absorption and PL spectral lineshape, and 2D coherent PL excitation spectral lineshapes.
Optical Coherence Tomography for Tracking Canvas Deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Targowski, P.; Gora, M.; Bajraszewski, T.; Szkulmowski, M.; Rouba, B.; Lekawa-Wyslouch, T.; Tyminska-Widmer, L.
2006-01-01
Preliminary results of the application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), in particular in its spectral mode (SOCT), to tracking of deformations in paintings on canvas caused by periodical humidity changes are presented. The setup is able to monitor the position of a chosen point at the surface of a painting with micrometre precision, simultaneously in three dimensions, every 100 seconds. This allows recording of deformations associated with crack formation. For the particular painting model examined, it was shown that the surface moves in-plane towards the corner, and bulges outwards (Z-direction) in response to a rise in humidity. Subsequent to the first humidification/drying cycle, translation in the Z-direction is decreased, whilst in-plane translations increase somewhat. It was also shown that the response of the painting on canvas begins immediately on changing the relative humidity in the surroundings.
Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables
Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.
2007-06-01
The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.
Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew D Sacchet
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.
Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and infrared imagery of microscale breaking waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddiqui, M.H. Kamran; Loewen, Mark R.; Richardson, Christine; Asher, William E.; Jessup, Andrew T.
2001-01-01
We report the results from a laboratory investigation in which microscale breaking waves were detected using an infrared (IR) imager and two-dimensional (2-D) velocity fields were simultaneously measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). In addition, the local heat transfer velocity was measured using the controlled flux technique. To the best of our knowledge these are the first measurements of the instantaneous 2-D velocity fields generated beneath microscale breaking waves. Careful measurements of the water surface profile enabled us to make accurate estimates of the near-surface velocities using PIV. Previous experiments have shown that behind the leading edge of a microscale breaker the cool skin layer is disrupted creating a thermal signature in the IR image [Jessup et al., J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23145 (1997)]. The simultaneously sampled IR images and PIV data enabled us to show that these disruptions or wakes are typically produced by a series of vortices that form behind the leading edge of the breaker. When the vortices are first formed they are very strong and coherent but as time passes, and they move from the crest region to the back face of the wave, they become weaker and less coherent. The near-surface vorticity was correlated with both the fractional area coverage of microscale breaking waves and the local heat transfer velocity. The strong correlations provide convincing evidence that the wakes produced by microscale breaking waves are regions of high near-surface vorticity that are in turn responsible for enhancing air-water heat transfer rates
Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence
Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui
2018-01-01
Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.
3D interferometric shape measurement technique using coherent fiber bundles
Zhang, Hao; Kuschmierz, Robert; Czarske, Jürgen
2017-06-01
In-situ 3-D shape measurements with submicron shape uncertainty of fast rotating objects in a cutting lathe are expected, which can be achieved by simultaneous distance and velocity measurements. Conventional tactile methods, coordinate measurement machines, only support ex-situ measurements. Optical measurement techniques such as triangulation and conoscopic holography offer only the distance, so that the absolute diameter cannot be retrieved directly. In comparison, laser Doppler distance sensors (P-LDD sensor) enable simultaneous and in-situ distance and velocity measurements for monitoring the cutting process in a lathe. In order to achieve shape measurement uncertainties below 1 μm, a P-LDD sensor with a dual camera based scattered light detection has been investigated. Coherent fiber bundles (CFB) are employed to forward the scattered light towards cameras. This enables a compact and passive sensor head in the future. Compared with a photo detector based sensor, the dual camera based sensor allows to decrease the measurement uncertainty by the order of one magnitude. As a result, the total shape uncertainty of absolute 3-D shape measurements can be reduced to about 100 nm.
Coherence and Divergence of Megatrends in Science and Engineering
Roco, M. C.
2002-04-01
Scientific discoveries and technological innovations are at the core of human endeavor, and it is estimated that their role will only increase in time. Such advancements evolve in coherence, with areas of confluence and temporary divergences, which bring synergism and that stimulate further developments following in average an exponential growth. Six increasingly interconnected megatrends are perceived as dominating the scene for the next decades: (a) information and computing, (b) nanoscale science and engineering (S&E), (c) biology and bio-environmental approaches, (d) medical sciences and enhancing human physical capabilities, (e) cognitive sciences and enhancing intellectual abilities, and (f) collective behavior and system approach. This paper presents a perspective on the process of identification, planning and program implementation of S&E megatrends, with illustration for the US research initiative on nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. The interplay between coherence and divergence, leading to unifying science and converging technologies, does not develop only among simultaneous scientific trends but also along time and across geopolitical boundaries. There is no single way of development of S&E, and here is the role of taking visionary measures. Societal implication scientists need to be involved from the conceptual phase of a program responding to a S&E megatrend.
Coherence and Divergence of Megatrends in Science and Engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roco, M.C.
2002-01-01
Scientific discoveries and technological innovations are at the core of human endeavor, and it is estimated that their role will only increase in time. Such advancements evolve in coherence, with areas of confluence and temporary divergences, which bring synergism and that stimulate further developments following in average an exponential growth. Six increasingly interconnected megatrends are perceived as dominating the scene for the next decades: (a) information and computing, (b) nanoscale science and engineering (S and E), (c) biology and bio-environmental approaches, (d) medical sciences and enhancing human physical capabilities, (e) cognitive sciences and enhancing intellectual abilities, and (f) collective behavior and system approach.This paper presents a perspective on the process of identification, planning and program implementation of S and E megatrends, with illustration for the US research initiative on nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. The interplay between coherence and divergence, leading to unifying science and converging technologies, does not develop only among simultaneous scientific trends but also along time and across geopolitical boundaries. There is no single way of development of S and E, and here is the role of taking visionary measures. Societal implication scientists need to be involved from the conceptual phase of a program responding to a S and E megatrend
Stimulated coherent transition radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hung-chi Lihn.
1996-03-01
Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed
Coherence in electron energy loss spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schattschneider, P.; Werner, W.S.M.
2005-01-01
Coherence effects in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and in energy filtering are largely neglected although they occur frequently due to Bragg scattering in crystals. We discuss how coherence in the inelastically scattered wave field can be described by the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF), and how it relates to the density matrix of the scattered electrons. Among the many aspects of 'inelastic coherence' are filtered high-resolution images, dipole-forbidden transitions, coherence in plasma excitations, errors in chemical microanalysis, coherent double plasmons, and circular dichroism
In-vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography
Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.
2000-04-01
Noninvasive quantitation of blood flow in the retinal micro circulation may elucidate the progression and treatment of ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy, age-related degeneration, and glaucoma. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography was recently introduced as a technique allowing simultaneous micron-scale resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue micro structure and blood flow in the human retina. Here, time-resolved imaging of dynamics of blood flow profiles was performed to measure cardiac pulsatility within retinal vessels. Retinal pulsatility has been shown to decrease throughout the progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode.
Verhagen, E; Deléglise, S; Weis, S; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J
2012-02-01
Optical laser fields have been widely used to achieve quantum control over the motional and internal degrees of freedom of atoms and ions, molecules and atomic gases. A route to controlling the quantum states of macroscopic mechanical oscillators in a similar fashion is to exploit the parametric coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom through radiation pressure in suitably engineered optical cavities. If the optomechanical coupling is 'quantum coherent'--that is, if the coherent coupling rate exceeds both the optical and the mechanical decoherence rate--quantum states are transferred from the optical field to the mechanical oscillator and vice versa. This transfer allows control of the mechanical oscillator state using the wide range of available quantum optical techniques. So far, however, quantum-coherent coupling of micromechanical oscillators has only been achieved using microwave fields at millikelvin temperatures. Optical experiments have not attained this regime owing to the large mechanical decoherence rates and the difficulty of overcoming optical dissipation. Here we achieve quantum-coherent coupling between optical photons and a micromechanical oscillator. Simultaneously, coupling to the cold photon bath cools the mechanical oscillator to an average occupancy of 1.7 ± 0.1 motional quanta. Excitation with weak classical light pulses reveals the exchange of energy between the optical light field and the micromechanical oscillator in the time domain at the level of less than one quantum on average. This optomechanical system establishes an efficient quantum interface between mechanical oscillators and optical photons, which can provide decoherence-free transport of quantum states through optical fibres. Our results offer a route towards the use of mechanical oscillators as quantum transducers or in microwave-to-optical quantum links.
On the estimation of wall pressure coherence using time-resolved tomographic PIV
Pröbsting, Stefan; Scarano, Fulvio; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio
2013-07-01
Three-dimensional time-resolved velocity field measurements are obtained using a high-speed tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system on a fully developed flat plate turbulent boundary layer for the estimation of wall pressure fluctuations. The work focuses on the applicability of tomographic PIV to compute the coherence of pressure fluctuations, with attention to the estimation of the stream and spanwise coherence length. The latter is required for estimations of aeroacoustic noise radiation by boundary layers and trailing edge flows, but is also of interest for vibro-structural problems. The pressure field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation for incompressible flows, where the source terms are provided by time-resolved velocity field measurements. Measured 3D velocity data is compared to results obtained from planar PIV, and a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) at similar Reynolds number. An improved method for the estimation of the material based on a least squares estimator of the velocity derivative along a particle trajectory is proposed and applied. Computed surface pressure fluctuations are further verified by means of simultaneous measurements by a pinhole microphone and compared to the DNS results and a semi-empirical model available from literature. The correlation coefficient for the reconstructed pressure time series with respect to pinhole microphone measurements attains approximately 0.5 for the band-pass filtered signal over the range of frequencies resolved by the velocity field measurements. Scaled power spectra of the pressure at a single point compare favorably to the DNS results and those available from literature. Finally, the coherence of surface pressure fluctuations and the resulting span- and streamwise coherence lengths are estimated and compared to semi-empirical models and DNS results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baird, S.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Tatchyn, R.; Winick, H.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; Pellegrini, C.
1991-01-01
This paper explores the use of a large-circumference, high-energy, electron-positron collider such as PEP to drive a free-electron laser (FEL), producing high levels of coherent power at short wavelengths. The author consider Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE), in which electron bunches with low emittance, high peak current and small energy spread radiate coherently in a single passthrough a long undulator. As the electron beam passes down the undulator, its interaction with the increasingly intense spontaneous radiation causes a bunch density modulation at the optical wavelength, resulting in stimulated emissional growth of coherent power in a single pass. The need for optical-cavity mirrors, which place a lower limit on the wavelength of a conventional FEL oscillator, is avoided. The authors explore various combinations of electron-beam and undulator parameters, as well as special undulator designs and optical klystrons (OK), to reach high average or peak coherent power at wavelengths around 40 angstrom by achieving significant exponential gain or full saturation. Examples are presented for devices that achieve high peak coherent power (up to about 400 MW) with lower average coherent power (about 20 mW) and other devices which produce a few watts of average coherent power
Coherence and Sense of Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dau, Susanne
2014-01-01
Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question exa...
Dynamic coherence in excitonic molecular complexes under various excitation conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chenu, Aurélia; Malý, Pavel; Mančal, Tomáš, E-mail: mancal@karlov.mff.cuni.cz
2014-08-17
Highlights: • Dynamic coherence does not improve energy transfer efficiency in natural conditions. • Photo-induced quantum jumps are discussed in classical context. • Natural time scale of a light excitation event is identified. • Coherence in FMO complex averages out under excitation by neighboring antenna. • This result is valid even in absence of dissipation. - Abstract: We investigate the relevance of dynamic quantum coherence in the energy transfer efficiency of molecular aggregates. We derive the time evolution of the density matrix for an open quantum system excited by light or by a neighboring antenna. Unlike in the classical case, the quantum description does not allow for a formal decomposition of the dynamics into sudden jumps in an observable quantity – an expectation value. Rather, there is a natural finite time-scale associated with the excitation process. We propose a simple experiment to test the influence of this time scale on the yield of photosynthesis. We demonstrate, using typical parameters of the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex and a typical energy transfer rate from the chlorosome baseplate, that dynamic coherences are averaged out in the complex even when the FMO model is completely free of all dissipation and dephasing.
Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Spectroscopy and Diffraction of Photosystem II at Room Temperature
Kern, Jan; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Tran, Rosalie; Hattne, Johan; Gildea, Richard J.; Echols, Nathaniel; Glöckner, Carina; Hellmich, Julia; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Koroidov, Sergey; Lampe, Alyssa; Han, Guangye; Gul, Sheraz; DiFiore, Dörte; Milathianaki, Despina; Fry, Alan R.; Miahnahri, Alan; Schafer, Donald W.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Koglin, Jason E.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sellberg, Jonas; Latimer, Matthew J.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Zwart, Petrus H.; White, William E.; Glatzel, Pieter; Adams, Paul D.; Bogan, Michael J.; Williams, Garth J.; Boutet, Sébastien; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Bergmann, Uwe; Yano, Junko
2013-01-01
Intense femtosecond X-ray pulses produced at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were used for simultaneous X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of microcrystals of Photosystem II (PS II) at room temperature. This method probes the overall protein structure and the electronic structure of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of PS II. XRD data are presented from both the dark state (S1) and the first illuminated state (S2) of PS II. Our simultaneous XRD/XES study shows that the PS II crystals are intact during our measurements at the LCLS, not only with respect to the structure of PS II, but also with regard to the electronic structure of the highly radiation sensitive Mn4CaO5 cluster, opening new directions for future dynamics studies. PMID:23413188
Coherent states and rational surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria
2010-01-01
The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.
Skorich, Daniel P.; May, Adrienne R.; Talipski, Louisa A.; Hall, Marnie H.; Dolstra, Anita J.; Gash, Tahlia B.; Gunningham, Beth H.
2016-01-01
We explore the relationship between the "theory of mind" (ToM) and "central coherence" difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya
2001-01-01
X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)
Towards truly simultaneous PIXE and RBS analysis of layered objects in cultural heritage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascual-Izarra, Carlos; Barradas, Nuno P.; Reis, Miguel A.; Jeynes, Chris; Menu, Michel; Lavedrine, Bertrand; Ezrati, Jean Jacques; Roehrs, Stefan
2007-01-01
For a long time, RBS and PIXE techniques have been used in the field of cultural heritage. Although the complementarity of both techniques has long been acknowledged, its full potential has not been yet developed due to the lack of general purpose software tools for analysing the data from both techniques in a coherent way. In this work we provide an example of how the recent addition of PIXE to the set of techniques supported by the DataFurnace code can significantly change this situation. We present a case in which a non homogeneous sample (an oxidized metal from a photographic plate - heliography - made by Niepce in 1827) is analysed using RBS and PIXE in a straightforward and powerful way that can only be performed with a code that treats both techniques simultaneously as a part of one single and coherent analysis. The optimization capabilities of DataFurnace, allowed us to obtain the composition profiles for these samples in a very simple way
Long-lived coherence in carotenoids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A, E-mail: jdavis@swin.edu.a [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2010-08-15
We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S{sub 2}|S{sub 0}) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.
Long-lived coherence in carotenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J A; Cannon, E; Van Dao, L; Hannaford, P; Quiney, H M; Nugent, K A
2010-01-01
We use two-colour vibronic coherence spectroscopy to observe long-lived vibrational coherences in the ground electronic state of carotenoid molecules, with decoherence times in excess of 1 ps. Lycopene and spheroidene were studied isolated in solution, and within the LH2 light-harvesting complex extracted from purple bacteria. The vibrational coherence time is shown to increase significantly for the carotenoid in the complex, providing further support to previous assertions that long-lived electronic coherences in light-harvesting complexes are facilitated by in-phase motion of the chromophores and surrounding proteins. Using this technique, we are also able to follow the evolution of excited state coherences and find that for carotenoids in the light-harvesting complex the (S 2 |S 0 ) superposition remains coherent for more than 70 fs. In addition to the implications of this long electronic decoherence time, the extended coherence allows us to observe the evolution of the excited state wavepacket. These experiments reveal an enhancement of the vibronic coupling to the first vibrational level of the C-C stretching mode and/or methyl-rocking mode in the ground electronic state 70 fs after the initial excitation. These observations open the door to future experiments and modelling that may be able to resolve the relaxation dynamics of carotenoids in solution and in natural light-harvesting systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carol Madden-Lombardi
Full Text Available The present study investigates how sequential coherence in sentence pairs (events in sequence vs. unrelated events affects the perceived ability to form a mental image of the sentences for both auditory and visual presentations. In addition, we investigated how the ease of event imagery affected online comprehension (word reading times in the case of sequentially coherent and incoherent sentence pairs. Two groups of comprehenders were identified based on their self-reported ability to form vivid mental images of described events. Imageability ratings were higher and faster for pairs of sentences that described events in coherent sequences rather than non-sequential events, especially for high imagers. Furthermore, reading times on individual words suggested different comprehension patterns with respect to sequence coherence for the two groups of imagers, with high imagers activating richer mental images earlier than low imagers. The present results offer a novel link between research on imagery and discourse coherence, with specific contributions to our understanding of comprehension patterns for high and low imagers.
Optimized suppression of coherent noise from seismic data using the Karhunen-Loeve transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montagne, Raul; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.
2006-01-01
Signals obtained in land seismic surveys are usually contaminated with coherent noise, among which the ground roll (Rayleigh surface waves) is of major concern for it can severely degrade the quality of the information obtained from the seismic record. This paper presents an optimized filter based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform for processing seismic images contaminated with ground roll. In this method, the contaminated region of the seismic record, to be processed by the filter, is selected in such way as to correspond to the maximum of a properly defined coherence index. The main advantages of the method are that the ground roll is suppressed with negligible distortion of the remnant reflection signals and that the filtering procedure can be automated. The image processing technique described in this study should also be relevant for other applications where coherent structures embedded in a complex spatiotemporal pattern need to be identified in a more refined way. In particular, it is argued that the method is appropriate for processing optical coherence tomography images whose quality is often degraded by coherent noise (speckle)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Weihua; Wu Jinhui; Gao Jinyue
2006-01-01
In a three-level V-type atomic system without any external coherent driving, owing to the coherence that results from the vacuum of the radiation field, both the probe gain with and without population inversion can be achieved with very weak incoherent pumping. The gain is achieved in the absence of any external coherent driving field, so it is different from the gain without inversion in ordinary laser-driven schemes where a coherent driving field is necessary to create the coherence. The gain is also different from the conventional lasing gain because the population inversion is achieved via vacuum-induced coherence, which is dependent on the atomic coherence
Kipke, Roland
2015-09-01
Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide - a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position - endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand - is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of commercially assisted suicide while simultaneously endorsing physician-assisted suicide. The conclusion is that they cannot provide this justification and that the mentioned position is not coherent. People who endorse physician-assisted suicide have to endorse commercially assisted suicide as well, or they have to revise their endorsement of physician-assisted suicide. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The global coherence initiative: creating a coherent planetary standing wave.
McCraty, Rollin; Deyhle, Annette; Childre, Doc
2012-03-01
The much anticipated year of 2012 is now here. Amidst the predictions and cosmic alignments that many are aware of, one thing is for sure: it will be an interesting and exciting year as the speed of change continues to increase, bringing both chaos and great opportunity. One benchmark of these times is a shift in many people from a paradigm of competition to one of greater cooperation. All across the planet, increasing numbers of people are practicing heart-based living, and more groups are forming activities that support positive change and creative solutions for manifesting a better world. The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, co-creative project to unite people in heart-focused care and intention. GCI is working in concert with other initiatives to realize the increased power of collective intention and consciousness. The convergence of several independent lines of evidence provides strong support for the existence of a global information field that connects all living systems and consciousness. Every cell in our bodies is bathed in an external and internal environment of fluctuating invisible magnetic forces that can affect virtually every cell and circuit in biological systems. Therefore, it should not be surprising that numerous physiological rhythms in humans and global collective behaviors are not only synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity, but disruptions in these fields can create adverse effects on human health and behavior. The most likely mechanism for explaining how solar and geomagnetic influences affect human health and behavior are a coupling between the human nervous system and resonating geomagnetic frequencies, called Schumann resonances, which occur in the earth-ionosphere resonant cavity and Alfvén waves. It is well established that these resonant frequencies directly overlap with those of the human brain and cardiovascular system. If all living systems are indeed interconnected and communicate with each other
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
2014-01-01
We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...
Coherent Multistatic ISAR Imaging
Dorp, Ph. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Verzeilberg, J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents methods for Coherent Multistatic Radar Imaging for Non Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) with a network of radar sensors. Coherent Multistatic Radar Imaging is based on an extension of existing monostatic ISAR algorithms to the multistatic environment. The paper describes the
Coherence and correspondence in engineering design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantinos V. Katsikopoulos
2009-03-01
Full Text Available I show how the coherence/correspondence distinction can inform the conversation about decision methods for engineering design. Some engineers argue for the application of multi-attribute utility theory while others argue for what they call heuristics. To clarify the differences among methods, I first ask whether each method aims at achieving coherence or correspondence. By analyzing statements in the design literature, I argue that utility theory aims at achieving coherence and heuristics aim at achieving correspondence. Second, I ask if achieving coherence always implies achieving correspondence. It is important to provide an answer because while in design the objective is correspondence, it is difficult to assess it, and coherence that is easier to assess is used as a surrogate. I argue that coherence does not always imply correspondence in design and that this is also the case in problems studied in judgment and decision-making research. Uncovering the conditions under which coherence implies, or does not imply, correspondence is a topic where engineering design and judgment and decision-making research might connect.
Theory of coherent resonance energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Seogjoo; Cheng, Y.-C.; Reichman, David R.; Eaves, Joel D.
2008-01-01
A theory of coherent resonance energy transfer is developed combining the polaron transformation and a time-local quantum master equation formulation, which is valid for arbitrary spectral densities including common modes. The theory contains inhomogeneous terms accounting for nonequilibrium initial preparation effects and elucidates how quantum coherence and nonequilibrium effects manifest themselves in the coherent energy transfer dynamics beyond the weak resonance coupling limit of the Foerster and Dexter (FD) theory. Numerical tests show that quantum coherence can cause significant changes in steady state donor/acceptor populations from those predicted by the FD theory and illustrate delicate cooperation of nonequilibrium and quantum coherence effects on the transient population dynamics.
Maintaining Web Cache Coherency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.
Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.
2011-08-21
The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.
Photon correlations in a two-site nonlinear cavity system under coherent drive and dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferretti, Sara; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Tuereci, Hakan E.; Gerace, Dario
2010-01-01
We calculate the normalized second-order correlation function for a system of two tunnel-coupled photonic resonators, each one exhibiting a single-photon nonlinearity of the Kerr type. We employ a full quantum formulation: The master equation for the model, which takes into account both a coherent continuous drive and radiative as well as nonradiative dissipation channels, is solved analytically in steady state through a perturbative approach, and the results are compared to exact numerical simulations. The degree of second-order coherence displays values between 0 and 1, and divides the diagram identified by the two energy scales of the system - the tunneling and the nonlinear Kerr interaction - into two distinct regions separated by a crossover. When the tunneling term dominates over the nonlinear one, the system state is delocalized over both cavities, and the emitted light is coherent. In the opposite limit, photon blockade sets in, and the system shows an insulatorlike state with photons locked on each cavity, identified by antibunching of emitted light.
Mooser, Matthias; Burri, Christian; Stoller, Markus; Luggen, David; Peyer, Michael; Arnold, Patrik; Meier, Christoph; Považay, Boris
2017-07-01
Ocular optical coherence tomography at the wavelengths ranges of 850 and 1060 nm have been integrated with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope eye-tracker as a clinical commercial-class system. Collinear optics enables an exact overlap of the different channels to produce precisely overlapping depth-scans for evaluating the similarities and differences between the wavelengths to extract additional physiologic information. A reliable segmentation algorithm utilizing Graphcuts has been implemented and applied to automatically extract retinal and choroidal shape in cross-sections and volumes. The device has been tested in normals and pathologies including a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of myopia progress and control with a duplicate instrument in Asian children.
Coherent states on Hilbert modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S Twareque; Bhattacharyya, T; Roy, S S
2011-01-01
We generalize the concept of coherent states, traditionally defined as special families of vectors on Hilbert spaces, to Hilbert modules. We show that Hilbert modules over C*-algebras are the natural settings for a generalization of coherent states defined on Hilbert spaces. We consider those Hilbert C*-modules which have a natural left action from another C*-algebra, say A. The coherent states are well defined in this case and they behave well with respect to the left action by A. Certain classical objects like the Cuntz algebra are related to specific examples of coherent states. Finally we show that coherent states on modules give rise to a completely positive definite kernel between two C*-algebras, in complete analogy to the Hilbert space situation. Related to this, there is a dilation result for positive operator-valued measures, in the sense of Naimark. A number of examples are worked out to illustrate the theory. Some possible physical applications are also mentioned.
Integrated coherent matter wave circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.
2015-01-01
An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
Coherent Coupled Qubits for Quantum Annealing
Weber, Steven J.; Samach, Gabriel O.; Hover, David; Gustavsson, Simon; Kim, David K.; Melville, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danna; Sears, Adam P.; Yan, Fei; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.
2017-07-01
Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents Ip. Here, we examine an alternative approach using qubits with smaller Ip and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building block for quantum annealing, between two flux qubits with small (approximately 50-nA) persistent currents. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence.
Asymmetry and coherence weight of quantum states
Bu, Kaifeng; Anand, Namit; Singh, Uttam
2018-03-01
The asymmetry of quantum states is an important resource in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum metrology and quantum communication. In this paper, we introduce the notion of asymmetry weight—an operationally motivated asymmetry quantifier in the resource theory of asymmetry. We study the convexity and monotonicity properties of asymmetry weight and focus on its interplay with the corresponding semidefinite programming (SDP) forms along with its connection to other asymmetry measures. Since the SDP form of asymmetry weight is closely related to asymmetry witnesses, we find that the asymmetry weight can be regarded as a (state-dependent) asymmetry witness. Moreover, some specific entanglement witnesses can be viewed as a special case of an asymmetry witness—which indicates a potential connection between asymmetry and entanglement. We also provide an operationally meaningful coherence measure, which we term coherence weight, and investigate its relationship to other coherence measures like the robustness of coherence and the l1 norm of coherence. In particular, we show that for Werner states in any dimension d all three coherence quantifiers, namely, the coherence weight, the robustness of coherence, and the l1 norm of coherence, are equal and are given by a single letter formula.
Coherent systems with multistate components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.
1980-01-01
The basic rules of the Boolean algebra with restrictions on variables are briefly recalled. This special type of Boolean algebra allows one to handle fault trees of systems made of multistate (two or more than two states) components. Coherent systems are defined in the case of multistate components. This definition is consistent with that originally suggested by Barlow in the case of binary (two states) components. The basic properties of coherence are described and discussed. Coherent Boolean functions are also defined. It is shown that these functions are irredundant, that is they have only one base which is at the same time complete and irredundant. However, irredundant functions are not necessarily coherent. Finally a simplified algorithm for the calculation of the base of a coherent function is described. In the case that the function is not coherent, the algorithm can be used to reduce the size of the normal disjunctive form of the function. This in turn eases the application of the Nelson algorithm to calculate the complete base of the function. The simplified algorithm has been built in the computer program MUSTAFA-1. In a sample case the use of this algorithm caused a reduction of the CPU time by a factor of about 20. (orig.)
Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway.
Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F
2008-05-01
Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.
Challenges in Scale-Resolving Simulations of turbulent wake flows with coherent structures
Pereira, Filipe S.; Eça, Luís; Vaz, Guilherme; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2018-06-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the challenges encountered in Scale-Resolving Simulations (SRS) of turbulent wake flows driven by spatially-developing coherent structures. SRS of practical interest are expressly intended for efficiently computing such flows by resolving only the most important features of the coherent structures and modelling the remainder as stochastic field. The success of SRS methods depends upon three important factors: i) ability to identify key flow mechanisms responsible for the generation of coherent structures; ii) determine the optimum range of resolution required to adequately capture key elements of coherent structures; and iii) ensure that the modelled part is comprised nearly exclusively of fully-developed stochastic turbulence. This study considers the canonical case of the flow around a circular cylinder to address the aforementioned three key issues. It is first demonstrated using experimental evidence that the vortex-shedding instability and flow-structure development involves four important stages. A series of SRS computations of progressively increasing resolution (decreasing cut-off length) are performed. An a priori basis for locating the origin of the coherent structures development is proposed and examined. The criterion is based on the fact that the coherent structures are generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. The most important finding is that the key aspects of coherent structures can be resolved only if the effective computational Reynolds number (based on total viscosity) exceeds the critical value of the KH instability in laminar flows. Finally, a quantitative criterion assessing the nature of the unresolved field based on the strain-rate ratio of mean and unresolved fields is examined. The two proposed conditions and rationale offer a quantitative basis for developing "good practice" guidelines for SRS of complex turbulent wake flows with coherent structures.
Coherent optical communication detection device based on modified balanced optical phase-locked loop
Zhang, Bo; Sun, Jianfeng; Xu, Mengmeng; Li, Guangyuan; Zhang, Guo; Lao, Chenzhe; He, Hongyu; Lu, Zhiyong
2017-08-01
In the field of satellite communication, space laser communication technology is famous for its high communication rate, good confidentiality, small size, low power consumption and so on. The design of coherent optical communication detection device based on modified balanced optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is presented in the paper. It combined by local oscillator beam, modulator, voltage controlled oscillator, signal beam, optical filter, 180 degree hybrid, balanced detector, loop filter and signal receiver. Local oscillator beam and voltage controlled oscillator trace the phase variation of signal beam simultaneously. That taking the advantage of voltage controlled oscillator which responses sensitively and tunable local oscillator laser source with large tuning range can trace the phase variation of signal beam rapidly and achieve phase locking. The demand of the phase deviation is very low, and the system is easy to adjust. When the transmitter transmits the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal, the receiver can demodulate the baseband signal quickly, which has important significance for the free space coherent laser communication.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fawley, William M.; Vay, Jean-Luc
2010-01-01
Numerical simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. Orders of magnitude speedup has been demonstrated for simulations from first principles of laser-plasma accelerator, free electron laser, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Here we address the application of the Lorentz-boosted frame approach to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can be strongly present in bunch compressor chicanes. CSR is particularly relevant to the next generation of x-ray light sources and is simultaneously difficult to simulate in the lab frame because of the large ratio of scale lengths. It can increase both the incoherent and coherent longitudinal energy spread, effects that often lead to an increase in transverse emittance. We have adapted the WARP code to simulate CSR emission along a simple dipole bend. We present some scaling arguments for the possible computational speed up factor in the boosted frame and initial 3D simulation results.
Simultaneous Balancing and Model Reduction of Switched Linear Systems
Monshizadeh, Nima; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Camlibel, M.K.
2011-01-01
In this paper, first, balanced truncation of linear systems is revisited. Then, simultaneous balancing of multiple linear systems is investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions are introduced to identify the case where simultaneous balancing is possible. The validity of these conditions is not
Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches
Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.
2013-05-01
Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of
COHERENT Experiment: current status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G
2017-01-01
The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)
Coherence-driven argumentation to norm consensus
Joseph, S.; Prakken, H.
2009-01-01
In this paper coherence-based models are proposed as an alternative to logic-based BDI and argumentation models for the reasoning of normative agents. A model is provided for how two coherence-based agents can deliberate on how to regulate a domain of interest. First a deductive coherence model
Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elena, Ivanova
2016-01-01
One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us. (paper)
Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept
Elena, Ivanova
2016-08-01
One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us.
Resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography
Qi, Wenjuan; Li, Rui; Ma, Teng; Li, Jiawen; Kirk Shung, K.; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping
2013-01-01
We report on a resonant acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) technique that uses mechanical resonant frequency to characterize and identify tissues of different types. The linear dependency of the resonant frequency on the square root of Young's modulus was validated on silicone phantoms. Both the frequency response spectrum and the 3D imaging results from the agar phantoms with hard inclusions confirmed the feasibility of deploying the resonant frequency as a mec...
Quantum coherence in the reflection of above barrier wavepackets
Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli
2018-02-01
The quantum phenomenon of above barrier reflection is investigated from a time-dependent perspective using Gaussian wavepackets. The transition path time distribution, which in principle is experimentally measurable, is used to study the mean flight times ⟨t⟩R and ⟨t⟩T associated with the reflection and the transmission over the barrier paying special attention to their dependence on the width of the barrier. Both flight times, and their difference Δt, exhibit two distinct regimes depending on the ratio of the spatial width of the incident wavepacket and the length of the barrier. When the ratio is larger than unity, the reflection and transmission dynamics are coherent and dominated by the resonances above the barrier. The flight times ⟨t⟩R/T and the flight time difference Δt oscillate as a function of the barrier width (almost in phase with the transmission probability). These oscillations reflect a momentum filtering effect related to the coherent superposition of the reflected and transmitted waves. For a ratio less than unity, the barrier reflection and transmission dynamics are incoherent and the oscillations are absent. The barrier width which separates the coherent and incoherent regimes is identified analytically. The oscillatory structure of the time difference Δt as a function of the barrier width in the coherent regime is absent when considered in terms of the Wigner phase time delays for reflection and transmission. We conclude that the Wigner phase time does not correctly describe the temporal properties of above barrier reflection. We also find that the structure of the reflected and transmitted wavepackets depends on the coherence of the process. In the coherent regime, the wavepackets can have an overlapping peak structure, but the peaks are not fully resolved. In the incoherent regime, the wavepackets split in time into distinct separated Gaussian like waves, each one reflecting the number of times the wavepacket crosses the barrier
Khan, Faisal Nadeem; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Al-Arashi, Waled Hussein; Yu, Changyuan; Lu, Chao; Lau, Alan Pak Tao
2017-07-24
We experimentally demonstrate the use of deep neural networks (DNNs) in combination with signals' amplitude histograms (AHs) for simultaneous optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring and modulation format identification (MFI) in digital coherent receivers. The proposed technique automatically extracts OSNR and modulation format dependent features of AHs, obtained after constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalization, and exploits them for the joint estimation of these parameters. Experimental results for 112 Gbps polarization-multiplexed (PM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 112 Gbps PM 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), and 240 Gbps PM 64-QAM signals demonstrate OSNR monitoring with mean estimation errors of 1.2 dB, 0.4 dB, and 1 dB, respectively. Similarly, the results for MFI show 100% identification accuracy for all three modulation formats. The proposed technique applies deep machine learning algorithms inside standard digital coherent receiver and does not require any additional hardware. Therefore, it is attractive for cost-effective multi-parameter estimation in next-generation elastic optical networks (EONs).
Combination of optical coherence tomography and reflectometry technique for eye measurement
Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.
2013-03-01
A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is integrated with an optical reflectometer to provide dualfunctional eye measurement. The system is capable of performing anterior segment imaging and tear film thickness evaluation at the same time. The axial resolution of the anterior segment imaging is 6μm while for tear film thickness measurement the resolution is about 21 nm. We use the integrated device to examine a model eye with artificial tear film. Structures such as the cornea, the ciliary muscle, and the front boundary of the crystalline lens are clearly visible. Artificial tear film thickness is determined simultaneously with anterior segment imaging. The integrated device is also flexible for separated anterior segment imaging or tear thickness evaluation.
Laser pulses for coherent xuv Raman excitation
Greenman, Loren; Koch, Christiane P.; Whaley, K. Birgitta
2015-07-01
We combine multichannel electronic structure theory with quantum optimal control to derive femtosecond-time-scale Raman pulse sequences that coherently populate a valence excited state. For a neon atom, Raman target populations of up to 13% are obtained. Superpositions of the ground and valence Raman states with a controllable relative phase are found to be reachable with up to 4.5% population and arbitrary phase control facilitated by the pump pulse carrier-envelope phase. Analysis of the optimized pulse structure reveals a sequential mechanism in which the valence excitation is reached via a fast (femtosecond) population transfer through an intermediate resonance state in the continuum rather than avoiding intermediate-state population with simultaneous or counterintuitive (stimulated Raman adiabatic passage) pulse sequences. Our results open a route to coupling valence excitations and core-hole excitations in molecules and aggregates that locally address specific atoms and represent an initial step towards realization of multidimensional spectroscopy in the xuv and x-ray regimes.
Progress in coherent laser radar
Vaughan, J. M.
1986-01-01
Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang
2003-01-01
The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Exergy of partially coherent thermal radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi
2012-01-01
Exergy of electromagnetic radiation has been studied by a number of researchers for well over four decades in order to estimate the maximum conversion efficiencies of thermal radiation. As these researchers primarily dealt with solar and blackbody radiation, which have a low degree of coherence, they did not consider the partial coherence properties of thermal radiation. With the recent development of surface structures, which can emit radiation with high degree of coherence, the importance of considering the partial coherent properties in exergy calculation has become a necessity as the coherence properties directly influence the entropy of the wave field. Here in this paper we derive an expression for the exergy of quasi-monochromatic radiation using statistical thermodynamics and show that it is identical with the expressions derived using classical thermodynamics. We also present a method to calculate the entropy, thereby the exergy of partially coherent radiation using statistical thermodynamics and a method called matrix treatment of wave field. -- Highlights: ► Considered partial coherence of radiation for the first time to calculate exergy. ► The importance of this method is emphasized with energy conversion examples. ► Derived an expression for the exergy of radiation using statistical thermodynamics. ► Adopted a method to calculate intensity of statistically independent principle wave.
Langham, Erika; Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Gainsbury, Sally M
2017-06-01
Understanding why some people experience problems with gambling whilst others are able to restrict gambling to recreational levels is still largely unexplained. One potential explanation is through salutogenesis, which is a health promotion approach of understanding factors which move people towards health rather than disease. An important aspect of salutogenesis is sense of coherence. Individuals with stronger sense of coherence perceive their environment as comprehensible, manageable and meaningful. The present study examined the relationship of individuals' sense of coherence on their gambling behaviour and experience of gambling related harm. This exploratory study utilised an archival dataset (n = 1236) from an online, cross sectional survey of people who had experienced negative consequences from gambling. In general, a stronger sense of coherence was related to lower problem gambling severity. When gambling behaviour was controlled for, sense of coherence was significantly related to the experience of individual gambling harms. A strong sense of coherence can be seen as a protective factor against problematic gambling behaviour, and subsequent gambling related harms. These findings support the value of both primary and tertiary prevention strategies that strengthen sense of coherence as a harm minimisation strategy. The present study demonstrates the potential value of, and provides clear direction for, considering sense of coherence in order to understand gambling-related issues.
Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Earleywine Mitch
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.
Detecting phase synchronization between coupled non-phase-coherent oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Follmann, Rosangela; Macau, Elbert E.N.; Rosa, Epaminondas
2009-01-01
We compare two methods for detecting phase synchronization in coupled non-phase-coherent oscillators. One method is based on the locking of self-sustained oscillators with an irregular signal. The other uses trajectory recurrences in phase space. We identify the pros and cons of both methods and propose guidelines to detect phase synchronization in data series.
Duffy, Frank H; McAnulty, Gloria B; McCreary, Michelle C; Cuchural, George J; Komaroff, Anthony L
2011-07-01
Previous studies suggest central nervous system involvement in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet there are no established diagnostic criteria. CFS may be difficult to differentiate from clinical depression. The study's objective was to determine if spectral coherence, a computational derivative of spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), could distinguish patients with CFS from healthy control subjects and not erroneously classify depressed patients as having CFS. This is a study, conducted in an academic medical center electroencephalography laboratory, of 632 subjects: 390 healthy normal controls, 70 patients with carefully defined CFS, 24 with major depression, and 148 with general fatigue. Aside from fatigue, all patients were medically healthy by history and examination. EEGs were obtained and spectral coherences calculated after extensive artifact removal. Principal Components Analysis identified coherence factors and corresponding factor loading patterns. Discriminant analysis determined whether spectral coherence factors could reliably discriminate CFS patients from healthy control subjects without misclassifying depression as CFS. Analysis of EEG coherence data from a large sample (n = 632) of patients and healthy controls identified 40 factors explaining 55.6% total variance. Factors showed highly significant group differentiation (p EEG spectral coherence analysis identified unmedicated patients with CFS and healthy control subjects without misclassifying depressed patients as CFS, providing evidence that CFS patients demonstrate brain physiology that is not observed in healthy normals or patients with major depression. Studies of new CFS patients and comparison groups are required to determine the possible clinical utility of this test. The results concur with other studies finding neurological abnormalities in CFS, and implicate temporal lobe involvement in CFS pathophysiology.
On-chip COMA cache-coherence protocol for microgrids of microthreaded cores
Zhang, L.; Jesshope, C.
2008-01-01
This paper describes an on-chip COMA cache coherency protocol to support the microthread model of concurrent program composition. The model gives a sound basis for building multi-core computers as it captures concurrency, abstracts communication and identifies resources, such as processor groups
Effects of quantum coherence on work statistics
Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Guo, Li-Sha; Kong, Xiang-Mu
2018-05-01
In the conventional two-point measurement scheme of quantum thermodynamics, quantum coherence is destroyed by the first measurement. But as we know the coherence really plays an important role in the quantum thermodynamics process, and how to describe the work statistics for a quantum coherent process is still an open question. In this paper, we use the full counting statistics method to investigate the effects of quantum coherence on work statistics. First, we give a general discussion and show that for a quantum coherent process, work statistics is very different from that of the two-point measurement scheme, specifically the average work is increased or decreased and the work fluctuation can be decreased by quantum coherence, which strongly depends on the relative phase, the energy level structure, and the external protocol. Then, we concretely consider a quenched one-dimensional transverse Ising model and show that quantum coherence has a more significant influence on work statistics in the ferromagnetism regime compared with that in the paramagnetism regime, so that due to the presence of quantum coherence the work statistics can exhibit the critical phenomenon even at high temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polli, D.; Antognazza, M.R.; Brida, D.; Lanzani, G.; Cerullo, G.; De Silvestri, S.
2008-01-01
We use pump-probe spectroscopy with broadband detection to study electronic energy relaxation and coherent vibrational dynamics in carotenoids. A fast optical multichannel analyzer combined with a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier allows simultaneous acquisition of the differential transmission dynamics on the 500-700 nm wavelength range with sub-10-fs temporal resolution. The broad spectral coverage enables on the one hand a detailed study of the ultrafast bright-to-dark state internal conversion process; on the other hand, the tracking of the motion of the vibrational wavepacket launched on the ground state multidimensional potential energy surface. We present results on all-trans β-carotene and on a long-chain polyene in solution. The developed experimental setup enables the straightforward acquisition and analysis of coherent vibrational dynamics, highlighting time-frequency domain features with extreme resolution
The quantum coherence of disordered dipolar bosonic gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jiguo; Zhang Aixia; Tang Rongan; Gao Jimin; Xue Jukui
2013-01-01
We investigate the coherence of correlated dipolar gas in the presence of disorder within a three-site Bose–Hubbard model. We show that the interplay between the on-site interaction, the inter-site dipole–dipole interactions (DDI) and the disorder exhibits new and interesting coherence characters that cannot take place in a non-dipolar system. The ratio between the on-site interaction and DDI plays a dominant role in the phase coherence. The resonance character of the coherence against both disorder and interactions emerges. DDI can enhance the coherence at certain values of the disorder and on-site interaction. In the coherence region, the enhancement of the coherence by disorder in a dipolar system is more significant than that in a non-dipolar system. In particular, the on-site interaction and DDI together can enhance the coherence even in the clean dipolar system (i.e. a dipolar system without disorder). However, without the on-site interaction, disorder, DDI or both together suppress the coherence. Furthermore, the relationship between the coherence and the energy gap and the compressibility of the system is also discussed. (paper)
Characterisation of dispersive systems using a coherer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić Pantelija M.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The possibility of characterization of aluminium powders using a horizontal coherer has been considered. Al powders of known dimension were treated with a high frequency electromagnetic field or with a DC electric field, which were increased until a dielectric breakdown occurred. Using a multifunctional card PC-428 Electronic Design and a suitable interface between the coherer and PC, the activation time of the coherer was measured as a function of powder dimension and the distance between the coherer electrodes. It was also shown that the average dimension of powders of unknown size could be determined using the coherer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Budini
Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05. During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05. Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.
Kedar, Debbie; Arnon, Shlomi
2006-05-10
Optical wireless communication has been the subject of much research in recent years because of the increasing interest in laser satellite-ground links and urban optical wireless communication. The major sources of performance degradation have been identified as the spatial, angular, and temporal spread of the propagating beam when the propagation channel is multiscattering, resulting in reduced power reception and intersignal interference, as well as turbulence-induced scintillations and noise due to receiver circuitry and background illumination. However, coherence effects due to multipath interference caused by a scattering propagation channel do not appear to have been treated in detail in the scientific literature. We attempt a theoretical analysis of coherence interference in optical wireless communication through scattering channels and try to quantify the resultant performance degradation for different media. We conclude that coherence interference is discernible in optical wireless communication through scattering channels and is highly dependent on the microscopic nature of the propagation medium.
Characterization of turbulent coherent structures in square duct flow
Atzori, Marco; Vinuesa, Ricardo; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Schlatter, Philipp
2018-04-01
This work is aimed at a first characterization of coherent structures in turbulent square duct flows. Coherent structures are defined as connected components in the domain identified as places where a quantity of interest (such as Reynolds stress or vorticity) is larger than a prescribed non-uniform threshold. Firstly, we qualitatively discuss how a percolation analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the threshold function, and how it can be affected by statistical uncertainty. Secondly, various physical quantities that are expected to play an important role in the dynamics of the secondary flow of Prandtl’s second kind are studied. Furthermore, a characterization of intense Reynolds-stress events in square duct flow, together with a comparison of their shape for analogous events in channel flow at the same Reynolds number, is presented.
Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.X.
1997-01-01
Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed
Some remarks on quantum coherence theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burzynski, A.
1982-01-01
This paper is devoted to the basic topics connected with coherence in quantum mechanics and quantum theory of radiation. In particular the formalism of the normal ordered coherence functions in cases of one and many degrees of freedom is described in detail. A few examples illustrate the analysis of the coherence properties of the various quantum states of the field of radiation. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina
2014-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described as the o......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perina, J.
1985-01-01
This book puts the theory of coherence of light on a rigorous mathematical footing. It deals with the classical and quantum theories and with their inter-relationships, including many results from the author's own research. Particular attention is paid to the detection of optical fields, using the correlation functions, photocount statistics and coherent state. Radiometry with light fields of arbitrary states of coherence is discussed and the coherent state methods are demonstrated by photon statistics of radiation in random and nonlinear media, using the Heisenberg-Langevin and Fokker-Planck approaches to the interaction of radiation with matter. Many experimental and theoretical results are compared. A full list of references to theoretical and experimental literature is provided. The book is intended for researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of quantum optics, quantum electronics, statistical optics, nonlinear optics, optical communication and optoelectronics. (Auth.)
Würthwein, Thomas; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Hellwig, Tim; Fallnich, Carsten
2017-11-21
We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duffy Frank H
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Methods Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C. After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984. Discriminant function analysis (DFA determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Results Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P Conclusions Classification success suggests a stable coherence loading pattern that differentiates ASD- from C-group subjects. This might constitute an EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range
Perturbative coherence in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.
1987-01-01
A general condition for coherent quantization by perturbative methods is given, because the basic field equations of a fild theory are not always derivable from a Lagrangian. It's seen that non-lagrangian models way have well defined vertices, provided they satisfy what they call the 'coherence condition', which is less stringent than the condition for the existence of a Lagrangian. They note that Lagrangian theories are perturbatively coherent, in the sense that they have well defined vertices, and that they satisfy automatically that condition. (G.D.F.) [pt
Models of coherent exciton condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Littlewood, P B; Eastham, P R; Keeling, J M J; Marchetti, F M; Simons, B D; Szymanska, M H
2004-01-01
That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers
Models of coherent exciton condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, P B [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Keeling, J M J [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Marchetti, F M [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Simons, B D [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Szymanska, M H [Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2004-09-08
That excitons in solids might condense into a phase-coherent ground state was proposed about 40 years ago, and has been attracting experimental and theoretical attention ever since. Although experimental confirmation has been hard to come by, the concepts released by this phenomenon have been widely influential. This tutorial review discusses general aspects of the theory of exciton and polariton condensates, focusing on the reasons for coherence in the ground state wavefunction, the BCS to Bose crossover(s) for excitons and for polaritons, and the relationship of the coherent condensates to standard lasers.
Optimally cloned binary coherent states
Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.
2017-10-01
Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.
Interference due to coherence swapping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
particle is, its interaction with the beam splitter does not reveal this information .... If one shines a strong linearly polarised monochromatic laser beam, or a quasi .... to be a hindrance to coherence, can be suitably designed to create coherence.
Zheng, Yanping
2009-01-01
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
Coherent states and covariant semi-spectral measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scutaru, H.
1976-01-01
The close connection between Mackey's theory of imprimitivity systems and the so called generalized coherent states introduced by Perelomov is established. Coherent states give a covariant description of the ''localization'' of a quantum system in the phase space in a similar way as the imprimitivity systems give a covariant description of the localization of a quantum system in the configuration space. The observation that for any system of coherent states one can define a covariant semi-spectral measure made possible a rigurous formulation of this idea. A generalization of the notion of coherent states is given. Covariant semi-spectral measures associated with systems of coherent states are defined and characterized. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a unitary representation of a Lie group to be i) a subrepresentation of an induced one and ii) a representation with coherent states are given (author)
Duffy, Frank H; Als, Heidelise
2012-06-26
The autism rate has recently increased to 1 in 100 children. Genetic studies demonstrate poorly understood complexity. Environmental factors apparently also play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrate increased brain sizes and altered connectivity. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence studies confirm connectivity changes. However, genetic-, MRI- and/or EEG-based diagnostic tests are not yet available. The varied study results likely reflect methodological and population differences, small samples and, for EEG, lack of attention to group-specific artifact. Of the 1,304 subjects who participated in this study, with ages ranging from 1 to 18 years old and assessed with comparable EEG studies, 463 children were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 571 children were neuro-typical controls (C). After artifact management, principal components analysis (PCA) identified EEG spectral coherence factors with corresponding loading patterns. The 2- to 12-year-old subsample consisted of 430 ASD- and 554 C-group subjects (n = 984). Discriminant function analysis (DFA) determined the spectral coherence factors' discrimination success for the two groups. Loading patterns on the DFA-selected coherence factors described ASD-specific coherence differences when compared to controls. Total sample PCA of coherence data identified 40 factors which explained 50.8% of the total population variance. For the 2- to 12-year-olds, the 40 factors showed highly significant group differences (P EEG coherence-based phenotype of childhood autism. The predominantly reduced short-distance coherences may indicate poor local network function. The increased long-distance coherences may represent compensatory processes or reduced neural pruning. The wide average spectral range of factor loadings may suggest over-damped neural networks.
Geometry of spin coherent states
Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.
2018-04-01
Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \
Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-06
The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.
Habermas, Tilmann; de Silveira, Cybèle
2008-05-01
Extending the study of autobiographical narratives to entire life narratives, we tested the emergence of globally coherent life narratives in adolescence, as hypothesized by McAdams (1985). Participants were 102 children and young adults (ages 8, 12, 16, and 20 years) who narrated their lives twice. Between narrations, half of each age group participated in tasks designed to train autobiographical reasoning; the other half participated in control tasks. Coherence was measured by the relative frequency of local temporal, causal, and thematic linguistic indicators identified qualitatively at the level of propositions, as well as by quantitative global rating scales measuring the impressions of the listeners. Coherence increased across the age span. Overall, repeated narrating and training did not increase coherence. Crystallized and fluid intelligence, number of negative life events, and frequency of biographical practices and confiding in others did not contribute substantially to the prediction of coherence beyond age. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olachi J. Mezu-Ndubuisi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a condition of abnormal retinal vascular development (RVD in premature infants. Fluorescein angiography (FA has depicted phases (early, mid, late, and mature of RVD in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR mice. We sought to establish the relationship between retinal structural and vascular changes using simultaneous FA and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Method. 63 mice were exposed to 77% oxygen at postnatal day 7 (P7 for 5 days, while 63 mice remained in room air (RA. Total retinal thickness (TRT, inner retinal thickness (IRT, and outer retinal thickness (ORT were calculated at early (P19, mid (P24, late (P32, and mature (P47 phases of RVD. Results. TRT was reduced in OIR (162.66 ± 17.75 μm, n=13 compared to RA mice at P19 (197.57 ± 3.49 μm, n=14, P24, P32, and P49 (P0.05. IRT was reduced in OIR (71.60 ± 17.14 μm compared to RA (103.07 ± 3.47 μm mice at P19 and all ages (P<0.0001. Conclusion. We have shown the spatial and temporal relationship between retinal structure and vascular development in OIR. Significant inner retinal thinning in OIR mice persisted despite revascularization of the capillary network; further studies will elucidate its functional implications in ROP.
Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev
2011-01-01
This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th
Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk
Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.
2013-01-01
We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex
Sense of coherence: A distinct perspective on financial well-being
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoni Barnard
2016-11-01
Full Text Available With the ongoing financial challenges being faced in the economic environment, research exploring financial and psychological well-being is of significant value because employees’ socio-economic behaviour affects productivity. Research emphasises mainly the effect of income level on psychological well-being, and its orientation to psychological well-being is narrowly derived from a focus on subjective well-being constructs. This study addresses the research gap by exploring the relationship dynamics between sense of coherence, income level and financial well-being. Secondary data were obtained from a cross-sectional online employee-wellness survey (n=7 185. The sample distribution included 66 per cent females and 34 per cent males from various age groups, with 46 per cent of the sample comprising single-household earners and 54 per cent sharing household income. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the relationship dynamics between sense of coherence, level of income and financial well-being. Demographic variables that formed part of the survey results were included in the analysis. The relationships between sense of coherence and identified significant income level, financial well-being and demographic effects were further explored in Bonferroni multiple comparisons of means test and cross reference frequency tables that included Pearson’s chi-square and/or Cochran–Armitage trend tests. Detail results indicate that high-income employees exhibit a significantly stronger sense of coherence than low-income employees, and that, despite level of income, financial wellbeing is nevertheless positively related to sense of coherence. Results indicate important implications for managing a financially healthy workforce. Limitations are discussed and recommendations for future research are highlighted.
Local coherence and deflation of the low quark modes in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luescher, Martin
2007-01-01
The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is known to be linked to a non-zero density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator near the origin. Numerical studies of two-flavour QCD now suggest that the low quark modes are locally coherent to a certain extent. As a consequence, the modes can be simultaneously deflated, using local projectors, with a total computational effort proportional to the lattice volume (rather than its square). Deflation has potentially many uses in lattice QCD. The technique is here worked out for the case of quark propagator calculations, where large speed-up factors and a flat scaling behaviour with respect to the quark mass are achieved
Local coherence and deflation of the low quark modes in lattice QCD
Lüscher, Martin
2007-01-01
The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is known to be linked to a non-zero density of eigenvalues of the massless Dirac operator near the origin. Numerical studies of two-flavour QCD now suggest that the low quark modes are locally coherent to a certain extent. As a consequence, the modes can be simultaneously deflated, using local projectors, with a total computational effort proportional to the lattice volume (rather than its square). Deflation has potentially many uses in lattice QCD. The technique is here worked out for the case of quark propagator calculations, where large speed-up factors and a flat scaling behaviour with respect to the quark mass are achieved.
Coherent State Quantization and Moment Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Gazeau
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Berezin-Klauder-Toeplitz (“anti-Wick” or “coherent state” quantization of the complex plane, viewed as the phase space of a particle moving on the line, is derived from the resolution of the unity provided by the standard (or gaussian coherent states. The construction of these states and their attractive properties are essentially based on the energy spectrum of the harmonic oscillator, that is on natural numbers. We follow in this work the same path by considering sequences of non-negative numbers and their associated “non-linear” coherent states. We illustrate our approach with the 2-d motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. By solving the involved Stieltjes moment problem we construct a family of coherent states for this model. We then proceed with the corresponding coherent state quantization and we show that this procedure takes into account the circle topology of the classical motion.
Laser diode technology for coherent communications
Channin, D. J.; Palfrey, S. L.; Toda, M.
1989-01-01
The effect of diode laser characteristics on the overall performance capabilities of coherent communication systems is discussed. In particular, attention is given to optical performance issues for diode lasers in coherent systems, measurements of key performance parameters, and optical requirements for coherent single-channel and multichannel communication systems. The discussion also covers limitations imposed by diode laser optical performance on multichannel system capabilities and implications for future developments.
Towards a coherent picture of excitonic coherence in the Fenna–Matthews–Olson complex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fidler, Andrew F; Caram, Justin R; Hayes, Dugan; Engel, Gregory S
2012-01-01
Observations of long-lived coherence between excited states in several photosynthetic antenna complexes has motivated interest in developing a more detailed understanding of the role of the protein matrix in guiding the underlying dynamics of the system. These experiments suggest that classical rate laws may not provide an adequate description of the energy transfer process and that quantum effects must be taken into account to describe the near unity transfer efficiency in these systems. Recently, it has been shown that coherences between different pairs of excitons dephase at different rates. These details should provide some insight about the underlying electronic structure of the complex and its coupling to the protein bath. Here we show that a simple model can account for the different dephasing rates as well as the most current available experimental evidence of excitonic coherences in the Fenna–Matthews–Olson complex. The differences in dephasing rates can be understood as arising largely from differences in the delocalization and shared character between the underlying electronic states. We also suggest that the anomalously low dephasing rate of the exciton 1–2 coherence is enhanced by non-secular effects. (paper)
Lee, Jae Sun; Kim, Yun Na; Kim, Na-Hyun; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Yang, Min Hye; Rho, Jung-Rae; Jeong, Eun Ju
2017-01-01
Background: Limonium tetragonum, a naturally salt-tolerant halophyte, has been studied recently and is of much interest to researchers due to its potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Objective: In the present study, we attempted to elucidate bioactive compounds from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of L. tetragonum extract. Furthermore, the simultaneous analysis method of bioactive EtOAc fraction of L. tetragonum has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: Thirteen compounds have been successfully isolated from EtOAc fraction of L. tetragonum, and the structures of 1–13 were elucidated by extensive one-dimensional and two-dimensional spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Hepatoprotection of the isolated compounds against liver fibrosis was evaluated by measuring inhibition on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergoing proliferation. Results: Compounds 1–13 were identified as gallincin (1), apigenin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), quercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), (−)-epigallocatechin (5), (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (6), (−)-epigallocatechin-3-(3″-O-methyl) gallate (7), myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (8), myricetin-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (10), myricetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11), myricetin-3-O-(3″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (12), and myricetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (13), respectively. All compounds except for 4, 8, and 10 are reported for the first time from this plant. Conclusion: Myricetin glycosides which possess galloyl substituent (9, 11, and 12) showed most potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of HSCs. SUMMARY In the present study, we have successfully isolated 13 compounds from bioactive fraction
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Theelen, T.; Wesseling, P.; Keunen, J.E.E.; Klevering, B.J.
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: Our study aims to identify anatomical characteristics of glaucoma filtering blebs by means of slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT) and to identify new parameters for the functional prognosis of the filter in the early post-operative period. METHODS: Patients with
Evidence for color coherence in p bar p collisions at √s =1.8 TeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartalini, P.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Donati, S.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Gagliardi, G.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jensen, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.
1994-01-01
Color coherence effects in p bar p collisions are observed and studied with CDF, the Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We demonstrate these effects by measuring spatial correlations between soft and leading jets in multijet events. Variables sensitive to interference are identified by comparing the data to the predictions of various shower Monte Carlo programs that are substantially different with respect to the implementation of coherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloembergen, N.
1985-01-01
Collision-induced coherence is based on the elimination of phase correlations between coherent Feynman-type pathways which happen to interfere destructively in the absence of damping for certain nonlinear processes. One consequence is the appearance of the extra resonances in four-wave light mixing experiments, for which the intensity increases with increasing buffer gas pressure. These resonances may occur between a pair of initially unpopulated excited states, or between a pair of initially equally populated ground states. The pair of levels may be Zeeman substrates which became degenerate in zero magnetic field. The resulting collision-enhanced Hanle resonances can lead to very sharp variations in the four-wave light mixing signal as the external magnetic field passes through zero. The theoretical description in terms of a coherence grating between Zeeman substrates is equivalent to a description in terms of a spin polarization grating obtained by collision-enhanced transverse optical pumping. The axis of quantization in the former case is taken perpendicular to the direction of the light beams; in the latter case is taken parallel to this direction
Coherent states: a contemporary panorama Coherent states: a contemporary panorama
Twareque Ali, S.; Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2012-06-01
Coherent states (CS) of the harmonic oscillator (also called canonical CS) were introduced in 1926 by Schrödinger in answer to a remark by Lorentz on the classical interpretation of the wave function. They were rediscovered in the early 1960s, first (somewhat implicitly) by Klauder in the context of a novel representation of quantum states, then by Glauber and Sudarshan for the description of coherence in lasers. Since then, CS have grown into an extremely rich domain that pervades almost every corner of physics and have also led to the development of several flourishing topics in mathematics. Along the way, a number of review articles have appeared in the literature, devoted to CS, notably the 1985 reprint volume of Klauder and Skagerstam [1], the 1990 review paper by Zhang et al [2], the 1993 Oak Ridge Conference [3] and the 1995 review paper by Ali et al [4]. Textbooks also have been published, among which one might mention the ground breaking text of Perelomov [5] focusing on the group-theoretical aspects, that of Ali et al [6]1 analyzing systematically the mathematical structure beyond the group-theoretical approach and also the relation to wavelet analysis, that of Dodonov and Man'ko [7] mostly devoted to quantum optics, that of Gazeau [8] more oriented towards the physical, probabilistic and quantization aspects, and finally the very recent one by Combescure and Robert [9]. In retrospect, one can see that the development of CS has gone through a two-phase transition. First, the (simultaneous) discovery in 1972 by Gilmore and Perelomov that CS were rooted in group theory, then the realization that CS can be defined in a purely algebraic way, as an eigenvalue problem or by a series expansion (Malkin and Man'ko 1969, Barut and Girardello 1971, Gazeau and Klauder 1999; references to the original articles may be found in the textbooks quoted above). Both facts resulted in an explosive expansion of the CS literature. We thought, therefore, that the time was ripe
Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of actinic keratosis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, K B E; Themstrup, L; Jemec, G B E
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time non-invasive imaging tool, introduced in dermatology in the late 1990s. OCT uses near-infrared light impulses to produce images which can be displayed in cross-sectional and en-face mode. The technique has been used to image skin...... of layers consistent with absence of normal layered architecture in the skin. Thickened epidermis was found in 14/16 studies and white (hyperreflective) streaks and dots were described in 11/16 studies. In High-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images disarranged epidermis (cross......-sectional images) along with an atypical honeycomb pattern (en-face images) was found in 5/5 studies and well-demarcated dermo-epithelial junction (DEJ) (cross-sectional images) was described in 3/5 studies. CONCLUSION: Several morphological characteristics of AKs were identified using Conventional OCT and HD...
Imaging of Phase Objects using Partially Coherent Illumination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravizza, F. L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2013-01-01
Screening high-power laser optics for light intensifying phase objects that cause laserinduced damage on downstream optics is critical to sustaining laser operation. Identifying such flaws on large-apertures is quite challenging since they are relatively small and invisible to conventional inspection methods. A Linescan Phase Differential Imaging (LPDI) system was developed to rapidly identify these flaws on large-aperture optics within a single full-aperture dark-field image. We describe a two-step production phase object screening process consisting of LPDI mapping and image analysis, followed by high-resolution interferometry and propagation based evaluation of the downstream damage potential of identified flaws. An image simulation code capable of modeling the LPDI partially coherent illumination was used to optimize its phase object sensitivity.
Mishra, Vikas; Gautier, Nicole M; Glasscock, Edward
2018-01-29
In epilepsy, seizures can evoke cardiac rhythm disturbances such as heart rate changes, conduction blocks, asystoles, and arrhythmias, which can potentially increase risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) are widely used clinical diagnostic tools to monitor for abnormal brain and cardiac rhythms in patients. Here, a technique to simultaneously record video, EEG, and ECG in mice to measure behavior, brain, and cardiac activities, respectively, is described. The technique described herein utilizes a tethered (i.e., wired) recording configuration in which the implanted electrode on the head of the mouse is hard-wired to the recording equipment. Compared to wireless telemetry recording systems, the tethered arrangement possesses several technical advantages such as a greater possible number of channels for recording EEG or other biopotentials; lower electrode costs; and greater frequency bandwidth (i.e., sampling rate) of recordings. The basics of this technique can also be easily modified to accommodate recording other biosignals, such as electromyography (EMG) or plethysmography for assessment of muscle and respiratory activity, respectively. In addition to describing how to perform the EEG-ECG recordings, we also detail methods to quantify the resulting data for seizures, EEG spectral power, cardiac function, and heart rate variability, which we demonstrate in an example experiment using a mouse with epilepsy due to Kcna1 gene deletion. Video-EEG-ECG monitoring in mouse models of epilepsy or other neurological disease provides a powerful tool to identify dysfunction at the level of the brain, heart, or brain-heart interactions.
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
Adler, Stephen L.; Millard, Andrew C.
1997-05-01
We develop Perelomov's coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states.
Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2001-11-01
The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)
Action-outcome learning and prediction shape the window of simultaneity of audiovisual outcomes.
Desantis, Andrea; Haggard, Patrick
2016-08-01
To form a coherent representation of the objects around us, the brain must group the different sensory features composing these objects. Here, we investigated whether actions contribute in this grouping process. In particular, we assessed whether action-outcome learning and prediction contribute to audiovisual temporal binding. Participants were presented with two audiovisual pairs: one pair was triggered by a left action, and the other by a right action. In a later test phase, the audio and visual components of these pairs were presented at different onset times. Participants judged whether they were simultaneous or not. To assess the role of action-outcome prediction on audiovisual simultaneity, each action triggered either the same audiovisual pair as in the learning phase ('predicted' pair), or the pair that had previously been associated with the other action ('unpredicted' pair). We found the time window within which auditory and visual events appeared simultaneous increased for predicted compared to unpredicted pairs. However, no change in audiovisual simultaneity was observed when audiovisual pairs followed visual cues, rather than voluntary actions. This suggests that only action-outcome learning promotes temporal grouping of audio and visual effects. In a second experiment we observed that changes in audiovisual simultaneity do not only depend on our ability to predict what outcomes our actions generate, but also on learning the delay between the action and the multisensory outcome. When participants learned that the delay between action and audiovisual pair was variable, the window of audiovisual simultaneity for predicted pairs increased, relative to a fixed action-outcome pair delay. This suggests that participants learn action-based predictions of audiovisual outcome, and adapt their temporal perception of outcome events based on such predictions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lagrangian based methods for coherent structure detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allshouse, Michael R., E-mail: mallshouse@chaos.utexas.edu [Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Peacock, Thomas, E-mail: tomp@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2015-09-15
There has been a proliferation in the development of Lagrangian analytical methods for detecting coherent structures in fluid flow transport, yielding a variety of qualitatively different approaches. We present a review of four approaches and demonstrate the utility of these methods via their application to the same sample analytic model, the canonical double-gyre flow, highlighting the pros and cons of each approach. Two of the methods, the geometric and probabilistic approaches, are well established and require velocity field data over the time interval of interest to identify particularly important material lines and surfaces, and influential regions, respectively. The other two approaches, implementing tools from cluster and braid theory, seek coherent structures based on limited trajectory data, attempting to partition the flow transport into distinct regions. All four of these approaches share the common trait that they are objective methods, meaning that their results do not depend on the frame of reference used. For each method, we also present a number of example applications ranging from blood flow and chemical reactions to ocean and atmospheric flows.
Temperature dependence of the coherence in polariton condensates
Rozas, E.; Martín, M. D.; Tejedor, C.; Viña, L.; Deligeorgis, G.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, P. G.
2018-02-01
We present a time-resolved experimental study of the temperature effect on the coherence of traveling polariton condensates. The simultaneous detection of their emission both in real and reciprocal space allows us to fully monitor the condensates' dynamics. We obtain fringes in reciprocal space as a result of the interference between polariton wave packets (WPs) traveling with the same speed. The periodicity of these fringes is inversely proportional to the spatial distance between the interfering WPs. In a similar fashion, we obtain interference fringes in real space when WPs traveling in opposite directions meet. The visibility of both real- and reciprocal-space interference fringes rapidly decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes. A theoretical description of the phase transition, considering the coexistence of condensed and noncondensed particles, for an out-of-equilibrium condensate such as ours is still missing, yet a comparison with theories developed for atomic condensates allows us to infer a critical temperature for the BEC-like transition when the visibility goes to zero.
Robust simultaneous detection of coronary borders in complex images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonka, M.; Winniford, M.D.; Collins, S.M.
1995-01-01
Visual estimation of coronary obstruction severity from angiograms suffers from poor inter- and intraobserver reproducibility and is often inaccurate. In spite of the widely recognized limitations of visual analysis, automated methods have not found widespread clinical use, in part because they too frequently fail to accurately identify vessel borders. The authors have developed a robust method for simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders that is suitable for analysis of complex images with poor contrast, nearby or overlapping structures, or branching vessels. The reliability of the simultaneous border detection method and that of their previously reported conventional border detection method were tested in 130 complex images, selected because conventional automated border detection might be expected to fail. Conventional analysis failed to yield acceptable borders in 65/130 or 50% of images. Simultaneous border detection was much more robust (p < .001) and failed in only 15/130 or 12% of complex images. Simultaneous border detection identified stenosis diameters that correlated significantly better with observer-derived stenosis diameters than did diameters obtained with conventional border detection (p < 0.001). Simultaneous detection of left and right coronary borders is highly robust and has substantial promise for enhancing the utility of quantitative coronary angiography in the clinical setting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annepu Venkata Naga Vamsi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have reported the measurement of temperature by using coherent anti-Stroke and coherent Stroke Raman scattering using superconducting nano wire single-photon detector. The measured temperatures by both methods (Coherent Anti-Raman scattering & Coherent Stroke Raman scattering and TC 340 are in good accuracy of ± 5 K temperature range. The length of the pipe line under test can be increased by increasing the power of the pump laser. This methodology can be widely used to measure temperatures at instantaneous positions in test pipe line or the entire temperature of the pipe line under test.
Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F
2011-01-01
When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, M.; Kim, K.J.
1995-01-01
In a high gain free electron laser amplifier based on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) the spontaneous radiation generated by an electron beam near the undulator entrance is amplified many orders of magnitude along the undulator. The transverse coherence properties of the amplified radiation depends on both the amplification process and the coherence of the seed radiation (the undulator radiation generated in the first gain length or so). The evolution of the transverse coherence in the amplification process is studied based on the solution of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations including higher order transverse modes. The coherence of the seed radiation is determined by the number of coherent modes in the phase space area of the undulator radiation. We discuss the criterion of transverse coherence and identify governing parameters over a broad range of parameters. In particular we re-examine the well known emittance criterion for the undulator radiation, which states that full transverse coherence is guaranteed if the rms emittance is smaller than the wavelength divided by 4π. It is found that this criterion is modified for SASE because of the different optimization conditions required for the electron beam. Our analysis is a generalization of the previous study by Yu and Krinsky for the case of vanishing emittance with parallel electron beam. Understanding the transverse coherence of SASE is important for the X-ray free electron laser projects now under consideration at SLAC and DESY
Coherent states for polynomial su(2) algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadiq, Muhammad; Inomata, Akira
2007-01-01
A class of generalized coherent states is constructed for a polynomial su(2) algebra in a group-free manner. As a special case, the coherent states for the cubic su(2) algebra are discussed. The states so constructed reduce to the usual SU(2) coherent states in the linear limit
Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2014-01-01
, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...
Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction
Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary
2018-01-01
Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sant, Tushar, E-mail: tushar@physik.uni-siegen.de [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Panzner, Tobias [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany)
2010-10-15
We present a new method to reconstruct the surface profile of a sample from coherent reflectivity data of a white x-ray beam experiment. As an example the surface profile of a laterally confined silicon wafer has been reconstructed quantitatively from static speckle measurements using white coherent x-rays from a bending magnet in the energy range between 5 < E < 20 keV. As a consequence of using white radiation, speckles appear in addition to the Airy pattern caused by scattering at the entrance pinhole. Nevertheless, the surface profile of a triangularly shaped specimen was reconstructed considering sufficient oversampling between the beam-footprint and the effective sample width. For the profile reconstruction the Error-Reduction phase retrieval algorithm was modified by including the spectral illumination function and a Fresnel propagator term. The simultaneous use of different x-ray energies having different penetration depth provides information on the evolution of the surface profile from the near-surface towards the bulk. The limitations of present experiment can be overcome using white or pink radiation from a source with higher photon flux.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Duesterer, S; Treusch, R; Barty, A; Benner, W H; Bogan, M J; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Woods, B W; Boutet, S; Cavalleri, A; Hajdu, J; Iwan, B; Seibert, M M; Timneanu, N; Marchesini, S; Sakdinawat, A; Sokolowski-Tinten, K
2009-01-01
We have carried out high-resolution single-pulse coherent diffractive imaging at the FLASH free-electron laser. The intense focused FEL pulse gives a high-resolution low-noise coherent diffraction pattern of an object before that object turns into a plasma and explodes. In particular we are developing imaging of biological specimens beyond conventional radiation damage resolution limits, developing imaging of ultrafast processes, and testing methods to characterize and perform single-particle imaging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boer, J.F. de; Milner, T.E.; Nelson, J.S.
1999-01-01
Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was used to characterize completely the polarization state of light backscattered from turbid media. Using a low-coherence light source, one can determine the Stokes parameters of backscattered light as a function of optical path in turbid media. To demonstrate the application of this technique we determined the birefringence and the optical axis in fibrous tissue (rodent muscle) and in vivo rodent skin. PS-OCT has potentially useful applications in biomedical optics by imaging simultaneously the structural properties of turbid biological materials and their effects on the polarization state of backscattered light. This method may also find applications in material science for investigation of polarization properties (e.g., birefringence) in opaque media such as ceramics and crystals. copyright 1999 Optical Society of America
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T
2015-01-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light–matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable. (paper)
Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms
Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.
2015-11-01
Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.
Polarization Sensitive Coherent Raman Measurements of DCVJ
Anderson, Josiah; Cooper, Nathan; Lawhead, Carlos; Shiver, Tegan; Ujj, Laszlo
2014-03-01
Coherent Raman spectroscopy which recently developed into coherent Raman microscopy has been used to produce label free imaging of thin layers of material and find the spatial distributions of certain chemicals within samples, e.g. cancer cells.(1) Not all aspects of coherent scattering have been used for imaging. Among those for example are special polarization sensitive measurements. Therefore we have investigated the properties of polarization sensitive CARS spectra of a highly fluorescent molecule, DCVJ.(2) Spectra has been recorded by using parallel polarized and perpendicular polarized excitations. A special polarization arrangement was developed to suppress the non-resonant background scattering from the sample. These results can be used to improve the imaging properties of a coherent Raman microscope in the future. This is the first time coherent Raman polarization sensitive measurements have been used to characterize the vibrational modes of DCVJ. 1: K. I. Gutkowski, et al., ``Fluorescence of dicyanovinyl julolidine in a room temperature ionic liquid '' Chemical Physics Letters 426 (2006) 329 - 333 2: Fouad El-Diasty, ``Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering: Spectroscopy and microscopy'' Vibrational Spectroscopy 55 (2011) 1-37
A highly unscientific guide to civil-military coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zartsdahl, Peter Horne
2017-01-01
Coordinating external instruments is easy. In this EU-CIVCAP newsletter editorial, we provide a highly unscientific guide to succesful civil-military coherence. A User's Guide to Coherence; and extensive collection of buzzwords.......Coordinating external instruments is easy. In this EU-CIVCAP newsletter editorial, we provide a highly unscientific guide to succesful civil-military coherence. A User's Guide to Coherence; and extensive collection of buzzwords....
Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten
2006-01-01
Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....
TH-AB-209-10: Breast Cancer Identification Through X-Ray Coherent Scatter Spectral Imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapadia, A; Morris, R; Albanese, K; Spencer, J; McCall, S; Greenberg, J [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: We have previously described the development and testing of a coherent-scatter spectral imaging system for identification of cancer. Our prior evaluations were performed using either tissue surrogate phantoms or formalin-fixed tissue obtained from pathology. Here we present the first results from a scatter imaging study using fresh breast tumor tissues obtained through surgical excision. Methods: A coherent-scatter imaging system was built using a clinical X-ray tube, photon counting detectors, and custom-designed coded-apertures. System performance was characterized using calibration phantoms of biological materials. Fresh breast tumors were obtained from patients undergoing mastectomy and lumpectomy surgeries for breast cancer. Each specimen was vacuum-sealed, scanned using the scatter imaging system, and then sent to pathology for histological workup. Scatter images were generated separately for each tissue specimen and analyzed to identify voxels containing malignant tissue. The images were compared against histological analysis (H&E + pathologist identification of tumors) to assess the match between scatter-based and histological diagnosis. Results: In all specimens scanned, the scatter images showed the location of cancerous regions within the specimen. The detection and classification was performed through automated spectral matching without the need for manual intervention. The scatter spectra corresponding to cancer tissue were found to be in agreement with those reported in literature. Inter-patient variability was found to be within limits reported in literature. The scatter images showed agreement with pathologist-identified regions of cancer. Spatial resolution for this configuration of the scanner was determined to be 2–3 mm, and the total scan time for each specimen was under 15 minutes. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of coherent scatter imaging in identifying cancer based on the scatter properties of the tissue. It
Coherent Lagrangian swirls among submesoscale motions.
Beron-Vera, F J; Hadjighasem, A; Xia, Q; Olascoaga, M J; Haller, G
2018-03-05
The emergence of coherent Lagrangian swirls (CLSs) among submesoscale motions in the ocean is illustrated. This is done by applying recent nonlinear dynamics tools for Lagrangian coherence detection on a surface flow realization produced by a data-assimilative submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Both mesoscale and submesoscale CLSs are extracted. These extractions prove the relevance of coherent Lagrangian eddies detected in satellite-altimetry-based geostrophic flow data for the arguably more realistic ageostrophic multiscale flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Z C; Zheng, Z M; Xing, D Y
2004-01-01
Taking simultaneously into account the electron-injected current from one normal-metal (N) electrode and the hole-injected current from the other N electrode, we study the coherent tunnelling conductance and quantum interference effects in N/d-wave superconductor (S)/N double tunnel junctions. It is found that oscillations of all quasiparticle transport coefficients and the conductance spectrum with quasiparticle energy and thickness of the d-wave S depend to a great extent on the crystal orientation of the d-wave S. The zero-bias conductance peak is gradually lowered with increasing barrier strength and/or temperature, its magnitude exhibiting damped oscillatory behaviour with thickness of S
Enhancing the performance of coherent OTDR systems with polarization diversity complementary codes
Dorize, Christian; Awwad, Elie
2018-05-01
Monitoring the optical phase change in a fiber enables a wide range of applications where fast phase variations are induced by acoustic signals or vibrations in general. However, the quality of the estimated fiber response strongly depends on the method used to modulate the light sent to the fiber and capture the variations of the optical field. In this paper, we show that distributed optical fiber sensing systems can advantageously exploit techniques from the telecommunication domain, as those used in coherent optical transmission, to enhance their performance in detecting mechanical events, while jointly offering a simpler setup than widespread pulse-cloning or spectral-sweep based schemes with acousto-optic modulators. We periodically capture an overall fiber Jones matrix estimate thanks to a novel probing technique using two mutually orthogonal complementary (Golay) pairs of binary sequences applied simultaneously in phase and quadrature on two orthogonal polarization states. A perfect channel response estimation of the sensor array is achieved, subject to conditions detailed in the paper, thus enhancing the sensitivity and bandwidth of coherent phase-OTDR systems. High sensitivity, linear response, and bandwidth coverage up to 18 kHz are demonstrated with a sensor array composed of 10 fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs).
Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chu, Chia-Han; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Hsu, Fang-Rong; Tang, Chung Yi; Wang, Wen-Ching; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chang, Pei-Ching
2014-01-01
Post-translational modification (PTM) of transcriptional factors and chromatin remodelling proteins is recognized as a major mechanism by which transcriptional regulation occurs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in combination with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is being applied as a gold standard when studying the genome-wide binding sites of transcription factor (TFs). This has greatly improved our understanding of protein-DNA interactions on a genomic-wide scale. However, current ChIP-seq peak calling tools are not sufficiently sensitive and are unable to simultaneously identify post-translational modified TFs based on ChIP-seq analysis; this is largely due to the wide-spread presence of multiple modified TFs. Using SUMO-1 modification as an example; we describe here an improved approach that allows the simultaneous identification of the particular genomic binding regions of all TFs with SUMO-1 modification. Traditional peak calling methods are inadequate when identifying multiple TF binding sites that involve long genomic regions and therefore we designed a ChIP-seq processing pipeline for the detection of peaks via a combinatorial fusion method. Then, we annotate the peaks with known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) using the Transfac Matrix Database (v7.0), which predicts potential SUMOylated TFs. Next, the peak calling result was further analyzed based on the promoter proximity, TFBS annotation, a literature review, and was validated by ChIP-real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ChIP-reChIP real-time qPCR. The results show clearly that SUMOylated TFs are able to be pinpointed using our pipeline. A methodology is presented that analyzes SUMO-1 ChIP-seq patterns and predicts related TFs. Our analysis uses three peak calling tools. The fusion of these different tools increases the precision of the peak calling results. TFBS annotation method is able to predict potential SUMOylated TFs. Here, we offer a new approach that enhances Ch
Managing coherence via put/get windows
Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY
2011-01-11
A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.
Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators
Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.
2004-01-01
We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.
Managing coherence via put/get windows
Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY
2012-02-21
A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.
Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)
2016-02-15
The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litvinenko,V.
2009-05-04
Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.
Identification and tunable optical coherent control of transition-metal spins in silicon carbide
Bosma, Tom; Lof, Gerrit J. J.; Gilardoni, Carmem M.; Zwier, Olger V.; Hendriks, Freddie; Ellison, Alexandre; Magnusson, Björn; Gällström, Andreas; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Son, N. T.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Wal, Caspar H. van der
2018-01-01
Color centers in wide-bandgap semiconductors are attractive systems for quantum technologies since they can combine long-coherent electronic spin and bright optical properties. Several suitable centers have been identified, most famously the nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. However, integration
Optical Coherence Tomography of the Aging Kidney.
Andrews, Peter M; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Guo, Hengchang; Anderson, Erik; Falola, Reuben; Chen, Yu
2016-12-01
The aging kidney exhibits a progressive decline in renal function with characteristic histopathologic changes and is a risk factor for renal transplant. However, the degree to which the kidney exhibits this decline depends on several factors that vary from one individual to the next. Optical coherence tomography is an evolving noninvasive imaging technology that has recently been used to evaluate acute tubular necrosis of living-human donor kidneys before their transplant. With the increasing use of kidneys from older individuals, it is important to determine whether optical coherence tomography also can distinguish the histopathology associated with aging. In this investigation, we used Munich-Wistar rats to evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography to detect histopathologic changes associated with aging. Optical coherence tomography observations were correlated with renal function and conventional light microscopic evaluation of these same kidneys. With the onset of severe proteinuria at 10 to 12 months of age, optical coherence tomography revealed tubular necrosis/atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, tubular dilation, and glomerulosclerosis. With a further deterioration in kidney function at 16 to 18 months of age (as indicated by rising creatinine levels), optical coherence tomography revealed more extensive interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, increased tubular dilation with cyst formation and more sclerotic glomeruli. The foregoing observations suggest that optical coherence tomography can be used to detect the histopathology of progressive nephropathy associated with aging.
Shirai, Tomohiro; Friberg, Ari T.
2018-04-01
Dispersion-canceled optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on spectral intensity interferometry was devised as a classical counterpart of quantum OCT to enhance the basic performance of conventional OCT. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally that an alternative method of realizing this kind of OCT by means of two optical fiber couplers and a single spectrometer is a more practical and reliable option than the existing methods proposed previously. Furthermore, we develop a recipe for reducing multiple artifacts simultaneously on the basis of simple averaging and verify experimentally that it works successfully in the sense that all the artifacts are mitigated effectively and only the true signals carrying structural information about the sample survive.
Patterns of participation - a coherent approach to understanding the role of the teacher?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skott, Jeppe
, using a patterns-of-participation framework, which was initially developed in relation to beliefs. It is a multiple case study that views instruction as the simultaneous engagement in multiple, possibly conflicting social practices. The data presented are about Anna, a novice, lower secondary teacher....... The interpretations of the practices that unfold in her classroom suggest that there is some potential in the patterns-of participation perspective.......The three main lines of research on teachers are the ones concerned with beliefs, knowledge and identity. The two first are generally based on acquisitionism, the last is more participationist. This leads to some incoherence. I introduce an ongoing study that aims to develop a coherent approach...
Coherent states in quaternionic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, S.L.; Millard, A.C.
1997-01-01
We develop Perelomov close-quote s coherent states formalism to include the case of a quaternionic Hilbert space. We find that, because of the closure requirement, an attempted quaternionic generalization of the special nilpotent or Weyl group reduces to the normal complex case. For the case of the compact group SU(2), however, coherent states can be formulated using the quaternionic half-integer spin matrices of Finkelstein, Jauch, and Speiser, giving a nontrivial quaternionic analog of coherent states. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Influence of HeartMath quick coherence technique on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... of high psychophysiological coherence, decreased feelings of sadness and increased feelings of peacefulness. Psychophysiological and emotional state findings are discussed in relation to health and sport psychology, theory and practice. Keywords: Biofeedback, physiological coherence, Quick Coherence Technique, ...
Atom lasers, coherent states, and coherence II. Maximally robust ensembles of pure states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiseman, H.M.; Vaccaro, John A.
2002-01-01
As discussed in the preceding paper [Wiseman and Vaccaro, preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043605 (2002)], the stationary state of an optical or atom laser far above threshold is a mixture of coherent field states with random phase, or, equivalently, a Poissonian mixture of number states. We are interested in which, if either, of these descriptions of ρ ss as a stationary ensemble of pure states, is more natural. In the preceding paper we concentrated upon the question of whether descriptions such as these are physically realizable (PR). In this paper we investigate another relevant aspect of these ensembles, their robustness. A robust ensemble is one for which the pure states that comprise it survive relatively unchanged for a long time under the system evolution. We determine numerically the most robust ensembles as a function of the parameters in the laser model: the self-energy χ of the bosons in the laser mode, and the excess phase noise ν. We find that these most robust ensembles are PR ensembles, or similar to PR ensembles, for all values of these parameters. In the ideal laser limit (ν=χ=0), the most robust states are coherent states. As the phase noise or phase dispersion is increased through ν or the self-interaction of the bosons χ, respectively, the most robust states become more and more amplitude squeezed. We find scaling laws for these states, and give analytical derivations for them. As the phase diffusion or dispersion becomes so large that the laser output is no longer quantum coherent, the most robust states become so squeezed that they cease to have a well-defined coherent amplitude. That is, the quantum coherence of the laser output is manifest in the most robust PR ensemble being an ensemble of states with a well-defined coherent amplitude. This lends support to our approach of regarding robust PR ensembles as the most natural description of the state of the laser mode. It also has interesting implications for atom lasers in particular
On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.
IKNO, a user facility for coherent terahertz and UV synchrotron radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sannibale, Fernando; Marcelli, Augusto; Innocenzi, Plinio
2008-01-01
IKNO (Innovation and KNOwledge) is a proposal for a multi-user facility based on an electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range, and of broadband incoherent synchrotron radiation (SR) ranging from the IR to the VUV. IKNO can be operated in an ultra-stable CSR mode with photon flux in the terahertz frequency region up to nine orders of magnitude higher than in existing 3rd generation light sources. Simultaneously to the CSR operation, broadband incoherent SR up to VUV frequencies is available at the beamline ports. The main characteristics of the IKNO storage and its performance in terms of CSR and incoherent SR are described in this paper. The proposed location for the infrastructure facility is in Sardinia, Italy
Representations of coherent states in non-orthogonal bases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S Twareque; Roknizadeh, R; Tavassoly, M K
2004-01-01
Starting with the canonical coherent states, we demonstrate that all the so-called nonlinear coherent states, used in the physical literature, as well as large classes of other generalized coherent states, can be obtained by changes of bases in the underlying Hilbert space. This observation leads to an interesting duality between pairs of generalized coherent states, bringing into play a Gelfand triple of (rigged) Hilbert spaces. Moreover, it is shown that in each dual pair of families of nonlinear coherent states, at least one family is related to a (generally) non-unitary projective representation of the Weyl-Heisenberg group, which can then be thought of as characterizing the dual pair
Meta-Structures: The Search of Coherence in Collective Behaviours (without Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliano Pessa
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This contribution shortly outlines and reviews a theoretical and computational approach for a theory of change concerning systems where it is not possible to apply the laws of motion ab initio. The concept of meta-structure relates to the emergence of forms of spatiotemporal coherences in collective behaviours intended as coherent sequences of multiple structures. The essential difference compared with traditional methods is the role of the cognitive design by the observer when identifying multiple mesoscopic variables. The goal is both to study the "change without physics" of the dynamics of change and to design non-catastrophic interventions having the purpose to induce, change, keep or restore collective behaviours by influencing -at the mesoscopic level -and not prescribing explicit rules and changes.
Coherence Length and Vibrations of the Coherence Beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, U.H.; Parson, A.; Rau, C.
2017-01-01
I13 is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline for imaging and coherent diffraction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) comprises two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques [1]. In particular the coherence experiments pose very high demands on the performance on the beamline instrumentation, requiring extensive testing and optimisation of each component, even during the assembly phase. Various aspects like the quality of optical components, the mechanical design concept, vibrations, drifts, thermal influences and the performance of motion systems are of particular importance. In this paper we study the impact of the front-end slit size (FE slit size), which determines the horizontal source size, onto the coherence length and the detrimental impact of monochromator vibrations using in-situ x-ray metrology in conjunction with fringe visibility measurements and vibration measurements, based on centroid tracking of an x-ray pencil beam with a photon-counting detector. (paper)
Coherence Length and Vibrations of the Coherence Beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source
Wagner, U. H.; Parson, A.; Rau, C.
2017-06-01
I13 is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline for imaging and coherent diffraction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) comprises two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques [1]. In particular the coherence experiments pose very high demands on the performance on the beamline instrumentation, requiring extensive testing and optimisation of each component, even during the assembly phase. Various aspects like the quality of optical components, the mechanical design concept, vibrations, drifts, thermal influences and the performance of motion systems are of particular importance. In this paper we study the impact of the front-end slit size (FE slit size), which determines the horizontal source size, onto the coherence length and the detrimental impact of monochromator vibrations using in-situ x-ray metrology in conjunction with fringe visibility measurements and vibration measurements, based on centroid tracking of an x-ray pencil beam with a photon-counting detector.
Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization
Luis, Alfredo
2016-01-01
We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.
Mismatch removal via coherent spatial relations
Chen, Jun; Ma, Jiayi; Yang, Changcai; Tian, Jinwen
2014-07-01
We propose a method for removing mismatches from the given putative point correspondences in image pairs based on "coherent spatial relations." Under the Bayesian framework, we formulate our approach as a maximum likelihood problem and solve a coherent spatial relation between the putative point correspondences using an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Our approach associates each point correspondence with a latent variable indicating it as being either an inlier or an outlier, and alternatively estimates the inlier set and recovers the coherent spatial relation. It can handle not only the case of image pairs with rigid motions but also the case of image pairs with nonrigid motions. To parameterize the coherent spatial relation, we choose two-view geometry and thin-plate spline as models for rigid and nonrigid cases, respectively. The mismatches could be successfully removed via the coherent spatial relations after the EM algorithm converges. The quantitative results on various experimental data demonstrate that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art methods, it is not affected by low initial correct match percentages, and is robust to most geometric transformations including a large viewing angle, image rotation, and affine transformation.
Coherence and extensions of stochastic matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Gilio
1995-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a review of some general results on coherence of conditional probability assessments is given. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition on coherence of two finite families of discrete conditianal probability distributions, represented by two stochastic matrices P and Q, is obtained. Moreover, the possible extensions of the assessment (P,Q to the marginal distributions are examined and explicit formulas for them are given in some special case. Finally, a general algorithm to check coherence of (P,Q and to derive its extensions is proposed.
Symmetric discrete coherent states for n-qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muñoz, C; Klimov, A B; Sánchez-Soto, L L
2012-01-01
We put forward a method of constructing discrete coherent states for n qubits. After establishing appropriate displacement operators, the coherent states appear as displaced versions of a fiducial vector that is fixed by imposing a number of natural symmetry requirements on its Q-function. Using these coherent states, we establish a partial order in the discrete phase space, which allows us to picture some n-qubit states as apparent distributions. We also analyze correlations in terms of sums of squared Q-functions. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Coherence and entanglement measures based on Rényi relative entropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin
2017-01-01
We study systematically resource measures of coherence and entanglement based on Rényi relative entropies, which include the logarithmic robustness of coherence, geometric coherence, and conventional relative entropy of coherence together with their entanglement analogues. First, we show that each Rényi relative entropy of coherence is equal to the corresponding Rényi relative entropy of entanglement for any maximally correlated state. By virtue of this observation, we establish a simple operational connection between entanglement measures and coherence measures based on Rényi relative entropies. We then prove that all these coherence measures, including the logarithmic robustness of coherence, are additive. Accordingly, all these entanglement measures are additive for maximally correlated states. In addition, we derive analytical formulas for Rényi relative entropies of entanglement of maximally correlated states and bipartite pure states, which reproduce a number of classic results on the relative entropy of entanglement and logarithmic robustness of entanglement in a unified framework. Several nontrivial bounds for Rényi relative entropies of coherence (entanglement) are further derived, which improve over results known previously. Moreover, we determine all states whose relative entropy of coherence is equal to the logarithmic robustness of coherence. As an application, we provide an upper bound for the exact coherence distillation rate, which is saturated for pure states. (paper)
Coherent Raman scattering: Applications in imaging and sensing
Cui, Meng
In this thesis, I discuss the theory, implementation and applications of coherent Raman scattering to imaging and sensing. A time domain interferometric method has been developed to collect high resolution shot-noise-limited Raman spectra over the Raman fingerprint regime and completely remove the electronic background signal in coherent Raman scattering. Compared with other existing coherent Raman microscopy methods, this time domain approach is proved to be simpler and more robust in rejecting background signal. We apply this method to image polymers and biological samples and demonstrate that the same setup can be used to collect two photon fluorescence and self phase modulation signals. A signal to noise ratio analysis is performed to show that this time domain method has a comparable signal to noise ratio to spectral domain methods, which we confirm experimentally. The coherent Raman method is also compared with spontaneous Raman scattering. The conditions under which coherent methods provide signal enhancement are discussed and experiments are performed to compare coherent Raman scattering with spontaneous Raman scattering under typical biological imaging conditions. A critical power, above which coherent Raman scattering is more sensitive than spontaneous Raman scattering, is experimentally determined to be ˜1mW in samples of high molecule concentration with a 75MHz laser system. This finding is contrary to claims that coherent methods provide many orders of magnitude enhancement under comparable conditions. In addition to the far field applications, I also discuss the combination of our time domain coherent Raman method with near field enhancement to explore the possibility of sensing and near field imaging. We report the first direct time-resolved coherent Raman measurement performed on a nanostructured substrate for molecule sensing. The preliminary results demonstrate that sub 20 fs pulses can be used to obtain coherent Raman spectra from a small number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolognini, Gabriele; Soto, Marcelo A; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio
2010-01-01
An investigation is performed of the possibility of achieving simultaneous distributed strain and temperature sensing based on hybrid Raman–Brillouin scattering with the use of multi-wavelength optical sources such as common Fabry–Perot (FP) lasers. By employing a self-heterodyne detection scheme based on a multi-wavelength optical local oscillator, the benefits of FP lasers are fully exploited, allowing for high-power Raman intensity measurements and a simultaneous high-accuracy detection of the Brillouin frequency shift parameter for each FP longitudinal mode. Experimental results point out a significant reduction of coherent Rayleigh noise, and highlight the enhanced performance in hybrid Raman–Brillouin sensing when using FP lasers; in particular using standard FP lasers at 1550 nm results in about 12 dB (7 dB) temperature (strain) accuracy improvement at 25 km sensing distance with respect to the use of standard distributed feedback lasers
High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture.
Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk
2017-02-01
The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK
Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush
1994-01-01
Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.
Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki
2016-03-01
A new optical coherence angiography (OCA) method, called correlation mapping OCA (cmOCA), is presented by using the SNR-corrected complex correlation. An SNR-correction theory for the complex correlation calculation is presented. The method also integrates a motion-artifact-removal method for the sample motion induced decorrelation artifact. The theory is further extended to compute more reliable correlation by using multi- channel OCT systems, such as Jones-matrix OCT. The high contrast vasculature imaging of in vivo human posterior eye has been obtained. Composite imaging of cmOCA and degree of polarization uniformity indicates abnormalities of vasculature and pigmented tissues simultaneously.
Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexanian, Moorad
2006-01-01
The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quesne, C.
1986-01-01
In the present series of papers, the coherent states of Sp(2d,R), corresponding to the positive discrete series irreducible representations 1 +n/2> encountered in physical applications, are analyzed in detail with special emphasis on those of Sp(4,R) and Sp(6,R). The present paper discusses the unitary-operator coherent states, as defined by Klauder, Perelomov, and Gilmore. These states are parametrized by the points of the coset space Sp(2d,R)/H, where H is the stability group of the Sp(2d,R) irreducible representation lowest weight state, chosen as the reference state, and depends upon the relative values of lambda 1 ,...,lambda/sub d/, subject to the conditions lambda 1 > or =lambda 2 > or = x x x > or =lambda/sub d/> or =0. A parametrization of Sp(2d,R)/H corresponding to a factorization of the latter into a product of coset spaces Sp(2d,R)/U(d) and U(d)/H is chosen. The overlap of two coherent states is calculated, the action of the Sp(2d,R) generators on the coherent states is determined, and the explicit form of the unity resolution relation satisfied by the coherent states in the representation space of the irreducible representation is obtained. The Hilbert space of analytic functions arising from the coherent state representation is studied in detail. Finally, some applications of the formalism developed in the present paper are outlined
The coherent state on SUq(2) homogeneous space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aizawa, N; Chakrabarti, R
2009-01-01
The generalized coherent states for quantum groups introduced by Jurco and StovIcek are studied for the simplest example SU q (2) in full detail. It is shown that the normalized SU q (2) coherent states enjoy the property of completeness, and allow a resolution of the unity. This feature is expected to play a key role in the application of these coherent states in physical models. The homogeneous space of SU q (2), i.e. the q-sphere of Podles, is reproduced in complex coordinates by using the coherent states. Differential calculus in the complex form on the homogeneous space is developed. The high spin limit of the SU q (2) coherent states is also discussed.
Beaudette, Kathy; Baac, Hyoung Won; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Villiger, Martin; Godbout, Nicolas; Bouma, Brett E.; Boudoux, Caroline
2015-01-01
Double-clad fiber (DCF) is herein used in conjunction with a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) to enable simultaneous and co-registered optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser tissue coagulation. The DCF allows a single channel fiber-optic probe to be shared: i.e. the core propagating the OCT signal while the inner cladding delivers the coagulation laser light. We herein present a novel DCFC designed and built to combine both signals within a DCF (>90% of single-mode transmission; >65% multimode coupling). Potential OCT imaging degradation mechanisms are also investigated and solutions to mitigate them are presented. The combined DCFC-based system was used to induce coagulation of an ex vivo swine esophagus allowing a real-time assessment of thermal dynamic processes. We therefore demonstrate a DCFC-based system combining OCT imaging with laser coagulation through a single fiber, thus enabling both modalities to be performed simultaneously and in a co-registered manner. Such a system enables endoscopic image-guided laser marking of superficial epithelial tissues or laser thermal therapy of epithelial lesions in pathologies such as Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25909013
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeniya eKirilina
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS is a promising method to study functional organization of the prefrontal cortex. However, in order to realize the high potential of fNIRS, effective discrimination between physiological noise originating from forehead skin haemodynamic and cerebral signals is required. Main sources of physiological noise are global and local blood flow regulation processes on multiple time scales. The goal of the present study was to identify the main physiological noise contributions in fNIRS forehead signals and to develop a method for physiological de-noising of fNIRS data. To achieve this goal we combined concurrent time-domain fNIRS and peripheral physiology recordings with wavelet coherence analysis. Depth selectivity was achieved by analyzing moments of photon time-of-flight distributions provided by time-domain fNIRS. Simultaneously, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, and skin blood flow (SBF on the forehead were recorded. Wavelet coherence analysis was employed to quantify the impact of physiological processes on fNIRS signals separately for different time scales. We identified three main processes contributing to physiological noise in fNIRS signals on the forehead. The first process with the period of about 3 s is induced by respiration. The second process is highly correlated with time lagged MAP and HR fluctuations with a period of about 10 s often referred as Mayer waves. The third process is local regulation of the facial skin blood flow time locked to the task-evoked fNIRS signals. All processes affect oxygenated haemoglobin concentration more strongly than that of deoxygenated haemoglobin. Based on these results we developed a set of physiological regressors, which were used for physiological de-noising of fNIRS signals. Our results demonstrate that proposed de-noising method can significantly improve the sensitivity of fNIRS to cerebral signals.
Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques
Binh, Le Nguyen
2013-01-01
With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The
How exciton-vibrational coherences control charge separation in the photosystem II reaction center.
Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Romero, Elisabet; van Grondelle, Rienk
2015-12-14
In photosynthesis absorbed sun light produces collective excitations (excitons) that form a coherent superposition of electronic and vibrational states of the individual pigments. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy allows a visualization of how these coherences are involved in the primary processes of energy and charge transfer. Based on quantitative modeling we identify the exciton-vibrational coherences observed in 2D photon echo of the photosystem II reaction center (PSII-RC). We find that the vibrations resonant with the exciton splittings can modify the delocalization of the exciton states and produce additional states, thus promoting directed energy transfer and allowing a switch between the two charge separation pathways. We conclude that the coincidence of the frequencies of the most intense vibrations with the splittings within the manifold of exciton and charge-transfer states in the PSII-RC is not occurring by chance, but reflects a fundamental principle of how energy conversion in photosynthesis was optimized.
Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects
Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin
2013-12-01
For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on.
Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi; Shrivastava, Amrita
2017-03-01
This study compared subjective experiences and EEG patterns in 37 subjects when listening to live Vedic recitation and when practicing Transcendental Meditation (TM). Content analysis of experiences when listening to Vedic recitation yielded three higher-order code. Experiences during Vedic recitation were: (1) deeper than during TM practice; (2) experienced as an inner process; and (3) characterized by lively silence. EEG patterns support these higher-order codes. Theta2 and alpha1 frontal, parietal, and frontal-parietal coherence were significantly higher when listening to Vedic recitation, than during TM practice. Theta2 coherence is seen when attending to internal mental processes. Higher theta2 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that the Vedic recitations were "not external sounds but internal vibrations." Alpha1 coherence is reported during pure consciousness experiences during TM practice. Higher alpha1 coherence supports subjects' descriptions that they "experienced a depth of experience, rarely experienced even during deep TM practice." These data support the utility of listening to Vedic recitation to culture deep inner experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boutet, Sebastien
2011-01-01
The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.
Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence
Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis
2017-10-01
Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.
Coherent dynamics of plasma mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thaury, C; George, H; Quere, F; Monot, P; Martin, Ph [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Serv Photons Atomes and Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Loch, R [Univ Twente, Laser Phys and Nonlinear Opt Grp, Fac Sci and Technol, MESA Inst Nanotechnol, NL-7500 AE Enschede, (Netherlands); Geindre, J P [Ecole Polytech, Lab Pour Utilisat Lasers Intenses, CNRS, F-91128 Palaiseau, (France)
2008-07-01
Coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses provide new ways to probe matter and its ultrafast dynamics. One of the promising paths to generate these pulses consists of using a nonlinear interaction with a system to strongly and periodically distort the waveform of intense laser fields, and thus produce high-order harmonics. Such distortions have so far been induced by using the nonlinear polarizability of atoms, leading to the production of atto-second light bursts, short enough to study the dynamics of electrons in matter. Shorter and more intense atto-second pulses, together with higher harmonic orders, are expected by reflecting ultra intense laser pulses on a plasma mirror - a dense (approximate to 10{sup 23} electrons cm{sup -3}) plasma with a steep interface. However, short-wavelength-light sources produced by such plasmas are known to generally be incoherent. In contrast, we demonstrate that like in usual low-intensity reflection, the coherence of the light wave is preserved during harmonic generation on plasma mirrors. We then exploit this coherence for interferometric measurements and thus carry out a first study of the laser-driven coherent dynamics of the plasma electrons. (authors)
Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.
Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice
2015-08-10
Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.
Rothman, Adam L; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Chen, Xi; Toth, Cynthia A
2016-01-01
Preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity are at increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Because the neurosensory retina is an extension of the central nervous system, anatomic abnormalities in the anterior visual pathway often relate to system and central nervous system health. We describe optical coherence tomography as a powerful imaging modality that has recently been adapted to the infant population and provides noninvasive, high-resolution, cross-sectional imaging of the infant eye at the bedside. Optical coherence tomography has increased understanding of normal eye development and has identified several potential biomarkers of brain abnormalities and poorer neurodevelopment. PMID:28539807
Task-and phase-related changes in cortico-muscular coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masakado, Yoshihisa; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2008-01-01
-level tonic dorsiflexion. In all subjects coherence disappeared during the ramp phase for both isometric and quasi-isotonic contraction. Coherence at other frequencies was also not observed in any of the subjects during the ramp phase. During the hold phase at the stronger level of contraction coherence...... reappeared quickly and had the same size as at the low level of contraction. However, a significantly larger level of coherence was found during quasi-isotonic than during the isometric contraction. This demonstrates that cortico-muscular coherence in the 15-35 Hz frequency band is phase- and task......-related. The decrease in 15-35 Hz coherence during the ramp phase may be related to event-related desynchronization of EEG activity. The larger level of coherence during quasi-isotonic contraction may reflect a higher demand of precise control of the joint position. It may also reflect a greater need for binding...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N 2 , H 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , and CH 4 . Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location
Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2013-01-01
We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....
Coherence resonance in low-density jets
Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.
2017-11-01
Coherence resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a purely hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet whose variants can be found in many natural and engineering systems. This evidence comprises four parts: (i) the jet's response amplitude increases as the Reynolds number approaches the instability boundary under a constant noise amplitude; (ii) as the noise amplitude increases, the amplitude distribution of the jet response first becomes unimodal, then bimodal, and finally unimodal again; (iii) a distinct peak emerges in the coherence factor at an intermediate noise amplitude; and (iv) for a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate of the autocorrelation function exhibits a maximum at an intermediate noise amplitude, but for a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate decreases monotonically with increasing noise amplitude. It is clear that coherence resonance can provide valuable information about a system's nonlinearity even in the unconditionally stable regime, opening up new possibilities for its use in system identification and flow control. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).
Simultaneous Balancing and Model Reduction of Switched Linear Systems
Monshizadeh, Nima; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Camlibel, M.K.
2011-01-01
In this paper, first, balanced truncation of linear systems is revisited. Then, simultaneous balancing of multiple linear systems is investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions are introduced to identify the case where simultaneous balancing is possible. The validity of these conditions is not limited to a certain type of balancing, and they are applicable for different types of balancing corresponding to different equations, like Lyapunov or Riccati equations. The results obtained are ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolotti, M.; Sibilia, C.
1985-01-01
In this article the authors discuss a new approach for developing a coherent source of γ-rays. They offer a completely different scheme for development of the source that should overcome most of the problems encountered in ''classical γ-ray lasers,'' and in which the use of inverse Compton scattering of laser radiation onto a relativistic electron beam is made. This kind of interaction has been used to obtain γ-ray photons with good polarization and monochromaticity properties. The authors describe a new geometry of interaction which allows one to obtain coherent emission
The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium
Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.
2013-01-01
A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332
Multi-jet correlations and colour coherence phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Jason S.H.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In multi-jet events, colour coherence was shown to play a important role in the topology of these events. In modern Monte Carlo generators, the colour coherence effect has become an inherent feature, such that the colour coherence effect can no longer be disentangled in a simple manner. This study looks at the multi-jet correlations by comparing Monte Carlo generators in Parton Shower dominant and Matrix Element dominant regions.
Coherent Forecasts of Mortality with Compositional Data Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergeron-Boucher, Marie-Pier; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Oeppen, Jim
2017-01-01
Data Analysis (CoDa) of the life table distribution of deaths. We adapt existing coherent and non–coherent forecasting models to CoDa and compare their results. Results We apply our coherent method to the female mortality of 15 Western European countries and show that our proposed strategy would have...
Store-operate-coherence-on-value
Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard
2014-11-18
A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.
Martingale characterizations of coherent acceptability measures
Roorda, Berend
2002-01-01
The coherent risk framework is linked to martingale valuation by adding hedgeinvariance as a fifth axiom, motivated by the concept of consistent hedging. The resulting subclass, called coherent pre-hedge (CoPr) measures, is characterized by a martingale condition on the test set that underlies a
Dental calculus image based on optical coherence tomography
Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei
2011-03-01
In this study, the dental calculus was characterized and imaged by means of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum and calculus were measured as 1.625+/-0.024, 1.534+/-0.029, 1.570+/-0.021 and 1.896+/-0.085, respectively. The dental calculus lead strong scattering property and thus the region can be identified under enamel with SSOCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus was covered by gingiva tissue as in vitro sample for SSOCT imaging.
Quantum coherence behaviors of fermionic system in non-inertial frame
Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen
2018-04-01
In this paper, we analyze the quantum coherence behaviors of a single qubit in the relativistic regime beyond the single-mode approximation. Firstly, we investigate the freezing condition of quantum coherence in fermionic system. We also study the quantum coherence tradeoff between particle and antiparticle sector. It is found that there exists quantum coherence transfer between particle and antiparticle sector, but the coherence lost in particle sector is not entirely compensated by the coherence generation of antiparticle sector. Besides, we emphatically discuss the cohering power and decohering power of Unruh channel with respect to the computational basis. It is shown that cohering power is vanishing and decohering power is dependent of the choice of Unruh mode and acceleration. Finally, we compare the behaviors of quantum coherence with geometric quantum discord and entanglement in relativistic setup. Our results show that this quantifiers in two region converge at infinite acceleration limit, which implies that this measures become independent of Unruh modes beyond the single-mode approximations. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence and geometric quantum discord are better than entanglement under the influence of acceleration, since entanglement undergoes sudden death.
Spectral coherent combination of ultrashort pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ursescu, D.; Banici, R.; Ionel, L.; Rusen, L.; Sandel, S.; Blanaru, C.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The coherent beam combination was chosen in several laser systems, including ELI, as a solution to increase the final attainable intensity. However, the coherent beam combination it is also a difficult technique while it has to combine coherently in space and in time several beams amplified in different laser chains. That means in particular that the beams should be in phase in every point of the amplified beam so the spatial beam profiling techniques have to be mastered with high accuracy for all the combined beams. Here it is proposed an alternative coherent beam combination than the use of identical ultrashort pulses. The idea is to spectrally combine laser pulses with complementary spectra. Collinear and non-collinear approaches have been modelled. Ongoing experimental development, including the demonstration of the rephasing for two spectrally complementary ultrashort pulses will be presented. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the EC's Seventh Framework Programme (LASERLAB-EUROPE, grant agreement no. 228334).
Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
2015-10-14
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Guang-Ling; Wang Yi-Ping; Chen Ai-Xi
2015-01-01
We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single Δ-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 or π, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice of π/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phase π/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices. (paper)
The Development and Coherence of Future-Oriented Behaviors during the Preschool Years
Atance, Cristina M.; Jackson, Laura K.
2009-01-01
Although previous research has identified a number of interesting aspects of future thinking in adults, little is known about the developmental trajectory and coherence of future-oriented behaviors during early childhood. The primary goal of this study was to explore these issues by administering a battery of tasks assessing different aspects of…
Nanophotonics with Surface Enhanced Coherent Raman Microscopy
Fast, Alexander
extended samples' surfaces can be visualized with a nanoscale axial resolution providing topographic information. Finally, a platform for coherently interrogating single molecules is presented. Single-molecule limit SE-CARS on non-resonant molecules is achieved by means of 3D local field confinement in the nanojunctions between two spherical gold nanoparticles. Localized plasmon resonance of the dimer nanostructure confines the probe volume down to 1 nm3 and provides the local field enhancement necessary to reach single-molecule detection limit. Nonlinear excitation of Raman vibrations in SE-CARS microspectroscopy allows for higher image acquisition rates than in conventionally used single-molecule surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Therefore, data throughput is significantly improved while preserving spectral information despite the presence of the metal. Data simultaneously acquired from hundreds of nanoantennas allows to establish the peak enhancement factor from the observed count rates and define the maximum allowed local-field that preserves the integrity of the antenna. These results are paramount for the future design of time resolved single-molecule studies with multiple pulsed laser excitations, required for single-molecule coherence manipulation and quantum computing.
Quantum interference and coherent control in dissipative atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paspalakis, E.
1999-01-01
In this thesis we study the effects of quantum interference arising from dissipative processes in atomic systems. First, we identify quantum interference phenomena arising from decay mechanisms. Second, we use dynamical methods (the properties of laser fields) to obtain a tailored response of systems in which such interferences are present. We are mainly concerned with two dissipative processes: spontaneous emission and ionization. First, we study the effects of quantum interference arising from spontaneous emission on the population dynamics and the spontaneous emission spectrum of several multi-level systems. Coherent 'phase' control methods for manipulating the response of systems involving spontaneous emission interference are also proposed. Several interesting phenomena are identified such as partial and total quenching of spontaneous emission, phase dependent population dynamics and coherent population trapping. Next, we consider the process of laser-induced continuum structure, where an atom is coupled by two laser fields to the same electronic continuum. An {it ab initio}, non-perturbative study of this process in helium using the R-Matrix Floquet theory is presented. The results of our numerical calculations are compared with those obtained by simple perturbative models and with recent experimental results. The possibility of coherent population transfer via a continuum of states is then analyzed. We study two distinct atomic systems. A laser-induced continuum structure scheme (unstructured continuum) and a bichromatically driven autoionizing scheme (structured continuum). We find that the same conditions which lead to 'dark' states in these systems lead to efficient population transfer. We also identify parameters detrimental to the transfer efficiency and propose methods to overcome them. Finally, we study short pulse propagation in systems involving interfering dissipation mechanisms. We show that the existence of dark states can lead to loss-free and
arXiv Quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-10-26
In this paper, the degrees of quantum coherence of cosmological perturbations of different spins are computed in the large-scale limit and compared with the standard results holding for a single mode of the electromagnetic field in an optical cavity. The degree of second-order coherence of curvature inhomogeneities (and, more generally, of the scalar modes of the geometry) reproduces faithfully the optical limit. For the vector and tensor fluctuations, the numerical values of the normalized degrees of second-order coherence in the zero time-delay limit are always larger than unity (which is the Poisson benchmark value) but differ from the corresponding expressions obtainable in the framework of the single-mode approximation. General lessons are drawn on the quantum coherence of large-scale cosmological fluctuations.
Coherence properties of the radiation from FLASH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.
2015-02-01
FLASH is the first free electron laser user facility operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength range. Many user experiments require knowledge of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the radiation. In this paper we present an analysis of the coherence properties of the radiation for the fundamental and for the higher odd frequency harmonics. We show that temporal and spatial coherence reach maximum close to the FEL saturation but may degrade significantly in the post-saturation regime. We also find that the pointing stability of short FEL pulses is limited due to the fact that non-azimuthal FEL eigenmodes are not sufficiently suppressed. We discuss possible ways for improving the degree of transverse coherence and the pointing stability.
MESI Cache Coherence Simulator for Teaching Purposes
Gómez Luna, Juan; Herruzo Gómez, Ezequiel; Benavides Benítez, José Ignacio
2009-01-01
Nowadays, the computational systems (multi and uniprocessors) need to avoid the cache coherence problem. There are some techniques to solve this problem. The MESI cache coherence protocol is one of them. This paper presents a simulator of the MESI protocol which is used for teaching the cache memory coherence on the computer systems with hierarchical memory system and for explaining the process of the cache memory location in multilevel cache memory systems. The paper shows a d...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sebastion, R.L.
1995-01-01
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)
1995-10-01
The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.
Robles, Francisco E; Fischer, Martin C; Warren, Warren S
2016-01-11
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) enables fast, high resolution imaging of chemical constituents important to biological structures and functional processes, both in a label-free manner and using exogenous biomarkers. While this technology has shown remarkable potential, it is currently limited to point scanning and can only probe a few Raman bands at a time (most often, only one). In this work we take a fundamentally different approach to detecting the small nonlinear signals based on dispersion effects that accompany the loss/gain processes in SRS. In this proof of concept, we demonstrate that the dispersive measurements are more robust to noise compared to amplitude-based measurements, which then permit spectral or spatial multiplexing (potentially both, simultaneously). Finally, we illustrate how this method may enable different strategies for biochemical imaging using phase microscopy and optical coherence tomography.
Three-dimensional calibration targets for optical coherence tomography
Gabriele Sandrian, Michelle; Tomlins, Pete; Woolliams, Peter; Rasakanthan, Janarthanan; Lee, Graham C.; Yang, Anna; Považay, Boris; Alex, Aneesh; Sugden, Kate; Drexler, Wolfgang
2012-03-01
The recent expansion of clinical applications for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is driving the development of approaches for consistent image acquisition. There is a simultaneous need for time-stable, easy-to-use imaging targets for calibration and standardization of OCT devices. We present calibration targets consisting of three-dimensional structures etched into nanoparticle-embedded resin. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with a predominant particle diameter of 400 nm were homogeneously dispersed in a two part polyurethane resin and allowed to harden overnight. These samples were then etched using a precision micromachining femtosecond laser with a center wavelength of 1026 nm, 100kHz repetition rate and 450 fs pulse duration. A series of lines in depth were etched, varying the percentage of inscription energy and speed of the translation stage moving the target with respect to the laser. Samples were imaged with a dual wavelength spectral-domain OCT system (λ=800nm, ▵λ~180nm, and λ=1325nm, ▵λ~100nm) and point-spread function of nanoparticles within the target was measured.
Coherence and pairing in a doped Mott insulator: application to the cuprates.
Senthil, T; Lee, Patrick A
2009-08-14
The issues of single particle coherence and its interplay with singlet pairing are studied within the slave boson gauge theory of a doped Mott insulator. Prior work by one of us [T. Senthil, Phys. Rev. B 78, 045109 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevB.78.045109] showed that the coherence scale below which Landau quasiparticles emerge is parametrically lower than that identified in the slave boson mean field theory. Here we study the resulting new non-Fermi liquid intermediate temperature regime characterized by a single particle scattering rate that is linear in temperature (T). In the presence of a d-wave pair amplitude, this leads to a pseudogap state with T-dependent Fermi arcs near the nodal direction. Implications for understanding the cuprates are discussed.
Coherent acceptability measures in multiperiod models
Roorda, Berend; Schumacher, Hans; Engwerda, Jacob
2005-01-01
The framework of coherent risk measures has been introduced by Artzner et al. (1999; Math. Finance 9, 203–228) in a single-period setting. Here, we investigate a similar framework in a multiperiod context. We add an axiom of dynamic consistency to the standard coherence axioms, and obtain a
Wide-band coherent receiver development for enhanced surveillance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, M.L.; Richards, R.K.; Hutchinson, D.P.
1998-03-01
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced coherent IR heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Recent progress in wide band IR detectors and high speed electronics has significantly enhanced the measurement capabilities of coherent receivers. In addition, developments in new HgCdTe and quantum well IR photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays are providing the possibility of both active and passive coherent imaging. In this paper the authors discuss the implications of these new enabling technologies to the IR remote sensing community for enhanced surveillance. Coherent receivers, as opposed to direct or thermal detection, provide multiple dimensions of information about a scene or target in a single detector system. Combinations of range, velocity, temperature, and chemical species information are all available from a coherent heterodyne receiver. They present laboratory data showing measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of new QWIP detectors with heterodyne bandwidths greater than 7 GHz. For absorption measurements, a wide band coherent receiver provides the capability of looking between CO 2 lines at off-resonance peaks and thus the measurement of lines normally inaccessible with conventional heterodyne or direct detection systems. Also described are differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Doppler laboratory measurements using an 8 x 8 HgCdTe focal plane array demonstrating the snapshot capability of coherent receiver detector arrays for enhanced chemical plume and moving hardbody capture. Finally they discuss a variety of coherent receiver configurations that can suppress (or enhance) sensitivity of present active remote sensing systems to speckle, glint, and other measurement anomalies
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc'h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B.
2005-01-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters
International workshop on phase retrieval and coherent scattering. Coherence 2005
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nugent, K.A.; Fienup, J.R.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Aert, S.; Weitkamp, T.; Diaz, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Cloetens, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Bunk, O.; David, C.; Bronnikov, A.V.; Shen, Q.; Xiao, X.; Gureyev, T.E.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Paganin, D.M.; Wilkins, S.W.; Mokso, R.; Cloetens, P.; Ludwig, W.; Hignette, O.; Maire, E.; Faulkner, H.M.L.; Rodenburg, J.M.; Wu, X.; Liu, H.; Grubel, G.; Ludwig, K.F.; Livet, F.; Bley, F.; Simon, J.P.; Caudron, R.; Le Bolloc' h, D.; Moussaid, A.; Gutt, C.; Sprung, M.; Madsen, A.; Tolan, M.; Sinha, S.K.; Scheffold, F.; Schurtenberger, P.; Robert, A.; Madsen, A.; Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J.; Livet, F.; Sutton, M.D.; Ehrburger-Dolle, F.; Bley, F.; Geissler, E.; Sikharulidze, I.; Jeu, W.H. de; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Lurio, L.B.; Hu, X.; Jiao, X.; Jiang, Z.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Naryanan, S.; Sinha, S.K.; Lal, J.; Robinson, I.K.; Chapman, H.N.; Barty, A.; Beetz, T.; Cui, C.; Hajdu, J.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; He, H.; Stadler, L.M.; Sepiol, B.; Harder, R.; Robinson, I.K.; Zontone, F.; Vogl, G.; Howells, M.; London, R.; Marchesini, S.; Shapiro, D.; Spence, J.C.H.; Weierstall, U.; Eisebitt, S.; Shapiro, D.; Lima, E.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.R.; Huang, X.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A.; Sayre, D.; Thibault, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Robinson, I.K.; Onken, J.D.; Pfeifer, M.A.; Williams, G.J.; Pfeiffer, F.; Metzger, H.; Zhong, Z.; Bauer, G.; Nishino, Y.; Miao, J.; Kohmura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Koike, K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Spence, J.C.H.; Doak, B
2005-07-01
The contributions of the participants have been organized into 3 topics: 1) phase retrieval methods, 2) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and 3) coherent diffraction imaging. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations and of the posters.
Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2002-01-01
The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.
Coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Dalip Singh; Saxena, Kanchan; Dubey, Satish Kumar; Shakher, Chandra
2010-01-01
We report the measurement of coherence characteristics of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experiments were performed using red and green color LEDs directly illuminating the Young's double slit kept in the far-zone. Fourier transform fringe analysis technique was used for the measurement of the visibility of interference fringes from which the modulus of degree of spectral coherence was determined. Low degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.4 for red and 0.2 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm was observed. A variable slit was then kept in front of the LEDs and the double slit was illuminated with the light coming out of the slit. Experiments were performed with various slit sizes and the visibility of the interference fringes was observed. It was found that visibility of the interference fringes changes drastically in presence of variable slit kept in front of LEDs and a high degree of spectral coherence, typically 0.85 for red and 0.8 for green LED with double-slit separation of 400 μm and rectangular slit opening of 500 μm was observed. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical counterparts. Coherence lengths of both the LEDs were also determined and it was obtained 5.8±2 and 24±4 μm for green and red LEDs, respectively.
Fielding, Helen; Shapiro, Moshe; Baumert, Thomas
2008-04-01
Quantum mechanics, though a probabilistic theory, gives a 'deterministic' answer to the question of how the present determines the future. In essence, in order to predict future probabilities, we need to (numerically) propagate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation from the present to the future. It is interesting to note that classical mechanics of macroscopic bodies, though reputed to be a deterministic theory, does not allow, due to chaos (which unfortunately is more prevalent than integrability), such clear insights into the future. In contrast, small (e.g., atomic, molecular and photonic) systems which are best understood using the tools of quantum mechanics, do not suffer from chaos, rendering the prediction of the probability-distributions of future events possible. The field of quantum control deals with an important modification of this task, namely, it asks: given a wave function in the present, what dynamics, i.e. what Hamiltonian, guarantees a desired outcome or 'objective' in the future? In practice one may achieve this goal of modifying and finding the desired Hamiltonian by introducing external fields, e.g. laser light. It is then possible to reach the objective in a 'trial-and-error' fashion, performed either numerically or in the laboratory. We can guess or build a Hamiltonian, do an experiment, or propagate the initial wave function to the future, compare the result with the desirable objective, and correct the guess for the Hamiltonian until satisfactory agreement with the objective is reached. A systematic way of executing this procedure is the sub-field called 'optimal control'. The trial-and-error method is often very time consuming and rarely provides mechanistic insight. There are situations where analytical solutions exist, rendering the control strategies more transparent. This is especially so when one can identify quantum interferences as the heart of quantum control, the essence of the field called 'coherent control'. The experience
Modulation of EMG-EMG Coherence in a Choice Stepping Task
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ippei Nojima
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT tasks. Ten healthy elderly adults participated in the study. Participants took a single step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus. EMG-EMG coherence was analyzed for 1000 ms before the presentation of the stimulus (stationary standing position from proximal and distal tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SOL muscles. The main result showed that all paired EMG-EMG coherences in the alpha and beta frequency bands were greater in the SRT than the CRT task. This finding suggests that the common oscillatory drive to the motoneurons during the SRT task occurred prior to taking a step, whereas the lower value of corticospinal activity during the CRT task prior to taking a step may indicate an involvement of inhibitory activity, which is consistent with observations from our previous study (Watanabe et al., 2016. Furthermore, the beta band coherence in intramuscular TA tended to positively correlate with the number of performance errors that are associated with fall risks in the CRT task, suggesting that a reduction in the inhibitory activity may result in a decrease of stepping performance. These findings could advance the understanding of the neurophysiological features of postural adjustments in elderly individuals.
Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes
Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-01-01
Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaomin
2012-01-01
Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC generat...... of polarization-maintaining DFDD-ANDi fibers to avoid these adverse effects in pursuing a practical coherent fiber SC laser.......Dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreased all-normal dispersion (DFDD-ANDi) photonic crystal fibers have been identified as promising candidates for high-spectral-power coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation. However, the effects of the unintentional birefringence of the fibers on the SC...... generation have been ignored. This birefringence is widely present in nonlinear non-polarization maintaining fibers with a typical core size of 2 µm, presumably due to the structural symmetry breaks introduced in the fiber drawing process. We find that an intrinsic form-birefringence on the order of 10...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yu-Ye; Ding Xue-Li
2014-01-01
Heterogeneity of the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network. In this paper, Gaussian white noise induced spatial patterns including spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances are studied in a network composed of Morris—Lecar neurons with heterogeneity characterized by parameter diversity. The relationship between the resonances and the transitions between ordered spiral waves and disordered spatial patterns are achieved. When parameter diversity is introduced, the maxima of multiple resonances increases first, and then decreases as diversity strength increases, which implies that the coherence degrees induced by noise are enhanced at an intermediate diversity strength. The synchronization degree of spatial patterns including ordered spiral waves and disordered patterns is identified to be a very low level. The results suggest that the nervous system can profit from both heterogeneity and noise, and the multiple spatial coherence resonances are achieved via the emergency of spiral waves instead of synchronization patterns. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Li, Yu-Ye; Ding, Xue-Li
2014-12-01
Heterogeneity of the neurons and noise are inevitable in the real neuronal network. In this paper, Gaussian white noise induced spatial patterns including spiral waves and multiple spatial coherence resonances are studied in a network composed of Morris—Lecar neurons with heterogeneity characterized by parameter diversity. The relationship between the resonances and the transitions between ordered spiral waves and disordered spatial patterns are achieved. When parameter diversity is introduced, the maxima of multiple resonances increases first, and then decreases as diversity strength increases, which implies that the coherence degrees induced by noise are enhanced at an intermediate diversity strength. The synchronization degree of spatial patterns including ordered spiral waves and disordered patterns is identified to be a very low level. The results suggest that the nervous system can profit from both heterogeneity and noise, and the multiple spatial coherence resonances are achieved via the emergency of spiral waves instead of synchronization patterns.
Coherent and squeezed states in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jannussis, A.; Bartzis, V.; Vlahos, E.
1990-01-01
In the present paper, the coherent and the squeezed states in phase space have been studied. From the wave functions of the coherent and the squeezed state, their corresponding Wigner distribution functions are calculated. Especially the calculation of the corresponding Wigner functions for the above states permits the determination of the mean values of position and momentum and thus the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. In fact, from the related results, it is concluded that the uncertainty relation of the coherent and associated squeezed states is the same
Color coherence in W + jet events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, B.
1997-11-01
We report on preliminary studies of color coherence effects in p anti p collisions, based on data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider, at a center of mass energy √s = 1.8 TeV. Color interference effects are studied by examining particle distribution patterns in W + Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and to a recent analytic Modified-Leading-Log perturbative calculation based on the Local Parton-Hadron Duality hypothesis. Soft particle radiation is enhanced in the event plane relative to the transverse plane, in agreement with calculations in which the effects of color coherence are fully included
Long coherence times for edge spins
Kemp, Jack; Yao, Norman Y.; Laumann, Christopher R.; Fendley, Paul
2017-06-01
We show that in certain one-dimensional spin chains with open boundary conditions, the edge spins retain memory of their initial state for very long times, even at infinite temperature. The long coherence times do not require disorder, only an ordered phase. In the integrable Ising and XYZ chains, the presence of a strong zero mode means the coherence time is infinite. When Ising is perturbed by interactions breaking the integrability, the coherence time remains exponentially long in the perturbing couplings. We show that this is a consequence of an edge ‘almost’ strong zero mode that almost commutes with the Hamiltonian. We compute this operator explicitly, allowing us to estimate accurately the plateau value of edge spin autocorrelator.
Coherent active polarization control without loss
Ye, Yuqian; Hay, Darrick; Shi, Zhimin
2017-11-01
We propose a lossless active polarization control mechanism utilizing an anisotropic dielectric medium with two coherent inputs. Using scattering matrix analysis, we derive analytically the required optical properties of the anisotropic medium that can behave as a switchable polarizing beam splitter. We also show that such a designed anisotropic medium can produce linearly polarized light at any azimuthal direction through coherent control of two inputs with a specific polarization state. Furthermore, we present a straightforward design-on-demand procedure of a subwavelength-thick metastructure that can possess the desired optical anisotropy at a flexible working wavelength. Our lossless coherent polarization control technique may lead to fast, broadband and integrated polarization control elements for applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and telecommunication.
Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Rossato Silva
2013-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer (LC is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. RESULTS: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years. Fourteen patients (58.3% were male, 20 (83.3% were White, and 22 (91.7% were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%, followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%. Seven patients (29.2% presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71% were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.
Hilbert-Schmidt quantum coherence in multi-qudit systems
Maziero, Jonas
2017-11-01
Using Bloch's parametrization for qudits ( d-level quantum systems), we write the Hilbert-Schmidt distance (HSD) between two generic n-qudit states as an Euclidean distance between two vectors of observables mean values in R^{Π_{s=1}nds2-1}, where ds is the dimension for qudit s. Then, applying the generalized Gell-Mann's matrices to generate SU(ds), we use that result to obtain the Hilbert-Schmidt quantum coherence (HSC) of n-qudit systems. As examples, we consider in detail one-qubit, one-qutrit, two-qubit, and two copies of one-qubit states. In this last case, the possibility for controlling local and non-local coherences by tuning local populations is studied, and the contrasting behaviors of HSC, l1-norm coherence, and relative entropy of coherence in this regard are noticed. We also investigate the decoherent dynamics of these coherence functions under the action of qutrit dephasing and dissipation channels. At last, we analyze the non-monotonicity of HSD under tensor products and report the first instance of a consequence (for coherence quantification) of this kind of property of a quantum distance measure.
Extreme sub-wavelength atom localization via coherent population trapping
Agarwal, Girish S.; Kapale, Kishore T.
2005-01-01
We demonstrate an atom localization scheme based on monitoring of the atomic coherences. We consider atomic transitions in a Lambda configuration where the control field is a standing wave field. The probe field and the control field produce coherence between the two ground states. We show that this coherence has the same fringe pattern as produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and thus measurement of the atomic coherence would localize the atom. Interestingly enough the role of the cavity ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lingerfelt, David B.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Radler, Joseph J.; Brown-Xu, Samantha E.; Kim, Pyosang; Castellano, Felix N.; Chen, Lin X.; Li, Xiaosong
2017-02-24
Materials and molecular systems exhibiting long-lived electronic coherence can facilitate coherent transport, opening the door to efficient charge and energy transport beyond traditional methods. Recently, signatures of a possible coherent, recurrent electronic motion were identified in femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy experiments on a binuclear platinum complex, where a persistent periodic beating in the transient absorption signal’s anisotropy was observed. In this study, we investigate the excitonic dynamics that underlie the suspected electronic coherence for a series of binuclear platinum complexes exhibiting a range of interplatinum distances. Results suggest that the long-lived coherence can only result when competitive electronic couplings are in balance. At longer Pt-Pt distances, the electronic couplings between the two halves of the binuclear system weaken, and exciton localization and recombination is favored on short time scales. For short Pt-Pt distances, electronic couplings between the states in the coherent superposition are stronger than the coupling with other excitonic states, leading to long-lived coherence.
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds
Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav
2009-01-01
A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-01-20
We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.
Quasi-simultaneous OCT en-face imaging with two different depth resolutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podoleanu, Adrian Gh; Cucu, Radu G; Rosen, Richard B; Dobre, George M; Rogers, John A; Jackson, David A
2003-01-01
We report a system capable of acquiring two quasi-simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of different depth resolution (one better than 20 μm and the other between 80 and 330 μm) at a frame rate of 2 Hz. The larger depth resolution image makes it ideal for target positioning in the OCT imaging of moving organs, such as eye fundus and cornea, as well as in the alignment of stacks of en-face OCT images. This role is similar to that of the confocal channel in a previously reported dual channel OCT/confocal imaging instrument. The system presented operates as a dual channel imaging instrument, where both channels operate on the OCT principle. We illustrate the functionality of the system with examples from a coin, skin from a finger and optic nerve in vivo
Multilevel use of coherence for complex radiosity environments
Vilaplana Pasto, Josep; Pueyo Sánchez, Xavier
1993-01-01
The performance of radiosity algorithm has been improved in the last years by means of using coherence when evaluating the visibility function for form factor computation. We present here a characterization of the uses of coherence for this goal. The characterization includes both, previously proposed techniques and unexplored ones. Afterwards we propose new uses of coherence for visibility computation in form factor determination and we discuss the results of its implementation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatyana Valentinovna Milevskaya
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the onomastic space structure in the literary text and its constituents functions in realization of coherency as a text forming category. It is stated that providing global text coherence onyms could represent both denotative coreference and significative coherence of nomination units. The data of the studies have proved that the following units take part in providing text coherency of the novel "The Twelve Chairs" by I. Ilf and E. Petrov: anthroponyms, toponyms, and ergonyms. Having used a frame approach to the proper names analysis the authors could modify and clearly specify a detailed onym functional classification (which is known in linguistics of onyms, pointing to the necessary to distinguish six instead of three groups of onyms according to their functions in providing text coherency: 1 onyms that maintain coherency of the whole text; 2onyms that construct space-time coordinates of the literary picture of the world; 3 onyms that are both naming the characters who directly interact with the protagonists and designing external relations of the text passage; 4 onyms that organize internal relations of the text passage and represent the main characters of the text passage; 5 onyms that form space-time background of the text passage; 6 optional onyms, which do not play a significant role in the text coherency. With the particular examples the authors proved that some onyms could simultaneously perform different functions forming both external and internal links.
Paulk, Angelique C.; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li
2013-01-01
Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel “whole brain” readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior. PMID:23864378
Paulk, Angelique C; Zhou, Yanqiong; Stratton, Peter; Liu, Li; van Swinderen, Bruno
2013-10-01
Neural networks in vertebrates exhibit endogenous oscillations that have been associated with functions ranging from sensory processing to locomotion. It remains unclear whether oscillations may play a similar role in the insect brain. We describe a novel "whole brain" readout for Drosophila melanogaster using a simple multichannel recording preparation to study electrical activity across the brain of flies exposed to different sensory stimuli. We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity from >2,000 registered recording sites across the fly brain in >200 wild-type and transgenic animals to uncover specific LFP frequency bands that correlate with: 1) brain region; 2) sensory modality (olfactory, visual, or mechanosensory); and 3) activity in specific neural circuits. We found endogenous and stimulus-specific oscillations throughout the fly brain. Central (higher-order) brain regions exhibited sensory modality-specific increases in power within narrow frequency bands. Conversely, in sensory brain regions such as the optic or antennal lobes, LFP coherence, rather than power, best defined sensory responses across modalities. By transiently activating specific circuits via expression of TrpA1, we found that several circuits in the fly brain modulate LFP power and coherence across brain regions and frequency domains. However, activation of a neuromodulatory octopaminergic circuit specifically increased neuronal coherence in the optic lobes during visual stimulation while decreasing coherence in central brain regions. Our multichannel recording and brain registration approach provides an effective way to track activity simultaneously across the fly brain in vivo, allowing investigation of functional roles for oscillations in processing sensory stimuli and modulating behavior.
Coherent active polarization control without loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuqian Ye
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a lossless active polarization control mechanism utilizing an anisotropic dielectric medium with two coherent inputs. Using scattering matrix analysis, we derive analytically the required optical properties of the anisotropic medium that can behave as a switchable polarizing beam splitter. We also show that such a designed anisotropic medium can produce linearly polarized light at any azimuthal direction through coherent control of two inputs with a specific polarization state. Furthermore, we present a straightforward design-on-demand procedure of a subwavelength-thick metastructure that can possess the desired optical anisotropy at a flexible working wavelength. Our lossless coherent polarization control technique may lead to fast, broadband and integrated polarization control elements for applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and telecommunication.
Elastic energies of coherent germanium islands on silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanderbilt, D.; Wickham, L.K.
1991-01-01
Motivated by recent observations of coherent Ge island formation during growth of Ge on Si (100), the authors of this paper have carried out a theoretical study of the elastic energies associated with the evolution of a uniform strained overlayer as it segregates into coherent islands. In the context of a two-dimensional model, the authors have explored the conditions under which coherent islands may be energetically favored over both uniform epitaxial films and dislocated islands. The authors find that if the interface energy (for dislocated islands) is more than about 15% of the surface energy, then there is a range of island sizes for which the coherent island structure is preferred
Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Robert, Aymeric; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Terentyev, Sergey A.; Blank, Vladimir D.; Driel, Tim B. van
2014-01-01
A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ∼100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 μm thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance
Coherent lattice vibrations in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadin, Alan M.
2008-01-01
A recent analysis has shown that the pair wavefunction within the BCS theory may be represented in real-space as a spherical electronic orbital (on the scale of the coherence length ξ 0 ) coupled to a standing-wave lattice vibration with wavevector 2k F and a near-resonant phonon frequency. The present paper extends this picture to a coherent pattern of phonon standing-waves on the macroscopic scale, with electrons forming Bloch waves and an energy gap much like those in the classic band theory of crystals. These parallel planes form a diffractive waveguide permitting electron waves to traveling parallel to the planes, corresponding to lossless supercurrent. A similar picture may be extended to unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates, with an array of standing spin waves rather than phonons. Such coherent lattice vibrations should be universal indicators of the superconducting state, and should be observable below T c using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Further implications of this picture are discussed
Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.
Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan
2017-11-01
The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.
En face speckle reduction in optical coherence microscopy by frequency compounding.
Magnain, Caroline; Wang, Hui; Sakadžić, Sava; Fischl, Bruce; Boas, David A
2016-05-01
We report the use of frequency compounding to significantly reduce speckle noise in optical coherence microscopy, more specifically on the en face images. This method relies on the fact that the speckle patterns recorded from different wavelengths simultaneously are independent; hence their summation yields significant reduction in noise, with only a single acquisition. The results of our experiments with microbeads show that the narrow confocal parameter, due to a high numerical aperture objective, restricts the axial resolution loss that would otherwise theoretically broaden linearly with the number of optical frequency bands used. This speckle reduction scheme preserves the lateral resolution since it is performed on individual A-scans. Finally, we apply this technique to images of fixed human brain tissue, showing significant improvements in contrast-to-noise ratio with only moderate loss of axial resolution, in an effort to improve automatic three-dimensional detection of cells and fibers in the cortex.
Coherent imaging with incoherent light in digital holographic microscopy
Chmelik, Radim
2012-01-01
Digital holographic microscope (DHM) allows for imaging with a quantitative phase contrast. In this way it becomes an important instrument, a completely non-invasive tool for a contrast intravital observation of living cells and a cell drymass density distribution measurement. A serious drawback of current DHMs is highly coherent illumination which makes the lateral resolution worse and impairs the image quality by a coherence noise and a parasitic interference. An uncompromising solution to this problem can be found in the Leith concept of incoherent holography. An off-axis hologram can be formed with arbitrary degree of light coherence in systems equipped with an achromatic interferometer and thus the resolution and the image quality typical for an incoherent-light wide-field microscopy can be achieved. In addition, advanced imaging modes based on limited coherence can be utilized. The typical example is a coherence-gating effect which provides a finite axial resolution and makes DHM image similar to that of a confocal microscope. These possibilities were described theoretically using the formalism of three-dimensional coherent transfer functions and proved experimentally by the coherence-controlled holographic microscope which is DHM based on the Leith achromatic interferometer. Quantitative-phase-contrast imaging is demonstrated with incoherent light by the living cancer cells observation and their motility evaluation. The coherence-gating effect was proved by imaging of model samples through a scattering layer and living cells inside an opalescent medium.
Measurement of morphing wing deflection by a cross-coherence fiber optic interferometric technique
Tomić, Miloš C.; Djinović, Zoran V.; Scheerer, Michael; Petricevic, Slobodan J.
2018-01-01
A fiber-optic interferometric technique aimed at measuring the deflection of aircrafts’ morphing wings is presented. The wing deflection induces a strain in the sensing fiber optic coils that are firmly fixed onto the wing. A change of the phase angle of the light propagating through the fiber is measured by an ‘all-in-fiber’ Michelson interferometer based on a 3 × 3 fiber-optic coupler. Two light sources of different coherence lengths and wavelengths are simultaneously used to ensure a wide measurement range and high accuracy. A new technique for determination of the zero deflection point using the cross-correlation of the two interferograms is proposed. The experiments performed on a specimen made of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic honeycomb structure demonstrated a relative uncertainty morphing wing deflection.
Phylogenetic congruence and ecological coherence in terrestrial Thaumarchaeota.
Oton, Eduard Vico; Quince, Christopher; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile
2016-01-01
Thaumarchaeota form a ubiquitously distributed archaeal phylum, comprising both the ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and other archaeal groups in which ammonia oxidation has not been demonstrated (including Group 1.1c and Group 1.3). The ecology of AOA in terrestrial environments has been extensively studied using either a functional gene, encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, which show phylogenetic coherence with respect to soil pH. To test phylogenetic congruence between these two markers and to determine ecological coherence in all Thaumarchaeota, we performed high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and amoA genes in 46 UK soils presenting 29 available contextual soil characteristics. Adaptation to pH and organic matter content reflected strong ecological coherence at various levels of taxonomic resolution for Thaumarchaeota (AOA and non-AOA), whereas nitrogen, total mineralisable nitrogen and zinc concentration were also important factors associated with AOA thaumarchaeotal community distribution. Other significant associations with environmental factors were also detected for amoA and 16S rRNA genes, reflecting different diversity characteristics between these two markers. Nonetheless, there was significant statistical congruence between the markers at fine phylogenetic resolution, supporting the hypothesis of low horizontal gene transfer between Thaumarchaeota. Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota were also widely distributed, with two clusters predominating, particularly in environments with higher moisture content and organic matter, whereas a similar ecological pattern was observed for Group 1.3 Thaumarchaeota. The ecological and phylogenetic congruence identified is fundamental to understand better the life strategies, evolutionary history and ecosystem function of the Thaumarchaeota.
Ventura, Anabela Carraca; Persinger, Michael A
2014-08-01
The study objective was to discern whether the coherence between brain activities of the "patient" and practitioner differ between Reiki experts and novices. If the physical process associated with Reiki involves "convergence" between the practitioner and subject, then this congruence should be evident in time-dependent shared power within specific and meaningful frequency electroencephalographic bands. Simultaneous quantitative electroencephalogram measures (19 channels) were recorded from 9 pairs of subjects when 1 of the pairs was an experienced Reiki practitioner or had just been shown the procedure. Pairs recorded their experiences and images. The "practitioner" and "patient" pairs were measured within a quiet, comfortable acoustic chamber. Real-time correlations and coherence between pairs of brains for power (μV(2)·Hz(-1)) within the various frequency bands over the 10-min sessions were recorded and analyzed for each pair. Descriptors of experiences were analyzed for word meanings. Only the coherence within the theta range increased over time between the brains of the Reiki pairs relative to the Sham pairs, particularly over the left hemisphere. The pleasantness-unpleasantness rating for the words employed to describe experiences written after the experiment were more congruent for the Reiki pairs compared to the reference pairs. The increased synchronization of the cerebral activity of the participant and the practitioner during proximal therapies involving touch such as Reiki may be an important component of any subsequent beneficial effects.
Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography staging and autofluorescence imaging in achromatopsia.
Greenberg, Jonathan P; Sherman, Jerome; Zweifel, Sandrine A; Chen, Royce W S; Duncker, Tobias; Kohl, Susanne; Baumann, Britta; Wissinger, Bernd; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Tsang, Stephen H
2014-04-01
IMPORTANCE Evidence is mounting that achromatopsia is a progressive retinal degeneration, and treatments for this condition are on the horizon. OBJECTIVES To categorize achromatopsia into clinically identifiable stages using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and to describe fundus autofluorescence imaging in this condition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study was performed between 2010 and 2012 at the Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants included 17 patients (aged 10-62 years) with full-field electroretinography-confirmed achromatopsia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features and staging system, fundus autofluorescence and near-infrared reflectance features and their correlation to optical coherence tomography, and genetic mutations served as the outcomes and measures. RESULTS Achromatopsia was categorized into 5 stages on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: stage 1 (2 patients [12%]), intact outer retina; stage 2 (2 patients [12%]), inner segment ellipsoid line disruption; stage 3 (5 patients [29%]), presence of an optically empty space; stage 4 (5 patients [29%]), optically empty space with partial retinal pigment epithelium disruption; and stage 5 (3 patients [18%]), complete retinal pigment epithelium disruption and/or loss of the outer nuclear layer. Stage 1 patients showed isolated hyperreflectivity of the external limiting membrane in the fovea, and the external limiting membrane was hyperreflective above each optically empty space. On near infrared reflectance imaging, the fovea was normal, hyporeflective, or showed both hyporeflective and hyperreflective features. All patients demonstrated autofluorescence abnormalities in the fovea and/or parafovea: 9 participants (53%) had reduced or absent autofluorescence surrounded by increased autofluorescence, 4 individuals (24%) showed only reduced or absent autofluorescence, 3
Rispoli, Marco; Savastano, Maria Cristina; Lumbroso, Bruno
2015-11-01
To analyze the foveal microvasculature features in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) using optical coherence tomography angiography based on split spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography technology. A total of 10 BRVO eyes (mean age 64.2 ± 8.02 range between 52 years and 76 years) were evaluated by optical coherence tomography angiography (XR-Avanti; Optovue). The macular angiography scan protocol covered a 3 mm × 3 mm area. The focus of angiography analysis were two retinal layers: superficial vascular network and deep vascular network. The following vascular morphological congestion parameters were assessed in the vein occlusion area in both the superficial and deep networks: foveal avascular zone enlargement, capillary non-perfusion occurrence, microvascular abnormalities appearance, and vascular congestion signs. Image analyses were performed by 2 masked observers and interobserver agreement of image analyses was 0.90 (κ = 0.225, P network of BRVO, a decrease in capillary density with foveal avascular zone enlargement, capillary non-perfusion occurrence, and microvascular abnormalities appearance was observed (P network showed the main vascular congestion at the boundary between healthy and nonperfused retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography in BRVO allows to detect foveal avascular zone enlargement, capillary nonperfusion, microvascular abnormalities, and vascular congestion signs both in the superficial and deep capillary network in all eyes. Optical coherence tomography angiography technology is a potential clinical tool for BRVO diagnosis and follow-up, providing stratigraphic vascular details that have not been previously observed by standard fluorescein angiography. The normal retinal vascular nets and areas of nonperfusion and congestion can be identified at various retinal levels. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides noninvasive images of the retinal capillaries and vascular networks.
Search and Coherence-Building in Intuition and Insight Problem Solving
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Öllinger
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Coherence-building is a key concept for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight problem solving. There are several accounts that address certain aspects of coherence-building. However, there is still no proper framework defining the general principles of coherence-building. We propose a four-stage model of coherence-building. The first stage starts with spreading activation restricted by constraints. This dynamic is a well-defined rule based process. The second stage is characterized by detecting a coherent state. We adopted a fluency account assuming that the ease of information processing indicates the realization of a coherent state. The third stage is designated to evaluate the result of the coherence-building process and assess whether the given problem is solved or not. If the coherent state does not fit the requirements of the task, the process re-enters at stage 1. These three stages characterize intuition. For insight problem solving a fourth stage is necessary, which restructures the given representation after repeated failure, so that a new search space results. The new search space enables new coherent states. We provide a review of the most important findings, outline our model, present a large number of examples, deduce potential new paradigms and measures that might help to decipher the underlying cognitive processes.
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)
Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.M.
1986-12-01
Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered
Interpreting quantum coherence through a quantum measurement process
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2017-11-01
Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the quantification of coherence or other coherencelike concepts within the framework of quantum resource theory. However, rigorously defined or not, the notion of coherence or decoherence has already been used by the community for decades since the advent of quantum theory. Intuitively, the definitions of coherence and decoherence should be two sides of the same coin. Therefore, a natural question is raised: How can the conventional decoherence processes, such as the von Neumann-Lüders (projective) measurement postulation or partially dephasing channels, fit into the bigger picture of the recently established theoretical framework? Here we show that the state collapse rules of the von Neumann or Lüders-type measurements, as special cases of genuinely incoherent operations (GIOs), are consistent with the resource theories of quantum coherence. New hierarchical measures of coherence are proposed for the Lüders-type measurement and their relationship with measurement-dependent discord is addressed. Moreover, utilizing the fixed-point theory for C* algebra, we prove that GIOs indeed represent a particular type of partially dephasing (phase-damping) channels which have a matrix representation based on the Schur product. By virtue of the Stinespring dilation theorem, the physical realizations of incoherent operations are investigated in detail and we find that GIOs in fact constitute the core of strictly incoherent operations and generally incoherent operations and the unspeakable notion of coherence induced by GIOs can be transferred to the theories of speakable coherence by the corresponding permutation or relabeling operators.
Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.
1991-01-01
Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.
Identifying subgroups of CERME affect research papers
Hannula, Markku S.; Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Enrique
2017-01-01
Research in mathematics related affect uses a variety of theoretical frameworks. Three different dimensions have been suggested as significant to characterize concepts in this area: (1) emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of affect, (2) state and trait aspects of affect, and (3) physiological, psychological, and sociological level of theorizing affect. In this study, we used the information in reference lists and graph theory to identify Graph Communities (coherent clusters) of res...
On formation of a partially coherent beam in a stable-resonator laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suvorov, A A
2010-01-01
A new method involving the expansion of the field coherence function in partially coherent modes - the eigensolutions of the problem for the second-order coherence function in a stable resonator - is proposed for the theoretical description of the process of multimode laser beam formation. The method for solving the problem for arbitrary partially coherent modes is formulated and the expressions for these modes are derived in the general form. The characteristics of the fundamental partially coherent mode, which coincides with the coherence function of a Gaussian partially coherent beam, are analysed in detail. The partially coherent modes are shown to possess two spatial scales - the effective radius and the coherence radius, which makes them a convenient tool for solving the problem of generation of a partially coherent beam. It is found that the unambiguous relation between the characteristics of partially coherent modes and the stable-resonator parameters is achieved by involving into consideration not only the process of the beam formation by the resonator mirrors but also the process of interaction of radiation with the active laser medium. (laser beams and resonators)
Characterization of network structure in stereoEEG data using consensus-based partial coherence.
Ter Wal, Marije; Cardellicchio, Pasquale; LoRusso, Giorgio; Pelliccia, Veronica; Avanzini, Pietro; Orban, Guy A; Tiesinga, Paul He
2018-06-06
Coherence is a widely used measure to determine the frequency-resolved functional connectivity between pairs of recording sites, but this measure is confounded by shared inputs to the pair. To remove shared inputs, the 'partial coherence' can be computed by conditioning the spectral matrices of the pair on all other recorded channels, which involves the calculation of a matrix (pseudo-) inverse. It has so far remained a challenge to use the time-resolved partial coherence to analyze intracranial recordings with a large number of recording sites. For instance, calculating the partial coherence using a pseudoinverse method produces a high number of false positives when it is applied to a large number of channels. To address this challenge, we developed a new method that randomly aggregated channels into a smaller number of effective channels on which the calculation of partial coherence was based. We obtained a 'consensus' partial coherence (cPCOH) by repeating this approach for several random aggregations of channels (permutations) and only accepting those activations in time and frequency with a high enough consensus. Using model data we show that the cPCOH method effectively filters out the effect of shared inputs and performs substantially better than the pseudo-inverse. We successfully applied the cPCOH procedure to human stereotactic EEG data and demonstrated three key advantages of this method relative to alternative procedures. First, it reduces the number of false positives relative to the pseudo-inverse method. Second, it allows for titration of the amount of false positives relative to the false negatives by adjusting the consensus threshold, thus allowing the data-analyst to prioritize one over the other to meet specific analysis demands. Third, it substantially reduced the number of identified interactions compared to coherence, providing a sparser network of connections from which clear spatial patterns emerged. These patterns can serve as a starting
Analytic coherent states for generalized potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Simmons, L.M. Jr.
1978-01-01
A prescription is given for finding coherent states in generalized potentials. By coherent states is meant states which in time follow the motion that a classical particle would. This prescription is based upon finding those natural classical variables which vary as the sine and the cosine of the classical ω/sub c/t. As an example, the symmetric Rosen--Morse potential is discussed in detail
Completeness for coherent states in a magnetic–solenoid field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V G; Gavrilov, S P; Gitman, D M; Górska, K
2012-01-01
This paper completes our study of coherent states in the so-called magnetic–solenoid field (a collinear combination of a constant uniform magnetic field and Aharonov–Bohm solenoid field) presented in Bagrov et al (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 354016, 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 055301). Here, we succeeded in proving nontrivial completeness relations for non-relativistic and relativistic coherent states in such a field. In addition, we solve here the relevant Stieltjes moment problem and present a comparative analysis of our coherent states and the well-known, in the case of pure uniform magnetic field, Malkin–Man’ko coherent states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Simultaneous radiochemotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.
1993-01-01
Simultaneous radiochemotherapy (RCT) means the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The major objective of this approach is the improvement of local control. On the cellular level, three types of interactions may be distinguished: Additivity, synergism, and sensibilization. The main type of interaction seems to be a simple additive effect. The clinical effect of a simultaneous chemotherapy depends mainly on the cytotoxic action of the drug itself and not on radiosensibilization. Therefore, effective chemotherapeutic drugs are to be delivered in cytotoxic dosages in RCT protocols. Compromises in radiotherapy as the main modality should be avoided. Recent clinical data have shown that simultaneous radiochemotherapy may yield heigh remission rates in a number of tumor entities (e.g. anal cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer). This seems to improve local control as compared to radiotherapy alone. In some tumors (e.g. head and neck, esophagus), survival may be improved also. However, several questions require future detailed clinical trials. These questions include the value of simultaneous radiochemotherapy compared to optimal fractionation schemes, the clear definition of subgroups of patients with benefit by radiochemotherapy and the optimal dose intensity of cytotoxic drugs. (orig.) [de
Propagation of partially coherent vector anomalous vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere
Zhang, Xu; Wang, Haiyan; Tang, Lei
2018-01-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe a partially coherent vector anomalous vortex(AV) beam. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, analytical propagation formula for the proposed beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived. The spectral properties of the partially coherent vector AV beam are explored by using the unified theory of coherence and polarization in detail. It is interesting to find that the turbulence of atmosphere and the source parameter of the partially coherent vector AV beam( order, topological charge, coherence length, beam waist size etc) have significantly impacted the propagation properties of the partially coherent vector AV beam in turbulent atmosphere.
Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novokhatski, Alexander
2012-01-01
The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum
Simultaneous segmentation of retinal surfaces and microcystic macular edema in SDOCT volumes
Antony, Bhavna J.; Lang, Andrew; Swingle, Emily K.; Al-Louzi, Omar; Carass, Aaron; Solomon, Sharon; Calabresi, Peter A.; Saidha, Shiv; Prince, Jerry L.
2016-03-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that has begun to find widespread use in retinal imaging for the detection of a variety of ocular diseases. In addition to structural changes in the form of altered retinal layer thicknesses, pathological conditions may also cause the formation of edema within the retina. In multiple sclerosis, for instance, the nerve fiber and ganglion cell layers are known to thin. Additionally, the formation of pseudocysts called microcystic macular edema (MME) have also been observed in the eyes of about 5% of MS patients, and its presence has been shown to be correlated with disease severity. Previously, we proposed separate algorithms for the segmentation of retinal layers and MME, but since MME mainly occurs within specific regions of the retina, a simultaneous approach is advantageous. In this work, we propose an automated globally optimal graph-theoretic approach that simultaneously segments the retinal layers and the MME in volumetric OCT scans. SD-OCT scans from one eye of 12 MS patients with known MME and 8 healthy controls were acquired and the pseudocysts manually traced. The overall precision and recall of the pseudocyst detection was found to be 86.0% and 79.5%, respectively.
Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.
Quantifying quantum coherence with quantum Fisher information.
Feng, X N; Wei, L F
2017-11-14
Quantum coherence is one of the old but always important concepts in quantum mechanics, and now it has been regarded as a necessary resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, the question of how to quantify the quantum coherence has just been paid the attention recently (see, e.g., Baumgratz et al. PRL, 113. 140401 (2014)). In this paper we verify that the well-known quantum Fisher information (QFI) can be utilized to quantify the quantum coherence, as it satisfies the monotonicity under the typical incoherent operations and the convexity under the mixing of the quantum states. Differing from most of the pure axiomatic methods, quantifying quantum coherence by QFI could be experimentally testable, as the bound of the QFI is practically measurable. The validity of our proposal is specifically demonstrated with the typical phase-damping and depolarizing evolution processes of a generic single-qubit state, and also by comparing it with the other quantifying methods proposed previously.
Enhanced coherent undulator radiation from bunched electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.; Smith, T.I.
1996-01-01
When energetic bunches of electrons traverse an undulator field, they can spontaneously emit radiation both coherently and incoherently. Although it has generally been assumed that undulator radiation is incoherent at wavelengths short compared to the longitudinal size of the electron bunch, several recent observations have proved this assumption false. Furthermore, the appearance of coherent radiation is often accompanied by a significant increase in radiated power. Here we report observations of strongly enhanced coherent spontaneous radiation together with direct measurements, using transition radiation techniques, of the electron distributions responsible for the coherent emission. We also report demonstrated enhancements in the predicted spontaneous radiated power by as much as 6x10 4 using electron bunch compression. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Coherent methods in X-ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorobtsov, Oleg
2017-05-01
X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity
Coherent methods in X-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorobtsov, Oleg
2017-05-15
X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity
von Neumann's hypothesis concerning coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zak, J
2003-01-01
An orthonormal basis of modified coherent states is constructed. Each member of the basis is an infinite sum of coherent states on a von Neumann lattice. A single state is assigned to each unit cell of area h (Planck constant) in the phase plane. The uncertainties of the coordinate x and the square of the momentum p 2 for these states are shown to be similar to those for the usual coherent states. Expansions in the newly established set are discussed and it is shown that any function in the kq-representation can be written as a sum of two fixed kq-functions. Approximate commuting operators for x and p 2 are defined on a lattice in phase plane according to von Neumann's prescription. (leeter to the editor)
Coherence in the Danish Healthcare System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Jesper; Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel
2017-01-01
In this article, we investigate ‘coherence in healthcare’ as a strategy of welfare policy. We conduct our investigation within the theoretical and methodological framework of Scandinavian praxeology, and we construct our empirical data from Danish administrative documents. The tools and terms...... of this tradition are used to generate data from discourse as representations of institutional logics. The aim is to uncover how coherence in healthcare emerges as different strategies in healthcare governance in relation to different institutions seen as positions. Hence, our findings suggest that, although...... the stated aim in policy is to improve coherence in healthcare for the benefit of the patients, various ambiguities within the institutions producing policy tend to maintain a certain order rather than introducing changes. Furthermore, we discuss how this section of the welfare state, examined in relation...
Coherence and incoherence collective behavior in financial market
Zhao, Shangmei; Xie, Qiuchao; Lu, Qing; Jiang, Xin; Chen, Wei
2015-10-01
Financial markets have been extensively studied as highly complex evolving systems. In this paper, we quantify financial price fluctuations through a coupled dynamical system composed of phase oscillators. We find that a Financial Coherence and Incoherence (FCI) coexistence collective behavior emerges as the system evolves into the stable state, in which the stocks split into two groups: one is represented by coherent, phase-locked oscillators, the other is composed of incoherent, drifting oscillators. It is demonstrated that the size of the coherent stock groups fluctuates during the economic periods according to real-world financial instabilities or shocks. Further, we introduce the coherent characteristic matrix to characterize the involvement dynamics of stocks in the coherent groups. Clustering results on the matrix provides a novel manifestation of the correlations among stocks in the economic periods. Our analysis for components of the groups is consistent with the Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) classification and can also figure out features for newly developed industries. These results can provide potentially implications on characterizing the inner dynamical structure of financial markets and making optimal investment into tragedies.
Music increases frontal EEG coherence during verbal learning.
Peterson, David A; Thaut, Michael H
2007-02-02
Anecdotal and some empirical evidence suggests that music can enhance learning and memory. However, the mechanisms by which music modulates the neural activity associated with learning and memory remain largely unexplored. We evaluated coherent frontal oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) while subjects were engaged in a modified version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Subjects heard either a spoken version of the AVLT or the conventional AVLT word list sung. Learning-related changes in coherence (LRCC) were measured by comparing the EEG during word encoding on correctly recalled trials to the immediately preceding trial on which the same word was not recalled. There were no significant changes in coherence associated with conventional verbal learning. However, musical verbal learning was associated with increased coherence within and between left and right frontal areas in theta, alpha, and gamma frequency bands. It is unlikely that the different patterns of LRCC reflect general performance differences; the groups exhibited similar learning performance. The results suggest that verbal learning with a musical template strengthens coherent oscillations in frontal cortical networks involved in verbal encoding.
Quantum Coherent Dynamics Enhanced by Synchronization with Nonequilibrium Environments
Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Ryo; Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Hori, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
2018-05-01
We report the discovery of the anomalous enhancement of quantum coherent dynamics (CD) due to a non-Markovian mechanism originating from not thermal-equilibrium phonon baths but nonequilibrium coherent phonons. CD is an elementary process for quantum phenomena in nanosystems, such as excitation transfer (ET) in semiconductor nanostructures and light-harvesting systems. CD occurs in homogeneous nanosystems because system inhomogeneity typically destroys coherence. In real systems, however, nanosystems behave as open systems surrounded by environments such as phonon systems. Typically, CD in inhomogeneous nanosystems is enhanced by the absorption and emission of thermal-equilibrium phonons, and the enhancement is described by the conventional master equation. On the other hand, CD is also enhanced by synchronization between population dynamics in nanosystems and coherent phonons; namely, coherent phonons, which are self-consistently induced by phase matching with Rabi oscillation, are fed back to enhance CD. This anomalous enhancement of CD essentially originates from the nonequilibrium and dynamical non-Markovian nature of coherent phonon environments, and the enhancement is firstly predicted by applying time-dependent projection operators to nonequilibrium and dynamical environments. Moreover, CD is discussed by considering ET from a donor to an acceptor. It is found that the enhancement of ET by synchronization with coherent phonons depends on the competition between the output time from a system to an acceptor and the formation time of coherent phonons. These findings in this study will stimulate the design and manipulation of CD via structured environments from the viewpoint of application to nano-photoelectronic devices.
Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields
Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.
2004-01-01
A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each
Understanding photon sideband statistics and correlation for determining phonon coherence
Ding, Ding; Yin, Xiaobo; Li, Baowen
2018-01-01
Generating and detecting coherent high-frequency heat-carrying phonons have been topics of great interest in recent years. Although there have been successful attempts in generating and observing coherent phonons, rigorous techniques to characterize and detect phonon coherence in a crystalline material have been lagging compared to what has been achieved for photons. One main challenge is a lack of detailed understanding of how detection signals for phonons can be related to coherence. The quantum theory of photoelectric detection has greatly advanced the ability to characterize photon coherence in the past century, and a similar theory for phonon detection is necessary. Here, we reexamine the optical sideband fluorescence technique that has been used to detect high-frequency phonons in materials with optically active defects. We propose a quantum theory of phonon detection using the sideband technique and found that there are distinct differences in sideband counting statistics between thermal and coherent phonons. We further propose a second-order correlation function unique to sideband signals that allows for a rigorous distinction between thermal and coherent phonons. Our theory is relevant to a correlation measurement with nontrivial response functions at the quantum level and can potentially bridge the gap of experimentally determining phonon coherence to be on par with that of photons.
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-01-01
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Li, Shuanghong; Cao, Hongliang; Yang, Yupu
2018-02-01
Fault diagnosis is a key process for the reliability and safety of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. However, it is difficult to rapidly and accurately identify faults for complicated SOFC systems, especially when simultaneous faults appear. In this research, a data-driven Multi-Label (ML) pattern identification approach is proposed to address the simultaneous fault diagnosis of SOFC systems. The framework of the simultaneous-fault diagnosis primarily includes two components: feature extraction and ML-SVM classifier. The simultaneous-fault diagnosis approach can be trained to diagnose simultaneous SOFC faults, such as fuel leakage, air leakage in different positions in the SOFC system, by just using simple training data sets consisting only single fault and not demanding simultaneous faults data. The experimental result shows the proposed framework can diagnose the simultaneous SOFC system faults with high accuracy requiring small number training data and low computational burden. In addition, Fault Inference Tree Analysis (FITA) is employed to identify the correlations among possible faults and their corresponding symptoms at the system component level.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics; Estados coerentes em mecanica quantica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Godfroid, Jacques; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Helena Nymo, Ingebjørg
2016-10-01
In cases of chronic Brucella spp. infection, results of the rose bengal plate test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) should be coherent, as reported in controlled conditions in the literature. We compared RBPT and ELISA results in 58 Alaska grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis), eight Kodiak brown bears ( Ursus arctos middendorffi), and six Alaska Peninsula brown bears ( Ursus arctos gyas). Of the 72 bears tested, 42 (58%) were ELISA positive and 53 (73%) were RBPT positive. However, the coherence between the tests was only fair (K=0.37, SE=0.11), suggesting that either the serologic results were not compatible with Brucella spp. infection or that there was a technical problem with the tests. To address a potential technical problem, we performed a 30-min chloroform/centrifugation cleanup. Following cleanup, the ELISA identified 43 positives (59%) and the RBPT identified 47 (65%), and the coherence between the tests was much improved (K=0.80, SE=0.07). We recommend cleaning wildlife sera with a high lipid content before performing RBPT and performing RBPT and ELISA in parallel to assess coherence. Our results suggest that Alaskan brown bears have been exposed to Brucella spp.
Coherent states on horospheric three-dimensional Lobachevsky space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurochkin, Yu., E-mail: y.kurochkin@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Shoukavy, Dz., E-mail: shoukavy@ifanbel.bas-net.by [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Rybak, I., E-mail: Ivan.Rybak@astro.up.pt [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnasci Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2016-08-15
In the paper it is shown that due to separation of variables in the Laplace-Beltrami operator (Hamiltonian of a free quantum particle) in horospheric and quasi-Cartesian coordinates of three dimensional Lobachevsky space, it is possible to introduce standard (“conventional” according to Perelomov [Generalized Coherent States and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, 1986), p. 320]) coherent states. Some problems (oscillator on horosphere, charged particle in analogy of constant uniform magnetic field) where coherent states are suitable for treating were considered.
Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases.
Hofferberth, S; Lesanovsky, I; Fischer, B; Schumm, T; Schmiedmayer, J
2007-09-20
Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However, it remains a challenge to probe the dynamics by which this equilibrium state is reached. Here we present a direct experimental study of the coherence dynamics in both isolated and coupled degenerate 1D Bose gases. Dynamic splitting is used to create two 1D systems in a phase coherent state. The time evolution of the coherence is revealed through local phase shifts of the subsequently observed interference patterns. Completely isolated 1D Bose gases are observed to exhibit universal sub-exponential coherence decay, in excellent agreement with recent predictions. For two coupled 1D Bose gases, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena.
Extracting subsurface fingerprints using optical coherence tomography
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Akhoury, SS
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Subsurface Fingerprints using Optical Coherence Tomography Sharat Saurabh Akhoury, Luke Nicholas Darlow Modelling and Digital Science, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract Physiologists have found... approach to extract the subsurface fingerprint representation using a high-resolution imaging technology known as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). ...
Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E
2012-01-01
To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....
Exploring phase space using smartphone acceleration and rotation sensors simultaneously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C
2014-01-01
A paradigmatic physical system as the physical pendulum is experimentally studied using the acceleration and rotation (gyroscope) sensors available on smartphones and other devices such as iPads and tablets. A smartphone is fixed to the outside of a bicycle wheel whose axis is kept horizontal and fixed. The compound system, wheel plus smartphone, defines a physical pendulum which can rotate, giving full turns in one direction, or oscillate about the equilibrium position (performing either small or large oscillations). Measurements of the radial and tangential acceleration and the angular velocity obtained with smartphone sensors allow a deep insight into the dynamics of the system to be gained. In addition, thanks to the simultaneous use of the acceleration and rotation sensors, trajectories in the phase space are directly obtained. The coherence of the measures obtained with the different sensors and by traditional methods is remarkable. Indeed, due to their low cost and increasing availability, smartphone sensors are valuable tools that can be used in most undergraduate laboratories. (paper)
Exploring phase space using smartphone acceleration and rotation sensors simultaneously
Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.
2014-07-01
A paradigmatic physical system as the physical pendulum is experimentally studied using the acceleration and rotation (gyroscope) sensors available on smartphones and other devices such as iPads and tablets. A smartphone is fixed to the outside of a bicycle wheel whose axis is kept horizontal and fixed. The compound system, wheel plus smartphone, defines a physical pendulum which can rotate, giving full turns in one direction, or oscillate about the equilibrium position (performing either small or large oscillations). Measurements of the radial and tangential acceleration and the angular velocity obtained with smartphone sensors allow a deep insight into the dynamics of the system to be gained. In addition, thanks to the simultaneous use of the acceleration and rotation sensors, trajectories in the phase space are directly obtained. The coherence of the measures obtained with the different sensors and by traditional methods is remarkable. Indeed, due to their low cost and increasing availability, smartphone sensors are valuable tools that can be used in most undergraduate laboratories.
Managerial level, managerial motivation and sense of coherence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MG Coetzee
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The first objective of the study was to assess whether the dimensions of Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence (SOC scale correlated positively with those of the Managerial Motivation scale (MMQ. The second objective was to establish whether managers and supervisors differed with regard to sense of coherence and managerial motivation. The respondents were 124 employees of the Agricultural Research Council. None of the sense of coherence scales correlated with Attitude towards authority figures (MMQ. Also, Meaningfulness (SOC and Willingness to conduct administrative functions (MMQ did not correlate. However, the remainder of the correlations supported the hypothesis, indicating a strong positive relationship between managerial motivation and sense of coherence. Statistically significant differences between managers and supervisors were obtained for only two variables, namely Meaningfulness (SOC and Power motive (MMQ.
Longitudinal profile monitors using Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, H.L.; Bakkali Taheri, F.; Barros, J.; Bartolini, R.; Cassinari, L.; Clarke, C.; Le Corre, S.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Fuster-Martinez, N.; Konoplev, I.; Labat, M.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Stevenson, S.; Vieille Grosjean, M.
2014-01-01
Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation has the potential of providing information on the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch. The E-203 experiment at the FACET User Facility measures bunch profiles from the SLAC linac in the hundreds of femtoseconds range and the SPESO collaboration at Synchrotron SOLEIL is planning to make an accurate 2D map of the Coherent Smith–Purcell Radiation emission. - Highlights: • Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation can be used to measure longitudinal profiles in the hundred femtoseconds range. • The current setup used by the E-203 collaboration require integration over several shots and gratings. • Reducing the integration over a single shot and a single grating still yields a meaning full result. • The SPESO experiment at SOLEIL will make a systematic study of Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation
Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Xu
spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...
Evaluating the role of reentrant output-to-input feedback in simultaneous pattern processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Achler, Tsvi [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Simultaneous Pattern Processing (SPP) is defined as the ability to identify simultaneous-intermixed patterns without isolating them individually (e.g. without separating each pattern in space and processing it individually). Enhanced SPP ability is beneficial for many real-life applications such as scene understanding, separating simultaneous voices, and identifying odorant or taste mixes. The first part of this work identifies how SPP scenarios are problematic to models which train synaptic connections or implement lateral inhibition and quantifies how subtle difficulties lead to complex combinatorial issues. The second part of this work proposes and tests an algorithm motivated by Ubiquitous re-entrant 'output to input' connections found throughout sensory processing regions of the brain. Through these connections the model proposes a dynamic gain mechanism that can provide functionality normally achieved through variable synaptic connections. The re-entrant structure combined with enhanced perfonnance suggests the brain may utilize this configuration for SPP flexibility.
Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.
2007-01-01
This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).
Subgingival calculus imaging based on swept-source optical coherence tomography
Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lu, Chih-Wei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei
2011-07-01
We characterized and imaged dental calculus using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum, and calculus were measured as 1.625 +/- 0.024, 1.534 +/- 0.029, 1.570 +/- 0.021, and 2.097 +/- 0.094, respectively. Dental calculus leads strong scattering properties, and thus, the region can be identified from enamel with SS-OCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus is covered with gingiva tissue as an in vitro sample for tomographic imaging.
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Jurco, B
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}
Affine coherent states and Toeplitz operators
Hutníková, Mária; Hutník, Ondrej
2012-06-01
We study a parameterized family of Toeplitz operators in the context of affine coherent states based on the Calderón reproducing formula (= resolution of unity on L_2( {R})) and the specific admissible wavelets (= affine coherent states in L_2( {R})) related to Laguerre functions. Symbols of such Calderón-Toeplitz operators as individual coordinates of the affine group (= upper half-plane with the hyperbolic geometry) are considered. In this case, a certain class of pseudo-differential operators, their properties and their operator algebras are investigated. As a result of this study, the Fredholm symbol algebras of the Calderón-Toeplitz operator algebras for these particular cases of symbols are described. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Gabr, Hesham; Chen, Xi; Zevallos-Carrasco, Oscar M; Viehland, Christian; Dandrige, Alexandria; Sarin, Neeru; Mahmoud, Tamer H; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A
2018-01-10
To evaluate the use of live volumetric (4D) intraoperative swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography in vitrectomy for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications. In this prospective study, we analyzed a subgroup of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications who required vitrectomy and who were imaged by the research swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography system. In near real time, images were displayed in stereo heads-up display facilitating intraoperative surgeon feedback. Postoperative review included scoring image quality, identifying different diabetic retinopathy-associated pathologies and reviewing the intraoperatively documented surgeon feedback. Twenty eyes were included. Indications for vitrectomy were tractional retinal detachment (16 eyes), combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (2 eyes), and vitreous hemorrhage (2 eyes). Useful, good-quality 2D (B-scans) and 4D images were obtained in 16/20 eyes (80%). In these eyes, multiple diabetic retinopathy complications could be imaged. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography provided surgical guidance, e.g., in identifying dissection planes under fibrovascular membranes, and in determining residual membranes and traction that would benefit from additional peeling. In 4/20 eyes (20%), acceptable images were captured, but they were not useful due to high tractional retinal detachment elevation which was challenging for imaging. Swept-source microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography can provide important guidance during surgery for proliferative diabetic retinopathy complications through intraoperative identification of different complications and facilitation of intraoperative decision making.
Hemispheric Coherence in ASD with and without Comorbid ADHD and Anxiety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Saunders
2016-01-01
Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that altered brain connectivity may be a defining feature of disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD, anxiety, and ADHD. This study investigated whether resting state functional connectivity, measured by 128-channel EEG oscillation coherence, differs between developmental disorders. Analyses were conducted separately on groups with and without comorbid conditions. Analyses revealed increased coherence across central electrodes over the primary motor cortex and decreased coherence in the frontal lobe networks in those with ASD compared to neurotypical controls. There was increased coherence in occipital lobe networks in the ADHD group compared to other groups. Symptoms of generalised anxiety were positively correlated with both frontal-occipital intrahemispheric (alpha only coherence and occipital interhemispheric coherence (alpha, approaching theta band. The patterns of coherence in the ASD pure group were different when comorbid conditions were included in the analyses, suggesting that aberrant coherence in the frontal and central areas of the brain is specifically associated with ASD. Our findings support the idea that comorbid conditions are additive, rather than being symptoms of the same disorder.
Hemispheric Coherence in ASD with and without Comorbid ADHD and Anxiety.
Saunders, A; Kirk, I J; Waldie, K E
2016-01-01
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that altered brain connectivity may be a defining feature of disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), anxiety, and ADHD. This study investigated whether resting state functional connectivity, measured by 128-channel EEG oscillation coherence, differs between developmental disorders. Analyses were conducted separately on groups with and without comorbid conditions. Analyses revealed increased coherence across central electrodes over the primary motor cortex and decreased coherence in the frontal lobe networks in those with ASD compared to neurotypical controls. There was increased coherence in occipital lobe networks in the ADHD group compared to other groups. Symptoms of generalised anxiety were positively correlated with both frontal-occipital intrahemispheric (alpha only) coherence and occipital interhemispheric coherence (alpha, approaching theta band). The patterns of coherence in the ASD pure group were different when comorbid conditions were included in the analyses, suggesting that aberrant coherence in the frontal and central areas of the brain is specifically associated with ASD. Our findings support the idea that comorbid conditions are additive, rather than being symptoms of the same disorder.
The classical correlation limits the ability of the measurement-induced average coherence
Zhang, Jun; Yang, Si-Ren; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-Shui
2017-04-01
Coherence is the most fundamental quantum feature in quantum mechanics. For a bipartite quantum state, if a measurement is performed on one party, the other party, based on the measurement outcomes, will collapse to a corresponding state with some probability and hence gain the average coherence. It is shown that the average coherence is not less than the coherence of its reduced density matrix. In particular, it is very surprising that the extra average coherence (and the maximal extra average coherence with all the possible measurements taken into account) is upper bounded by the classical correlation of the bipartite state instead of the quantum correlation. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition for the null maximal extra average coherence. Some examples demonstrate the relation and, moreover, show that quantum correlation is neither sufficient nor necessary for the nonzero extra average coherence within a given measurement. In addition, the similar conclusions are drawn for both the basis-dependent and the basis-free coherence measure.
Preparation of freezing quantum state for quantum coherence
Yang, Lian-Wu; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Feng; Du, Shao-jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie
2018-06-01
We provide a method to prepare the freezing quantum state for quantum coherence via unitary operations. The initial product state consists of the control qubit and target qubit; when it satisfies certain conditions, the initial product state converts into the particular Bell diagonal state under the unitary operations, which have the property of freezing of quantum coherence under quantum channels. We calculate the frozen quantum coherence and corresponding quantum correlations, and find that the quantities are determined by the control qubit only when the freezing phenomena occur.
Generalized coherent states for the Coulomb problem in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouri, S.
2002-01-01
A set of generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem in coordinate representation is constructed. At first, we obtain a mapping for proper transformation of the one-dimensional Coulomb problem into a nonrotating four-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator in the hyperspherical space, and the generalized coherent states for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem is then obtained in exact closed form. This exactly soluble model can provide an adequate means for a quantum coherency description of the Coulomb problem in one dimension, sample for coherent aspects of the exciton model in one-dimension example in high-temperature superconductivity, semiconductors, and polymers. Also, it can be useful for investigating the coherent scattering of the Coulomb particles in one dimension
Novel coherent supercontinuum light sources based on all-normal dispersion fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidt, Alexander
2011-07-05
The concept of broadband coherent supercontinuum (SC) generation in all-normal dispersion (ANDi) fibers in the near-infrared, visible and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions is introduced and investigated in detail. In numerical studies, explicit design criteria are established for ANDi photonic crystal fiber (PCF) designs that allow the generation of flat and smooth ultrabroad spectral profiles without significant fine structure and with excellent stability and coherence properties. The key benefit of SC generation in ANDi fibers is the conservation of a single ultrashort pulse in the time domain with smooth and recompressible phase distribution. In the numerical investigation of the SC generation dynamics self-phase modulation and optical wave breaking are identified as the dominant nonlinear effects responsible for the nonlinear spectral broadening. It is further demonstrated that coherence properties, spectral bandwidth and temporal compressibility are independent of input pulse duration for constant peak power. The numerical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental results obtained in two realizations of ANDi PCF optimized for the near-infrared and visible spectral region. In these experiments, the broadest SC spectrum generated in the normal dispersion regime of an optical fiber to date is achieved. The exceptional temporal properties of the generated SC pulses are verified experimentally and their applicability for the time-resolved study of molecular dynamics in ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is demonstrated. In an additional nonlinear pulse compression experiment, the SC pulses obtained in a short piece of ANDi PCF could be temporally recompressed to sub-two cycle durations by linear chirp compensation. Numerical simulations show that even shorter pulse durations with excellent quality can be achieved by full phase compensation. The concept is further extended into the UV spectral regime by considering tapered optical fibers with
Coherent-feedback-induced controllable optical bistability and photon blockade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Zhong-Peng; Zhang, Jing
2015-01-01
It is well known that some nonlinear phenomena such as strong photon blockade are difficult to observe in optomechanical systems with current experimental technology. Here we present a coherent feedback control strategy in which a linear cavity is coherently controlled by an optomechanical controller in a feedback manner. The coherent feedback loop transfers quantum nonlinearity from the controller to the controlled cavity causing destructive quantum interference to occur, and making it possible to observe strong nonlinear effects. With the help of the coherent feedback loop, large and tunable bistability and strong photon blockade of the cavity modes can be achieved even in the optomechanical weak coupling regime. Additionally, the coherent feedback loop leads to two-photon and multiphoton tunnelings for the controlled linear cavity, which are also typical quantum nonlinear phenomena. We hope that our work can give new perspectives on engineering nonlinear interactions in quantum systems. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Yoshinori; Kimura, Takashi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Joti, Yasumasa; Bessho, Yoshitaka
2017-01-01
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) with femtosecond pulse duration offer an innovative solution to transcend the spatial resolution limitation in conventional X-ray imaging for biological samples and soft matters by clearing up the radiation damage problem using the “diffraction-before-destruction” strategy. Building on this strategy, the authors are developing a method to image solution sample under controlled environment, pulsed coherent X-ray solution scattering (PCXSS), using XFELs and phase retrieval algorithms in coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). This article describes the basics of PCXSS and examples of PCXSS measurement, for a living cell and self-assemblies of gold nanoparticles, performed by the authors using SACLA. An attempt toward the industrial application of PCXSS is also described. (author)
Ultra-broadband ptychography with self-consistent coherence estimation from a high harmonic source
Odstrčil, M.; Baksh, P.; Kim, H.; Boden, S. A.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Frey, J. G.
2015-09-01
With the aim of improving imaging using table-top extreme ultraviolet sources, we demonstrate coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with relative bandwidth of 20%. The coherence properties of the illumination probe are identified using the same imaging setup. The presented methods allows for the use of fewer monochromating optics, obtaining higher flux at the sample and thus reach higher resolution or shorter exposure time. This is important in the case of ptychography when a large number of diffraction patterns need to be collected. Our microscopy setup was tested on a reconstruction of an extended sample to show the quality of the reconstruction. We show that high harmonic generation based EUV tabletop microscope can provide reconstruction of samples with a large field of view and high resolution without additional prior knowledge about the sample or illumination.
Coherent states, pseudodifferential analysis and arithmetic
Unterberger, André
2012-06-01
Basic questions regarding families of coherent states include describing some constructions of such and the way they can be applied to operator theory or partial differential equations. In both questions, pseudodifferential analysis is important. Recent developments indicate that they can contribute to methods in arithmetic, especially modular form theory. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.
Cumulant-Based Coherent Signal Subspace Method for Bearing and Range Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bourennane Salah
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A new method for simultaneous range and bearing estimation for buried objects in the presence of an unknown Gaussian noise is proposed. This method uses the MUSIC algorithm with noise subspace estimated by using the slice fourth-order cumulant matrix of the received data. The higher-order statistics aim at the removal of the additive unknown Gaussian noise. The bilinear focusing operator is used to decorrelate the received signals and to estimate the coherent signal subspace. A new source steering vector is proposed including the acoustic scattering model at each sensor. Range and bearing of the objects at each sensor are expressed as a function of those at the first sensor. This leads to the improvement of object localization anywhere, in the near-field or in the far-field zone of the sensor array. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are validated on data recorded during experiments in a water tank.
Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina
2015-01-01
Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...
Unraveling the nature of coherent beatings in chlorosomes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dostál, Jakub [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Mančal, Tomáš; Pšenčík, Jakub [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Vácha, František [Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Zigmantas, Donatas, E-mail: donatas.zigmantas@chemphys.lu.se [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)
2014-03-21
Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy at 80 K was used to study chlorosomes isolated from green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. Two distinct processes in the evolution of the 2D spectrum are observed. The first being exciton diffusion, seen in the change of the spectral shape occurring on a 100-fs timescale, and the second being vibrational coherences, realized through coherent beatings with frequencies of 91 and 145 cm{sup −1} that are dephased during the first 1.2 ps. The distribution of the oscillation amplitude in the 2D spectra is independent of the evolution of the 2D spectral shape. This implies that the diffusion energy transfer process does not transfer coherences within the chlorosome. Remarkably, the oscillatory pattern observed in the negative regions of the 2D spectrum (dominated by the excited state absorption) is a mirror image of the oscillations found in the positive part (originating from the stimulated emission and ground state bleach). This observation is surprising since it is expected that coherences in the electronic ground and excited states are generated with the same probability and the latter dephase faster in the presence of fast diffusion. Moreover, the relative amplitude of coherent beatings is rather high compared to non-oscillatory signal despite the reported low values of the Huang-Rhys factors. The origin of these effects is discussed in terms of the vibronic and Herzberg-Teller couplings.
A Study of Coherent Structures using Wavelet Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaspersen, J H
1996-05-01
Turbulence is important in many fields of engineering, for example in estimating drag or minimizing drag on surfaces. It is known that turbulent flows contain coherent structures, which implies that a turbulent shear flow can be decomposed into coherent structures and random motion. It is generally accepted that coherent structures are responsible for significant transport of mass, heat and momentum. This doctoral thesis presents and discusses a new algorithm to detect coherent structures based on Wavelet transformations, a transform similar to the Fourier transform but providing information on both frequency and scale. The new detection scheme does not require any predefined threshold or integration time, and its general performance is found to be very good. Wind tunnel experiments were performed to obtain data for analysis. Scalograms resulting from the Wavelet transform show clearly that coherent structures exist in turbulent flows. These structures are shown to contribute considerably to the shear stresses. The contribution from the organized motion to the normal stresses close to the wall appears to be considerably smaller. Direct Navier Stokes (DNS) channel flow seems to be more organized than Zero Pressure Gradient (ZPG) flows. The topology of ZPG flows was studied using a multiple hot wire arrangement and conditionally averaged streamlines based on detections from the Wavelet method are presented. It is shown that the coherent structures produce large amounts of both vorticity and strain at the detection point. 56 refs., 92 figs., 3 tabs.
Towards phase-coherent caloritronics in superconducting circuits
Fornieri, Antonio; Giazotto, Francesco
2017-10-01
The emerging field of phase-coherent caloritronics (from the Latin word calor, heat) is based on the possibility of controlling heat currents by using the phase difference of the superconducting order parameter. The goal is to design and implement thermal devices that can control energy transfer with a degree of accuracy approaching that reached for charge transport by contemporary electronic components. This can be done by making use of the macroscopic quantum coherence intrinsic to superconducting condensates, which manifests itself through the Josephson effect and the proximity effect. Here, we review recent experimental results obtained in the realization of heat interferometers and thermal rectifiers, and discuss a few proposals for exotic nonlinear phase-coherent caloritronic devices, such as thermal transistors, solid-state memories, phase-coherent heat splitters, microwave refrigerators, thermal engines and heat valves. Besides being attractive from the fundamental physics point of view, these systems are expected to have a vast impact on many cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, and possibly lay the first stone for the foundation of electronic thermal logic.
Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen; Pham, Thao; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Fantini, Sergio
2018-02-01
Hemodynamic-based neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sense hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue. The local concentration of hemoglobin, which is differentiated into oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin by NIRS, features spontaneous oscillations over time scales of 10-100 s in response to a number of local and systemic physiological processes. If one of such processes becomes the dominant source of cerebral hemodynamics, there is a high coherence between this process and the associated hemodynamics. In this work, we report a method to identify such conditions of coherent hemodynamics, which may be exploited to study and quantify microvasculature and microcirculation properties. We discuss how a critical value of significant coherence may depend on the specific data collection scheme (for example, the total acquisition time) and the nature of the hemodynamic data (in particular, oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS show an intrinsic level of correlation that must be taken into account). A frequency-resolved study of coherent hemodynamics is the basis for the new technique of coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS), which aims to provide measures of cerebral blood flow and cerebral autoregulation. While these concepts apply in principle to both fMRI and NIRS data, in this article we focus on NIRS data.
Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J
2016-01-01
Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057
Spatial smoothing coherence factor for ultrasound computed tomography
Lou, Cuijuan; Xu, Mengling; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming
2016-04-01
In recent years, many research studies have been carried out on ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) for its application prospect in early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper applies four kinds of coherence-factor-like beamforming methods to improve the image quality of synthetic aperture focusing method for USCT, including the coherence-factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), the sign coherence factor (SCF) and the spatial smoothing coherence factor (SSCF) (proposed in our previous work). The performance of these methods was tested with simulated raw data which were generated by the ultrasound simulation software PZFlex 2014. The simulated phantom was set to be water of 4cm diameter with three nylon objects of different diameters inside. The ring-type transducer had 72 elements with a center frequency of 1MHz. The results show that all the methods can reveal the biggest nylon circle with the radius of 2.5mm. SSCF gets the highest SNR among the proposed methods and provides a more homogenous background. None of these methods can reveal the two smaller nylon circles with the radius of 0.75mm and 0.25mm. This may be due to the small number of elements.
Geometric phases for nonlinear coherent and squeezed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Dabao; Chen Ying; Chen Jingling; Zhang Fulin
2011-01-01
The geometric phases for standard coherent states which are widely used in quantum optics have attracted considerable attention. Nevertheless, few physicists consider the counterparts of nonlinear coherent states, which are useful in the description of the motion of a trapped ion. In this paper, the non-unitary and non-cyclic geometric phases for two nonlinear coherent and one squeezed states are formulated, respectively. Moreover, some of their common properties are discussed, such as gauge invariance, non-locality and nonlinear effects. The nonlinear functions have dramatic impacts on the evolution of the corresponding geometric phases. They speed the evolution up or down. So this property may have an application in controlling or measuring geometric phase. For the squeezed case, when the squeezed parameter r → ∞, the limiting value of the geometric phase is also determined by a nonlinear function at a given time and angular velocity. In addition, the geometric phases for standard coherent and squeezed states are obtained under a particular condition. When the time evolution undergoes a period, their corresponding cyclic geometric phases are achieved as well. And the distinction between the geometric phases of the two coherent states may be regarded as a geometric criterion.
Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field
Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid
2016-04-01
A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...
Yampolsky, Maya A; Amiot, Catherine E; de la Sablonnière, Roxane
2013-01-01
Understanding the experiences of multicultural individuals is vital in our diverse populations. Multicultural people often need to navigate the different norms and values associated with their multiple cultural identities. Recent research on multicultural identification has focused on how individuals with multiple cultural groups manage these different identities within the self, and how this process predicts well-being. The current study built on this research by using a qualitative method to examine the process of configuring one's identities within the self. The present study employed three of the four different multiple identity configurations in Amiot et al. (2007) cognitive-developmental model of social identity integration: categorization, where people identify with one of their cultural groups over others; compartmentalization, where individuals maintain multiple, separate identities within themselves; and integration, where people link their multiple cultural identities. Life narratives were used to investigate the relationship between each of these configurations and well-being, as indicated by narrative coherence. It was expected that individuals with integrated cultural identities would report greater narrative coherence than individuals who compartmentalized and categorized their cultural identities. For all twenty-two participants, identity integration was significantly and positively related to narrative coherence, while compartmentalization was significantly and negatively related to narrative coherence. ANOVAs revealed that integrated and categorized participants reported significantly greater narrative coherence than compartmentalized participants. These findings are discussed in light of previous research on multicultural identity integration.
Photovoltaic concepts inspired by coherence effects in photosynthetic systems
Bredas, Jean-Luc
2016-12-20
The past decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of how coherent and vibronic phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems aid in the efficient transport of energy from light-harvesting antennas to photosynthetic reaction centres. Such coherence effects suggest strategies to increase transport lengths even in the presence of structural disorder. Here we explore how these principles could be exploited in making improved solar cells. We investigate in depth the case of organic materials, systems in which energy and charge transport stand to be improved by overcoming challenges that arise from the effects of static and dynamic disorder-structural and energetic-and from inherently strong electron-vibration couplings. We discuss how solar-cell device architectures can evolve to use coherence-exploiting materials, and we speculate as to the prospects for a coherent energy conversion system. We conclude with a survey of the impacts of coherence and bioinspiration on diverse solar-energy harvesting solutions, including artificial photosynthetic systems.
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurco, B.; Stovicek, P.; CTU, Prague
1996-01-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A l , B l , C l and D l . The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Coherent Bichromatic Force Deflection of Molecules
Kozyryev, Ivan; Baum, Louis; Aldridge, Leland; Yu, Phelan; Eyler, Edward E.; Doyle, John M.
2018-02-01
We demonstrate the effect of the coherent optical bichromatic force on a molecule, the polar free radical strontium monohydroxide (SrOH). A dual-frequency retroreflected laser beam addressing the X˜2Σ+↔A˜2Π1 /2 electronic transition coherently imparts momentum onto a cryogenic beam of SrOH. This directional photon exchange creates a bichromatic force that transversely deflects the molecules. By adjusting the relative phase between the forward and counterpropagating laser beams we reverse the direction of the applied force. A momentum transfer of 70 ℏk is achieved with minimal loss of molecules to dark states. Modeling of the bichromatic force is performed via direct numerical solution of the time-dependent density matrix and is compared with experimental observations. Our results open the door to further coherent manipulation of molecular motion, including the efficient optical deceleration of diatomic and polyatomic molecules with complex level structures.
Doppler optical coherence microscopy and tomography applied to inner ear mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Page, Scott; Freeman, Dennis M. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Ghaffari, Roozbeh [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)
2015-12-31
While it is clear that cochlear traveling waves underlie the extraordinary sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of mammalian hearing, the underlying micromechanical mechanisms remain unresolved. Recent advances in low coherence measurement techniques show promise over traditional laser Doppler vibrometry and video microscopy, which are limited by low reflectivities of cochlear structures and restricted optical access. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) and Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) both utilize a broadband source to limit constructive interference of scattered light to a small axial depth called a coherence gate. The coherence gate can be swept axially to image and measure sub-nanometer motions of cochlear structures throughout the cochlear partition. The coherence gate of DOCT is generally narrower than the confocal gate of the focusing optics, enabling increased axial resolution (typically 15 μm) within optical sections of the cochlear partition. DOCM, frequently implemented in the time domain, centers the coherence gate on the focal plane, achieving enhanced lateral and axial resolution when the confocal gate is narrower than the coherence gate. We compare these two complementary systems and demonstrate their utility in studying cellular and micromechanical mechanisms involved in mammalian hearing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramamoorthy, Sripriya [Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Yuan; Jacques, Steven [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Petrie, Tracy; Wang, Ruikang [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Nuttall, Alfred L. [Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kresge Hearing Research Institute, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)
2015-12-31
In this study, we have developed a phase-sensitive Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography system to simultaneously measure the in vivo inner ear vibrations in the hook area and second turn of the mouse cochlea. This technical development will enable measurement of intra-cochlear distortion products at ideal locations such as the distortion product generation site and reflection site. This information is necessary to un-mix the complex mixture of intra-cochlear waves comprising the DPOAE and thus leads to the non-invasive identification of the local region of cochlear damage.
Wells, Gary L; Steblay, Nancy K; Dysart, Jennifer E
2015-02-01
Eyewitnesses (494) to actual crimes in 4 police jurisdictions were randomly assigned to view simultaneous or sequential photo lineups using laptop computers and double-blind administration. The sequential procedure used in the field experiment mimicked how it is conducted in actual practice (e.g., using a continuation rule, witness does not know how many photos are to be viewed, witnesses resolve any multiple identifications), which is not how most lab experiments have tested the sequential lineup. No significant differences emerged in rates of identifying lineup suspects (25% overall) but the sequential procedure produced a significantly lower rate (11%) of identifying known-innocent lineup fillers than did the simultaneous procedure (18%). The simultaneous/sequential pattern did not significantly interact with estimator variables and no lineup-position effects were observed for either the simultaneous or sequential procedures. Rates of nonidentification were not significantly different for simultaneous and sequential but nonidentifiers from the sequential procedure were more likely to use the "not sure" response option than were nonidentifiers from the simultaneous procedure. Among witnesses who made an identification, 36% (41% of simultaneous and 32% of sequential) identified a known-innocent filler rather than a suspect, indicating that eyewitness performance overall was very poor. The results suggest that the sequential procedure that is used in the field reduces the identification of known-innocent fillers, but the differences are relatively small.
Welge, Weston A.; DeMarco, Andrew T.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini S.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.
2014-03-01
Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has begun to spread. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the most common imaging screening technique. However, routine use of TVS has not reduced ovarian cancer mortality. The superior resolution of optical imaging techniques may make them attractive alternatives to TVS. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and secondharmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (with collagen as the targeted fluorophore). OCT provides a gross anatomical image of the ovary while SHG provides a closer look at a particular region. Knowing these anatomical features, we sought to investigate the diagnostic potential of OCT and SHG. We conducted a fully crossed, multi-reader, multi-case study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG images and provided a confidence rating on a three-point ordinal scale. We determined the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the ROC curves (AUC), and other quantitative figures of merit. The results show that OCT has diagnostic potential with an average AUC of 0.91 +/- 0.03. The average AUC for SHG was less promising at 0.71 +/- 0.06. Interestingly, the average AUC for simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG was not significantly different from OCT alone. This suggests that collagen may not be a useful fluorophore for ovarian cancer screening. The high performance of OCT warrants further investigation.
Multipion correlations induced by isospin conservation of coherent emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gangadharan, Dhevan
2016-01-01
Recent measurements have revealed a significant suppression of multipion Bose–Einstein correlations in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The suppression may be explained by postulating coherent pion emission. Typically, the suppression of Bose–Einstein correlations due to coherence is taken into account with the coherent state formalism in quantum optics. However, since charged pion correlations are most often measured, the additional constraint of isospin conservation, which is absent in quantum optics, needs to be taken into account. As a consequence, correlations emerge between pions of opposite charge. A calculation of the correlations induced by isospin conservation of coherent emission is made for two, three- and four-pion correlation functions and compared to the data from the LHC.
Wall-based identification of coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Sanmiguel Vila, C.; Flores, O.
2018-04-01
During the last decades, a number of reduced order models based on coherent structures have been proposed to describe wall-bounded turbulence. Many of these models emphasize the importance of coherent wall-normal velocity eddies (ν-eddies), which drive the generation of the very long streamwise velocity structures observed in the logarithmic and outer region. In order to use these models to improve our ability to control wall-bounded turbulence in realistic applications, these ν-eddies need to be identified from the wall in a non-intrusive way. In this paper, the possibility of using the pressure signal at the wall to identify these ν-eddies is explored, analyzing the cross-correlation between the wall-normal velocity component and the pressure fluctuations at the wall in a DNS of a turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 939. The results show that the cross-correlation has a region of negative correlation upstream, and a region of positive correlation backwards. In the spanwise direction the correlation decays monotonously, except very close to the wall where a change of sign of the correlation coefficient is observed. Moreover, filtering the pressure fluctuations at the wall in space results in an increase of the region where the cross-correlation is strong, both for the positively and the negatively correlated regions. The use of a time filter for the pressure fluctuations at the wall yields different results, displacing the regions of strong correlation without changing much their sizes. The results suggest that space-filtering the pressure at the wall is a feasible way to identify ν-eddies of different sizes, which could be used to trigger turbulent control strategies.
Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2011-11-15
We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.
Neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence enhances motor performance.
Mottaz, Anais; Solcà, Marco; Magnin, Cécile; Corbet, Tiffany; Schnider, Armin; Guggisberg, Adrian G
2015-09-01
Neurofeedback training of motor cortex activations with brain-computer interface systems can enhance recovery in stroke patients. Here we propose a new approach which trains resting-state functional connectivity associated with motor performance instead of activations related to movements. Ten healthy subjects and one stroke patient trained alpha-band coherence between their hand motor area and the rest of the brain using neurofeedback with source functional connectivity analysis and visual feedback. Seven out of ten healthy subjects were able to increase alpha-band coherence between the hand motor cortex and the rest of the brain in a single session. The patient with chronic stroke learned to enhance alpha-band coherence of his affected primary motor cortex in 7 neurofeedback sessions applied over one month. Coherence increased specifically in the targeted motor cortex and in alpha frequencies. This increase was associated with clinically meaningful and lasting improvement of motor function after stroke. These results provide proof of concept that neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence is feasible and behaviorally useful. The study presents evidence for a role of alpha-band coherence in motor learning and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Entropy Coherent and Entropy Convex Measures of Risk
Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.A.
2011-01-01
We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. We prove that convex, entropy convex and entropy coherent measures of risk emerge as certainty equivalents under variational, homothetic and multiple priors preferences,
Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures
Slavcheva, Gabriela
2010-01-01
The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal
Coherent dynamics in semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1998-01-01
enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...
Generalized hypergeometric coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H
2004-01-01
We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions
Liu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Chang, Anthony; Mohan, Chandra; Larin, Kirill V
2016-08-01
Acute glomerulonephritis caused by antiglomerular basement membrane marked by high mortality. The primary reason for this is delayed diagnosis via blood examination, urine analysis, tissue biopsy, or ultrasound and X-ray computed tomography imaging. Blood, urine, and tissue-based diagnoses can be time consuming, while ultrasound and CT imaging have relatively low spatial resolution, with reduced sensitivity. Optical coherence tomography is a noninvasive and high-resolution imaging technique that provides superior spatial resolution (micrometer scale) as compared to ultrasound and CT. Changes in tissue properties can be detected based on the optical metrics analyzed from the OCT signals, such as optical attenuation and speckle variance. Furthermore, OCT does not rely on ionizing radiation as with CT imaging. In addition to structural changes, the elasticity of the kidney can significantly change due to nephritis. In this work, OCT has been utilized to quantify the difference in tissue properties between healthy and nephritic murine kidneys. Although OCT imaging could identify the diseased tissue, its classification accuracy is clinically inadequate. By combining optical metrics with elasticity, the classification accuracy improves from 76% to 95%. These results show that OCT combined with OCE can be a powerful tool for identifying and classifying nephritis. Therefore, the OCT/OCE method could potentially be used as a minimally invasive tool for longitudinal studies during the progression and therapy of glomerulonephritis as well as complement and, perhaps, substitute highly invasive tissue biopsies. Elastic-wave propagation in mouse healthy and nephritic kidneys. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Using Cluster Ensemble and Validation to Identify Subtypes of Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Shen, Jess J.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Holden, Jeanette J.A.; Shatkay, Hagit
2007-01-01
Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavior.1 Given the diversity and varying severity of PDD, diagnostic tools attempt to identify homogeneous subtypes within PDD. Identifying subtypes can lead to targeted etiology studies and to effective type-specific intervention. Cluster analysis can suggest coherent subsets in data; however, different methods and assumptions lead to different resu...
Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence
Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon
2010-03-01
This editorial serves as the preface to a special issue of New Journal of Physics, which collects together solicited papers on a common subject, x-ray beams with high coherence. We summarize the issue's content, and explain why there is so much current interest both in the sources themselves and in the applications to the study of the structure of matter and its fluctuations (both spontaneous and driven). As this collection demonstrates, the field brings together accelerator physics in the design of new sources, particle physics in the design of detectors, and chemical and materials scientists who make use of the coherent beams produced. Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence Contents Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view B Pfau, C M Günther, S Schaffert, R Mitzner, B Siemer, S Roling, H Zacharias, O Kutz, I Rudolph, R Treusch and S Eisebitt The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications E Allaria, C Callegari, D Cocco, W M Fawley, M Kiskinova, C Masciovecchio and F Parmigiani Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Anders Madsen, Robert L Leheny, Hongyu Guo, Michael Sprung and Orsolya Czakkel The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Sébastien Boutet and Garth J Williams Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Andrei Fluerasu, Pawel Kwasniewski, Chiara Caronna, Fanny Destremaut, Jean-Baptiste Salmon and Anders Madsen Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction Wonsuk Cha, Sanghoon Song, Nak Cheon Jeong, Ross Harder, Kyung Byung Yoon, Ian K Robinson and Hyunjung Kim Coherence properties of the European XFEL G Geloni, E Saldin, L Samoylova, E Schneidmiller, H Sinn, Th Tschentscher and M Yurkov Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data G J
Wigner Function of Thermo-Invariant Coherent State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue-Fen, Xu; Shi-Qun, Zhu
2008-01-01
By using the thermal Winger operator of thermo-field dynamics in the coherent thermal state |ξ) representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, the Wigner function of the thermo-invariant coherent state |z,ℵ> is derived. The nonclassical properties of state |z,ℵ> is discussed based on the negativity of the Wigner function. (general)
Identifiability of Additive Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation
Joshi, Suresh; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Upchurch, Jason M.
2014-01-01
A class of fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type actuator and sensor faults is explored in detail from the point of view of fault identifiability. The methods use state augmentation along with banks of Kalman-Bucy filters for fault detection, fault pattern determination, and fault value estimation. A complete characterization of conditions for identifiability of bias-type actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is presented. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have unknown biases. The fault identifiability conditions are demonstrated via numerical examples. The analytical and numerical results indicate that caution must be exercised to ensure fault identifiability for different fault patterns when using such methods.
Multiscale Distance Coherence Vector Algorithm for Content-Based Image Retrieval
Jiexian, Zeng; Xiupeng, Liu
2014-01-01
Multiscale distance coherence vector algorithm for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is proposed due to the same descriptor with different shapes and the shortcomings of antinoise performance of the distance coherence vector algorithm. By this algorithm, the image contour curve is evolved by Gaussian function first, and then the distance coherence vector is, respectively, extracted from the contour of the original image and evolved images. Multiscale distance coherence vector was obtained by reasonable weight distribution of the distance coherence vectors of evolved images contour. This algorithm not only is invariable to translation, rotation, and scaling transformation but also has good performance of antinoise. The experiment results show us that the algorithm has a higher recall rate and precision rate for the retrieval of images polluted by noise. PMID:24883416
Inhibitory coherence in a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold type-I neurons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sang-Yoon; Hong, Duk-Geun; Kim, Jean; Lim, Woochang
2012-01-01
We study inhibitory coherence (i.e. collective coherence by synaptic inhibition) in a population of globally coupled type-I neurons, which can fire at arbitrarily low frequency. No inhibitory coherence is observed in a homogeneous population composed of only subthreshold neurons, which exhibit noise-induced firings. In addition to subthreshold neurons, there exist spontaneously firing suprathreshold neurons in a noisy environment of a real brain. To take into consideration the effect of suprathreshold neurons on inhibitory coherence, we consider a heterogeneous population of subthreshold and suprathreshold neurons and investigate the inhibitory coherence by increasing the fraction of suprathreshold neurons P supra . As P supra passes a threshold P* supra , suprathreshold neurons begin to synchronize and play the role of coherent inhibitors for the emergence of inhibitory coherence. Thus, regularly oscillating population-averaged global potential appears for P supra > P* supra . For this coherent case, suprathreshold neurons exhibit sparse spike synchronization (i.e. individual potentials of suprathreshold neurons consist of coherent sparse spikings and coherent subthreshold small-amplitude hoppings). By virtue of their coherent inhibition, sparsely synchronized suprathreshold neurons suppress the noisy activity of subthreshold neurons. Thus, subthreshold neurons exhibit hopping synchronization (i.e. only coherent subthreshold hopping oscillations without spikings appear in the individual potentials of subthreshold neurons). We also characterize the inhibitory coherence in terms of the ‘statistical-mechanical’ spike-based and correlation-based measures, which quantify the average contributions of the microscopic individual spikes and individual potentials to the macroscopic global potential. Finally, the effect of sparse randomness of synaptic connectivity on the inhibitory coherence is briefly discussed. (paper)
The impact of eyewitness identifications from simultaneous and sequential lineups.
Wright, Daniel B
2007-10-01
Recent guidelines in the US allow either simultaneous or sequential lineups to be used for eyewitness identification. This paper investigates how potential jurors weight the probative value of the different outcomes from both of these types of lineups. Participants (n=340) were given a description of a case that included some exonerating and some incriminating evidence. There was either a simultaneous or a sequential lineup. Depending on the condition, an eyewitness chose the suspect, chose a filler, or made no identification. The participant had to judge the guilt of the suspect and decide whether to render a guilty verdict. For both simultaneous and sequential lineups an identification had a large effect,increasing the probability of a guilty verdict. There were no reliable effects detected between making no identification and identifying a filler. The effect sizes were similar for simultaneous and sequential lineups. These findings are important for judges and other legal professionals to know for trials involving lineup identifications.
Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk
Laeven, Roger; Stadje, M.A.
2010-01-01
We introduce entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk and prove a collection of axiomatic characterization and duality results. We show in particular that entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk emerge as negative certainty equivalents in (the regular and a generalized
Global Leadership as a Driver of Corporate Coherence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Minbaeva, Dana; Straub-Bauer, Andrea
2016-01-01
We advance our understanding of corporate coherence by specifically focusing on how coherence can be enacted by global leaders to support strategy implementation in a global organization. Based on our theorizing and our illustrative case study, we suggest five steps that may help managers design...
Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness
Garreau, Jean Claude
2001-01-01
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.
Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.
2014-01-01
The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins
The Diamond Beamline I13L for Imaging and Coherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, C.; Wagner, U.; Peach, A.; Singh, B.; Wilkin, G.; Jones, C.; Robinson, I. K.
2010-01-01
I13L is the first long beamline at Diamond dedicated to imaging and coherence. Two independent branches will operate in the energy range of 6-30 keV with spatial resolution on the micro- to nano-lengthscale. The Imaging branch is dedicated to imaging and tomography with In-line phase contrast and full-field microscopy on the micron to nano-length scale. Ultimate resolution will be achieved on the Coherence branch at I13L with imaging techniques in the reciprocal space. The experimental stations will be located about 250 m from the source, taking advantage of the coherence properties of the source. The beamline has some outstanding features such as the mini-beta layout of the storage ring's straight section. The optical layout is optimized for beam stability and high optical quality to preserve the coherent radiation. In the experimental stations several methods will be available, starting for the first user with in-line phase contrast imaging on the imaging branch and Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXRD) on the coherence branch.
Intracoronary optical coherence tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Sotomi, Yohei
2017-01-01
By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rollin McCraty
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Concepts embraced by the term coherence have been identified as central to fields such as quantum physics, physiology, and social science. There are different types of coherence, although the term always implies a harmonious relationship, correlations and connections between the various parts of a system. A specific measure derived from heart rate variability (HRV provides a measure of physiological coherence. Another type of coherence, social coherence, relates to the harmonious alignment between couples or pairs, family units, small groups, or larger organizations in which a network of relationships exists among individuals who share common interests and objectives. A high degree of social coherence is reflected by stable and harmonious relationships, which allows for the efficient flow and utilization of energy and communication required for optimal collective cohesion and action. Social coherence requires that group members are attuned and are emotionally connected with each other, and that the group’s emotional energy is organized and regulated by the group as a whole. A number of studies are reviewed which have explored various types of synchronization in infants, pairs and groups, indicating that feelings of cooperation, trust, compassion and increased prosocial behaviors depends largely on the establishment of a spontaneous synchronization of various physiological rhythms between individuals. This article discusses a new application using HRV monitoring in social coherence research and the importance of physiological synchronization in group developmental processes and dynamics. Building on the extensive body of research showing that providing feedback of HRV coherence level at the individual level can improve self-regulation, we suggest the following hypotheses: (1 providing feedback of individual and collective HRV coherence and the degree of heart rhythm synchronization will increase group coherence, and heart rhythm synchronization
Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto; Martinelli, Luca
2001-01-01
Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest.......Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest....
Coherent states for quantum compact groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurco, B. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Stovicek, P. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics]|[CTU, Prague (Czech Republic). Doppler Inst.
1996-12-01
Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l}. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)
Phase coherence induced by correlated disorder.
Hong, Hyunsuk; O'Keeffe, Kevin P; Strogatz, Steven H
2016-02-01
We consider a mean-field model of coupled phase oscillators with quenched disorder in the coupling strengths and natural frequencies. When these two kinds of disorder are uncorrelated (and when the positive and negative couplings are equal in number and strength), it is known that phase coherence cannot occur and synchronization is absent. Here we explore the effects of correlating the disorder. Specifically, we assume that any given oscillator either attracts or repels all the others, and that the sign of the interaction is deterministically correlated with the given oscillator's natural frequency. For symmetrically correlated disorder with zero mean, we find that the system spontaneously synchronizes, once the width of the frequency distribution falls below a critical value. For asymmetrically correlated disorder, the model displays coherent traveling waves: the complex order parameter becomes nonzero and rotates with constant frequency different from the system's mean natural frequency. Thus, in both cases, correlated disorder can trigger phase coherence.
Mouras, Rabah; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Downes, Andrew R.; Elfick, Alistair P. D.
2012-11-01
Adult stem cells (SCs) hold great potential as likely candidates for disease therapy but also as sources of differentiated human cells in vitro models of disease. In both cases, the label-free assessment of SC differentiation state is highly desirable, either as a quality-control technology ensuring cells to be used clinically are of the desired lineage or to facilitate in vitro time-course studies of cell differentiation. We investigate the potential of nonlinear optical microscopy as a minimally invasive technology to monitor the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The induction of ADSCs toward these two different cell lineages was monitored simultaneously using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, two photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF), and second harmonic generation at different time points. Changes in the cell's morphology, together with the appearance of biochemical markers of cell maturity were observed, such as lipid droplet accumulation for adipo-induced cells and the formation of extra-cellular matrix for osteo-induced cells. In addition, TPEF of flavoproteins was identified as a proxy for changes in cell metabolism that occurred throughout ADSC differentiation toward both osteoblasts and adipocytes. These results indicate that multimodal microscopy has significant potential as an enabling technology for the label-free investigation of SC differentiation.
Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.
Huntsinger, Jeffrey R
2013-06-01
When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flotats, X.; Palatsi, J.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær
2006-01-01
are not inhibiting the hydrolysis process. The ADM1 model adequately expressed the consecutive steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis, with estimated kinetic values corresponding to a fast acidogenesis and slower hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was found to be the rate limiting step of anaerobic degradation. Estimation...... of yield coefficients based on the relative initial slopes of VFA profiles obtained in a simple batch experiment produced satisfactory results. From the identification study, it was concluded that it is possible to determine univocally the related kinetic parameter values for protein degradation...... if the evolution of amino acids is measured in simultaneous batch experiments, with different initial protein and amino acids concentrations....
Simulation of partially coherent light propagation using parallel computing devices
Magalhães, Tiago C.; Rebordão, José M.
2017-08-01
Light acquires or loses coherence and coherence is one of the few optical observables. Spectra can be derived from coherence functions and understanding any interferometric experiment is also relying upon coherence functions. Beyond the two limiting cases (full coherence or incoherence) the coherence of light is always partial and it changes with propagation. We have implemented a code to compute the propagation of partially coherent light from the source plane to the observation plane using parallel computing devices (PCDs). In this paper, we restrict the propagation in free space only. To this end, we used the Open Computing Language (OpenCL) and the open-source toolkit PyOpenCL, which gives access to OpenCL parallel computation through Python. To test our code, we chose two coherence source models: an incoherent source and a Gaussian Schell-model source. In the former case, we divided into two different source shapes: circular and rectangular. The results were compared to the theoretical values. Our implemented code allows one to choose between the PyOpenCL implementation and a standard one, i.e using the CPU only. To test the computation time for each implementation (PyOpenCL and standard), we used several computer systems with different CPUs and GPUs. We used powers of two for the dimensions of the cross-spectral density matrix (e.g. 324, 644) and a significant speed increase is observed in the PyOpenCL implementation when compared to the standard one. This can be an important tool for studying new source models.
Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference
Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)
1999-01-01
The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.
Coherent Startup of an Infrared Free-Electron Laser
Jaroszynski, D. A.; Bakker, R. J.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.
1993-01-01
Coherent enhancement of the spontaneous undulator radiation by several orders of magnitude has been observed in a free-electron laser at wavelengths from 40 to 100 mum. The coherent emission can be explained by details of the electron-beam micropulse structure. Furthermore, it has been found that
Indistinguishability and interference in the coherent control of atomic and molecular processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Jiangbin; Brumer, Paul
2010-01-01
The subtle and fundamental issue of indistinguishability and interference between independent pathways to the same target state is examined in the context of coherent control of atomic and molecular processes, with emphasis placed on possible 'which-way' information due to quantum entanglement established in the quantum dynamics. Because quantum interference between independent pathways to the same target state occurs only when the independent pathways are indistinguishable, it is first shown that creating useful coherence between nondegenerate states of a molecule for subsequent quantum interference manipulation cannot be achieved by collisions between atoms or molecules that are prepared in momentum and energy eigenstates. Coherence can, however, be transferred from light fields to atoms or molecules. Using a particular coherent control scenario, it is shown that this coherence transfer and the subsequent coherent phase control can be readily realized by the most classical states of light, i.e., coherent states of light. It is further demonstrated that quantum states of light may suppress the extent of phase-sensitive coherent control by leaking out some which-way information while 'incoherent interference control' scenarios proposed in the literature have automatically ensured the indistinguishability of multiple excitation pathways. The possibility of quantum coherence in photodissociation product states is also understood in terms of the disentanglement between photodissociation fragments. Results offer deeper insights into quantum coherence generation in atomic and molecular processes.
Lin, Yongping; Zhang, Xiyang; He, Youwu; Cai, Jianyong; Li, Hui
2018-02-01
The Jones matrix and the Mueller matrix are main tools to study polarization devices. The Mueller matrix can also be used for biological tissue research to get complete tissue properties, while the commercial optical coherence tomography system does not give relevant analysis function. Based on the LabVIEW, a near real time display method of Mueller matrix image of biological tissue is developed and it gives the corresponding phase retardant image simultaneously. A quarter-wave plate was placed at 45 in the sample arm. Experimental results of the two orthogonal channels show that the phase retardance based on incident light vector fixed mode and the Mueller matrix based on incident light vector dynamic mode can provide an effective analysis method of the existing system.