Near-Optimal and Explicit Bell Inequality Violations
Buhrman, H.; Regev, O.; Scarpa, G.; de Wolf, R.
2011-01-01
Bell inequality violations correspond to behavior of entangled quantum systems that cannot be simulated classically. We give two new two-player games with Bell inequality violations that are stronger, fully explicit, and arguably simpler than earlier work.The first game is based on the Hidden
Pozsgay, Victor; Hirsch, Flavien; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas
2017-12-01
We introduce Bell inequalities based on covariance, one of the most common measures of correlation. Explicit examples are discussed, and violations in quantum theory are demonstrated. A crucial feature of these covariance Bell inequalities is their nonlinearity; this has nontrivial consequences for the derivation of their local bound, which is not reached by deterministic local correlations. For our simplest inequality, we derive analytically tight bounds for both local and quantum correlations. An interesting application of covariance Bell inequalities is that they can act as "shared randomness witnesses": specifically, the value of the Bell expression gives device-independent lower bounds on both the dimension and the entropy of the shared random variable in a local model.
Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.
2005-01-01
We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...
Bell's inequalities for quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andaas, H.E.
1991-10-01
Inequalities corresponding to the generalized Bell's inequalities of local realism are derived for the quantum case. The extremal values permitted by these inequalities exceed those allowed by the generalized Bell's inequalities. Quantum predictions for systems of two spin-1/2 particles prepared as mixtures do not violate Bell's inequalities. 15 refs
Wringing out better Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braunstein, S.L.; Caves, C.M.
1989-01-01
Local realism implies constraints on the statistics of two physically separated systems. These constraints, known collectively as Bell inequalities, can be violated by quantum mechanics. We generalize the standard Bell inequalities in two ways: first, by 'chaining' the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for two-state systems and, second, by formulating information-theoretic Bell inequalities that apply to any pair of systems. (orig.)
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
2010-09-24
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, Koji [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2007-10-26
We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state.
Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Koji
2007-01-01
We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the state. It turns out that the new inequality is more stringent than many other Bell inequalities in the specific quantum state
NMR analog of Bell's inequalities violation test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S; Magalhaes, A; Teles, J; Azevedo, E R de; Bonagamba, T J
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present an analog of Bell's inequalities violation test for N qubits to be performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer. This can be used to simulate or predict the results for different Bell's inequality tests, with distinct configurations and a larger number of qubits. To demonstrate our scheme, we implemented a simulation of the violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality using a two-qubit NMR system and compared the results to those of a photon experiment. The experimental results are well described by the quantum mechanics theory and a local realistic hidden variables model (LRHVM) that was specifically developed for NMR. That is why we refer to this experiment as a simulation of Bell's inequality violation. Our result shows explicitly how the two theories can be compatible with each other due to the detection loophole. In the last part of this work, we discuss the possibility of testing some fundamental features of quantum mechanics using NMR with highly polarized spins, where a strong discrepancy between quantum mechanics and hidden variables models can be expected
Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosset, Denis; Gisin, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel
2014-01-01
Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Classifying 50 years of Bell inequalities
Rosset, Denis; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas
2014-10-01
Since John S Bell demonstrated the interest of studying linear combinations of probabilities in relation with the EPR paradox in 1964, Bell inequalities have lead to numerous developments. Unfortunately, the description of Bell inequalities is subject to several degeneracies, which make any exchange of information about them unnecessarily hard. Here, we analyze these degeneracies and propose a decomposition for Bell-like inequalities based on a set of reference expressions which is not affected by them. These reference expressions set a common ground for comparing Bell inequalities. We provide algorithms based on finite group theory to compute this decomposition. Implementing these algorithms allows us to set up a compendium of reference Bell-like inequalities, available online at www.faacets.com. This website constitutes a platform where registered Bell-like inequalities can be explored, new inequalities can be compared to previously-known ones and relevant information on Bell inequalities can be added in a collaborative manner. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments
Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-01-01
A method for construction of the multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. A unified framework to establish all kinds of CHSH-type Bell inequalities by increasing step by step the number of observers is given. As an application, compact Bell inequalities, for eight observers, involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek
2002-01-01
We consider a Bell inequality for a continuous range of settings of the apparatus at each site. This 'functional' Bell inequality gives a better range of violation for generalized Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger states. Also a family of N-qubit bound entangled states violate this inequality for N>5
Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks
2015-10-26
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0355 YIP Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Greg Ver Steeg UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final Report 10/26...performance report PI: Greg Ver Steeg Young Investigator Award Grant Title: Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks Grant #: FA9550-12-1-0417 Reporting...October 20, 2015 Final Report for “Bell Inequalities for Complex Networks” Greg Ver Steeg Abstract This effort studied new methods to understand the effect
Multipartite omnidirectional generalized Bell inequality
Nagata, Koji
2007-01-01
We derive a multipartite generalized Bell inequality which involves the entire range of settings for each of the local observers. Especially, it is applied to show non-local behavior of a six-qubit mixture of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations stronger than previous Bell inequalities. For certain noise admixture to the correlations an explicit local realistic model exists in the case of a standard Bell experiment. Bell experiments with many local settings reveal the non-locality of the ...
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoban, Matty J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Wallman, Joel J. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Browne, Dan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.
2011-01-01
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
Correlations in star networks: from Bell inequalities to network inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavakoli, Armin; Renou, Marc Olivier; Gisin, Nicolas; Brunner, Nicolas
2017-01-01
The problem of characterizing classical and quantum correlations in networks is considered. Contrary to the usual Bell scenario, where distant observers share a physical system emitted by one common source, a network features several independent sources, each distributing a physical system to a subset of observers. In the quantum setting, the observers can perform joint measurements on initially independent systems, which may lead to strong correlations across the whole network. In this work, we introduce a technique to systematically map a Bell inequality to a family of Bell-type inequalities bounding classical correlations on networks in a star-configuration. Also, we show that whenever a given Bell inequality can be violated by some entangled state ρ , then all the corresponding network inequalities can be violated by considering many copies of ρ distributed in the star network. The relevance of these ideas is illustrated by applying our method to a specific multi-setting Bell inequality. We derive the corresponding network inequalities, and study their quantum violations. (paper)
Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing
2011-01-01
We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)
Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph
Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan
2011-01-01
Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...
Microscopic and macroscopic bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, E.
1984-01-01
The Bell inequalities, being derived for micro-systems, cannot be tested by (macroscopic) experiments without additional assumptions. A macroscopic definition of local realism is proposed which might be the starting point for deriving Bell inequalities testable without auxiliary assumptions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.
2011-01-01
We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.
Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard
2002-01-01
We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high
Local realism and the Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, T.A.
1989-01-01
The Bell inequality has generally been interpreted to involve two requirements for its validity: a locality condition and the existence of hidden variables. The Bell inequality could only be satisfied within the framework of a non-local theory. The Pauli exclusion principle bears an evident non-local character, the origins and implications of which cannot be said to be fully understood; nevertheless, it has not given rise to the conceptual confusions that followed in the wake of the Bell inequality. (Author)
Two-setting Bell inequalities for graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, Geza; Guehne, Otfried; Briegel, Hans J.
2006-01-01
We present Bell inequalities for graph states with a high violation of local realism. In particular, we show that there is a basic Bell inequality for every nontrivial graph state which is violated by the state at least by a factor of 2. This inequality needs the measurement of, at most, two operators for each qubit and involves only some of the qubits. We also show that for some families of graph states composite Bell inequalities can be constructed such that the violation of local realism increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We prove that some of our inequalities are facets of the convex polytope containing the many-body correlations consistent with local hidden variable models. Our Bell inequalities are built from stabilizing operators of graph states
Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.
2006-01-01
The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states
Testing bell inequality at experiments of high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Xiqing; Li Xueqian; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Shen Pengnian
2010-01-01
Besides using the laser beam, it is very tempting to directly testify the Bell inequality at high energy experiments where the spin correlation is exactly what the original Bell inequality investigations. In this work, we follow the proposal raised in literature and use the successive decays J/ψ →γηc →Λ(Λ-bar)→pπ - (p-bar)π + to testify the Bell inequality. Our goal is twofold, namely, we first make a Monte-Carlo simulation of the processes based on the quantum field theory (QFT). Since the underlying theory is QFT, it implies that we pre-admit the validity of quantum picture. Even though the QFT is true, we need to find how big the database should be, so that we can clearly show deviations of the correlation from the Bell inequality determined by the local hidden variable theory. There have been some critiques on the proposed method, so in the second part, we suggest some improvements which may help to remedy the ambiguities indicated by the critiques. It may be realized at an updated facility of high energy physics, such as BES III. (authors)
Bell inequalities for random fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, Peter [Physics Department, Yale University, CT 06520 (United States)
2006-06-09
The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not satisfied for random field models in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.
Bell inequalities for random fields
Morgan, Peter
2004-01-01
The assumptions required for the derivation of Bell inequalities are not usually satisfied for random fields in which there are any thermal or quantum fluctuations, in contrast to the general satisfaction of the assumptions for classical two point particle models. Classical random field models that explicitly include the effects of quantum fluctuations on measurement are possible for experiments that violate Bell inequalities.
Bell inequalities and waiting times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poeltl, Christina; Governale, Michele [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)
2015-07-01
We propose a Bell test based on waiting time distributions for spin entangled electron pairs, which are generated and split in mesoscopic Coulomb blockade structures, denoted as entanglers. These systems have the advantage that quantum point contacts enable a time resolved observation of the electrons occupying the system, which gives access to quantities such as full counting statistics and waiting time distributions. We use the partial waiting times to define a CHSH-Bell test, which is a purely electronic analogue of the test used in quantum optics. After the introduction of the Bell inequality we discuss the findings on the two examples of a double quantum dot and a triple quantum dot. This Bell test allows the exclusion of irrelevant tunnel processes from the statistics normally used for the Bell correlations. This can improve the parameter range for which a violation of the Bell inequality can be measured significantly.
Generic Bell inequalities for multipartite mulit-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, W.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.S.
2005-01-01
Full text: We present generic Bell inequalities for multipartite multi-dimensional systems. They utilize the set of measurements, which are coincident with the generalized version of Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox. The inequalities that must be satisfied by any local realistic theories are violated by quantum mechanics for even-dimensional multipartite systems. It is also shown that the maximal violation of the inequality is obtained by the generalized GHZ state, which is true multi-body nonseparable state. As a special case for the multipartite two-dimensional systems, it can be shown that the inequality agrees with Bell-Mermin version of inequality. Large sets of variants are shown to naturally emerge from the generic Bell inequalities. We will discuss the particular variants of Bell inequalities that are violated for all the systems including odd-dimensional multipartite systems. Interestingly the variants can be reduced into the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality as well as Ardehali inequality. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)
1995-12-31
The Bell`s inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from {sup 22}Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell`s inequality. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.
Limitation on Bell's inequality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica
1978-01-01
It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e., all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory).
Bell-type inequalities embedded in the subgraph of graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, L.-Y.
2006-01-01
We investigate the Bell-type inequalities of graph states. In this paper, Bell-type inequalities can be derived based on two kinds of the associated subgraphs of the graph states. First, the star subgraphs lead to the maximal violation of the modified Seevinck-Svetlichny inequalities. Second, cycle subgraphs lead to maximal violation of Bell-type inequalities. As a result, once the associated graph of a graph state is given, the corresponding Bell operators can be immediatedly determined using stabilizing generators. In the above Bell-type inequalities, two measurement settings for each party are required
Two-party Bell inequalities derived from combinatorics via triangular elimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avis, David; Imai, Hiroshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Yuuya
2005-01-01
We establish a relation between the two-party Bell inequalities for two-valued measurements and a high-dimensional convex polytope called the cut polytope in polyhedral combinatorics. Using this relation, we propose a method, triangular elimination, to derive tight Bell inequalities from facets of the cut polytope. This method gives two hundred million inequivalent tight Bell inequalities from currently known results on the cut polytope. In addition, this method gives general formulae which represent families of infinitely many Bell inequalities. These results can be used to examine general properties of Bell inequalities
Testing locality at colliders via Bell's inequality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.A.; Dreiner, H.; Dittmar, M.
1992-01-01
We consider a measurement of correlated spins at LEP and show that it does not constitute a general test of local-realistic theories via Bell's inequality. The central point of the argument is that such tests, where the spins of two particles are inferred from a scattering distribution, can be described by a local hidden variable theory. We conclude that with present experimental techniques it is not possible to test locality via Bell's inequality at a collider experiment. Finally we suggest an improved fixed-target experiment as a viable test of Bell's inequality. (orig.)
Computationally Efficient Nonlinear Bell Inequalities for Quantum Networks
Luo, Ming-Xing
2018-04-01
The correlations in quantum networks have attracted strong interest with new types of violations of the locality. The standard Bell inequalities cannot characterize the multipartite correlations that are generated by multiple sources. The main problem is that no computationally efficient method is available for constructing useful Bell inequalities for general quantum networks. In this work, we show a significant improvement by presenting new, explicit Bell-type inequalities for general networks including cyclic networks. These nonlinear inequalities are related to the matching problem of an equivalent unweighted bipartite graph that allows constructing a polynomial-time algorithm. For the quantum resources consisting of bipartite entangled pure states and generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, we prove the generic nonmultilocality of quantum networks with multiple independent observers using new Bell inequalities. The violations are maximal with respect to the presented Tsirelson's bound for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states and GHZ states. Moreover, these violations hold for Werner states or some general noisy states. Our results suggest that the presented Bell inequalities can be used to characterize experimental quantum networks.
Violation of Bell's Inequality Using Continuous Variable Measurements
Thearle, Oliver; Janousek, Jiri; Armstrong, Seiji; Hosseini, Sara; Schünemann Mraz, Melanie; Assad, Syed; Symul, Thomas; James, Matthew R.; Huntington, Elanor; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lam, Ping Koy
2018-01-01
A Bell inequality is a fundamental test to rule out local hidden variable model descriptions of correlations between two physically separated systems. There have been a number of experiments in which a Bell inequality has been violated using discrete-variable systems. We demonstrate a violation of Bell's inequality using continuous variable quadrature measurements. By creating a four-mode entangled state with homodyne detection, we recorded a clear violation with a Bell value of B =2.31 ±0.02 . This opens new possibilities for using continuous variable states for device independent quantum protocols.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
2006-01-01
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination
Typical Werner states satisfying all linear Bell inequalities with dichotomic measurements
Luo, Ming-Xing
2018-04-01
Quantum entanglement as a special resource inspires various distinct applications in quantum information processing. Unfortunately, it is NP-hard to detect general quantum entanglement using Bell testing. Our goal is to investigate quantum entanglement with white noises that appear frequently in experiment and quantum simulations. Surprisingly, for almost all multipartite generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states there are entangled noisy states that satisfy all linear Bell inequalities consisting of full correlations with dichotomic inputs and outputs of each local observer. This result shows generic undetectability of mixed entangled states in contrast to Gisin's theorem of pure bipartite entangled states in terms of Bell nonlocality. We further provide an accessible method to show a nontrivial set of noisy entanglement with small number of parties satisfying all general linear Bell inequalities. These results imply typical incompleteness of special Bell theory in explaining entanglement.
The strong Bell inequalities: A proposed experimental test
Fry, Edward S.
1994-01-01
All previous experimental tests of Bell inequalities have required additional assumptions. The strong Bell inequalities (i.e. those requiring no additional assumptions) have never been tested. An experiment has been designed that can, for the first time, provide a definitive test of the strong Bell inequalities. Not only will the detector efficiency loophole be closed; but the locality condition will also be rigorously enforced. The experiment involves producing two Hg-199 atoms by a resonant Raman dissociation of a mercury dimer ((199)Hg2) that is in an electronic and nuclear spin singlet state. Bell inequalities can be tested by measuring angular momentum correlations between the spin one-half nuclei of the two Hg-199 atoms. The method used to make these latter measurements will be described.
Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás
2009-02-01
We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.
Experimental verification of a new Bell-type inequality
Zhao, Jia-Qiang; Cao, Lian-Zhen; Yang, Yang; Li, Ying-De; Lu, Huai-Xin
2018-05-01
Arpan Das et al. proposed a set of new Bell inequalities (Das et al., 2017 [16]) for a three-qubit system and claimed that each inequality within this set is violated by all generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GGHZ) states. We investigate experimentally the new inequalities in the three-photon GGHZ class states. Since the inequalities are symmetric under the identical particles system, we chose one Bell-type inequality from the set arbitrarily. The experimental data well verified the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the experimental results show that the amount of violation of the new Bell inequality against locality realism increases monotonically following the increase of the tangle of the GGHZ state. The most profound physical essence revealed by the results is that the nonlocality of GGHZ state correlate with three tangles directly.
Bell inequalities under non-ideal conditions
Especial, João N. C.
2012-01-01
Bell inequalities applicable to non-ideal EPRB experiments are critical to the interpretation of experimental Bell tests. In this article it is shown that previous treatments of this subject are incorrect due to an implicit assumption and new inequalities are derived under general conditions. Published experimental evidence is reinterpreted under these results and found to be entirely compatible with local-realism, both, when experiments involve inefficient detection, if fair-sampling detecti...
A relevant two qubit Bell inequality inequivalent to the CHSH inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas
2004-01-01
We computationally investigate the complete polytope of Bell inequalities for two particles with small numbers of possible measurements and outcomes. Our approach is limited by Pitowsky's connection of this problem to the computationally hard NP problem. Despite this, we find that there are very few relevant inequivalent inequalities for small numbers. For example, in the case with three possible 2-outcome measurements on each particle, there is just one new inequality. We describe mixed 2-qubit states which violate this inequality but not the CHSH. The new inequality also illustrates a sharing of bi-partite non-locality between three qubits: something not seen using the CHSH inequality. It also inspires us to discover a class of Bell inequalities with m possible n-outcome measurements on each particle
Relevant multi-setting tight Bell inequalities for qubits and qutrits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Dongling; Zhou Zisui; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
In the celebrated paper [D. Collins, N. Gisin, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 37 (2004) 1775], Collins and Gisin presented for the first time a three-setting Bell inequality (here we call it CG inequality for simplicity) which is relevant to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. Inspired by their brilliant ideas, we obtained some multi-setting tight Bell inequalities, which are relevant to the CHSH inequality and the CG inequality. Moreover, we generalized the method in the paper [J.L. Chen, D.L. Deng, Phys. Rev. A 79 (2009) 012115] to construct Bell inequality for qubits to higher dimensional system. Based on the generalized method, we present, for the first time, a three-setting tight Bell inequality for two qutrits, which is maximally violated by nonmaximally entangled states and relevant to the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality.
Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.
1984-01-01
The author discusses the experiments related to Bell's inequalities. After first introducing Bell's theorem, the author presents a brief review of the experiments carried out between 1970 and 1976. Finally, some details on experiments that are in progress in the Institut d'Optique d'Orsay are given. (Auth.)
A limitation on Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buonomano, V.
1978-01-01
It is shown that Bell's Inequality does not characterize all local hidden variable explanations of the polarization correlation experiments. If one considers theories in which a single polarization measurement is not independent of previous particle-polarizer interactions then it is possible to manufacture local hidden variable theories which agree with quantum mechanics for any of the experiments performed to date. A relevant property here is ergodicity, and we can say that Bell's Inequality characterizes all ergodic local hidden variable theories (i.e. all local theories that give the same time and ensemble average) but not all non-ergodic local hidden variable theories. It is further shown that the most physically reasonable class of non-ergodic local hidden variable theories must also satisfy Bell's Inequality. It might be concluded from this article that if one insists on believing in both local hidden variable theories and the polarization correlation experiments supporting quantum mechanics then one must also believe in the existence of a field, medium or ether that permeates space and has relatively stable states (memory)
Quantum mechanics and Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.T.; Adelberger, E.G.
1994-01-01
Santos argues that, if one interprets probabilities as ratios of detected events to copies of the physical system initially prepared, the quantum mechanical predictions for the classic tests of Bell's inequalities do not violate the inequalities. Furthermore, he suggests that quantum mechanical states which do violate the inequalities are not physically realizable. We discuss a physically realizable experiment, meeting his requirements, where quantum mechanics does violate the inequalities
Statistical measure of ensemble non reproducibility and correction to Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, A.
2000-01-01
In this work it has been analysed the proof of Bell's inequality and demonstrate that this inequality is related to one particular model of probability theory, namely Kolmogorov measure-theoretical axiomatic, 1933. It was found a (numerical) statistical correction to Bell's inequality. Such an additional term ε φ on the right-hand side of Bell's inequality can be considered as a probability invariant of a quantum state φ. This is a measure of non reproducibility of hidden variables in different runs of experiments. Experiments to verify Bell's inequality can be considered as just experiments to estimate the constant ε φ . It seems that Bell's inequality could not be used as a crucial reason to deny local realism
Experimental Bell-inequality violation without the postselection loophole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, G.; Vallone, G.; Chiuri, A.; Cabello, A.; Mataloni, P.
2010-01-01
We report on an experimental violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality using energy-time-entangled photons. The experiment is not free of the locality and detection loopholes but is the first violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality using energy-time entangled photons which is free of the postselection loophole described by Aerts et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2872 (1999)].
Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.
1976-01-01
It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism
Bell's inequality without alternative settings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabello, Adan
2003-01-01
A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality
Towards Loophole-Free Optical Bell Test of CHSH Inequality
Tan, Yong-gang; Li, Hong-wei
2016-09-01
Bell test had been suggested to end the long-standing debate on the EPR paradox, while the imperfections of experimental devices induce some loopholes in Bell test experiments and hence the assumption of local reality by EPR cannot be excluded with current experimental results. In optical Bell test experiments, the locality loophole can be closed easily, while the attempt of closing detection loophole requires very high efficiency of single photon detectors. Previous studies showed that the violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality with maximally entangled states requires the detection efficiency to be higher than 82.8 %. In this paper, we raise a modified CHSH inequality that covers all measurement events including the efficient and inefficient detections in the Bell test and prove that all local hidden models can be excluded when the inequality is violated. We find that, when non-maximally entangled states are applied to the Bell test, the lowest detection efficiency for violation of the present inequality is 66.7 %. This makes it feasible to close the detection loophole and the locality loophole simultaneously in optical Bell test of CHSH inequality.
Analytic quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipp, S.; Svozil, K.
2005-01-01
Full text: Can realism be combined with the quantum world? An important tool to investigate in this question are Bell's inequalities and violations thereof - they represent a cornerstone of our present understanding of quantum mechanics and therefore the description of nature. Here we present a simple algebraic method to calculate violations for any measurement arrangements that are maximal in the sense that quantum mechanics does not allow a stronger violation. Having two or more polarization analyzers available and a source producing photon-pairs in arbitrary polarization states Bell-type inequalities tell us which probabilities for measuring the polarization in particular directions are viable in a deterministic theory. Quantum mechanics does not obey these rules, but yields a violation of these inequalities. The questions is to what extent the inequalities are violated. Making use of a min-max principle analytical expressions can be found for the 'fine structure' of the maximal violations of arbitrary Bell-like inequalities, i. e. the upper bound reachable by any state when the analyzers measure in given directions. Knowing these bounds is useful for experimental tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and can serve as a prerequisite to answer the even more pressing question, why no stronger violation has been observed until now. (author)
Translationally invariant multipartite Bell inequalities involving only two-body correlators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tura, J; B Sainz, A; Acín, A; Lewenstein, M; Augusiak, R; Vértesi, T
2014-01-01
Bell inequalities are natural tools that allow one to certify the presence of nonlocality in quantum systems. The known constructions of multipartite Bell inequalities contain, however, correlation functions involving all observers, making their experimental implementation difficult. The main purpose of this work is to explore the possibility of witnessing nonlocality in multipartite quantum states from the easiest-to-measure quantities, that is, the two-body correlations. In particular, we determine all three- and four-partite Bell inequalities constructed from one- and two-body expectation values that obey translational symmetry, and show that they reveal nonlocality in multipartite states. Also, by providing a particular example of a five-partite Bell inequality, we show that nonlocality can be detected from two-body correlators involving only nearest neighbours. Finally, we demonstrate that any translationally invariant Bell inequality can be maximally violated by a translationally invariant state and the same set of observables at all sites. We provide a numerical algorithm allowing one to seek for maximal violation of a translationally invariant Bell inequality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Bell's inequalities for three-qubit entangled states with white noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Jinho; Kwon, Younghun
2009-01-01
We consider three-qubit entangled states classified by Acin et al. and evaluate Bell's inequalities for them when the white noise exists, which may be a real situation for the experiment of the Bells inequality to three-qubit entangled states. We obtain the maximum violation for the Bell inequality in each case and find the condition for exceeding the classical limit. And we observe that even when there would exist quite amount of white noise, some of three-qubit entangled states(for example 2b, 3a, 3b-I, 3b-II and 3b-III types) might show the violation of the Bell inequality.
Electron entanglement near a superconductor and Bell inequalities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the case of energy ﬁlters, Bell-inequality checks constitute a deﬁnite probe of entanglement. We formulate Bell-type inequalities in terms of current–current cross-correlations associated with contacts with varying magnetization orientations. We ﬁnd maximal violation (as in photons) when a superconductor is the particle ...
Observation of Bell Inequality violation in B mesons
Go, A
2004-01-01
A pair of $B^0\\bar B^0$ mesons from $\\Upsilon(4S)$ decay exhibit EPR type non-local particle-antiparticle (flavor) correlation. It is possible to write down Bell Inequality (in the CHSH form: $S\\le2$) to test the non-locality assumption of EPR. Using semileptonic $B^0$ decays of $\\Upsilon(4S)$ at Belle experiment, a clear violation of Bell Inequality in particle-antiparticle correlation is observed: S=2.725+-0.167(stat)+-0.092(syst)
Violation of Bell-type inequality in single-neutron interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Y.; Badurek, G.; Baron, M.; Rauch, H.; Loidl, R.
2003-01-01
Full text: We present an interferometric experiment with single spin-1/2 neutrons to demonstrate the violation of Bell-type inequality. The total wave function of neutrons is described by a two-dimensional Hilbert space. Appropriate combinations of the direction of the spin analysis and the position of the phase shifter allow to demonstrate the violation of the Bell-type inequality. The discussions are given on the violation of the Bell-type inequality in terms of beam polarizations and an entanglement-induced correlation in our experiment. (author)
Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šupić, I; Augusiak, R; Salavrakos, A; Acín, A
2016-01-01
Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness. (paper)
Violations of Bell inequalities as lower bounds on the communication cost of nonlocal correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pironio, Stefano
2003-01-01
To reproduce in a local hidden variables theory correlations that violate Bell inequalities, communication must occur between the parties. We show that the amount of violation of a Bell inequality imposes a lower bound on the average communication needed to produce these correlations. Moreover, for every probability distribution there exists an optimal inequality for which the degree of violation gives the minimal average communication. As an example, to produce using classical resources the correlations that maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, (√2)-1≅0.4142 bits of communication are necessary and sufficient. For Bell tests performed on two entangled states of dimension d≥3 where each party has the choice between two measurements, our results suggest that more communication is needed to simulate outcomes obtained from certain nonmaximally entangled states than maximally entangled ones
Verifying atom entanglement schemes by testing Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelakis, D.G.; Knight, P.L.; Tregenna, B.; Munro, W.J.
2001-01-01
Recent experiments to test Bell's inequality using entangled photons and ions aimed at tests of basic quantum mechanical principles. Interesting results have been obtained and many loopholes could be closed. In this paper we want to point out that tests of Bell's inequality also play an important role in verifying atom entanglement schemes. We describe as an example a scheme to prepare arbitrary entangled states of N two-level atoms using a leaky optical cavity and a scheme to entangle atoms inside a photonic crystal. During the state preparation no photons are emitted, and observing a violation of Bell's inequality is the only way to test whether a scheme works with a high precision or not. (orig.)
p-adic probability interpretation of Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, A.
1995-01-01
We study the violation of Bell's inequality using a p-adic generalization of the theory of probability. p-adic probability is introduced as a limit of relative frequencies but this limit exists with respect to a p-adic metric. In particular, negative probability distributions are well defined on the basis of the frequency definition. This new type of stochastics can be used to describe hidden-variables distributions of some quantum models. If the hidden variables have a p-adic probability distribution, Bell's inequality is not valid and it is not necessary to discuss the experimental violations of this inequality. ((orig.))
Experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities with trapped ions.
Lanyon, B P; Zwerger, M; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Dür, W; Briegel, H J; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2014-03-14
We report on the experimental violation of multipartite Bell inequalities by entangled states of trapped ions. First, we consider resource states for measurement-based quantum computation of between 3 and 7 ions and show that all strongly violate a Bell-type inequality for graph states, where the criterion for violation is a sufficiently high fidelity. Second, we analyze Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of up to 14 ions generated in a previous experiment using stronger Mermin-Klyshko inequalities, and show that in this case the violation of local realism increases exponentially with system size. These experiments represent a violation of multipartite Bell-type inequalities of deterministically prepared entangled states. In addition, the detection loophole is closed.
Partial list of bipartite Bell inequalities with four binary settings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas
2008-01-01
We give a partial list of 26 tight Bell inequalities for the case where Alice and Bob choose among four two-outcome measurements. All tight Bell inequalities with less settings are reviewed as well. For each inequality we compute numerically the maximal quantum violation, the resistance to noise and the minimal detection efficiency required for closing the detection loophole. Surprisingly, most of these inequalities are outperformed by the CHSH inequality
Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R.
2004-01-01
In contrast to the widespread opinion that any separable quantum state satisfies every classical probabilistic constraint, we present a simple example where separable quantum state does not satisfy the original Bell inequality although the latter inequality, in its perfect correlation form, is valid for all joint classical measurements. In a very general setting, we discuss inequalities for joint experiments upon a bipartite quantum system. For any separable quantum state, we derive quantum analogs of the original Bell inequality and specify the conditions sufficient for a separable state to satisfy the original Bell inequality. We introduce the extended Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and prove that, for any separable quantum state, this inequality holds for a variety of linear combinations
The Bell inequality and correlation of spin projection functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, V A
2009-01-01
The Bell inequality two-particle spin states are considered. It is shown that violation of this inequality at experimental verifications is connected with the fact that it is proved for some arbitrary random variables, but in experimental verification random variables of special type are used. A new inequality is constructed. It contains a correlation coefficient of random variables, measured at the experiment, and does not have to be violated at experimental verification. For factorizable and separable states it coincides with the usual Bell inequality.
Local models violating Bell's inequality by time delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalera, G.C.
1984-01-01
The performance of ensemble averages is neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition to avoid Bell's inequality violations characteristic of nonergodic systems. Slight modifications of a local nonergodic logical model violating Bell's inequality produce a stochastic model exactly fitting the quantum-mechanical correlation function. From these considerations is appears evident that the last experiments on the existence of local hidden variables are not conclusive
Violation of a Bell-like inequality in neutron-interferometer experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Yuji; Badurek, Gerald; Rauch, Helmut; Loidl, Rudolf; Baron, Matthias
2003-01-01
We report an interferometric experiment with spin-1/2 neutrons to demonstrate the violation of a Bell-like inequality. The total wave function of neutrons is described by a tensor product Hilbert space. Appropriate combinations of the direction of the spin analysis and the position of the phase shifter allow to demonstrate the violation of the Bell-like inequality. The discussions are presented on the violation of the Bell-like inequality in terms of quantum contextuality and an entanglement-induced correlation in our experiment. (author)
Self-testing properties of Gisin's elegant Bell inequality
Andersson, Ole; Badzi&aogo; g, Piotr; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Dumitru, Irina; Cabello, Adán
2017-09-01
An experiment in which the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is maximally violated is self-testing (i.e., it certifies in a device-independent way both the state and the measurements). We prove that an experiment maximally violating Gisin's elegant Bell inequality is not similarly self-testing. The reason can be traced back to the problem of distinguishing an operator from its complex conjugate. We provide a complete and explicit characterization of all scenarios in which the elegant Bell inequality is maximally violated. This enables us to see exactly how the problem plays out.
Bell's Inequality for a System Composed of Particles with Different Spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Shahpoor
2009-01-01
For two particles with different spins, we derive the Bell's inequality. The inequality is investigated for two systems combining spin-1 and spin-1/2; spin-1/2 and spin-3/2. We show that for these states Bell's inequality is violated.
Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin
2006-01-01
We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information
High-visibility time-bin entanglement for testing chained Bell inequalities
Tomasin, Marco; Mantoan, Elia; Jogenfors, Jonathan; Vallone, Giuseppe; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Villoresi, Paolo
2017-03-01
The violation of Bell's inequality requires a well-designed experiment to validate the result. In experiments using energy-time and time-bin entanglement, initially proposed by Franson in 1989, there is an intrinsic loophole due to the high postselection. To obtain a violation in this type of experiment, a chained Bell inequality must be used. However, the local realism bound requires a high visibility in excess of 94.63% in the time-bin entangled state. In this work, we show how such a high visibility can be reached in order to violate a chained Bell inequality with six, eight, and ten terms.
Bell's inequalities and Kolmogorov's axioms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. After recalling proofs of the Bell inequality based on the assumptions of separability and of noncontextuality, the most general noncontextual contrapositive conditional probabilities consistent with the Aspect experiment are constructed. In general these probabilities are not all positive.
Violation of a Bell-like inequality in single-neutron interferometry.
Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Badurek, Gerald; Baron, Matthias; Rauch, Helmut
2003-09-04
Non-local correlations between spatially separated systems have been extensively discussed in the context of the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's inequalities. Many proposals and experiments designed to test hidden variable theories and the violation of Bell's inequalities have been reported; usually, these involve correlated photons, although recently an experiment was performed with (9)Be(+) ions. Nevertheless, it is of considerable interest to show that such correlations (arising from quantum mechanical entanglement) are not simply a peculiarity of photons. Here we measure correlations between two degrees of freedom (comprising spatial and spin components) of single neutrons; this removes the need for a source of entangled neutron pairs, which would present a considerable technical challenge. A Bell-like inequality is introduced to clarify the correlations that can arise between observables of otherwise independent degrees of freedom. We demonstrate the violation of this Bell-like inequality: our measured value is 2.051 +/- 0.019, clearly above the value of 2 predicted by classical hidden variable theories.
Strong violations of Bell-type inequalities for path-entangled number states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wildfeuer, Christoph F.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lund, Austin P.
2007-01-01
We show that nonlocal correlation experiments on the two spatially separated modes of a maximally path-entangled number state may be performed. They lead to a violation of a Clauser-Horne Bell inequality for any finite photon number N. We also present an analytical expression for the two-mode Wigner function of a maximally path-entangled number state and investigate a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality for such a state. We test other Bell-type inequalities. Some are violated by a constant amount for any N
Loopholes in Bell inequality tests of local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsson, Jan-Åke
2014-01-01
Bell inequalities are intended to show that local realist theories cannot describe the world. A local realist theory is one where physical properties are defined prior to and independent of measurement, and no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. Quantum-mechanical predictions for certain experiments violate the Bell inequality while a local realist theory cannot, and this shows that a local realist theory cannot give those quantum-mechanical predictions. However, because of unexpected circumstances or ‘loopholes’ in available experiment tests, local realist theories can reproduce the data from these experiments. This paper reviews such loopholes, what effect they have on Bell inequality tests, and how to avoid them in experiment. Avoiding all these simultaneously in one experiment, usually called a ‘loophole-free’ or ‘definitive’ Bell test, remains an open task, but is very important for technological tasks such as device-independent security of quantum cryptography, and ultimately for our understanding of the world. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (review article)
Violation of Bell-type inequality in single-neutron interferometry: quantum contextuality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Y.; Loidl, R.; Badurek, G.; Baron, M.; Rauch, H.
2004-01-01
We report a single-neutron optical experiment to demonstrate the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Entanglement is achieved between the degrees of freedom for a single particle. The total wave function of the neutron is described in a tensor product Hilbert space. A Bell-like inequality is derived not by a non-locality but by a contextuality. Joint measurements of the spinor and the path properties lead to the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Manipulation of the wavefunction in one Hilbert space influences the result of the measurement in the other Hilbert space
Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Socolovsky, M.
2003-01-01
The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics
Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Socolovsky, M
2003-09-15
The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.
Distribution of Bell-inequality violation versus multiparty-quantum-correlation measures
Sharma, Kunal; Das, Tamoghna; Sen (de), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
Violation of a Bell inequality guarantees the existence of quantum correlations in a shared quantum state. A pure bipartite quantum state, having nonvanishing quantum correlation, always violates a Bell inequality. Such correspondence is absent for multipartite pure quantum states in the case of multipartite correlation function Bell inequalities with two settings at each site. We establish a connection between the monogamy of Bell-inequality violation and multiparty quantum correlations for shared multisite quantum states. We believe that the relation is generic, as it is true for a number of different multisite measures that are defined from radically different perspectives. Precisely, we quantify the multisite-quantum-correlation content in the states by generalized geometric measure, a genuine multisite entanglement measure, as well as three monogamybased multiparty-quantum-correlation measures, viz., 3-tangle, quantum-discord score, and quantum-work-deficit score. We find that generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and another single-parameter family of states, which we refer to as the special Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, have the status of extremal states in such relations.
Multipartite bound entanglement and three-setting Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.
2002-01-01
It was shown by Dur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230402 (2001)] that N (N≥4) qubits described by a certain one-parameter family F of bound entangled states violate the Mermin-Klyshko inequality for N≥8. In this paper we prove that the states from the family F violate Bell inequalities derived by Zukowski and Kaszlikowski [Phys. Rev. A 56, R1682 (1997)], in which each observer measures three noncommuting sets of orthogonal projectors, for N≥7. We also derive a simple one-parameter family of entanglement witnesses that detect entanglement for all the states belonging to F. It is possible that these entanglement witnesses could be generated by some Bell inequalities
Testing the structure of multipartite entanglement with Bell inequalities.
Brunner, Nicolas; Sharam, James; Vértesi, Tamás
2012-03-16
We show that the rich structure of multipartite entanglement can be tested following a device-independent approach. Specifically we present Bell inequalities for distinguishing between different types of multipartite entanglement, without placing any assumptions on the measurement devices used in the protocol, in contrast with usual entanglement witnesses. We first address the case of three qubits and present Bell inequalities that can be violated by W states but not by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and vice versa. Next, we devise 'subcorrelation Bell inequalities' for any number of parties, which can provably not be violated by a broad class of multipartite entangled states (generalizations of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states), but for which violations can be obtained for W states. Our results give insight into the nonlocality of W states. The simplicity and robustness of our tests make them appealing for experiments.
Classical counterexamples to Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlov, Yuri F.
2002-01-01
This paper shows that a classical system containing a conventional yes/no decision-making component can behave like a quantum system of spin measurements in many ways (although it lacks a wave function) when, in principle, there are no deterministic decision procedures to govern the decision making, and when probabilistic decision procedures consistent with the system are introduced. Most notably, the system violates Bell's inequalities. Moreover, since the system is simple and macroscopic, its similarities to quantum systems arguably provide an insight into quantum mechanics and, in particular, EPR experiments. Thus, from the qualitative correspondences, decisions↔quantum measurements and the impossibility of deterministic decision procedures↔quantum noncommutativity, we conclude that the violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum mechanics does not require the existence of an unknown nonclassical nonlocality. It can merely be a result of local noncommutativity combined with nonlocalities of the classical type. The proposed classical decision-making system is a nonquantum theoretical construct possessing complementarity features in Bohr's sense
Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morikoshi, Fumiaki
2006-01-01
An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.; Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris
1991-01-01
Testing Bell's inequalities described in the paper 'On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox' the conclusions were extremely clear and completely convincing, but there was something special about this paper: it led to two contradictory conclusions. The first part showed that EPR correlations predicted by quantum mechanics are so strong that one can hardly avoid the conclusion that quantum mechanics should be completed by some supplementary parameters (the so-called 'hidden-variables'). But the second part demonstrated that the hidden-variables description in fact contradicts some predictions of quantum mechanics, which is to say both theories predict different results. At the end of the sixties, there was no experimental result to answer the question. The contradiction discovered by John Bell is so subtle that it was necessary to design and build specific experiments. The problems of such experiments are discussed. (R.P.) 7 refs., 4 figs
Multisetting Bell-type inequalities for detecting genuine multipartite entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas
2011-01-01
In a recent paper, Bancal et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 250404 (2011)] put forward the concept of device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement. These witnesses are capable of verifying genuine multipartite entanglement produced in a laboratory without resorting to any knowledge of the dimension of the state space or of the specific form of the measurement operators. As a by-product they found a multiparty three-setting Bell inequality which makes it possible to detect genuine n-partite entanglement in a noisy n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for visibilities as low as 2/3 in a device-independent way. In this paper, we generalize this inequality to an arbitrary number of settings, demonstrating a threshold visibility of 2/π∼0.6366 for number of settings going to infinity. We also present a pseudotelepathy Bell inequality achieving the same threshold value. We argue that our device-independent witnesses are optimal in the sense that for n odd the above value cannot be beaten with n-party-correlation Bell inequalities.
Chained Bell Inequality Experiment with High-Efficiency Measurements
Tan, T. R.; Wan, Y.; Erickson, S.; Bierhorst, P.; Kienzler, D.; Glancy, S.; Knill, E.; Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.
2017-03-01
We report correlation measurements on two 9Be+ ions that violate a chained Bell inequality obeyed by any local-realistic theory. The correlations can be modeled as derived from a mixture of a local-realistic probabilistic distribution and a distribution that violates the inequality. A statistical framework is formulated to quantify the local-realistic fraction allowable in the observed distribution without the fair-sampling or independent-and-identical-distributions assumptions. We exclude models of our experiment whose local-realistic fraction is above 0.327 at the 95% confidence level. This bound is significantly lower than 0.586, the minimum fraction derived from a perfect Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality experiment. Furthermore, our data provide a device-independent certification of the deterministically created Bell states.
Do all pure entangled states violate Bell's inequalities for correlation functions?
Zukowski, Marek; Brukner, Caslav; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin
2002-05-27
Any pure entangled state of two particles violates a Bell inequality for two-particle correlation functions (Gisin's theorem). We show that there exist pure entangled N>2 qubit states that do not violate any Bell inequality for N particle correlation functions for experiments involving two dichotomic observables per local measuring station. We also find that Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko inequalities may not always be optimal for refutation of local realistic description.
Maximal violation of Bell's inequalities for algebras of observables in tangent spacetime regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Summers, S.J.; Werner, R.
1988-01-01
We continue our study of Bell's inequalities and quantum field theory. It is shown in considerably broader generality than in our previous work that algebras of local observables corresponding to complementary wedge regions maximally violate Bell's inequality in all normal states. Pairs of commuting von Neumann algebras that maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states are characterized. Algebras of local observables corresponding to tangent double cones are shown to maximally violate Bell's inequalities in all normal states in dilatation-invariant theories, in free quantum field models, and in a class of interacting models. Further, it is proven that such algebras are not split in any theory with an ultraviolet scaling limit
Extended Boole-Bell Inequalities Applicable to Quantum Theory
Raedt, H. De; Hess, K.; Michielsen, K.
We address the basic meaning of apparent contradictions of quantum theory and probability frameworks as expressed by Bell's inequalities. We show that these contradictions have their origin in the incomplete considerations of 1:he premises of the derivation of the inequalities. A careful
A remark on the use of Bell inequalities
Geurdes, J. F
2009-01-01
In the present paper it is demonstrated that Bell's expression for local hidden variable correlation allows one to derive the quantum correlation. This raises questions about the use of Bell inequalities in experiments. In the paper a CHSH violating example is given based solely on the locality arguments of the model.
Some inequalities for the Bell numbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Feng Qi
2017-08-19
Aug 19, 2017 ... Bell number determinant; product; inequality; generating function; derivative; absolutely monotonic function; completely monotonic func- tion; logarithmically absolutely monotonic function; logarithmically completely monotonic function; Stirling number of the second kind; induction; Faà di Bruno formula;.
Bell's inequalities from the field concept in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachs, M.
1980-01-01
A nonlinear field theory of matter, based axiomatically on general relativity, has an asymptotic, low-energy limit that predicts the outcome of experimental tests of Bell's inequalities. The inequalities should follow if spin-correlated, spin-1/2 particles, observed in coincidence, were a spacelike distance apart; they should be violated if they were separated by timelike distances. The experiment at timelike separations, for scattered protons observed in coincidence, was carried out by Lahemi-Rachti and Mittig and, thus far, agrees with this theory. Extension of the low-energy pp scattering experiment to observations at spacelike distances is suggested, with the prediction that agreement should be obtained with Bell's inequalities there. (author)
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2010-01-01
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Bell inequalities in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng
2007-01-01
We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)
Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, P.
1985-01-01
Having recalled the 1935 debate between A. Einstein and N. Bohr about quantum mechanics (Q.M.) the thought-experiment of D. Bohm is described and a new derivation of the Bell's inequalities is established to test the class of theories based on the hypothesis of hidden-parameters in the common past. It is shown that Q.M. violates these inequalities almost everywhere. The general properties of functions satisfying Bell's inequalities are studied in order to compare them to Q.M. predictions as regards derivatives, integrals, values, intervals, amplitudes and finally the overall behaviour: a few of the Bell's functions chosen to approach somehow Q.M. are given. Altogether, in the comparison between Q.M. and functions satisfying Bell's inequalities, an incompatibility is revealed that is stronger then that resulting from consideration of just the inequalities [fr
Has Bell's inequality a general meaning for hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochak, G.
1976-01-01
The proof given by J. S. Bell of an inequality between mean values of measurement results which, according to him, would be characteristic of any local hidden-parameter theory, is analyzed. It is shown that Bell's proof is based upon a hypothesis already contained in von Neumann's famous theorem: It consists in the admission that hidden values of parameters must obey the same statistical laws as observed values. This hypothesis contradicts in advance well known and certainly correct statistical relations in measurement results: one must therefore reject the type of theory considered by Bell, and his inequality has no general meaning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williamson, Mark S.; Son Wonmin; Heaney, Libby
2010-01-01
Recently, it was demonstrated by Son et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.
Williamson, Mark S.; Heaney, Libby; Son, Wonmin
2010-09-01
Recently, it was demonstrated by Son , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.110404 102, 110404 (2009), that a separable bipartite continuous-variable quantum system can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality via operationally local transformations. Operationally local transformations are parametrized only by local variables; however, in order to allow violation of the CHSH inequality, a maximally entangled ancilla was necessary. The use of the entangled ancilla in this scheme caused the state under test to become dependent on the measurement choice one uses to calculate the CHSH inequality, thus violating one of the assumptions used in deriving a Bell inequality, namely, the free will or statistical independence assumption. The novelty in this scheme however is that the measurement settings can be external free parameters. In this paper, we generalize these operationally local transformations for multipartite Bell inequalities (with dichotomic observables) and provide necessary and sufficient conditions for violation within this scheme. Namely, a violation of a multipartite Bell inequality in this setting is contingent on whether an ancillary system admits any realistic local hidden variable model (i.e., whether the ancilla violates the given Bell inequality). These results indicate that violation of a Bell inequality performed on a system does not necessarily imply that the system is nonlocal. In fact, the system under test may be completely classical. However, nonlocality must have resided somewhere, this may have been in the environment, the physical variables used to manipulate the system or the detectors themselves provided the measurement settings are external free variables.
Quantum Locality, Rings a Bell?: Bell's Inequality Meets Local Reality and True Determinism
Sánchez-Kuntz, Natalia; Nahmad-Achar, Eduardo
2018-01-01
By assuming a deterministic evolution of quantum systems and taking realism into account, we carefully build a hidden variable theory for Quantum Mechanics (QM) based on the notion of ontological states proposed by 't Hooft (The cellular automaton interpretation of quantum mechanics, arXiv:1405.1548v3, 2015; Springer Open 185, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41285-6, 2016). We view these ontological states as the ones embedded with realism and compare them to the (usual) quantum states that represent superpositions, viewing the latter as mere information of the system they describe. Such a deterministic model puts forward conditions for the applicability of Bell's inequality: the usual inequality cannot be applied to the usual experiments. We build a Bell-like inequality that can be applied to the EPR scenario and show that this inequality is always satisfied by QM. In this way we show that QM can indeed have a local interpretation, and thus meet with the causal structure imposed by the Theory of Special Relativity in a satisfying way.
Quantum nonlocality, Bell inequalities, and the memory loophole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, Jonathan; Collins, Daniel; Popescu, Sandu; Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian
2002-01-01
In the analysis of experiments designed to reveal violation of Bell-type inequalities, it is usually assumed that any hidden variables associated with the nth particle pair would be independent of measurement choices and outcomes for the first (n-1) pairs. Models which violate this assumption exploit what we call the memory loophole. We focus on the strongest type of violation, which uses the two-sided memory loophole, in which the hidden variables for pair n can depend on the previous measurement choices and outcomes in both wings of the experiment. We show that the two-sided memory loophole allows a systematic violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality when the data are analyzed in the standard way, but cannot produce a violation if a CHSH expression depending linearly on the data is used. In the first case, the maximal CHSH violation becomes small as the number of particle pairs tested becomes large. Hence, although in principle the memory loophole implies a slight flaw in the existing analyses of Bell experiments, the data still strongly confirm quantum mechanics against local hidden variables. We consider also a related loophole, the simultaneous measurement loophole, which applies if all measurements on each side are carried out simultaneously. We show that this can increase the probability of violating the linearized CHSH inequality as well as other Bell-type inequalities
Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2007-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source
The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality
Krenn, Guenther
1994-01-01
The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.
A Newtonian separable model which violates Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notarrigo, S.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the Mackey's axiomatization of quantum mechanics an argument is given which allows, in determinate circumstances, the violation of Bell's inequality also in a ''classical mechanics'' and a ''classical probability'' context. A classical model made out of two separate subsystems of coupled oscillators is studied by computer experiments to illustrate the point. In fact, the model violates Bell's inequality. The hypothesis is put forward that the principal reason for this violation is due to the special kind of ''detectors'' introduced in the model which gave a ''count'' every time a given dynamical variable of the mechanical system crosses an assigned threshold
Classical correlations, Bell inequalities, and communication complexity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilms, Johannes; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Percival, Ian C. [Department of Physics, Univ. of London (United Kingdom)
2007-07-01
A computer program is presented which is capable of exploring generalizations of Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of classical inputs and outputs. Thereby, polytopes can be described which represent classical local realistic theories, classical theories without signaling, or classical theories with explicit signaling. These latter polytopes may also be of interest for exploring basic problems of communication complexity. As a first application the influence of non-perfect detectors is discussed in simple Bell experiments.
Proposal for a loophole-free Bell inequality experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiat, P.G.; Eberhard, P.H.; Steinberg, A.M.; Chiao, R.Y.
1994-01-01
The nonlocality inherent in quantum mechanics has been tested experimentally, but the nonlocal interpretation of all the relevant experiments can be challenged. All past tests of Bell's inequalities have required supplementary assumptions, without which the experimental results satisfy the inequalities, in agreement with the notion of local realism. There are basically three loopholes that need to be closed; neither the cascade sources nor the parametric down-conversion sources of correlation photons used to date are capable of closing all of them, even if the detectors used had been 100% efficient. We propose a two-crystal down-conversion source, relying on type-II collinear phase matching, which should permit a violation of Bell's inequalities without the need for supplementary assumptions. As the source can produce a true singletlike state, it is also relevant for quantum cryptographic applications
Bell inequality with an arbitrary number of settings and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Koji; Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz
2006-01-01
Based on a geometrical argument introduced by Zukowski, a new multisetting Bell inequality is derived, for the scenario in which many parties make measurements on two-level systems. This generalizes and unifies some previous results. Moreover, a necessary and sufficient condition for the violation of this inequality is presented. It turns out that the class of nonseparable states which do not admit local realistic description is extended when compared to the two-setting inequalities. However, supporting the conjecture of Peres, quantum states with positive partial transposes with respect to all subsystems do not violate the inequality. Additionally, we follow a general link between Bell inequalities and communication complexity problems, and present a quantum protocol linked with the inequality, which outperforms the best classical protocol
The EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and the question of locality
Blaylock, Guy
2010-01-01
Most physicists agree that the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell paradox exemplifies much of the strange behavior of quantum mechanics, but argument persists about what assumptions underlie the paradox. To clarify what the debate is about, we employ a simple and well-known thought experiment involving two correlated photons to help us focus on the logical assumptions needed to construct the EPR and Bell arguments. The view presented in this paper is that the minimal assumptions behind Bell's inequality are locality and counterfactual definiteness but not scientific realism, determinism, or hidden variables as are often suggested. We further examine the resulting constraints on physical theory with an illustration from the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics—an interpretation that we argue is deterministic, local, and realist but that nonetheless violates the Bell inequality.
Multipartite Bell-type inequalities for arbitrary numbers of settings and outcomes per site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R
2008-01-01
We introduce a single general representation incorporating in a unique manner all Bell-type inequalities for a multipartite correlation scenario with an arbitrary number of settings and any spectral type of outcomes at each site. Specifying this general representation for correlation functions, we prove that the form of any correlation Bell-type inequality does not depend on spectral types of outcomes, in particular, on their numbers at different sites, and is determined only by extremal values of outcomes at each site. We also specify the general form of bounds in Bell-type inequalities on joint probabilities. Our approach to the derivation of Bell-type inequalities is universal, concise and can be applied to a multipartite correlation experiment with outcomes of any spectral type, discrete or continuous. We, in particular, prove that, for an N-partite quantum state, possibly, infinite dimensional, admitting the N{2 x ... x 2}-setting LHV description, the Mermin-Klyshko inequality holds for any two bounded quantum observables per site, not necessarily dichotomic
Simple and tight monogamy relations for a class of Bell inequalities
Augusiak, Remigiusz
2017-01-01
Physical principles constrain the way nonlocal correlations can be distributed among distant parties in a Bell-type experiment. These constraints are usually expressed by monogamy relations that bound the amount of Bell inequality violation observed by a set of parties by the violation observed by a different set of parties. Here we show that the no-signaling principle yields simple and tight monogamy relations for an important class of bipartite and multipartite Bell inequalities. We also link these trade-offs to the guessing probability—a key quantity in device-independent information processing.
Experimental violation of a Bell's inequality with efficient detection.
Rowe, M A; Kielpinski, D; Meyer, V; Sackett, C A; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J
2001-02-15
Local realism is the idea that objects have definite properties whether or not they are measured, and that measurements of these properties are not affected by events taking place sufficiently far away. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen used these reasonable assumptions to conclude that quantum mechanics is incomplete. Starting in 1965, Bell and others constructed mathematical inequalities whereby experimental tests could distinguish between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. Many experiments have since been done that are consistent with quantum mechanics and inconsistent with local realism. But these conclusions remain the subject of considerable interest and debate, and experiments are still being refined to overcome 'loopholes' that might allow a local realistic interpretation. Here we have measured correlations in the classical properties of massive entangled particles (9Be+ ions): these correlations violate a form of Bell's inequality. Our measured value of the appropriate Bell's 'signal' is 2.25 +/- 0.03, whereas a value of 2 is the maximum allowed by local realistic theories of nature. In contrast to previous measurements with massive particles, this violation of Bell's inequality was obtained by use of a complete set of measurements. Moreover, the high detection efficiency of our apparatus eliminates the so-called 'detection' loophole.
Bell's inequalities and physical reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chylinski, Z.
1985-01-01
Bell's theory proves the nonlocal character of quantum mechanics alien to the theory of relativity, which shows how essential were the objections of Einstein against quantum mechanics. Since the experiment on Bell's inequalities favours quantum mechanics, this forces one to revise the notion of physical reality. According to Heisenberg one should distinguish between the quantum-potential reality of relations and the classical-actual reality of events. The hypothesis of internal space-time put forward in previous papers supplies the geometrical framework of such a philosophy. Consequently, relations between the constituents of isolated systems precede the space-time events, which fact essentially modifies the meaning of quantum nonlocality and the physical reality itself. 19 refs. (author)
Bell-like inequality for the spin-orbit separability of a laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, C. V. S.; Hor-Meyll, M.; Khoury, A. Z.; Huguenin, J. A. O.
2010-01-01
In analogy with Bell's inequality for two-qubit quantum states, we propose an inequality criterion for the nonseparability of the spin-orbit degrees of freedom of a laser beam. A definition of separable and nonseparable spin-orbit modes is used in consonance with the one presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 160401 (2007). As the usual Bell's inequality can be violated for entangled two-qubit quantum states, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed spin-orbit inequality criterion can be violated for nonseparable modes. The inequality is discussed in both the classical and quantum domains.
On the significance of bell's inequality for hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Baere, W.
1984-01-01
It is explicitly shown that Bell's derivation of the generalized Bell inequality and its subsequent interpretation depend on an implicit hypothesis concerning the reproducibility of some set of hidden variables in different runs of the same experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osuch, S.; Popkiewicz, M.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wilhelmi, Z.
1995-01-01
The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22 Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality
A complete set of multidimensional Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnault, François
2012-01-01
We give a multidimensional generalization of the complete set of Bell-correlation inequalities given by Werner and Wolf (2001 Phys. Rev. A 64 032112) and by Zukowski and Brukner (2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 210401), for the two-dimensional case. Our construction applies to the n-party, two-observable case, where each observable is d-valued. The d d n inequalities obtained involve homogeneous polynomials. They define the facets of a polytope in a complex vector space of dimension d n . We detail the inequalities obtained in the case d = 3 and, from them, we recover known inequalities. We finally explain how the violations of our inequalities by quantum mechanics can be computed and could be observed, when using unitary observables. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabello, Adan
2002-01-01
A proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities valid for both inequivalent classes of three-qubit entangled states under local operations assisted by classical communication, namely Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W, is described. This proof leads to a Bell inequality that allows more conclusive tests of Bell's theorem for three-qubit systems. Another Bell inequality involving both tri- and bipartite correlations is introduced which illustrates the different violations of local realism exhibited by the GHZ and W states
Bitwise Bell-inequality violations for an entangled state involving 2N ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pope, D.T.; Milburn, G.J.
2004-01-01
Following on from previous work [J.-A ring . Larsson, Phys. Rev. A 67, 022108 (2003)], Bell inequalities based on correlations between binary digits are considered for a particular entangled state involving 2N trapped ions. These inequalities involve applying displacement operations to half of the ions and then measuring correlations between pairs of corresponding bits in the binary representations of the number of center-of-mass phonons of N particular ions. It is shown that the state violates the inequalities and thus displays nonclassical correlations. It is also demonstrated that it violates a Bell inequality when the displacements are replaced by squeezing operations
Violation of a Bell-like inequality in neutron optical experiments: quantum contextuality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Badurek, Gerald; Baron, Matthias; Rauch, Helmut
2004-01-01
We report on a single-neutron optical experiment to demonstrate the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Entanglement is achieved not between particles, but between the degrees of freedom; in this case, for a single particle. The spin-1/2 property of neutrons is utilized. The total wavefunction of the neutron is described in a tensor product Hilbert space. A Bell-like inequality is derived not via a non-locality but via a contextuality. Joint measurements of the spinor and the path properties lead to the violation of a Bell-like inequality. Manipulation of the wavefunction in one Hilbert space influences the result of the measurement in the other Hilbert space. A discussion is given on the quantum contextuality and an entanglement-induced correlation in our experiment
Bell-Boole Inequality: Nonlocality or Probabilistic Incompatibility of Random Variables?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Khrennikov
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The main aim of this report is to inform the quantum information community about investigations on the problem of probabilistic compatibility of a family of random variables: a possibility to realize such a family on the basis of a single probability measure (to construct a single Kolmogorov probability space. These investigations were started hundred of years ago by J. Boole (who invented Boolean algebras. The complete solution of the problem was obtained by Soviet mathematician Vorobjev in 60th. Surprisingly probabilists and statisticians obtained inequalities for probabilities and correlations among which one can find the famous BellÃ¢Â€Â™s inequality and its generalizations. Such inequalities appeared simply as constraints for probabilistic compatibility. In this framework one can not see a priori any link to such problems as nonlocality and Ã¢Â€Âœdeath of realityÃ¢Â€Â which are typically linked to BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities in physical literature. We analyze the difference between positions of mathematicians and quantum physicists. In particular, we found that one of the most reasonable explanations of probabilistic incompatibility is mixing in BellÃ¢Â€Â™s type inequalities statistical data from a number of experiments performed under different experimental contexts.
Random Constructions in Bell Inequalities: A Survey
Palazuelos, Carlos
2018-01-01
Initially motivated by their relevance in foundations of quantum mechanics and more recently by their applications in different contexts of quantum information science, violations of Bell inequalities have been extensively studied during the last years. In particular, an important effort has been made in order to quantify such Bell violations. Probabilistic techniques have been heavily used in this context with two different purposes. First, to quantify how common the phenomenon of Bell violations is; and second, to find large Bell violations in order to better understand the possibilities and limitations of this phenomenon. However, the strong mathematical content of these results has discouraged some of the potentially interested readers. The aim of the present work is to review some of the recent results in this direction by focusing on the main ideas and removing most of the technical details, to make the previous study more accessible to a wide audience.
Violation of a Bell-like inequality for spin-energy entanglement in neutron polarimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sponar, S.; Klepp, J.; Zeiner, C.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y.
2010-01-01
Violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-energy entangled neutron state has been demonstrated in a polarimetric experiment. The proposed inequality, in Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) formalism, relies on correlations between the spin and energy degree of freedom in a single-neutron system. The correlation function S CHSH is determined to be 2.333±0.002≤/2, which violates the Bell-like CHSH inequality by more than 166 standard deviations.
Local hidden variable modelling, classicality, quantum separability and the original Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R
2011-01-01
We introduce a general condition sufficient for the validity of the original Bell inequality (1964) in a local hidden variable (LHV) frame. This condition can be checked experimentally and incorporates only as a particular case the assumption on perfect correlations or anticorrelations usually argued for this inequality in the literature. Specifying this general condition for a quantum bipartite case, we introduce the whole class of bipartite quantum states, separable and nonseparable, that (i) admit an LHV description under any bipartite measurements with two settings per site; (ii) do not necessarily exhibit perfect correlations and may even have a negative correlation function if the same quantum observable is measured at both sites, but (iii) satisfy the 'perfect correlation' version of the original Bell inequality for any three bounded quantum observables A 1 , A 2 = B 1 , B 2 at sites 'A' and 'B', respectively. Analysing the validity of this general LHV condition under classical and quantum correlation scenarios with the same physical context, we stress that, unlike the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, the original Bell inequality distinguishes between classicality and quantum separability.
Quantum correlation versus Bell-inequality violation under the amplitude damping channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, WenChao; Xu, Shuai; Shi, Jiadong; Ye, Liu, E-mail: yeliu@ahu.edu.cn
2015-11-06
We investigate the quantum correlations including quantum discord and entanglement under the amplitude damping channel. Our analysis results indicate that although the entanglement of initial state is degraded due to decoherence, the distribution trend of entanglement is not to be affected. Moreover, we find that the survival time for entanglement is much longer than for the Bell inequality violation, i.e., as time goes on the Bell inequality violation of final state may be not satisfied while the final state still remains entangled. Especially, although quantum entanglement and quantum discord all decrease under the amplitude damping channel, quantum discord (QD) is reduced significantly slower than entanglement. Therefore, the quantum discord is more robust against amplitude damping in comparison to entanglement measures. Furthermore, we also find that there are mixed states having quantum discord higher than that for pure states for a given degree of Bell's inequality violation. This means that the manipulation of nonclassical correlations via a pure state can result in a larger loss of quantum discord than that via a mixed state. - Highlights: • Entanglement distribution trend is not be affected by the decoherent. • The survival time for entanglement is much longer than for the Bell inequality violation. • The quantum discord is more robust against amplitude damping in comparison entanglement measures.
A framework for the study of symmetric full-correlation Bell-like inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Branciard, Cyril; Brunner, Nicolas
2012-01-01
Full-correlation Bell-like inequalities represent an important subclass of Bell-like inequalities that have found applications in both a better understanding of fundamental physics and in quantum information science. Loosely speaking, these are inequalities where only measurement statistics involving all parties play a role. In this paper, we provide a framework for the study of a large family of such inequalities that are symmetrical with respect to arbitrary permutations of the parties. As an illustration of the power of our framework, we derive (i) a new family of Svetlichny inequalities for arbitrary numbers of parties, settings and outcomes, (ii) a new family of two-outcome device-independent entanglement witnesses for genuine n-partite entanglement and (iii) a new family of two-outcome Tsirelson inequalities for arbitrary numbers of parties and settings. We also discuss briefly the application of these new inequalities in the characterization of quantum correlations. (paper)
Analysis of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states for bell inequality tests
Martin, A.; Smirr, J.-L.; Kaiser, F.; Diamanti, E.; Issautier, A.; Alibart, O.; Frey, R.; Zaquine, I.; Tanzilli, S.
2012-06-01
When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mittig, W.
1976-01-01
The inequality of Bell has been tested by the measurement of the spin correlation in proton-proton scattering. Measurements were made at E/sub p/ = 13.2 and 13.7 MeV using carbon analyzers of 18.6 and 29 mg/cm 2 , respectively, accumulating a total of 10 4 coincidences. The experimental analyzing power, geometric correlation coefficients, and energy spectra are compared to the result of a Monte Carlo simulation of the apparatus. The results are in good agreement with quantum mechanics and in disagreement with the inequality of Bell if the same additional assumptions are made. The conditions for comparing the results of the experiments to the inequality of Bell are discussed
Nonrecurrence and Bell-like inequalities
Danforth, Douglas G.
2017-12-01
The general class, Λ, of Bell hidden variables is composed of two subclasses ΛR and ΛN such that ΛR⋃ΛN = Λ and ΛR∩ ΛN = {}. The class ΛN is very large and contains random variables whose domain is the continuum, the reals. There are an uncountable infinite number of reals. Every instance of a real random variable is unique. The probability of two instances being equal is zero, exactly zero. ΛN induces sample independence. All correlations are context dependent but not in the usual sense. There is no "spooky action at a distance". Random variables, belonging to ΛN, are independent from one experiment to the next. The existence of the class ΛN makes it impossible to derive any of the standard Bell inequalities used to define quantum entanglement.
Bell inequalities and experiments on quantum correlations for macroscopic distances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grib, A.A.
1984-01-01
Recently in different laboratories experiments checking the validity of Bell's inequalities were made. These inequalities give the answer to the qUestion which interpretation of quantum mechanics is correct: either Einstein's interpretation according to which properties of quantum system exist as elements of physical reality independently from their observation or Copenhagen's interpretation due to Bohr and Fock according to which quantUm properties described by noncommuting operators don't exist independently from measurement. Experiments are classified on three groups: Those with optical photons with γ-quanta and with nucleons. The experiments undoubtedly show that Bell's inequalities are not satisfied, so the Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mehanics and the principle of relativity to the means of measurement of properties of the microsystem give the only non-contradicting-to-experiment description of quantum phenomena
Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Cavalcanti, E. G.
2010-01-01
Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.
On tight multiparty Bell inequalities for many settings
Zukowski, Marek
2006-01-01
A derivation method is given which leads to a series of tight Bell inequalities for experiments involving N parties, with binary observables, and three possible local settings. The approach can be generalized to more settings. Ramifications are presented.
Demonstration Of The Violation Of Bell Inequality In Quantum Key Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dermez, R.
2010-01-01
Today, the data privacy has become very important. Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) system is developed in this area. QKD, coding technique with single-use method of encoding used keys (information and messages) security guarantees. The system is based on Quantum Mechanics (The Certainty Principle). However, in some cases for quantum communication, QKD are limited. In determining this limit Bell Inequality (CHSH Inequality, 1969) is used. Bell inequality shows a violation of Quantum Key Distribution. In this study, using the program of Matematica 6, QKD through bilateral quantum system (system with two qubits) has been investigating the leak case and the violations. We showed leakage and violations in these figures via the calculations results in Matematica program.
Constructing quantum games from a system of Bell's inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iqbal, Azhar, E-mail: iqbal@eleceng.adelaide.edu.a [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Centre for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Peshawar Road, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Abbott, Derek [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)
2010-07-12
We report constructing quantum games directly from a system of Bell's inequalities using Arthur Fine's analysis published in early 1980s. This analysis showed that such a system of inequalities forms a set of both necessary and sufficient conditions required to find a joint distribution function compatible with a given set of joint probabilities, in terms of which the system of Bell's inequalities is usually expressed. Using the setting of a quantum correlation experiment for playing a quantum game, and considering the examples of Prisoners' Dilemma and Matching Pennies, we argue that this approach towards constructing quantum games addresses some of their well-known criticisms.
Proposed experimental test of Bell's inequality in nuclear beta decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skalsey, M.
1986-01-01
A β decay experiment is proposed for testing Bell's inequality, related to hidden-variables alternatives to quantum mechanics. The experiment uses Mott scattering for spin polarization analysis of internal conversion electrons. Beta-decay electrons, in cascade with the conversion electrons, are longitudinally polarized due to parity violation in the weak interaction. So simply detecting the β electron direction effectively measures the spin. A two-particle spin-spin correlation can thus be investigated and related, within certain assumptions, to Bell's inequality. The example of 203 Hg decay is used for a calculation of expected results. Specific problems related to nuclear structure and experimental inconsistencies are also discussed
Bell inequalities for graph states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O.
2005-01-01
Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author)
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
Buhrman, Harry; Czekaj, Łukasz; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Markiewicz, Marcin; Speelman, Florian; Strelchuk, Sergii
2016-01-01
We obtain a general connection between a large quantum advantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs. PMID:26957600
Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres
Hensen, B.; Bernien, H.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Ruitenberg, J.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Abellán, C.; Amaya, W.; Pruneri, V.; Mitchell, M. W.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.
2015-10-01
More than 50 years ago, John Bell proved that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory: in any local-realist theory, the correlations between outcomes of measurements on distant particles satisfy an inequality that can be violated if the particles are entangled. Numerous Bell inequality tests have been reported; however, all experiments reported so far required additional assumptions to obtain a contradiction with local realism, resulting in `loopholes'. Here we report a Bell experiment that is free of any such additional assumption and thus directly tests the principles underlying Bell's inequality. We use an event-ready scheme that enables the generation of robust entanglement between distant electron spins (estimated state fidelity of 0.92 +/- 0.03). Efficient spin read-out avoids the fair-sampling assumption (detection loophole), while the use of fast random-basis selection and spin read-out combined with a spatial separation of 1.3 kilometres ensure the required locality conditions. We performed 245 trials that tested the CHSH-Bell inequality S memory in the devices. Our data hence imply statistically significant rejection of the local-realist null hypothesis. This conclusion may be further consolidated in future experiments; for instance, reaching a value of P = 0.001 would require approximately 700 trials for an observed S = 2.4. With improvements, our experiment could be used for testing less-conventional theories, and for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification.
Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.
2004-01-01
We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions
Time and setting dependent instrument parameters and proofs of Bell-type inequalities
Hess, Karl; Philipp, Walter
2002-01-01
We show that all proofs of Bell-type inequalities, as discussed in Bell's well known book and as claimed to be relevant to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type experiments, come to a halt when Einstein-local time and setting dependent instrument parameters are included.
Local deterministic theory surviving the violation of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cormier-Delanoue, C.
1984-01-01
Bell's theorem which asserts that no deterministic theory with hidden variables can give the same predictions as quantum theory, is questioned. Such a deterministic theory is presented and carefully applied to real experiments performed on pairs of correlated photons, derived from the EPR thought experiment. The ensuing predictions violate Bell's inequalities just as quantum mechanics does, and it is further shown that this discrepancy originates in the very nature of radiations. Complete locality is therefore restored while separability remains more limited [fr
Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vongehr, Sascha
2013-01-01
There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas
2010-01-01
The I 3322 inequality is the simplest bipartite two-outcome Bell inequality beyond the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, consisting of three two-outcome measurements per party. In the case of the CHSH inequality the maximal quantum violation can already be attained with local two-dimensional quantum systems; however, there is no such evidence for the I 3322 inequality. In this paper a family of measurement operators and states is given which enables us to attain the maximum quantum value in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Further, it is conjectured that our construction is optimal in the sense that measuring finite-dimensional quantum systems is not enough to achieve the true quantum maximum. We also describe an efficient iterative algorithm for computing quantum maximum of an arbitrary two-outcome Bell inequality in any given Hilbert space dimension. This algorithm played a key role in obtaining our results for the I 3322 inequality, and we also applied it to improve on our previous results concerning the maximum quantum violation of several bipartite two-outcome Bell inequalities with up to five settings per party.
From Bell's inequalities to quantum information: a new quantum revolution
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In 1964, John Stuart Bell discovered that it is possible to settle the debate experimentally, by testing the famous "Bell's inequalities", and to show directly that the revolutionary concept of entanglement is indeed a reality. A long series of experiments closer and closer to the ideal scheme presented by Bell has confirmed that entanglement is indeed "a great quantum mystery", to use the words of Feynman. Based on that concept, a new field of research has emerged, quantum information, where one uses quantum bits, the so-called “qubits”, to encode the information and process it. Entanglement ...
Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieśniak, Marcin; Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee
2016-01-01
Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter–Werner–Wolf–Żukowski–Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios. (paper)
Test of Bell's inequality using the one-atom micromaser
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, the advantages of using two-level Rydberg atoms for test- ing Bell's inequalities are ... A couple of two-level. Rydberg atoms ... of decoherence on atomic statistics obtained through numerical analysis is presented inЬ4 where we also ...
Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) that ...
Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski,. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) ...
Two-qubit Bell inequality for which positive operator-valued measurements are relevant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vertesi, T.; Bene, E.
2010-01-01
A bipartite Bell inequality is derived which is maximally violated on the two-qubit state space if measurements describable by positive operator valued measure (POVM) elements are allowed, rather than restricting the possible measurements to projective ones. In particular, the presented Bell inequality requires POVMs in order to be maximally violated by a maximally entangled two-qubit state. This answers a question raised by N. Gisin [in Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle: Essays in Honour of Abner Shimony, edited by W. C. Myrvold and J. Christian (Springer, The Netherlands, 2009), pp. 125-138].
The necessity of randomness in tests of Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bednorz, Adam; Zielinski, Jakub
2003-08-11
The possibility that detectors may affect the input quantum entangled state is pointed out. It is suggested that experiments testing Bell inequalities should be repeated with more randomly oriented polarizers to both close communication loophole and refute certain local variable theories with low efficiency bound.
Tight Bell Inequalities and Nonlocality in Weak Measurement
Waegell, Mordecai
A general class of Bell inequalities is derived based on strict adherence to probabilistic entanglement correlations observed in nature. This derivation gives significantly tighter bounds on local hidden variable theories for the well-known Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, and also leads to new proofs of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem. This method is applied to weak measurements and reveals nonlocal correlations between the weak value and the post-selection, which rules out various classical models of weak measurement. Implications of these results are discussed. Fetzer-Franklin Fund of the John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust.
Bell-inequality tests with macroscopic entangled states of light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stobinska, M. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics II, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany); Sekatski, P.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Buraczewski, A. [Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Leuchs, G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen (Germany); Institute for Optics, Information and Photonics, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, Erlangen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Quantum correlations may violate the Bell inequalities. Most experimental schemes confirming this prediction have been realized in all-optical Bell tests suffering from the detection loophole. Experiments which simultaneously close this loophole and the locality loophole are highly desirable and remain challenging. An approach to loophole-free Bell tests is based on amplification of the entangled photons (i.e., on macroscopic entanglement), for which an optical signal should be easy to detect. However, the macroscopic states are partially indistinguishable by classical detectors. An interesting idea to overcome these limitations is to replace the postselection by an appropriate preselection immediately after the amplification. This is in the spirit of state preprocessing revealing hidden nonlocality. Here, we examine one of the possible preselections, but the presented tools can be used for analysis of other schemes. Filtering methods making the macroscopic entanglement useful for Bell tests and quantum protocols are the subject of an intensive study in the field nowadays.
A Bell inequality for a class of multilocal ring networks
Frey, Michael
2017-11-01
Quantum networks with independent sources of entanglement (hidden variables) and nodes that execute joint quantum measurements can create strong quantum correlations spanning the breadth of the network. Understanding of these correlations has to the present been limited to standard Bell experiments with one source of shared randomness, bilocal arrangements having two local sources of shared randomness, and multilocal networks with tree topologies. We introduce here a class of quantum networks with ring topologies comprised of subsystems each with its own internally shared source of randomness. We prove a Bell inequality for these networks, and to demonstrate violations of this inequality, we focus on ring networks with three-qubit subsystems. Three qubits are capable of two non-equivalent types of entanglement, GHZ and W-type. For rings of any number N of three-qubit subsystems, our inequality is violated when the subsystems are each internally GHZ-entangled. This violation is consistently stronger when N is even. This quantitative even-odd difference for GHZ entanglement becomes extreme in the case of W-type entanglement. When the ring size N is even, the presence of W-type entanglement is successfully detected; when N is odd, the inequality consistently fails to detect its presence.
Wasak, Tomasz; Chwedeńczuk, Jan
2018-04-06
We propose an experiment, where the Bell inequality is violated in a many-body system of massive particles. The source of correlated atoms is a spinor F=1 Bose-Einstein condensate residing in an optical lattice. We characterize the complete procedure-the local operations, the measurements, and the inequality-necessary to run the Bell test. We show how the degree of violation of the Bell inequality depends on the strengths of the two-body correlations and on the number of scattered pairs. We show that the system can be used to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Also, the scattered pairs are an excellent many-body resource for the quantum-enhanced metrology. Our results apply to any multimode system where the spin-changing collision drives the scattering into separate regions. The presented inquiry shows that such a system is versatile as it can be used for the tests of nonlocality, quantum metrology, and quantum information.
Nonlocality of classical electrodynamics of point particles, and violation of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carati, A.; Galagni, L.
1999-01-01
This study shows that Bell's inequalities are violated in a model of two charged particles interacting with two potential barriers, which mimic the measuring instruments; the motion in the nonrelativistic version, and the role of the hidden variables is played by the initial accelerations. The essential nonlocality property of the system is induced by the celebrated Dirac's non-runway condition, which makes the measuring instruments have a certain influence on the observed system, by determining the domain of definition of the hidden variable (the Bopp-Haag phenomenon). So this model strongly supports E. Nelson's suggestion, namely that nonlocality properties suited to violate Bell's inequalities appear in classical field theories when regularizing cutoff are removed
Relaxed Bell inequalities and Kochen-Specker theorems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Michael J. W. [Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-08-15
The combination of various physically plausible properties, such as no signaling, determinism, and experimental free will, is known to be incompatible with quantum correlations. Hence, these properties must be individually or jointly relaxed in any model of such correlations. The necessary degrees of relaxation are quantified here via natural distance and information-theoretic measures. This allows quantitative comparisons between different models in terms of the resources, such as the number of bits of randomness, communication, and/or correlation, that they require. For example, measurement dependence is a relatively strong resource for modeling singlet-state correlations, with only 1/15 of one bit of correlation required between measurement settings and the underlying variable. It is shown how various ''relaxed'' Bell inequalities may be obtained, which precisely specify the complementary degrees of relaxation required to model any given violation of a standard Bell inequality. The robustness of a class of Kochen-Specker theorems, to relaxation of measurement independence, is also investigated. It is shown that a theorem of Mermin remains valid unless measurement independence is relaxed by 1/3. The Conway-Kochen ''free will'' theorem and a result of Hardy are less robust, failing if measurement independence is relaxed by only 6.5% and 4.5%, respectively. An appendix shows that existence of an outcome-independent model is equivalent to existence of a deterministic model.
Classical Causal Models for Bell and Kochen-Specker Inequality Violations Require Fine-Tuning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric G. Cavalcanti
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Nonlocality and contextuality are at the root of conceptual puzzles in quantum mechanics, and they are key resources for quantum advantage in information-processing tasks. Bell nonlocality is best understood as the incompatibility between quantum correlations and the classical theory of causality, applied to relativistic causal structure. Contextuality, on the other hand, is on a more controversial foundation. In this work, I provide a common conceptual ground between nonlocality and contextuality as violations of classical causality. First, I show that Bell inequalities can be derived solely from the assumptions of no signaling and no fine-tuning of the causal model. This removes two extra assumptions from a recent result from Wood and Spekkens and, remarkably, does not require any assumption related to independence of measurement settings—unlike all other derivations of Bell inequalities. I then introduce a formalism to represent contextuality scenarios within causal models and show that all classical causal models for violations of a Kochen-Specker inequality require fine-tuning. Thus, the quantum violation of classical causality goes beyond the case of spacelike-separated systems and already manifests in scenarios involving single systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seevinck, Michael; Uffink, Jos
2007-01-01
By introducing a quantitative 'degree of commutativity' in terms of the angle between spin observables we present two tight quantitative trade-off relations in the case of two qubits. First, for entangled states, between the degree of commutativity of local observables and the maximal amount of violation of the Bell inequality: if both local angles increase from zero to π/2 (i.e., the degree of local commutativity decreases), the maximum violation of the Bell inequality increases. Secondly, a converse trade-off relation holds for separable states: if both local angles approach π/2 the maximal value obtainable for the correlations in the Bell inequality decreases and thus the non-violation increases. As expected, the extremes of these relations are found in the case of anticommuting local observables where, respectively, the bounds of 2√(2) and √(2) hold for the expectation value of the Bell operator. The trade-off relations show that noncommmutativity gives ''a more than classical result'' for entangled states, whereas ''a less than classical result'' is obtained for separable states. The experimental relevance of the trade-off relation for separable states is that it provides an experimental test for two qubit entanglement. Its advantages are twofold: in comparison to violations of Bell inequalities it is a stronger criterion and in comparison to entanglement witnesses it needs to make less strong assumptions about the observables implemented in the experiment
Experimental test of Bell's inequality with a proton pair and quantum nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, Hideyuki; Saito, Takaaki
2009-01-01
One of the most profound feature of quantum mechanics is the non-locality of entangled system. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) criticized this non-locality from the classical view point, realistic local theory. This criticism is known as the EPR paradox which has been thought as a philosophical argument between Copenhagen interpretation and EPR rather than the experimental issue. About 30 years later, John Bell found the inequality which is amenable to experiments. We succeeded to measure the spin correlation of an entangled proton pair in high accuracy which disagrees with Bell's inequality and confirmed the nonlocality of quantum mechanics in the massive Fermion pair. This short article introduces our experiment. The difference between present experiment and photon experiments is briefly mentioned. (author)
Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.
2004-01-01
Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil
Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality
Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina
2018-04-01
The aim of this note is to attract attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB) inequality which was shadowed by the common consideration of the CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the EPR-argumentation. And only this inequality is related to the EPR-Bohr debate. However, the last statement can be objected by some experts working in quantum foundations. Therefore to convince experimenters to perform the OB-violation experiment, we prefer to concentrate on the second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality which was emphasized by I. Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti-) correlations. However, the last years were characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing with very high probability the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons.
Classical probability model for Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2014-01-01
We show that by taking into account randomness of realization of experimental contexts it is possible to construct common Kolmogorov space for data collected for these contexts, although they can be incompatible. We call such a construction 'Kolmogorovization' of contextuality. This construction of common probability space is applied to Bell's inequality. It is well known that its violation is a consequence of collecting statistical data in a few incompatible experiments. In experiments performed in quantum optics contexts are determined by selections of pairs of angles (θ i ,θ ' j ) fixing orientations of polarization beam splitters. Opposite to the common opinion, we show that statistical data corresponding to measurements of polarizations of photons in the singlet state, e.g., in the form of correlations, can be described in the classical probabilistic framework. The crucial point is that in constructing the common probability space one has to take into account not only randomness of the source (as Bell did), but also randomness of context-realizations (in particular, realizations of pairs of angles (θ i , θ ' j )). One may (but need not) say that randomness of 'free will' has to be accounted for.
Non-adaptive measurement-based quantum computation and multi-party Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoban, Matty J; Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E; Loukopoulos, Klearchos
2011-01-01
Quantum correlations exhibit behaviour that cannot be resolved with a local hidden variable picture of the world. In quantum information, they are also used as resources for information processing tasks, such as measurement-based quantum computation (MQC). In MQC, universal quantum computation can be achieved via adaptive measurements on a suitable entangled resource state. In this paper, we look at a version of MQC in which we remove the adaptivity of measurements and aim to understand what computational abilities remain in the resource. We show that there are explicit connections between this model of computation and the question of non-classicality in quantum correlations. We demonstrate this by focusing on deterministic computation of Boolean functions, in which natural generalizations of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox emerge; we then explore probabilistic computation via, which multipartite Bell inequalities can be defined. We use this correspondence to define families of multi-party Bell inequalities, which we show to have a number of interesting contrasting properties.
Non-adaptive measurement-based quantum computation and multi-party Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoban, Matty J; Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Loukopoulos, Klearchos, E-mail: m.hoban@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 4PH (United Kingdom)
2011-02-15
Quantum correlations exhibit behaviour that cannot be resolved with a local hidden variable picture of the world. In quantum information, they are also used as resources for information processing tasks, such as measurement-based quantum computation (MQC). In MQC, universal quantum computation can be achieved via adaptive measurements on a suitable entangled resource state. In this paper, we look at a version of MQC in which we remove the adaptivity of measurements and aim to understand what computational abilities remain in the resource. We show that there are explicit connections between this model of computation and the question of non-classicality in quantum correlations. We demonstrate this by focusing on deterministic computation of Boolean functions, in which natural generalizations of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox emerge; we then explore probabilistic computation via, which multipartite Bell inequalities can be defined. We use this correspondence to define families of multi-party Bell inequalities, which we show to have a number of interesting contrasting properties.
Non-local setting and outcome information for violation of Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawlowski, Marcin; Kofler, Johannes; Paterek, Tomasz; Brukner, Caslav; Seevinck, Michael
2010-01-01
Bell's theorem is a no-go theorem stating that quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a physical theory based on realism, freedom to choose experimental settings and two locality conditions: setting (SI) and outcome (OI) independence. We provide a novel analysis of what it takes to violate Bell's inequality within the framework in which both realism and freedom of choice are assumed, by showing that it is impossible to model a violation without having information in one laboratory about both the setting and the outcome at the distant one. While it is possible that outcome information can be revealed from shared hidden variables, the assumed experimenter's freedom to choose the settings ensures that the setting information must be non-locally transferred even when the SI condition is obeyed. The amount of transmitted information about the setting that is sufficient to violate the CHSH inequality up to its quantum mechanical maximum is 0.736 bits.
Kiess, Thomas E.; Shih, Yan-Hua; Sergienko, A. V.; Alley, Carroll O.
1994-01-01
We report a new two-photon polarization correlation experiment for realizing the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) state and for testing Bell-type inequalities. We use the pair of orthogonally-polarized light quanta generated in Type 2 parametric down conversion. Using 1 nm interference filters in front of our detectors, we observe from the output of a 0.5mm beta - BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal the EPRB correlations in coincidence counts, and measure an associated Bell inequality violation of 22 standard deviations. The quantum state of the photon pair is a polarization analog of the spin-1/2 singlet state.
Knowledge excess duality and violation of Bell inequalities: theory and experiment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gavenda, M.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Dušek, M.; Filip, R.
2005-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 5 (2005), s. 195-210 ISSN 0217-9849 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/03/D239 Keywords : quantum correlations * Bell inequalities Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.
1983-02-01
We have performed three experimental tests of Bell's inequalities by measuring the linear-polarization correlation of photons emitted by pairs in the 4p 2 1 S 0 → 4s4p 1 P 1 → 4s 2 1 S 0 radiative cascade of calcium. The first part of this dissertation reminds the theoretical background (Bell's theorem), and the experimental situation (previous experiments). We then describe our apparatus: the source (calcium atomic beam selectively excited by two-photon absorption), the optics, the photon coincidence-counting system. Our first experiment, analogous to previous ones (but more precise) involves one-channel polarizers. Our second experiment, based on a conceptually simpler scheme, uses two-channel polarizers. The third experiment involves acousto-optical switches followed by two linear polarizers: these devices act as time-varying polarizers, the orientation of which is changed during the time of flight of photons. In the three experiments, the results are in good agreement with the Quantum mechanical predictions, and they distinctly violate the relevant Bell's inequalities [fr
Wasak, Tomasz; Chwedeńczuk, Jan
2018-04-01
We propose an experiment, where the Bell inequality is violated in a many-body system of massive particles. The source of correlated atoms is a spinor F =1 Bose-Einstein condensate residing in an optical lattice. We characterize the complete procedure—the local operations, the measurements, and the inequality—necessary to run the Bell test. We show how the degree of violation of the Bell inequality depends on the strengths of the two-body correlations and on the number of scattered pairs. We show that the system can be used to demonstrate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. Also, the scattered pairs are an excellent many-body resource for the quantum-enhanced metrology. Our results apply to any multimode system where the spin-changing collision drives the scattering into separate regions. The presented inquiry shows that such a system is versatile as it can be used for the tests of nonlocality, quantum metrology, and quantum information.
Can violations of Bell's inequalities be considered as a final proof of quantum physics?
Hénault, François
2013-10-01
Nowadays, it is commonly admitted that the experimental violation of Bell's inequalities that was successfully demonstrated in the last decades by many experimenters, are indeed the ultimate proof of quantum physics and of its ability to describe the whole microscopic world and beyond. But the historical and scientific story may not be envisioned so clearly: it starts with the original paper of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) aiming at demonstrating that the formalism of quantum theory is incomplete. It then goes through the works of D. Bohm, to finally proceed to the famous John Bell's relationships providing an experimental setup to solve the EPR paradox. In this communication is proposed an alternative reading of this history, showing that modern experiments based on correlations between light polarizations significantly deviate from the original spirit of the EPR paper. It is concluded that current experimental violations of Bell's inequalities cannot be considered as an ultimate proof of the completeness of quantum physics models.
A logical loophole in the derivation of the Bell inequalities
Coddens , Gerrit
2018-01-01
The Bell inequalities are based on a tacit assumption of a common probability distribution that precludes their application to the experiments of Aspect et al. The basic ideas of this argument have already been given in references [1, 2], but the present presentation recollects them in a more clear and concise way. The paper supersedes reference [3] which contains an error.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, N. V., E-mail: nnikit@mail.cern.ch; Sotnikov, V.P., E-mail: sotnikov@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Toms, K. S., E-mail: ktoms@mail.cern.ch [The University of New Mexico, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)
2015-10-15
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, N. V.; Sotnikov, V.P.; Toms, K. S.
2015-01-01
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example
A loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment
Kwiat, Paul G.; Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Chiao, Raymond Y.; Eberhard, Philippe H.
1994-01-01
The proof of Nature's nonlocality through Bell-type experiments is a topic of longstanding interest. Nevertheless, no experiments performed thus far have avoided the so-called 'detection loophole,' arising from low detector efficiencies and angular-correlation difficulties. In fact, most, if not all, of the systems employed to date can never close this loophole, even with perfect detectors. In addition, another loophole involving the non-rapid, non-random switching of various parameter settings exists in all past experiments. We discuss a proposal for a potentially loophole-free Bell's inequality experiment. The source of the EPR-correlated pairs consists of two simultaneously-pumped type-2 phase-matched nonlinear crystals and a polarizing beam splitter. The feasibility of such a scheme with current detector technology seems high, and will be discussed. We also present a single-crystal version, motivated by other work presented at this conference. In a separate experiment, we have measured the absolute detection efficiency and time response of four single-photon detectors. The highest observed efficiencies were 70.7 plus or minus 1.9 percent (at 633 nm, with a device from Rockwell International) and 76.4 plus or minus 2.3 percent (at 702 nm, with an EG&G counting module). Possible efficiencies as high as 90 percent were implied. The EG&G devices displayed sub-nanosecond time resolution.
Towards Experiments to Test Violation of the Original Bell Inequality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Khrennikov
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to attract the attention of experimenters to the original Bell (OB inequality that was shadowed by the common consideration of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH inequality. There are two reasons to test the OB inequality and not the CHSH inequality. First of all, the OB inequality is a straightforward consequence to the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR argumentation. In addition, only this inequality is directly related to the EPR–Bohr debate. The second distinguishing feature of the OB inequality was emphasized by Itamar Pitowsky. He pointed out that the OB inequality provides a higher degree of violations of classicality than the CHSH inequality. For the CHSH inequality, the fraction of the quantum (Tsirelson bound Q CHSH = 2 2 to the classical bound C CHSH = 2 , i.e., F CHSH = Q CHSH C CHSH = 2 is less than the fraction of the quantum bound for the OB inequality Q OB = 3 2 to the classical bound C OB = 1 , i.e., F OB = Q OB C OB = 3 2 . Thus, by violating the OB inequality, it is possible to approach a higher degree of deviation from classicality. The main problem is that the OB inequality is derived under the assumption of perfect (anti- correlations. However, the last few years have been characterized by the amazing development of quantum technologies. Nowadays, there exist sources producing, with very high probability, the pairs of photons in the singlet state. Moreover, the efficiency of photon detectors was improved tremendously. In any event, one can start by proceeding with the fair sampling assumption. Another possibility is to use the scheme of the Hensen et al. experiment for entangled electrons. Here, the detection efficiency is very high.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aerts, D.
1991-01-01
We present a macroscopical mechanistic classical laboratory situation, and a classical macroscopical entity, and coincidence measurements on this entity, that lead to a violation of the Bell inequalities corresponding to these coincidence measurements. The violation that we obtain with these coincidence measurements is exactly the same as the violation of the Bell inequalities by the well known coincidence measurements of the quantum entity of two spin 1/2 particles in a singlet spin state. With this we mean that it gives rise to the same numerical values for the expectation values and the same numerical value 2.√2 for the expression used in the Bell inequality. We analyze the origin of the violation, and can formulate the main difference between the violation of Bell inequalities by means of classical entities and the violation of Bell inequalities by means of quantum entities. The making clear of this difference can help us to understand better what the quantum-violation could mean for the nature of reality. We think that some classical concepts will have to be changed, and new concepts will have to be introduced, to be able to understand the reality of the quantum world. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rother, Tom
2016-01-01
In this paper I propose a classical optics experiment that results in a maximum violation of a Bell-like inequality. The first part is concerned with the Bell-like inequality (the so-called CHSH-inequality) itself. Its importance and its maximum violation in Quantum Mechanics (QM) are discussed in detail by employing an abstract probability state concept in a 4-dim. but classical event space. A T-matrix that represents the integral part of a corresponding Green's function as well as a statistical operator that contains a negative quasi-probability can be related to the corresponding quantum mechanical experiment. It is demonstrated that the derivation and usage of the T-matrix and the Green's function is equivalent to what is known from classical scattering theory. It is shown moreover that the negative quasi-probability of the statistical operator may be interpreted as a sink of probabilities related to two single events of the considered 4-dim. event space. A necessary condition for the violation of the CHSH-inequality is derived and discussed afterwards. In the second part of this paper I discuss a modification of the 4-dim. event space considered in the first part. It is shown that a combination of conventional Rayleigh scattering with a Mach–Zehnder setup would be able to put this modification into practice. Thus it becomes possible to achieve a maximum violation of the CHSH-inequality, if formulated in terms of intensities, on a pure classical way. The combination of classical light scattering with correlation experiments such as proposed in this paper may open new ways to study and to use the violation of Bell-like inequalities in modern optics. - Highlights: • Consistent Green's function formulation of the quantum mechanical Bell's experiment and its classical counterpart. This description is closely related to what is known from electromagnetic wave scattering. This is achieved by introducing an abstract probability state concept. • Discussion of a
The various versions of Bell's inequality: an alternative proof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fakhri, H [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taqavi, M [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-06-17
By considering uncommon factors as spacetime events that influence the spin orientations in the EPRB thought experiment, it is intended to show that one can still introduce the correlation functions. These uncommon factors are positioned inside the common lightcone of two particles. Then, Bell inequalities are proved with the preassumptions of local realism and spin conservation law in the context of a new scenario of hidden variables.
Calibration robust entanglement detection beyond Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstrasse 21A, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Gittsovich, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
2012-07-01
In its vast majority entanglement verification is examined either in the complete characterized or totally device independent scenario. The assumptions imposed by these extreme cases are often either too weak or strong for real experiments. Here we investigate this detection task for the intermediate regime where partial knowledge of the measured observables is known, considering cases like orthogonal, sharp or only dimension bounded measurements. We show that for all these assumptions it is not necessary to violate a corresponding Bell inequality in order to detect entanglement. We derive strong detection criteria that can be directly evaluated for experimental data and which are robust against large classes of calibration errors. The conditions are even capable of detecting bound entanglement under the sole assumption of dimension bounded measurements.
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2014-01-01
Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...
Experimental noise-resistant Bell-inequality violations for polarization-entangled photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bovino, Fabio A.; Castagnoli, Giuseppe; Cabello, Adan; Lamas-Linares, Antia
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate that violations of Bell's inequalities for two-photon polarization-entangled states with colored noise are extremely robust, whereas this is not the case for states with white noise. Controlling the amount of noise by using the timing compensation scheme introduced by Kim et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301(R) (2003)], we have observed violations even for states with very high noise, in excellent agrement with the predictions of Cabello et al. [Phys. Rev. A 72, 052112 (2005)
Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlation and Bell-type inequality seen from a moving frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You Hao; Wang Anmin; Yang Xiaodong; Niu Wanqing; Ma Xiaosan; Xu Feng
2004-01-01
The relativistic version of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger experiment with massive particles is proposed. We point out that, in the moving frame, GHZ correlations of spins in original directions transfer to different directions due to the Wigner rotation. Its effect on the degree of violation of Bell-type inequality is also discussed
Guney, Veli Ugur
In this work we look for novel classes of Bell's inequalities and methods to produce them. We also find their quantum violations including, if possible, the maximum one. The Jordan bases method that we explain in Chapter 2 is about using a pair of certain type of orthonormal bases whose spans are subspaces related to measurement outcomes of incompatible quantities on the same physical system. Jordan vectors are the briefest way of expressing the relative orientation of any two subspaces. This feature helps us to reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space on which we do searches for optimization. The work is published in [24]. In Chapter 3, we attempt to find a connection between group theory and Bell's theorem. We devise a way of generating terms of a Bell's inequality that are related to elements of an algebraic group. The same group generates both the terms of the Bell's inequality and the observables that are used to calculate the quantum value of the Bell expression. Our results are published in [25][26]. In brief, Bell's theorem is the main tool of a research program that was started by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen [19] and Bohr [8] in the early days of quantum mechanics in their discussions about the core nature of physical systems. These debates were about a novel type of physical states called superposition states, which are introduced by quantum mechanics and manifested in the apparent inevitable randomness in measurement outcomes of identically prepared systems. Bell's huge contribution was to find a means of quantifying the problem and hence of opening the way to experimental verification by rephrasing the questions as limits on certain combinations of correlations between measurement results of spatially separate systems [7]. Thanks to Bell, the fundamental questions related to the nature of quantum mechanical systems became quantifiable [6]. According to Bell's theorem, some correlations between quantum entangled systems that involve incompatible
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.
Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation
Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2015-03-01
Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.
On the solution of the EPR paradox and the explanation of the violation of Bell's inequality
Bene, Gyula
1997-01-01
A new interpretation offers a consistent conceptual basis for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox is solved and the violation of Bell's inequality is explained by maintaining realism, inductive inference and Einstein separability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardehali, M.
1990-01-01
Some simple inequalities which demonstrate the incompatibility of local realism with quantum theory are derived. They establish, for the first time, necessary conditions for violation of the generalized spin-s Bell inequalities for a set of three distinct noncoplanar axes. For s=1/2, however, these inequalities are equivalent to Wigner's results, thus giving necessary and sufficient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2009-01-01
It is explained on a physical basis how absence of contextuality allows Bell inequalities to be violated, without bringing an implication on locality or realism. Hereto we connect first to the local realistic theory Stochastic Electrodynamics, and then put the argument more broadly. Thus even if Bell Inequality Violation is demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt, it will have no say on local realism.
Experimental tests of Bell's inequalities in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.
1983-01-01
This chapter attempts to show that the formalism leading to Bell's Inequalities is very general and reasonable. Discusses supplementary parameters; the Einstein-Podolsky-Bohm Gedanken Experiment; the conflict with quantum mechanics; Gedanken experiment with variable analyzers (the locality condition as a consequence of Einstein's causality); production of pairs of photons correlated in polarization; general considerations for a real sensitive experiment; previous experiments; experiments with one channel polarizer; the Orsay experiments; coincidence counting; two-channel analyzers; and timing experiments. Concludes that supplementary parameters theories obeying Einstein's causality and compatible with the results are somewhat artificial, since the experimental results would have to change dramatically (disagreement with Quantum Mechanics) with certain technical improvements (such as an increase of the efficiencies of the photomultipliers)
A new look at Bell's inequalities and Nelson's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, B.
2009-01-01
In 1985, Edward Nelson, who formulated the theory of stochastic mechanics, made an interesting remark about Bell's theorem. Nelson analysed the latter in the light of classical fields that behave randomly. He found that if a stochastic hidden variable theory fulfils certain conditions, the inequality of Bell can be violated. Moreover, Nelson was able to prove that this may happen without any instantaneous communication between the two spatially separated measurement stations. Since Nelson's article got almost overlooked by physicists, we try to review his comments on the theorem. We argue that a modification of stochastic mechanics published recently by Fritsche and Haugk can be extended to a theory which fulfils the requirements of Nelson's analysis. The article proceeds to derive the quantum mechanical formalism of spinning particles and the Pauli equation from this version of stochastic mechanics. Then, we investigate Bohm's version of the EPR experiment. Additionally, other setups, like entanglement swapping or time and position correlations, are shortly explained from the viewpoint of our local hidden-variable model. Finally, we mention that this theory could perhaps be relativistically extended and useful for the formulation of quantum mechanics in curved space-times. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Subsystems of a finite quantum system and Bell-like inequalities
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Vourdas, A
2014-01-01
The set of subsystems Σ(m) of a finite quantum system Σ(n) with variables in Z(n), together with logical connectives, is a Heyting algebra. The probabilities τ(m|ρ_n)=Tr[ B(m)ρ_n] (where B(m) is the projector to Σ(m)) are compatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, only if the variables belong to the same chain. Consequently, contextuality in the present formalism, has the chains as contexts. Various Bell-like inequalities are discussed. They are violated, and this proves that quantum mechanics is a contextual theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Hyunseok; Nguyen Ba An
2006-01-01
We study Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type (GHZ-type) and W-type three-mode entangled coherent states. Both types of entangled coherent states violate Mermin's version of the Bell inequality with threshold photon detection (i.e., without photon counting). Such an experiment can be performed using linear optics elements and threshold detectors with significant Bell violations for GHZ-type entangled coherent states. However, to demonstrate Bell-type inequality violations for W-type entangled coherent states, additional nonlinear interactions are needed. We also propose an optical scheme to generate W-type entangled coherent states in free-traveling optical fields. The required resources for the generation are a single-photon source, a coherent state source, beam splitters, phase shifters, photodetectors, and Kerr nonlinearities. Our scheme does not necessarily require strong Kerr nonlinear interactions; i.e., weak nonlinearities can be used for the generation of the W-type entangled coherent states. Furthermore, it is also robust against inefficiencies of the single-photon source and the photon detectors
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Kupczynski, Marian
2017-02-01
Ilya Schmelzer wrote recently: Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some "contextuality loophole" in Bell's theorem. This claim in unjustified. It is made clear that this arose from attaching a meaning to the title and the content of the paper different from the one intended by Nieuwenhuizen. "Contextual loophole" means only that if the supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly introduced, Bell and Bell-type inequalities may not be proven. It is also stressed that a hidden variable model suffers from a "contextuality loophole" if it tries to describe different sets of incompatible experiments using a unique probability space and a unique joint probability distribution.
Temporal Bell-type inequalities for two-level Rydberg atoms coupled to a high-Q resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huelga, S.F.; Marshall, T.W.; Santos, E.
1996-01-01
Following the strategy of showing specific quantum effects by means of the violation of a classical inequality, a pair of Bell-type inequalities is derived on the basis of certain additional assumptions, whose plausibility is discussed in detail. Such inequalities are violated by the quantum mechanical predictions for the interaction of a two-level Rydberg atom with a single mode sustained by a high-Q resonator. The experimental conditions required in order to show the existence of forbidden values, according to a hidden variables formalism, in a real experiment are analyzed for various initial field statistics. In particular, the revival dynamics expected for the interaction with a coherent field leads to classically forbidden values, which would indicate a purely quantum effect. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Bell Correlations in a Many-Body System with Finite Statistics
Wagner, Sebastian; Schmied, Roman; Fadel, Matteo; Treutlein, Philipp; Sangouard, Nicolas; Bancal, Jean-Daniel
2017-10-01
A recent experiment reported the first violation of a Bell correlation witness in a many-body system [Science 352, 441 (2016)]. Following discussions in this Letter, we address here the question of the statistics required to witness Bell correlated states, i.e., states violating a Bell inequality, in such experiments. We start by deriving multipartite Bell inequalities involving an arbitrary number of measurement settings, two outcomes per party and one- and two-body correlators only. Based on these inequalities, we then build up improved witnesses able to detect Bell correlated states in many-body systems using two collective measurements only. These witnesses can potentially detect Bell correlations in states with an arbitrarily low amount of spin squeezing. We then establish an upper bound on the statistics needed to convincingly conclude that a measured state is Bell correlated.
The simulation library of the Belle II software system
Kim, D. Y.; Ritter, M.; Bilka, T.; Bobrov, A.; Casarosa, G.; Chilikin, K.; Ferber, T.; Godang, R.; Jaegle, I.; Kandra, J.; Kodys, P.; Kuhr, T.; Kvasnicka, P.; Nakayama, H.; Piilonen, L.; Pulvermacher, C.; Santelj, L.; Schwenker, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Starič, M.; Uglov, T.
2017-10-01
SuperKEKB, the next generation B factory, has been constructed in Japan as an upgrade of KEKB. This brand new e+ e- collider is expected to deliver a very large data set for the Belle II experiment, which will be 50 times larger than the previous Belle sample. Both the triggered physics event rate and the background event rate will be increased by at least 10 times than the previous ones, and will create a challenging data taking environment for the Belle II detector. The software system of the Belle II experiment is designed to execute this ambitious plan. A full detector simulation library, which is a part of the Belle II software system, is created based on Geant4 and has been tested thoroughly. Recently the library has been upgraded with Geant4 version 10.1. The library is behaving as expected and it is utilized actively in producing Monte Carlo data sets for various studies. In this paper, we will explain the structure of the simulation library and the various interfaces to other packages including geometry and beam background simulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Huaixin; Zhao Jiaqiang; Cao Lianzhen; Wang Xiaoqin
2011-01-01
There are different families of inequalities that can be used to characterize the entanglement of multiqubit entangled states by the violation of quantum mechanics prediction versus local realism prediction. In a noisy environment, the violation of different inequalities distinguishes a direct from a noise-free environment. That is, each inequality has a different robustness against noise. We investigate theoretically and experimentally this proposition with the Mermin inequality, Bell inequality, and Svetlichny inequality using three-qubit GHZ states for different levels of noise. Our purpose is to determine which one of the inequalities is more robust against noise and thus more suitable to characterize entanglement of states. Our results show that the Mermin inequality is the most robust against stronger noise and is, thus, more suitable for characterizing the entanglement of three-qubit GHZ states in a noisy environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu Huaixin; Zhao Jiaqiang; Cao Lianzhen; Wang Xiaoqin [Department of Physics and Electronic Science, Weifang University, Weifang, Shandong 261061 (China)
2011-10-15
There are different families of inequalities that can be used to characterize the entanglement of multiqubit entangled states by the violation of quantum mechanics prediction versus local realism prediction. In a noisy environment, the violation of different inequalities distinguishes a direct from a noise-free environment. That is, each inequality has a different robustness against noise. We investigate theoretically and experimentally this proposition with the Mermin inequality, Bell inequality, and Svetlichny inequality using three-qubit GHZ states for different levels of noise. Our purpose is to determine which one of the inequalities is more robust against noise and thus more suitable to characterize entanglement of states. Our results show that the Mermin inequality is the most robust against stronger noise and is, thus, more suitable for characterizing the entanglement of three-qubit GHZ states in a noisy environment.
Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, Karl; Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel
2012-01-01
John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT and are the elements of an algebra. Violation of the inequalities indicated to Boole an inconsistency of definition of the abstractions and/or the necessity to revise the algebra. It is demonstrated in this paper, that a violation of Bell's inequality by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type of experiments can be explained by Boole's ideas. Violations of Bell's inequality also call for a revision of the mathematical abstractions and corresponding algebra. It will be shown that this particular view of Bell's inequalities points toward an incompleteness of quantum mechanics, rather than to any superluminal propagation or influences at a distance.
Bell's inequality and 'ghost-like action-at-a-distance' in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattuck, R.D.
1982-01-01
The phenomenon of non-locality in quantum mechanics is one of its most fundamental features and is most strikingly exemplified in the discussion of the EPR type of experiment. The generality of Bell's inequality and the results of experiments done up to now show that local hidden-variable theories are ruled out as a means to resolve the famous EPR paradox. What remains for further consideration are the non-local and the Einstein-separable hidden-variable models. Finally, an alternative and possible successful approach in trying to 'explain' non-locality might involve ideas of backward causation. (author)
Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavakoli, Armin
2016-01-01
Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory. (paper)
Self-guided method to search maximal Bell violations for unknown quantum states
Yang, Li-Kai; Chen, Geng; Zhang, Wen-Hao; Peng, Xing-Xiang; Yu, Shang; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-11-01
In recent decades, a great variety of research and applications concerning Bell nonlocality have been developed with the advent of quantum information science. Providing that Bell nonlocality can be revealed by the violation of a family of Bell inequalities, finding maximal Bell violation (MBV) for unknown quantum states becomes an important and inevitable task during Bell experiments. In this paper we introduce a self-guided method to find MBVs for unknown states using a stochastic gradient ascent algorithm (SGA), by parametrizing the corresponding Bell operators. For three investigated systems (two qubit, three qubit, and two qutrit), this method can ascertain the MBV of general two-setting inequalities within 100 iterations. Furthermore, we prove SGA is also feasible when facing more complex Bell scenarios, e.g., d -setting d -outcome Bell inequality. Moreover, compared to other possible methods, SGA exhibits significant superiority in efficiency, robustness, and versatility.
Some properties of the functions satisfying Bell's inequalities in relation to quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussel, P.
1986-01-01
A detailed comparison of Bell's inequalities (B.I.) and quantum mechanics (Q.M.) in an E.P.R.B. situation is given. It is first shown that Q.M. violates the original (3 directions) or generalized (4 directions) B.I. almost everywhere. The properties of functions satisfying the original B.I. are then derived and compared to Q.M. predictions. Finally, the behaviour of functions which satisfy B.I. and attempt to fit Q.M. is described. Altogether, an incompatibility is shown to be stronger than that resulting from just the usual examination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, M.D.; Munro, W.J.; De Martini, F.
2002-01-01
We show how polarization measurements on the output fields generated by parametric down conversion will reveal a violation of multiparticle Bell inequalities, in the regime of both low- and high-output intensity. In this case, each spatially separated system, upon which a measurement is performed, is comprised of more than one particle. In view of the formal analogy with spin systems, the proposal provides an opportunity to test the predictions of quantum mechanics for spatially separated higher spin states. Here the quantum behavior possible even where measurements are performed on systems of large quantum (particle) number may be demonstrated. Our proposal applies to both vacuum-state signal and idler inputs, and also to the quantum-injected parametric amplifier as studied by De Martini et al. The effect of detector inefficiencies is included, and weaker Bell-Clauser-Horne inequalities are derived to enable realistic tests of local hidden variables with auxiliary assumptions for the multiparticle situation
Norsen, Travis
2004-01-01
A new formulation of the EPR argument is presented, one which uses John Bell's mathematically precise local causality condition in place of the looser locality assumption which was used in the original EPR paper and on which Niels Bohr seems to have based his objection to the EPR argument. The new formulation of EPR bears a striking resemblance to Bell's derivation of his famous inequalities. The relation between these two arguments -- in particular, the role of EPR as part one of Bell's two-...
BellTest and CHSH experiments with more than two settings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basoalto, R M; Percival, I C [Department of Physics, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2003-07-04
Strong nonlocality allows signals faster than light. Weak nonlocality is a statistical property of classical events for which there is no realistic local theory. This requires the violation of at least one general Bell inequality. The theory of ideal quantum measurements predicts weak nonlocality but not strong nonlocality. Bell experiment here refers to any experiment designed to demonstrate weak nonlocality. BellTest is a computer program generally available on the Web to help planning and analysis of such Bell experiments. In Mode 1 it obtains general Bell inequalities. In Mode 2 it tests for their violation. We describe its use, with some new results for illustration.
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalcanti, Daniel; Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Salles, Alejo; Scarani, Valerio
2011-01-01
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).
Large violation of Bell inequalities using both particle andwave measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavalcanti, Daniel [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Brunner, Nicolas; Skrzypczyk, Paul [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Salles, Alejo [Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scarani, Valerio [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)
2011-08-15
When separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are performed, the theory predicts correlations that cannot be explained by any classical mechanism: communication is excluded because the signal should travel faster than light; preestablished agreement is excluded because Bell inequalities are violated. All optical demonstrations of such violations have involved discrete degrees of freedom and are plagued by the detection-efficiency loophole. A promising alternative is to use continuous variables combined with highly efficient homodyne measurements. However, all the schemes proposed so far use states or measurements that are extremely difficult to achieve, or they produce very weak violations. We present a simple method to generate large violations for feasible states using both photon counting and homodyne detections. The present scheme can also be used to obtain nonlocality from easy-to-prepare Gaussian states (e.g., two-mode squeezed state).
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and Bell inequalities for Bose-Einstein spin condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laloee, F.; Mullin, W. J.
2008-01-01
We discuss the properties of two Bose-Einstein condensates in different spin states, represented quantum mechanically by a double Fock state. Individual measurements of the spins of the particles are performed in transverse directions (perpendicular to the spin quantization axis), giving access to the relative phase of the two macroscopically occupied states. Before the first spin measurement, the phase is completely undetermined; after a few measurements, a more and more precise knowledge of its value emerges under the effect of the quantum measurement process. This naturally leads to the usual notion of a quasiclassical phase (Anderson phase) and to an interesting transposition of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument to macroscopic physical quantities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this transposition, as well as situations where the notion of a quasiclassical phase is no longer sufficient to account for the quantum results, and where significant violations of Bell-type inequalities are predicted. Quantum mechanically, the problem can be treated exactly: the probability for all sequences of results can be expressed in the form of a double integral, depending on all parameters that define the experiment (number of particles, number and angles of measurements). We discuss the differences between this case and the usual two-spin case. We discuss the effect of the many parameters that the experimenters can adjust for their measurements, starting with a discussion of the effect of the angles of measurement (the 'settings'), and then envisaging various choices of the functions that are used to obtain violation of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. We then discuss how the 'sample bias loophole' (often also called 'efficiency loophole') can be closed in this case, by introducing a preliminary sequence of measurements to localize the particles into 'measurement boxes'. We finally show that the same nonlocal effects can be observed with distinguishable
Bell inequalities for falsifying mesoscopic local realism via amplification of quantum noise
Reid, M. D.
2018-04-01
Macroscopic realism (MR) per se specifies that a system which has two macroscopically distinct states available to it (such as a cat being dead or alive) is at all times predetermined to be in one or other of those two states. A minimal assumption of a macroscopic realistic theory therefore is the validity of a hidden variable λM that predetermines the outcome (whether dead or alive) of a measurement M ̂ distinguishing the two states. Proposals to test MR generally introduce a second premise to further qualify the meaning of MR. Thus, we consider a model, macroscopic local realism (MLR), where the second premise is that measurements at one location cannot cause an instantaneous macroscopic change δ to the results of measurements made on a second system at another location. To provide a practical test, we define the intermediate concept of δ -scopic local realism (δ -LR), where δ ≠0 can be quantified, but need not be macroscopic. By considering the amplification of quantum fluctuations, we show how negation of δ -LR is possible using fields violating a continuous variable Bell inequality. A modified Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is derived that tests δ -LR, and a quantitative proposal given for experiments based on polarization entanglement. In the proposal, δ is the magnitude of the quantum noise scaled by an adjustable coherent amplitude α that can also be considered part of the measurement apparatus. Thus, δ is large in an absolute sense, but scales inversely with the square root of the system size, which is proportional to |α| 2. We discuss how the proposed experiment gives a realization of a type of Schrödinger-cat experiment without problems of decoherence.
Generating optimal states for a homodyne Bell test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daffer, S.; Knight, P.L.
2005-01-01
Full text: We present a protocol that produces a conditionally prepared state that can be used for a Bell test based on homodyne detection. Based on the results of Munro, the state is near-optimal for Bell inequality violations based on quadrature-phase homodyne measurements that use correlated photon-number states. The scheme utilizes the Gaussian entanglement distillation protocol of Eisert et. al. and uses only beam splitters and photodetection to conditionally prepare a non-Gaussian state from a source of two-mode squeezed states with low squeezing parameter, permitting a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities. (author)
Tripartite states' Bell-nonlocality sudden death in an environmental spin chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Zou Jian
2010-01-01
The tripartite nonlocality is investigated by the extent of violation of the Bell inequality in a three-qubit system coupled to an environmental Ising spin chain. In the weak-coupling region, we show that the tripartite Bell-inequality violations can be fully destroyed in a finite time under decoherence induced by the coupling with the spin environment. In addition, how the environment affects the Bell-nonlocality sudden death is demonstrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knee, G C; Briggs, G A D; Benjamin, S C; Gauger, E M
2012-01-01
A recent paper by Souza, Oliveira and Sarthour (SOS) reports the experimental violation of a Leggett-Garg (LG) inequality (sometimes referred to as a temporal Bell inequality). The inequality tests for quantum mechanical superposition: if the inequality is violated, the dynamics cannot be explained by a large class of classical theories under the heading of macrorealism. Experimental tests of the LG inequality are beset by the difficulty of carrying out the necessary so-called ‘non-invasive’ measurements (which for the macrorealist will extract information from a system of interest without disturbing it). SOS argue that they nevertheless achieve this difficult goal by putting the system in a maximally mixed state. The system then allegedly undergoes no perturbation during their experiment. Unfortunately, the method is ultimately unconvincing to a skeptical macrorealist and so the conclusions drawn by SOS are unjustified. (comment)
Do EPR-Bell correlations require a non-local interpretation of quantum mechanics? I: Wigner approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scully, Marlan O.; Erez, Noam; Fry, Edward S.
2005-01-01
Bell inequality experiments teach us that, to explain the data, a hidden variable theory must be non-local. But, to also apply this conclusion to quantum mechanics is unjustified. The key assumptions required to obtain a Bell inequality are (1) locality and (2) the assignment of meaningful (non-negative) probabilities to seemingly physical correlations (Bell expresses these correlations via 'hidden variables'). Since the Bell inequality is violated by experiment, at least one of these assumptions is wrong. The widespread conclusion that locality must be relinquished is unwarranted; rather, the previously mentioned correlations are not physical observables-they are not elements of physical reality
Reconciling local realism and quantum physics: a critique to Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claudio Garola.
1994-01-01
A Metatheoretical Generalized Principle (MGP) is stated that formalizes an operational non-standard way of looking at the laws of physics. In Quantum Physics MGP leads to the invalidation of Bell's Inequality without renouncing to a minimal form of realism or to locality. Therefore the violation of Bell's Inequality predicted by Quantum Physics does not appear paradoxial if MGP is accepted
A significant-loophole-free test of Bell's theorem with entangled photons
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-10-01
John Bell's theorem of 1964 states that local elements of physical reality, existing independent of measurement, are inconsistent with the predictions of quantum mechanics (Bell, J. S. (1964), Physics (College. Park. Md). Specifically, correlations between measurement results from distant entangled systems would be smaller than predicted by quantum physics. This is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Employing modifications of Bell's inequalities, many experiments have been performed that convincingly support the quantum predictions. Yet, all experiments rely on assumptions, which provide loopholes for a local realist explanation of the measurement. Here we report an experiment with polarization-entangled photons that simultaneously closes the most significant of these loopholes. We use a highly efficient source of entangled photons, distributed these over a distance of 58.5 meters, and implemented rapid random setting generation and high-efficiency detection to observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The merely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism is less than 3.74×10-31, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
Bell-Nonlocality Dynamics of Three Remote Atoms in Tavis—Cummings and Jaynes—Cummings Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen Xiu-Lan; Yang Qing; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuo-Liang
2014-01-01
We study the Bell-nonlocality dynamics of three remote atoms, two of which are trapped in one single-mode cavity and the third atom is trapped in another remote single-mode cavity. The interactions between the atoms and the cavity modes are studied via Tavis Cummings and Jaynes Cummings models. Here, the two single-mode cavities are introduced to simulate two different enviroments of the three atoms. The tripartite nonlocal correlations are studied in terms of the Svetlichny inequality and the WWZB inequality, respectively. The results show that the tripartite Bell-nonlocality sudden death will occur for the W state and GHZ state initial conditions. The detailed results demonstrate that the tripartite nonlocality of GHZ state is more robust than that of W state when suffering from the effect of environments. (general)
A possible loophole in the theorem of Bell.
Hess, K; Philipp, W
2001-12-04
The celebrated inequalities of Bell are based on the assumption that local hidden parameters exist. When combined with conflicting experimental results, these inequalities appear to prove that local hidden parameters cannot exist. This contradiction suggests to many that only instantaneous action at a distance can explain the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen type of experiments. We show that, in addition to the assumption that hidden parameters exist, Bell tacitly makes a variety of other assumptions that contribute to his being able to obtain the desired contradiction. For instance, Bell assumes that the hidden parameters do not depend on time and are governed by a single probability measure independent of the analyzer settings. We argue that the exclusion of time has neither a physical nor a mathematical basis but is based on Bell's translation of the concept of Einstein locality into the language of probability theory. Our additional set of local hidden variables includes time-like correlated parameters and a generalized probability density. We prove that our extended space of local hidden variables does not permit Bell-type proofs to go forward.
Device-independent randomness generation from several Bell estimators
Nieto-Silleras, Olmo; Bamps, Cédric; Silman, Jonathan; Pironio, Stefano
2018-02-01
Device-independent randomness generation and quantum key distribution protocols rely on a fundamental relation between the non-locality of quantum theory and its random character. This relation is usually expressed in terms of a trade-off between the probability of guessing correctly the outcomes of measurements performed on quantum systems and the amount of violation of a given Bell inequality. However, a more accurate assessment of the randomness produced in Bell experiments can be obtained if the value of several Bell expressions is simultaneously taken into account, or if the full set of probabilities characterizing the behavior of the device is considered. We introduce protocols for device-independent randomness generation secure against classical side information, that rely on the estimation of an arbitrary number of Bell expressions or even directly on the experimental frequencies of measurement outcomes. Asymptotically, this results in an optimal generation of randomness from experimental data (as measured by the min-entropy), without having to assume beforehand that the devices violate a specific Bell inequality.
Obstructions to Bell CMB experiments
Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent
2017-09-01
We present a general and systematic study of how a Bell experiment on the cosmic microwave background could be carried out. We introduce different classes of pseudo-spin operators and show that, if the system is placed in a two-mode squeezed state as inflation predicts, they all lead to a violation of the Bell inequality. However, we also discuss the obstacles that one faces in order to realize this program in practice and show that they are probably insurmountable. We suggest alternative methods that could reveal the quantum origin of cosmological structures without relying on Bell experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com
2012-09-15
Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.
Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-12-17
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geppert, H., E-mail: hgeppert@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Denkmayr, T.; Sponar, S. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Lemmel, H. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Institut Laue Langevin, 38000 Grenoble (France); Hasegawa, Y. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)
2014-11-01
For precise measurements with polarised neutrons high efficient spin-manipulation is required. We developed several neutron optical elements suitable for a new sophisticated setup, i.e., DC spin-turners and Larmor-accelerators which diminish thermal disturbances and depolarisation considerably. The gain in performance is exploited demonstrating violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-path entangled single-neutron state. The obtained value of S=2.365(13), which is much higher than previous measurements by neutron interferometry, is 28σ above the limit of S=2 predicted by contextual hidden variable theories. The new setup is more flexible referring to state preparation and analysis, therefore new, more precise measurements can be carried out.
Geppert, H; Denkmayr, T; Sponar, S; Lemmel, H; Hasegawa, Y
2014-11-01
For precise measurements with polarised neutrons high efficient spin-manipulation is required. We developed several neutron optical elements suitable for a new sophisticated setup, i.e., DC spin-turners and Larmor-accelerators which diminish thermal disturbances and depolarisation considerably. The gain in performance is exploited demonstrating violation of a Bell-like inequality for a spin-path entangled single-neutron state. The obtained value of [Formula: see text], which is much higher than previous measurements by neutron interferometry, is [Formula: see text] above the limit of S =2 predicted by contextual hidden variable theories. The new setup is more flexible referring to state preparation and analysis, therefore new, more precise measurements can be carried out.
Bell's theorem and the nature of reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, R.A.
1988-01-01
We rediscuss the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Bohm's spin version and oppose to it Bohr's controversial point of view. Then we explain Bell's theorem, Bell inequalities and its consequences. We describe the experiment of Aspect, Dalibard and Roger in detail. Finally we draw attention to the nonlocal structure of the underlying theory. 61 refs., 8 tabs. (Author)
Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons.
Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A M; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E; Shalm, Lynden K; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton
2015-12-18
Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74×10^{-31}, corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.
Bell's inequality and 'ghost-like action-at-a-distance' in quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattuck, R.D. (Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). H.C. Oersted Inst.)
1982-01-01
The phenomenon of non-locality in quantum mechanics is one of its most fundamental features and is most strikingly exemplified in the discussion of the EPR type of experiment. The generality of Bell's inequality and the results of experiments done up to now show that local hidden-variable theories are ruled out as a means to resolve the famous EPR paradox. What remains for further consideration are the non-local and the Einstein-separable hidden-variable models. Finally, an alternative and possible successful approach in trying to 'explain' non-locality might involve ideas of backward causation.
Operator space approach to steering inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yin, Zhi; Marciniak, Marcin; Horodecki, Michał
2015-01-01
In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)
Inequalities for nonideal correlation experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fine, A.
1991-01-01
This paper addresses the inefficiency loophole in the Bell theorem. The author examines factorizable stochastic models for the Bell inequalities, where they allow the detection efficiency to depend both on the hidden state of the measured system and also its passage through an analyzer. They show that, nevertheless, if the efficiency functions are symmetric between the two wings of the experiment, one can dispense with supplementary assumptions and derive new inequalities that enable the models to be tested even for highly inefficient experiments
A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem
Rubincam, David Parry
2000-01-01
Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid.
Cosmic Bell Test: Measurement Settings from Milky Way Stars
Handsteiner, Johannes; Friedman, Andrew S.; Rauch, Dominik; Gallicchio, Jason; Liu, Bo; Hosp, Hannes; Kofler, Johannes; Bricher, David; Fink, Matthias; Leung, Calvin; Mark, Anthony; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sanders, Isabella; Steinlechner, Fabian; Ursin, Rupert; Wengerowsky, Sören; Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Scheidl, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2017-02-01
Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was spacelike separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant ≳7.31 σ and ≳11.93 σ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated p values of ≲1.8 ×10-13 and ≲4.0 ×10-33, respectively, thereby pushing back by ˜600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.
On Bell correlations for the phase space of two entangled light modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonhardt, U.
1993-01-01
Bell's sign anticorrelations were studied for the phase space of two entangled light modes (or harmonic oscillators). States with the same symmetry as in Bell's example approach the anticorrelation function of the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state as a universal limit for strong correlations. A Bell inequality is not violated. (orig.)
Quantum team logic and Bell's inequalities
Hyttinen, T.; Paolini, G.; Väänänen, J.
2015-01-01
A logical approach to Bell’s Inequalities of quantum mechanics has been introduced by Abramsky and Hardy (Abramsky & Hardy, 2012). We point out that the logical Bell’s Inequalities of Abramsky & Hardy (2012) are provable in the probability logic of Fagin, Halpern and Megiddo (Fagin et al., 1990).
Postselection-Loophole-Free Bell Test Over an Installed Optical Fiber Network.
Carvacho, Gonzalo; Cariñe, Jaime; Saavedra, Gabriel; Cuevas, Álvaro; Fuenzalida, Jorge; Toledo, Felipe; Figueroa, Miguel; Cabello, Adán; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Mataloni, Paolo; Lima, Gustavo; Xavier, Guilherme B
2015-07-17
Device-independent quantum communication will require a loophole-free violation of Bell inequalities. In typical scenarios where line of sight between the communicating parties is not available, it is convenient to use energy-time entangled photons due to intrinsic robustness while propagating over optical fibers. Here we show an energy-time Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality violation with two parties separated by 3.7 km over the deployed optical fiber network belonging to the University of Concepción in Chile. Remarkably, this is the first Bell violation with spatially separated parties that is free of the postselection loophole, which affected all previous in-field long-distance energy-time experiments. Our work takes a further step towards a fiber-based loophole-free Bell test, which is highly desired for secure quantum communication due to the widespread existing telecommunication infrastructure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modeling in Physics, Engineering, Economics, and Cognitive Science Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe (Sweden)
2017-06-15
We analyze foundational consequences of recently reported loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. The conventional one is ''Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality.'' However, in line with discussions in literature during last decade, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will call the attention of experts in quantum foundations and convince them that the case is not closed, so that they should come with their own comments on the status of the final Bell test. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei
2017-01-01
We analyze foundational consequences of recently reported loophole free tests of violation of Bell's inequality. We consider two interpretations of these remarkable experiments. The conventional one is ''Einstein was wrong and Bohr was right, there is spooky action at a distance, quantum realism is incompatible with locality.'' However, in line with discussions in literature during last decade, we show that it is still possible to treat quantum mechanics without appealing to nonlocality or denying realism. We hope that this note will call the attention of experts in quantum foundations and convince them that the case is not closed, so that they should come with their own comments on the status of the final Bell test. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Deriving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from the few-body Abner Shimony inequalities
Zhou, Jie; Meng, Hui-Xian; Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Ren, Changliang; Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling
2018-04-01
For the Abner Shimony (AS) inequalities, the simplest unified forms of directions attaining the maximum quantum violation are investigated. Based on these directions, a family of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequalities is derived from the AS inequalities in a systematic manner. For these inequalities, the local hidden state (LHS) bounds are strictly less than the local hidden variable (LHV) bounds. This means that the EPR steering is a form of quantum nonlocality strictly weaker than Bell nonlocality.
Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption.
Giustina, Marissa; Mech, Alexandra; Ramelow, Sven; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Beyer, Jörn; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton
2013-05-09
The violation of a Bell inequality is an experimental observation that forces the abandonment of a local realistic viewpoint--namely, one in which physical properties are (probabilistically) defined before and independently of measurement, and in which no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. All such experimental violations require additional assumptions depending on their specific construction, making them vulnerable to so-called loopholes. Here we use entangled photons to violate a Bell inequality while closing the fair-sampling loophole, that is, without assuming that the sample of measured photons accurately represents the entire ensemble. To do this, we use the Eberhard form of Bell's inequality, which is not vulnerable to the fair-sampling assumption and which allows a lower collection efficiency than other forms. Technical improvements of the photon source and high-efficiency transition-edge sensors were crucial for achieving a sufficiently high collection efficiency. Our experiment makes the photon the first physical system for which each of the main loopholes has been closed, albeit in different experiments.
Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Larsson, Jan-Aake; Moskal, Pawel
2012-01-01
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)
Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, E.
1991-01-01
It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states
Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Di Domenico, Antonio [Sapienza Universita di Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Curceanu, Catalina [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Larsson, Jan-Aake [Linkoepings Universitet, Institionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moskal, Pawel [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)
2012-01-15
Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)
Asselmeyer-Maluga, Torsten
2016-01-01
In this book, leading theorists present new contributions and reviews addressing longstanding challenges and ongoing progress in spacetime physics. In the anniversary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, developed 100 years ago, this collection reflects the subsequent and continuing fruitful development of spacetime theories. The volume is published in honour of Carl Brans on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Carl H. Brans, who also contributes personally, is a creative and independent researcher and one of the founders of the scalar-tensor theory, also known as Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. In the present book, much space is devoted to scalar-tensor theories. Since the beginning of the 1990s, Brans has worked on new models of spacetime, collectively known as exotic smoothness, a field largely established by him. In this Festschrift, one finds an outstanding and unique collection of articles about exotic smoothness. Also featured are Bell's inequality and Mach's principle. Personal memories and hist...
A unified view on Hardyʼs paradox and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality
Mančinska, L.; Wehner, S.
2014-10-01
Bell's inequality fundamentally changed our understanding of quantum mechanics. Bell's insight that non-local correlations between quantum systems cannot be explained classically can be verified experimentally, and has numerous applications in modern quantum information. Today, the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is probably the most well-known Bell inequality and it has given us a wealth of understanding in what differentiates the classical from the quantum world. Yet, there are certainly other means of quantifying ‘Bell non-locality without inequalities’ such as the famous Hardy's paradox. As such, one may wonder whether these are entirely different approaches to non-locality. For this anniversary issue, we unify the perspective of the CHSH inequality and Hardy’s paradox into one family of non-local games which include both as special cases. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Simulation Models for Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A Systematic Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niko Speybroeck
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Background: The emergence and evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in health involves multiple factors interacting with each other at different levels. Simulation models are suitable for studying such complex and dynamic systems and have the ability to test the impact of policy interventions in silico. Objective: To explore how simulation models were used in the field of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods: An electronic search of studies assessing socioeconomic inequalities in health using a simulation model was conducted. Characteristics of the simulation models were extracted and distinct simulation approaches were identified. As an illustration, a simple agent-based model of the emergence of socioeconomic differences in alcohol abuse was developed. Results: We found 61 studies published between 1989 and 2013. Ten different simulation approaches were identified. The agent-based model illustration showed that multilevel, reciprocal and indirect effects of social determinants on health can be modeled flexibly. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the review, we discuss the utility of using simulation models for studying health inequalities, and refer to good modeling practices for developing such models. The review and the simulation model example suggest that the use of simulation models may enhance the understanding and debate about existing and new socioeconomic inequalities of health frameworks.
Tight Bound on Randomness for Violating the CHSH Inequality
Teng, Yifeng; Yang, Shenghao; Wang, Siwei; Zhao, Mingfei
2015-01-01
Free will (or randomness) has been studied to achieve loophole-free Bell's inequality test and to provide device-independent quantum key distribution security proofs. The required randomness such that a local hidden variable model (LHVM) can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality has been studied, but a tight bound has not been proved for a practical case that i) the device settings of the two parties in the Bell test are independent; and ii) the device settings of each part...
John Stewart Bell and twentieth century physics vision and integrity
Whitaker, Andrew
2016-01-01
John Stewart Bell (1928-1990) was one of the most important figures in twentieth-century physics, famous for his work on the fundamental aspects of the century's most important theory, quantum mechanics. While the debate over quantum theory between the supremely famous physicists, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr, appeared to have become sterile in the 1930s, Bell was able to revive it and to make crucial advances - Bell's Theorem or Bell's Inequalities. He was able to demonstrate a contradiction between quantum theory and essential elements of pre-quantum theory - locality and causality. The book gives a non-mathematical account of Bell's relatively impoverished upbringing in Belfast and his education. It describes his major contributions to quantum theory, but also his important work in the physics of accelerators, and nuclear and elementary particle physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhr, T; Ritter, M
2016-01-01
Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco; Maruyama, Koji; Brukner, Caslav
2009-01-01
Theoretical considerations of Bell-inequality experiments usually assume identically prepared and independent pairs of particles. Here we consider pairs that exhibit both intrapair and interpair entanglement. The pairs are taken from a large many-body system where all the pairs are generally entangled with each other. Using an explicit example based on single mode entanglement and an ancillary Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the Bell-inequality violation in such systems can display statistical properties that are remarkably different from those obtained using identically prepared independent pairs. In particular, one can have probabilistic violation of Bell's inequalities in which a finite fraction of all the runs result in violation even though there could be no violation when averaging over all the runs. Whether or not a particular run of results will end up being local realistically explainable is 'decided' by a sequence of quantum (random) outcomes.
Telecom Modeling with ChatterBell.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jrad, Ahmad M.; Kelic, Andjelka
2017-12-01
This document provides a description and user manual for the ChatterBell voice telecom modeling and simulation capability. The intended audience consists of network planners and practitioners who wish to use the tool to model a particular voice network and analyze its behavior under varying assumptions and possible failure conditions. ChatterBell is built on top of the N-SMART voice simulation and visualization suite that was developed through collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Bell Laboratories of Lucent Technologies. The new and improved modeling and simulation tool has been modified and modernized to incorporate the latest development in the telecom world including the widespread use of VoIP technology. In addition, ChatterBell provides new commands and modeling capabilities that were not available in the N-SMART application.
Experimental EPR-steering using Bell-local states
Saunders, D. J.; Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Pryde, G. J.
2010-11-01
The concept of `steering' was introduced in 1935 by Schrödinger as a generalization of the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox. It has recently been formalized as a quantum-information task with arbitrary bipartite states and measurements, for which the existence of entanglement is necessary but not sufficient. Previous experiments in this area have been restricted to an approach that followed the original EPR argument in considering only two different measurement settings per side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that EPR-steering occurs for mixed entangled states that are Bell local (that is, that cannot possibly demonstrate Bell non-locality). Unlike the case of Bell inequalities, increasing the number of measurement settings beyond two-we use up to six-significantly increases the robustness of the EPR-steering phenomenon to noise.
Beat the Bourgeoisie: A Social Class Inequality and Mobility Simulation Game
Norris, Dawn R.
2013-01-01
Simulation games can help overcome student resistance to thinking structurally about social class inequality, meritocracy, and mobility. Most inequality simulations focus solely on economic inequality and omit social and cultural capital, both of which contribute to social class reproduction. Using a pretest/posttest design, the current study…
Spin and Wind Directions II: A Bell State Quantum Model.
Aerts, Diederik; Arguëlles, Jonito Aerts; Beltran, Lester; Geriente, Suzette; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano; Sozzo, Sandro; Veloz, Tomas
2018-01-01
In the first half of this two-part article (Aerts et al. in Found Sci. doi:10.1007/s10699-017-9528-9, 2017b), we analyzed a cognitive psychology experiment where participants were asked to select pairs of directions that they considered to be the best example of Two Different Wind Directions , and showed that the data violate the CHSH version of Bell's inequality, with same magnitude as in typical Bell-test experiments in physics. In this second part, we complete our analysis by presenting a symmetrized version of the experiment, still violating the CHSH inequality but now also obeying the marginal law, for which we provide a full quantum modeling in Hilbert space, using a singlet state and suitably chosen product measurements. We also address some of the criticisms that have been recently directed at experiments of this kind, according to which they would not highlight the presence of genuine forms of entanglement. We explain that these criticisms are based on a view of entanglement that is too restrictive, thus unable to capture all possible ways physical and conceptual entities can connect and form systems behaving as a whole. We also provide an example of a mechanical model showing that the violations of the marginal law and Bell inequalities are generally to be associated with different mechanisms.
Experiments tests of Bell's inequalities with pairs of low energy correlated photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspect, A.
1986-01-01
This paper reviews the essence of Bell's reasoning, the purpose of which is to convince the reader that a very natural way of understanding the EPR correlations is to complete quantum mechanics in the way considered by Bell. It is noted that Bell's theorem states a conflict between local supplementary parameters theories and certain quantum mechanical predictions. It yields a quantitative criterion for this conflict, that allows one to design sensitive experiments. These experiments are presented in the paper. It is concluded that the predictions of quantum mechanics in EPR-type situations are vindicated by the experiments
Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev
2017-02-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev
2017-01-01
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Sayantan [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India); TIFR, DTP, Mumbai (India); Panda, Sudhakar [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Singh, Rajeev [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Pune (India)
2017-02-15
In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we
Bell-type experiments and the concept of locally stochastic causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andaas, H.E.
1992-08-01
The concept of locally stochastic causality (LSC), related to the theory of local beables suggested by Bell, is introduced. It is argued that the experiments performed to verify the predictions of Bell's inequalities have merely been tests for the possibility of a description of nature in terms of joint probability distributions for the observables and that they do not provide sufficient results to sustain claims that theories based upon LSC have been falsified. 31 refs., 5 figs
Accardi contra Bell (cum mundi) : the impossible coupling
Gill, R.D.
2001-01-01
An experimentally observed violation of Bell s inequality is supposed to show the failure of local realism to deal with quantum reality. However, finite statistics and the time sequential nature of real experiments still allows a loophole for local realism. We show that the randomised design of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett–Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett–Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett–Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett–Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems. (review article)
Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Xue-ke; Wu, Tao; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Ye, Liu
2014-01-01
In this paper, we have investigated the dynamical behaviors of the two important quantum correlation witnesses, i.e. geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Bell–CHSH inequality in the XXZ model with DM interaction by employing the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method. The results have shown that the anisotropy suppresses the quantum correlations while the DM interaction can enhance them. Meanwhile, using the QRG method we have studied the quantum phase transition of GQD and obtained two saturated values, which are associated with two different phases: spin-fluid phase and the Néel phase. It is worth mentioning that the block–block correlation is not strong enough to violate the Bell–CHSH inequality in the whole iteration steps. Moreover, the nonanalytic phenomenon and scaling behavior of Bell inequality are discussed in detail. As a byproduct, the conjecture that the exact lower and upper bounds of Bell inequality versus GQD can always be established for this spin system although the given density matrix is a general X state
Hidden assumptions in the derivation of the theorem of Bell
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2012-01-01
John Bell's inequalities have already been considered by Boole in 1862. Boole established a one-to-one correspondence between experimental outcomes and mathematical abstractions of his probability theory. His abstractions are two-valued functions that permit the logical operations AND, OR and NOT
Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.
2003-01-01
Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states
Bell Operator Method to Classify Local Realistic Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagata, Koji
2010-01-01
We review the historical fact of multipartite Bell inequalities with an arbitrary number of settings. An explicit local realistic model for the values of a correlation function, given in a two-setting Bell experiment (two-setting model), works only for the specific set of settings in the given experiment, but cannot construct a local realistic model for the values of a correlation function, given in a continuous-infinite settings Bell experiment (infinite-setting model), even though there exist two-setting models for all directions in space. Hence, the two-setting model does not have the property that the infinite-setting model has. Here, we show that an explicit two-setting model cannot construct a local realistic model for the values of a correlation function, given in an M-setting Bell experiment (M-setting model), even though there exist two-setting models for the M measurement directions chosen in the given M-setting experiment. Hence, the two-setting model does not have the property that the M-setting model has. (general)
Single, Complete, Probability Spaces Consistent With EPR-Bohm-Bell Experimental Data
Avis, David; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid; Khrennikov, Andrei
2009-03-01
We show that paradoxical consequences of violations of Bell's inequality are induced by the use of an unsuitable probabilistic description for the EPR-Bohm-Bell experiment. The conventional description (due to Bell) is based on a combination of statistical data collected for different settings of polarization beam splitters (PBSs). In fact, such data consists of some conditional probabilities which only partially define a probability space. Ignoring this conditioning leads to apparent contradictions in the classical probabilistic model (due to Kolmogorov). We show how to make a completely consistent probabilistic model by taking into account the probabilities of selecting the settings of the PBSs. Our model matches both the experimental data and is consistent with classical probability theory.
From Boole to Leggett-Garg: Epistemology of Bell-Type Inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Hess
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In 1862, George Boole derived an inequality for variables that represents a demarcation line between possible and impossible experience. This inequality forms an important milestone in the epistemology of probability theory and probability measures. In 1985 Leggett and Garg derived a physics related inequality, mathematically identical to Boole’s, that according to them represents a demarcation between macroscopic realism and quantum mechanics. We show that a wide gulf separates the “sense impressions” and corresponding data, as well as the postulates of macroscopic realism, from the mathematical abstractions that are used to derive the inequality of Leggett and Garg. If the gulf can be bridged, one may indeed derive the said inequality, which is then clearly a demarcation between possible and impossible experience: it cannot be violated and is not violated by quantum theory. This implies that the Leggett-Garg inequality does not mean that the SQUID flux is not there when nobody looks, as Leggett and Garg suggest, but instead that the probability measures may not be what Leggett and Garg have assumed them to be, when no data can be secured that directly relate to them. We show that similar considerations apply to other quantum interpretation-puzzles such as two-slit experiments.
Device-independent characterizations of a shared quantum state independent of any Bell inequalities
Wei, Zhaohui; Sikora, Jamie
2017-03-01
In a Bell experiment two parties share a quantum state and perform local measurements on their subsystems separately, and the statistics of the measurement outcomes are recorded as a Bell correlation. For any Bell correlation, it turns out that a quantum state with minimal size that is able to produce this correlation can always be pure. In this work, we first exhibit two device-independent characterizations for the pure state that Alice and Bob share using only the correlation data. Specifically, we give two conditions that the Schmidt coefficients must satisfy, which can be tight, and have various applications in quantum tasks. First, one of the characterizations allows us to bound the entanglement between Alice and Bob using Renyi entropies and also to bound the underlying Hilbert space dimension. Second, when the Hilbert space dimension bound is tight, the shared pure quantum state has to be maximally entangled. Third, the second characterization gives a sufficient condition that a Bell correlation cannot be generated by particular quantum states. We also show that our results can be generalized to the case of shared mixed states.
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…
Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality
H. Buhrman (Harry); L. Czekaj (Lłukasz); A. Grudka (Andrzej); M. Horodecki (Michalł); P. Horodecki (Pawelł); M. Markiewicz (Marcin); F. Speelman (Florian); S. Strelchuk (Sergii)
2016-01-01
textabstractWe obtain a general connection between a large quantumadvantage in communication complexity and Bell nonlocality. We show that given any protocol offering a sufficiently large quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics that
Experimental violation of Svetlichny's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavoie, J; Kaltenbaek, R; Resch, K J
2009-01-01
It is well known that quantum mechanics is incompatible with local realistic theories. Svetlichny showed, through the development of a Bell-like inequality, that quantum mechanics is also incompatible with a restricted class of nonlocal realistic theories for three particles where any two-body nonlocal correlations are allowed (Svetlichny 1987 Phys. Rev. D 35 3066). In the present work, we experimentally generate three-photon GHZ states to test Svetlichny's inequality. Our states are fully characterized by quantum state tomography using an overcomplete set of measurements and have a fidelity of (84±1)% with the target state. We measure a convincing, 3.6σ, violation of Svetlichny's inequality and rule out this class of restricted nonlocal realistic models.
Configuration of separability and tests for multipartite entanglement in bell-type experiments.
Nagata, Koji; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki
2002-12-23
We derive tight quadratic inequalities for all kinds of hybrid separable-inseparable n-particle density operators on an arbitrary dimensional space. This methodology enables us to derive a tight quadratic inequality as tests for full n-partite entanglement in various Bell-type correlation experiments on the systems that may not be identified as a collection of qubits, e.g., those involving photons measured by incomplete detectors. It is also proved that when the two measured observables are assumed to precisely anticommute, a stronger quadratic inequality can be used as a witness of full n-partite entanglement.
Macrorealism from entropic Leggett-Garg inequalities
Devi, A. R. Usha; Karthik, H. S.; Sudha; Rajagopal, A. K.
2013-05-01
We formulate entropic Leggett-Garg inequalities, which place constraints on the statistical outcomes of temporal correlations of observables. The information theoretic inequalities are satisfied if macrorealism holds. We show that the quantum statistics underlying correlations between time-separated spin component of a quantum rotor mimics that of spin correlations in two spatially separated spin-s particles sharing a state of zero total spin. This brings forth the violation of the entropic Leggett-Garg inequality by a rotating quantum spin-s system in a similar manner as does the entropic Bell inequality [S. L. Braunstein and C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.662 61, 662 (1988)] by a pair of spin-s particles forming a composite spin singlet state.
From Boole to Leggett-Garg : Epistemology of Bell-Type Inequalities
Hess, Karl; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel
2016-01-01
In 1862, George Boole derived an inequality for variables that represents a demarcation line between possible and impossible experience. This inequality forms an important milestone in the epistemology of probability theory and probability measures. In 1985 Leggett and Garg derived a physics related
Bellac, Michel Le
2014-11-01
The final form of quantum physics, in the particular case of wave mechanics, was established in the years 1925-1927 by Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Born and others, but the synthesis was the work of Bohr who gave an epistemological interpretation of all the technicalities built up over those years; this interpretation will be examined briefly in Chapter 10. Although Einstein acknowledged the success of quantum mechanics in atomic, molecular and solid state physics, he disagreed deeply with Bohr's interpretation. For many years, he tried to find flaws in the formulation of quantum theory as it had been more or less accepted by a large majority of physicists, but his objections were brushed away by Bohr. However, in an article published in 1935 with Podolsky and Rosen, universally known under the acronym EPR, Einstein thought he had identified a difficulty in the by then standard interpretation. Bohr's obscure, and in part beyond the point, answer showed that Einstein had hit a sensitive target. Nevertheless, until 1964, the so-called Bohr-Einstein debate stayed uniquely on a philosophical level, and it was actually forgotten by most physicists, as the few of them aware of it thought it had no practical implication. In 1964, the Northern Irish physicist John Bell realized that the assumptions contained in the EPR article could be tested experimentally. These assumptions led to inequalities, the Bell inequalities, which were in contradiction with quantum mechanical predictions: as we shall see later on, it is extremely likely that the assumptions of the EPR article are not consistent with experiment, which, on the contrary, vindicates the predictions of quantum physics. In Section 3.2, the origin of Bell's inequalities will be explained with an intuitive example, then they will be compared with the predictions of quantum theory in Section 3.3, and finally their experimental status will be reviewed in Section 3.4. The debate between Bohr and Einstein goes much beyond a
Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Zou, Wen-Jie; Li, Zheng-Ping; Shen, Qi; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Ren, Ji-Gang; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-04-01
Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between Earth and the Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is as follows. One can perform the Bell test with human supplying the random measurement settings and recording the results while still maintaining spacelike intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for one of the ultimate tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
Buono, D.; Nocerino, G.; Solimeno, S.; Porzio, A.
2014-07-01
Entanglement, one of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics, marks itself into different features of quantum states. For this reason different criteria can be used for verifying entanglement. In this paper we review some of the entanglement criteria casted for continuous variable states and link them to peculiar aspects of the original debate on the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. We also provide a useful expression for valuating Bell-type non-locality on Gaussian states. We also present the experimental measurement of a particular realization of the Bell operator over continuous variable entangled states produced by a sub-threshold type-II optical parametric oscillators (OPOs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buono, D; Nocerino, G; Solimeno, S; Porzio, A
2014-01-01
Entanglement, one of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics, marks itself into different features of quantum states. For this reason different criteria can be used for verifying entanglement. In this paper we review some of the entanglement criteria casted for continuous variable states and link them to peculiar aspects of the original debate on the famous Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox. We also provide a useful expression for valuating Bell-type non-locality on Gaussian states. We also present the experimental measurement of a particular realization of the Bell operator over continuous variable entangled states produced by a sub-threshold type-II optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). (paper)
Maximal qubit violation of n-locality inequalities in a star-shaped quantum network
Andreoli, Francesco; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Santodonato, Luca; Chaves, Rafael; Sciarrino, Fabio
2017-11-01
Bell's theorem was a cornerstone for our understanding of quantum theory and the establishment of Bell non-locality played a crucial role in the development of quantum information. Recently, its extension to complex networks has been attracting growing attention, but a deep characterization of quantum behavior is still missing for this novel context. In this work we analyze quantum correlations arising in the bilocality scenario, that is a tripartite quantum network where the correlations between the parties are mediated by two independent sources of states. First, we prove that non-bilocal correlations witnessed through a Bell-state measurement in the central node of the network form a subset of those obtainable by means of a local projective measurement. This leads us to derive the maximal violation of the bilocality inequality that can be achieved by arbitrary two-qubit quantum states and arbitrary local projective measurements. We then analyze in details the relation between the violation of the bilocality inequality and the CHSH inequality. Finally, we show how our method can be extended to the n-locality scenario consisting of n two-qubit quantum states distributed among n+1 nodes of a star-shaped network.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Elhassan, Ashraf Mohamed; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2015-12-01
Photonic systems based on energy-time entanglement have been proposed to test local realism using the Bell inequality. A violation of this inequality normally also certifies security of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) so that an attacker cannot eavesdrop or control the system. We show how this security test can be circumvented in energy-time entangled systems when using standard avalanche photodetectors, allowing an attacker to compromise the system without leaving a trace. We reach Bell values up to 3.63 at 97.6% faked detector efficiency using tailored pulses of classical light, which exceeds even the quantum prediction. This is the first demonstration of a violation-faking source that gives both tunable violation and high faked detector efficiency. The implications are severe: the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality cannot be used to show device-independent security for energy-time entanglement setups based on Franson's configuration. However, device-independent security can be reestablished, and we conclude by listing a number of improved tests and experimental setups that would protect against all current and future attacks of this type.
Optimal quantum violation of Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt like steering inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Arup; Sankar Bhattacharya, Some; Mukherjee, Amit; Banik, Manik
2015-01-01
We study a recently proposed Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequality (Cavalcanti et al 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32 A74–A81). Analogous to Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality for Bell nonlocality, in the simplest scenario, i.e., two parties, two measurements per party and two outcomes per measurement, this newly proposed inequality has been proved to be necessary and sufficient for steering. In this article we find the optimal violation amount of this inequality in quantum theory. Interestingly, the optimal violation amount matches with optimal quantum violation of CHSH inequality, i.e., Cirel’son quantity. We further study the optimal violation of this inequality for different classes of 2-qubit quantum states. (paper)
Zohren, S.; Gill, R.D.
2008-01-01
We present a much simplified version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for the 2×2×d Bell scenario. Numerical maximization of the violation of this inequality over all states and measurements suggests that the optimal state is far from maximally entangled, while the best
Bell's theorem and the problem of decidability between the views of Einstein and Bohr.
Hess, K; Philipp, W
2001-12-04
Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) have designed a gedanken experiment that suggested a theory that was more complete than quantum mechanics. The EPR design was later realized in various forms, with experimental results close to the quantum mechanical prediction. The experimental results by themselves have no bearing on the EPR claim that quantum mechanics must be incomplete nor on the existence of hidden parameters. However, the well known inequalities of Bell are based on the assumption that local hidden parameters exist and, when combined with conflicting experimental results, do appear to prove that local hidden parameters cannot exist. This fact leaves only instantaneous actions at a distance (called "spooky" by Einstein) to explain the experiments. The Bell inequalities are based on a mathematical model of the EPR experiments. They have no experimental confirmation, because they contradict the results of all EPR experiments. In addition to the assumption that hidden parameters exist, Bell tacitly makes a variety of other assumptions; for instance, he assumes that the hidden parameters are governed by a single probability measure independent of the analyzer settings. We argue that the mathematical model of Bell excludes a large set of local hidden variables and a large variety of probability densities. Our set of local hidden variables includes time-like correlated parameters and a generalized probability density. We prove that our extended space of local hidden variables does permit derivation of the quantum result and is consistent with all known experiments.
Reply to Comment on ‘What Bell did’
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maudlin, Tim W
2014-01-01
First, let me express my appreciation to Professor Werner for his discussion of my paper. These are quite contentious and fiercely disputed questions, and the only way to make progress in resolving these disputes is to make a good faith effort to present the arguments clearly and explicitly. Only once things are pinned down on paper with some precision can a proper analysis proceed. Werner’s willingness to do this means progress can be made. There are some important points on which Werner and I agree. We agree that neither Einstein nor Bell presuppose determinism in framing their arguments, so the conclusions of those arguments cannot be avoided simply by adopting indeterminism. We even largely agree on what Bell thought he proved. For example, we agree that Bell did not take his theorem to refute determinism or ‘hidden variables’. Werner even seems to concede that Bell himself thought that he had proven the necessity for any theory that reproduces the predictions of the quantum formalism—or more generally any theory that predicts violations of his inequality for pairs of experiments done at space-like separation—to be non-local (in a particular sense of ‘non-local’). Agreement on this much is already a tremendous amount of progress, and I do not wish to undervalue it
Nonlocality without inequalities for almost all entangled states of any quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca
2005-01-01
It is shown that it is possible to rule out all local and stochastic hidden variable models accounting for the quantum mechanical predictions implied by almost any entangled quantum state vector of any number of particles whose Hilbert spaces have arbitrary dimensions, without resorting to Bell-type inequalities. The present proof makes use of the mathematically precise notion of Bell locality and it involves only simple set theoretic arguments
Experimental Bell violations with classical, non-entangled optical fields
Gonzales, J.; Sánchez, P.; Barberena, D.; Yugra, Y.; Caballero, R.; De Zela, F.
2018-02-01
We report experiments in which the Bell parameter S that enters the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality: | S| ≤slant 2, attains values | S| > 2. In our experiments, we used two spatially separated optical beams, the electric fields of which were correlated to one another. The amount of correlation was quantified by the spectral degree of coherence η (α ,β ). This quantity measures the correlation between fields that exist at two distant locations and whose respective polarizations are given in terms of angles α and β, which can be set independently from one another. Such a correlation qualifies for the construction of the Bell parameter S. By changing the amount of field correlation, we could cover a range that goes from | S| 2. Our experimental findings should provide useful material for the ongoing, theoretical discussions about the quantum-classical border.
Bell's palsy before Bell: Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683.
van de Graaf, Robert C; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A
2005-11-01
Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th century. Recently, an even earlier account of Bell's palsy was found, as observed by Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel (1620-1702) from The Hague, The Netherlands in 1683. Because our current knowledge of the history of Bell's palsy before Bell is limited to a few documents, it is interesting to discuss Stalpart van der Wiel's description and determine its additional value for the history of Bell's palsy. It is concluded that Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel was the first to record Bell's palsy in 1683. His manuscript provides clues for future historical research.
Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke
2017-08-01
In any Bell test, loopholes can cause issues in the interpretation of the results, since an apparent violation of the inequality may not correspond to a violation of local realism. An important example is the coincidence-time loophole that arises when detector settings might influence the time when detection will occur. This effect can be observed in many experiments where measurement outcomes are to be compared between remote stations because the interpretation of an ostensible Bell violation strongly depends on the method used to decide coincidence. The coincidence-time loophole has previously been studied for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and Clauser-Horne inequalities, but recent experiments have shown the need for a generalization. Here, we study the generalized "chained" inequality by Pearle, Braunstein, and Caves (PBC) with N ≥2 settings per observer. This inequality has applications in, for instance, quantum key distribution where it has been used to reestablish security. In this paper we give the minimum coincidence probability for the PBC inequality for all N ≥2 and show that this bound is tight for a violation free of the fair-coincidence assumption. Thus, if an experiment has a coincidence probability exceeding the critical value derived here, the coincidence-time loophole is eliminated.
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Treatment Leer en Español: Tratamiento de la parálisis ...
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bell's Palsy Sections What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's Palsy Symptoms Bell's Palsy Treatment Bell's Palsy Symptoms Leer en Español: Síntomas de la parálisis ...
Bell's inequalities and the four-coincidence experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garuccio, A.; Rapisarda, V.A.
1981-01-01
The four-coincidence experiment, in which two correlated particles interact, each, with a dichotomic-detection apparatus, is formally described. Some care is devoted to analyze what is due to the structure of the experiment, and what can really be measured. Some of the questions which the experiment can answer are posed in a general probabilistic hidden-variable frame and, for the QM point of view, in the specific case of the 0-1-0 calcium atomic cascade. Besides, a new method to treat discriminating inequalities is shown which allows, in our opinion, a deeper insight into the theoretical assumptions together with a better experimental reliability. (author)
Test of local realism with entangled kaon pairs and without inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bramon, Albert; Garbarino, Gianni
2002-01-01
We propose the use of entangled pairs of neutral kaons, considered as a promising tool to close the well known loopholes affecting generic Bell's inequality tests, in a specific Hardy-type experiment. Hardy's contradiction without inequalities between local realism and quantum mechanics can be translated into a feasible experiment by requiring ideal detection efficiencies for only one of the observables to be alternatively measured. Neutral kaons are near to fulfill this requirement and therefore to close the efficiency loophole
Shareability of correlations in multiqubit states: Optimization of nonlocal monogamy inequalities
Batle, J.; Naseri, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Farouk, A.; Alkhambashi, M.; Elhoseny, M.
2017-03-01
It is a well-known fact that both quantum entanglement and nonlocality (implied by the violation of Bell inequalities) constitute quantum correlations that cannot be arbitrarily shared among subsystems. They are both monogamous, albeit in a different fashion. In the present contribution we focus on nonlocality monogamy relations such as the Toner-Verstraete, the Seevinck, and a derived monogamy inequality for three parties and compare them with multipartite nonlocality measures for the whole set of pure states distributed according to the Haar measure. In this numerical endeavor, we also see that, although monogamy relations for nonlocality cannot exist for more than three parties, in practice the exploration of the whole set of states for different numbers of qubits will return effective bounds on the maximum value of all bipartite Bell violations among subsystems. Hence, we shed light on the effective nonlocality monogamy bounds in the multiqubit case.
Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbarino, G.
2010-01-01
We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.
Buonomano against Bell: Nonergodicity or nonlocality?
Khrennikov, Andrei
The aim of this note is to attract attention of the quantum foundational community to the fact that in Bell’s arguments, one cannot distinguish two hypotheses: (a) quantum mechanics is nonlocal, (b) quantum mechanics is nonergodic. Therefore, experimental violations of Bell’s inequality can be as well interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that stochastic processes induced by quantum measurements are nonergodic. The latter hypothesis was discussed actively by Buonomano since 1980. However, in contrast to Bell’s hypothesis on nonlocality, it did not attract so much attention. The only experiment testing the hypothesis on nonergodicity was performed in neutron interferometry (by Summhammer, in 1989). This experiment can be considered as rejecting this hypothesis. However, it cannot be considered as a decisive experiment. New experiments are badly needed. We point out that a nonergodic model can be realistic, i.e. the distribution of hidden (local!) variables is well-defined. We also discuss coupling of violation of the Bell inequality with violation of the condition of weak mixing for ergodic dynamical systems.
Beyond Bell's theorem: realism and locality without Bell-type correlations.
De Zela, F
2017-11-06
The long-lasting view of entanglement as the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics has been recently challenged by experimental demonstrations of non-quantum entanglement. This motivates a review of the meaning of Bell violations, which have been widely taken to prove the impossibility of a realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics and as a manifestation of its non-local character. This work provides new theoretical evidence for the need of reviewing the meaning of Bell violations, especially when they occur outside the quantum framework. We present a local-realistic model that reproduces quantum predictions concerning Bell tests. We claim that local-realism is fully compatible with correlations that are not of the Bell type and therefore lie outside the scope of Bell's theorem. Most experimental Bell tests involve either spin vectors spanning the Bloch sphere or Stokes vectors spanning the Poincaré sphere. A suitable statistical tool that allows assessing correlations between vectors is given by inner-product-type correlations. Using them, it is possible to reproduce quantum predictions for all Bell states, thereby explaining experimental results of Bell tests within a local-realistic framework.
Bell theorem without inequalities for two spinless particles
Bernstein, Herbert J.; Greenberger, Daniel M.; Horne, Michael A.; Zeilinger, Anton
1993-01-01
We use the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger [in Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory,and Conceptions of the Universe, edited by M. Kafatos (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1989)] approach to present three demonstrations of the failure of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] local realism for the case of two spinless particles in a two-particle interferometer. The original EPR assumptions of locality and reality do not suffice for this. First, we use the EPR assumptions of locality and reality to establish that in a two-particle interferometer, the path taken by each particle is an element of reality. Second, we supplement the EPR premises by the postulate that when the path taken by a particle is an element of reality, all paths not taken are empty. We emphasize that our approach is not applicable to a single-particle interferometer because there the path taken by the particle cannot be established as an element of reality. We point out that there are real conceptual differences between single-particle, two-particle, and multiparticle interferometry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koperski, J; Fry, E S
2006-01-01
The supersonic free-jet expansion technique has been used in different fields of research in physics, physical chemistry and chemistry to study vibrational and rotational molecular structures in ground and excited electronic energy states as well as in cold chemistry to study chemical reactions in a unique environment. The supersonic beam technique, as a widely used method in laser spectroscopy of molecules, exploits a source of monokinetic, rotationally and vibrationally cold molecules, that are very weakly bound in their ground electronic states (van der Waals molecules). In experiments at Jagiellonian University the supersonic free-jet beam serves as a source of ground-state van der Waals objects in studies of neutral-neutral interactions between group 12 metal (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) and noble gas (NG) atoms. Recently, the method has been applied as a source of entangled 199 Hg atom pairs in order to test Bell's inequality in an experiment at Texas A and M University
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Quantum nonlocality without inequalities for three-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Linmei; Li Chengzu; Ou Baoquan; Chen Jumei
2005-01-01
We present a feasible scheme to realize Bell's theorem without inequalities for both inequivalent classes of three-atom entangled states under local operations and classical communication, namely, Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W states. This scheme is within the technology of the Innsbruck ion group
Entanglement, EPR steering, and Bell-nonlocality criteria for multipartite higher-spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.
2011-01-01
We develop criteria to detect three classes of nonlocality that have been shown by Wiseman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] to be nonequivalent: entanglement, EPR steering, and the failure of local hidden-variable theories. We use the approach of Cavalcanti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 210405 (2007)] for continuous variables to develop the nonlocality criteria for arbitrary spin observables defined on a discrete Hilbert space. The criteria thus apply to multisite qudits, i.e., systems of fixed dimension d, and take the form of inequalities. We find that the spin moment inequalities that test local hidden variables (Bell inequalities) can be violated for arbitrary d by optimized highly correlated nonmaximally entangled states provided the number of sites N is high enough. On the other hand, the spin inequalities for entanglement are violated and thus detect entanglement for such states, for arbitrary d and N, and with a violation that increases with N. We show that one of the moment entanglement inequalities can detect the entanglement of an arbitrary generalized multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Because they involve the natural observables for atomic systems, the relevant spin-operator correlations should be readily observable in trapped ultracold atomic gases and ion traps.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang
2005-01-01
We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
2s-1, 10 times as much as we obtain now. This presentation describes Belle's efficient computing operations, struggles to manage large amount of raw and physics data, and plans for Belle computing for Super KEKB/Belle.
... or paralysis. Bell's palsy is named for Sir Charles Bell, a 19th century Scottish surgeon who described ... confirm diagnosis of the disorder. Generally, a physician will examine the individual for upper and lower facial ...
Bell's palsy is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It usually affects just one side of the ... become inflamed. You are most likely to get Bell's palsy if you are pregnant, diabetic or sick with ...
Clinical practice guideline: Bell's palsy.
Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William
2013-11-01
Bell's palsy, named after the Scottish anatomist, Sir Charles Bell, is the most common acute mono-neuropathy, or disorder affecting a single nerve, and is the most common diagnosis associated with facial nerve weakness/paralysis. Bell's palsy is a rapid unilateral facial nerve paresis (weakness) or paralysis (complete loss of movement) of unknown cause. The condition leads to the partial or complete inability to voluntarily move facial muscles on the affected side of the face. Although typically self-limited, the facial paresis/paralysis that occurs in Bell's palsy may cause significant temporary oral incompetence and an inability to close the eyelid, leading to potential eye injury. Additional long-term poor outcomes do occur and can be devastating to the patient. Treatments are generally designed to improve facial function and facilitate recovery. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy, and some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, numerous diagnostic tests available are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy. The primary purpose of this guideline is to improve the accuracy of diagnosis for Bell's palsy, to improve the quality of care and outcomes for patients with Bell's palsy, and to decrease harmful variations in the evaluation and management of Bell's palsy. This guideline addresses these needs by encouraging
Bell's palsy before Bell : Cornelis Stalpart van der Wiel's observation of Bell's palsy in 1683
van de Graaf, RC; Nicolai, JPA
Bell's palsy is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who has long been considered to be the first to describe idiopathic facial paralysis in the early 19th century. However, it was discovered that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) and James Douglas (1675-1742) preceded him in the 18th
Belle monte-carlo production on the Amazon EC2 cloud
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevior, Martin; Fifield, Tom; Katayama, Nobuhiko
2010-01-01
The Belle II experiment which aims to increase the Luminosity of the KEKB collider by a factor of 50 will search for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements and the investigation of rare processes in Flavour physics. The expected data rate is comparable to a current era LHC experiment with commensurate computing needs. Incorporating commercial cloud computing, such as that provided by the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) into the Belle II computing model may provide a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the Belle II computing solution. To investigate this possibility, we have created a system to conduct the complete Belle Monte Carlo simulation chain on EC2 to benchmark the cost and performance of the service. This paper will describe how this was achieved in addition to the drawbacks and costs of large-scale Monte Carlo production on EC2.
Belle monte-carlo production on the Amazon EC2 cloud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sevior, Martin; Fifield, Tom [University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia); Katayama, Nobuhiko, E-mail: msevior@gmail.co, E-mail: fifieldt@unimelb.edu.a, E-mail: nobu.katayama@kek.j [High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)
2010-04-01
The Belle II experiment which aims to increase the Luminosity of the KEKB collider by a factor of 50 will search for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements and the investigation of rare processes in Flavour physics. The expected data rate is comparable to a current era LHC experiment with commensurate computing needs. Incorporating commercial cloud computing, such as that provided by the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) into the Belle II computing model may provide a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the Belle II computing solution. To investigate this possibility, we have created a system to conduct the complete Belle Monte Carlo simulation chain on EC2 to benchmark the cost and performance of the service. This paper will describe how this was achieved in addition to the drawbacks and costs of large-scale Monte Carlo production on EC2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volovich, Igor V., E-mail: volovich@mi.ras.ru
2016-01-08
We discuss non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson photon statistics. The difference K between the variance and the mean of the particle number operator as a measure of non-classicality of a state is discussed. The non-classicality of quantum states, discussed here, is different from another non-classicality, related with Bell's inequalities and entanglement though both can be traced to the violation of an inequality implied by an assumption of classicality that utilized the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality in the derivation. - Highlights: • Non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson statistics are discussed. • The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality provides criteria for the non-classicality. • The vacuum contribution makes the superposition of quantum states more classical. • Experiments to generate non-classical superpositions of the Fock states are suggested.
Quantum Inequalities and Sequential Measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelpergher, B.; Grandouz, T.; Rubinx, J.L.
2011-01-01
In this article, the peculiar context of sequential measurements is chosen in order to analyze the quantum specificity in the two most famous examples of Heisenberg and Bell inequalities: Results are found at some interesting variance with customary textbook materials, where the context of initial state re-initialization is described. A key-point of the analysis is the possibility of defining Joint Probability Distributions for sequential random variables associated to quantum operators. Within the sequential context, it is shown that Joint Probability Distributions can be defined in situations where not all of the quantum operators (corresponding to random variables) do commute two by two. (authors)
Kahn, J
2017-01-01
Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.
Nonlocality, no-signalling, and Bellʼs theorem investigated by Weyl conformal differential geometry
De Martini, Francesco; Santamato, Enrico
2014-12-01
The principles and methods of conformal quantum geometrodynamics based on Weyl differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin-\\frac{1}{2} leads to a novel and unconventional derivation of the Dirac equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two-spins-\\frac{1}{2} in the EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell inequalities leads, by an exact non-relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of all paradoxes implied by quantum nonlocality.
Nonlocality, no-signalling, and Bell's theorem investigated by Weyl conformal differential geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martini, Francesco De; Santamato, Enrico
2014-01-01
The principles and methods of conformal quantum geometrodynamics based on Weyl differential geometry are presented. The theory applied to the case of the relativistic single quantum spin-(1/2) leads to a novel and unconventional derivation of the Dirac equation. The further extension of the theory to the case of two-spins-(1/2) in the EPR entangled state and to the related violation of Bell inequalities leads, by an exact non-relativistic analysis, to an insightful resolution of all paradoxes implied by quantum nonlocality. (paper)
Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)
2013-05-28
The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2007-03-23
. We have included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rath er poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face.
The Trieste Lecture of John Stewart Bell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassi, Angelo; Ghirardi, GianCarlo
2007-01-01
included a picture (figure 1) shown by him, taking it from the tape image which is of rath er poor quality (we apologize for this) and three figures taken from his transparencies. Moreover, to help the reader in grasping the various points John Stewart Bell brilliantly raised in his talk we have divided the paper into six sections whose titles have been chosen by us to summarize the most crucial points of his argument. Presentation by the Chairman, Alain Aspect It is a great pleasure and an honour to introduce Professor Bell. When looking to my old papers I discovered that this 25th anniversary of the ICTP also coincides with the famous paper in which appeared, for the first time, inequalities that are now known as Bell's inequalities so it's a very good opportunity to have a talk by John Bell here. Many of us have been strongly influenced by this work of John Bell because he has shown us that quantum mechanics is much more difficult to understand that we thought it was. I am sure that today he will again raise some questions which are very embarrassing but that we have definitely to face
Violation of Bell’s inequality: Must the Einstein locality really be abandoned?
Jung, Kurt
2017-08-01
Since John Bell has established his famous inequality and several independent experiments have confirmed the distinct polarization correlation of entangled photons predicted by quantum mechanics it is evident that quantum mechanics cannot be explained by local realistic theories. Actually, the observed polarization correlation can be deduced from wave optical considerations. The correlation has its origin in the phase coupling of the two circularly polarized wave packets leaving the photon source simultaneously. The experimental results violate Bell’s inequality although no non-local interactions have to be assumed. In consequence the principle of locality remains valid in the scope of quantum mechanics. However, the principle of realism has to be replaced by the less stringent principle of contextuality.
Migration and regional inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah
2017-01-01
Scholars studying economic inequality in China have maintained that regional inequality and economic divergence across provinces have steadily increased over the past 30 years. New studies have shown that this trend is a statistical aberration; calculations show that instead of quickly and sharply...... rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...... across provinces in order to show that without these processes, we would have seen more of a rise in interprovincial income inequality. We conclude by arguing that inequality in China is still increasing, but it is changing and becoming less place-based. As regional inequality decreases, there are signs...
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
Bell numbers, determinants and series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhr, Thomas
2012-01-01
Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.
Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Banack, Hailey R; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Marden, Jessica R; Whitmer, Rachel A; Glymour, M Maria
2018-07-01
In middle age, stroke incidence is higher among black than white Americans. For unknown reasons, this inequality decreases and reverses with age. We conducted simulations to evaluate whether selective survival could account for observed age patterning of black-white stroke inequalities. We simulated birth cohorts of 20,000 blacks and 20,000 whites with survival distributions based on US life tables for the 1919-1921 birth cohort. We generated stroke incidence rates for ages 45-94 years using Reasons for Geographic and Racial Disparities in Stroke (REGARDS) study rates for whites and setting the effect of black race on stroke to incidence rate difference (IRD) = 20/10,000 person-years at all ages, the inequality observed at younger ages in REGARDS. We compared observed age-specific stroke incidence across scenarios, varying effects of U, representing unobserved factors influencing mortality and stroke risk. Despite a constant adverse effect of black race on stroke risk, the observed black-white inequality in stroke incidence attenuated at older age. When the hazard ratio for U on stroke was 1.5 for both blacks and whites, but U only directly influenced mortality for blacks (hazard ratio for U on mortality =1.5 for blacks; 1.0 for whites), stroke incidence rates in late life were lower among blacks (average observed IRD = -43/10,000 person-years at ages 85-94 years versus causal IRD = 20/10,000 person-years) and mirrored patterns observed in REGARDS. A relatively moderate unmeasured common cause of stroke and survival could fully account for observed age attenuation of racial inequalities in stroke.
Mohamed, Abdel-Baset A.
2018-04-01
In this paper, some non-classical correlations are investigated for bipartite partitions of two qubits trapped in two spatially separated cavities connected by an optical fiber. The results show that the trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality introduce other quantum correlations beyond the entanglement. Moreover, the correlation functions of the trace distance discord and the Bell's non-locality are very sensitive to the initial correlations, the coupling strengths, and the dissipation rates of the cavities. The fluctuations of the correlation functions between their initial values and gained (loss) values appear due to the unitary evolution of the system. These fluctuations depend on the chosen initial correlations between the two subsystems. The maximal violations of Bell's inequality occur when the logarithmic negativity and the trace distance discord reach certain values. It is shown that the robustness of the non-classical correlations, against the dissipation rates of the cavities, depends on the bipartite partitions reduced density matrices of the system, and is also greatly enhanced by choosing appropriate coupling strengths.
Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf.
Bruce, Robert V.
The lecture on Alexander Graham Bell by Dr. Robert V. Bruce, the author of a biography of Bell, focuses on Bell's association with the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts. Noted are Bell's employment by the school at 25 years of age and the preceding period during which Bell taught elocution at a boys' school in Scotland and used his…
Fu, Qiang; Chen, Xurong
2017-11-01
The Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), derived under the assumption of realism, acts as the temporal Bell inequality. It is studied in electromagnetic and strong interaction like photonics, superconducting qubits and nuclear spin. The weak interaction two-state oscillations of neutrinos affirmed the violation of Leggett-Garg-type inequalities (LGtI). We make an empirical test for the deviation of experimental results with the classical limits by analyzing the survival probability data of reactor neutrinos at a distinct range of baseline dividing energies, as an analog to a single neutrino detected at different times. A study of the updated data of the Daya Bay experiment unambiguously depicts an obvious cluster of data over the classical bound of LGtI and shows a 6.1σ significance of the violation of them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Qiang; Chen, Xurong
2017-01-01
The Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), derived under the assumption of realism, acts as the temporal Bell inequality. It is studied in electromagnetic and strong interaction like photonics, superconducting qubits and nuclear spin. The weak interaction two-state oscillations of neutrinos affirmed the violation of Leggett-Garg-type inequalities (LGtI). We make an empirical test for the deviation of experimental results with the classical limits by analyzing the survival probability data of reactor neutrinos at a distinct range of baseline dividing energies, as an analog to a single neutrino detected at different times. A study of the updated data of the Daya Bay experiment unambiguously depicts an obvious cluster of data over the classical bound of LGtI and shows a 6.1σ significance of the violation of them. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Qiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xurong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-11-15
The Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), derived under the assumption of realism, acts as the temporal Bell inequality. It is studied in electromagnetic and strong interaction like photonics, superconducting qubits and nuclear spin. The weak interaction two-state oscillations of neutrinos affirmed the violation of Leggett-Garg-type inequalities (LGtI). We make an empirical test for the deviation of experimental results with the classical limits by analyzing the survival probability data of reactor neutrinos at a distinct range of baseline dividing energies, as an analog to a single neutrino detected at different times. A study of the updated data of the Daya Bay experiment unambiguously depicts an obvious cluster of data over the classical bound of LGtI and shows a 6.1σ significance of the violation of them. (orig.)
78 FR 65178 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters
2013-10-31
... the TCAA AD, and we do not require you to provide an affected cap for rework to Bell Tennessee nor... assembly, ensuring that the rework has been done. Related Service Information Bell has issued ASB No. 206L... or rework the cap assembly by following the instructions depicted in Figure 3 of ASB 206L-04-129 or...
Global track finder for Belle II experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trusov, Viktor; Feindt, Michael; Heck, Martin; Kuhr, Thomas; Goldenzweig, Pablo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration
2015-07-01
We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trusov, Viktor; Feindt, Michael; Heck, Martin; Hauth, Thomas; Goldenzweig, Pablo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The Belle II experiment is designed to perform more precise measurements (e.g. C P-violation measurements, New Physics phenomena, rare decays etc) than its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To achieve this goal, the luminosity of the experiment will be increased by a factor of 40 and as result multiple times more data will be collected. Due to this fact, faster reconstruction algorithms for the data processing need to be developed and at the same time accurate physical results should be retained. One important part in the data processing chain is the track reconstruction section. We present the development of one of the pattern recognition algorithms for the Belle II experiment based on conformal and Legendre transformations. In order to optimize the performance of the algorithm (CPU time and efficiency) we have introduced specialized processing steps. To show improvements in the results we introduce efficiency measurements of the tracking algorithms in the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) which were done using Monte-Carlo simulation of e{sup +} e{sup -} collisions followed by a full simulation of the Belle II detector.
Income Inequality and Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Breen
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Many commentators have seen the growing gap in earnings and income between those with a college education and those without as a major cause of increasing inequality in the United States and elsewhere. In this article we investigate the extent to which increasing the educational attainment of the US population might ameliorate inequality. We use data from NLSY79 and carry out a three-level decomposition of total inequality into within-person, between-person and between-education parts. We find that the between-education contribution to inequality is small, even when we consider only adjusted inequality that omits the within-person component. We carry out a number of simulations to gauge the likely impact on inequality of changes in the distribution of education and of a narrowing of the differences in average incomes between those with different levels of education. We find that any feasible educational policy is likely to have only a minor impact on income inequality.
Clusters of Bell's palsy "Surtos" da paralisia de Bell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago D. Gonçalves-Coêlho
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The idiopathic facial paralysis or Bell's palsy installs abruptly or within a few hours, without any apparent cause. It corresponds to approximately 75% of all peripheral facial palsies. Three theories try to explain its pathogenecity: vascular-ischemic, viral and auto-immune. We reviewed the records of the EMG Sector, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo, Brazil, from 1985 to 1995 and found 239 cases of Bell's palsy. Data were analysed according to age, gender, seasonal distribution of cases. There was a predominance of cases in the 31 - 60 age bracket (40.59 %. The female gender was responsible to 70.71 % of cases. There was a predominance of cases in winter (31.38 % and autumn (30.13 %, which was statiscally significant. These findings let us to suppose that Bell's palsy predominates in females, in 41-60 years age bracket, and occurs predominantly in cold months. There are groups of clusters throughout temporal distribution of cases and cases are dependent on one each other or on factors affecting them all, which reinforces the infectious hypothesis (there is a rise in the incidence of viral upper respiratory tract infection during cold months.A paralisia facial idiopática ou paralisia de Bell se instala abruptamente ou em algumas horas, sem causa aparente. Corresponde a aproximadamente 75% de todos os casos de paralisia facial. Três teorias tentam explicar sua patogenia: vásculo-isquêmica, autoimune e viral. Nós revisamos os arquivos do Setor de Eletromiografia do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual (São Paulo de 1985 a 1995, encontrando 239 casos de paralisia de Bell. Dados foram analisados quanto a idade, sexo, distribuição sazonal. Houve predominância dos casos na faixa etária de 31 a 60 anos (40,59 %. O sexo feminino foi responsável por 70,71 % dos casos. Houve predominância de casos no inverno (31,38 % e outono (30,13 %, estatisticamente sigmficante. Estes achados levam-nos a supor que a paralisia de Bell
Bell Discourse in Russian Culture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Элеонора Р Лассан
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The article focuses on the symbolic meaning of Russian ringing of bell in the Russian discourse. According to Lotman’s definition of symbol, it has dual nature: an invariant essence and its modification in relation to the cultural context. The article introduces informative and linguistic modifications of the bell topic in the Russian poetic discourse of the 19th, the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The author of the article provides the detailed analysis of such discursive descriptions of bell ringing as the ringing of church bells and alarm . The author arrives at the conlusion that the alarm topic prevails in contemporary poetry and this indicates the state of public dissatisfaction. In the 19th and the 20th centuries lexemes the ringing of church bells and alarm were used literally, but in the 21st century lexeme alarm acquires metaphorical meaning of call for blood.
TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inami, Kenji
2014-12-01
Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.
Monogamy inequalities for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering
Reid, M. D.
2013-12-01
Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states.
Kausel, Wilfried; Chatziioannou, Vasileios; Moore, Thomas R; Gorman, Britta R; Rokni, Michelle
2015-06-01
Previous work has demonstrated that structural vibrations of brass wind instruments can audibly affect the radiated sound. Furthermore, these broadband effects are not explainable by assuming perfect coincidence of the frequency of elliptical structural modes with air column resonances. In this work a mechanism is proposed that has the potential to explain the broadband influences of structural vibrations on acoustical characteristics such as input impedance, transfer function, and radiated sound. The proposed mechanism involves the coupling of axial bell vibrations to the internal air column. The acoustical effects of such axial bell vibrations have been studied by extending an existing transmission line model to include the effects of a parasitic flow into vibrating walls, as well as distributed sound pressure sources due to periodic volume fluctuations in a duct with oscillating boundaries. The magnitude of these influences in typical trumpet bells, as well as in a complete instrument with an unbraced loop, has been studied theoretically. The model results in predictions of input impedance and acoustical transfer function differences that are approximately 1 dB for straight instruments and significantly higher when coiled tubes are involved or when very thin brass is used.
2011-12-29
... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...
Wagner, Tom
2010-01-01
The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…
Strong violations of locality by testing Bell’s inequality with improved entangled-photon systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yao; Fan Dai-He; Guo Wei-Jie; Wei Lian-Fu
2015-01-01
Bell’s theorem states that quantum mechanics cannot be accounted for by any local theory. One of the examples is the existence of quantum non-locality is essentially violated by the local Bell’s inequality. Therefore, the violation of Bell’s inequality (BI) has been regarded as one of the robust evidences of quantum mechanics. Until now, BI has been tested by many experiments, but the maximal violation (i.e., Cirel’son limit) has never been achieved. By improving the design of entangled sources and optimizing the measurement settings, in this work we report the stronger violations of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH)-type Bell’s inequality. The biggest value of Bell’s function in our experiment reaches to a significant one: S = 2.772± 0.063, approaching to the so-called Cirel’son limit in which the Bell function value is . Further improvement is possible by optimizing the entangled-photon sources. (paper)
Software Quality Control at Belle II
Ritter, M.; Kuhr, T.; Hauth, T.; Gebard, T.; Kristof, M.; Pulvermacher, C.; Belle Software Group, II
2017-10-01
Over the last seven years the software stack of the next generation B factory experiment Belle II has grown to over one million lines of C++ and Python code, counting only the part included in offline software releases. There are several thousand commits to the central repository by about 100 individual developers per year. To keep a coherent software stack of high quality that it can be sustained and used efficiently for data acquisition, simulation, reconstruction, and analysis over the lifetime of the Belle II experiment is a challenge. A set of tools is employed to monitor the quality of the software and provide fast feedback to the developers. They are integrated in a machinery that is controlled by a buildbot master and automates the quality checks. The tools include different compilers, cppcheck, the clang static analyzer, valgrind memcheck, doxygen, a geometry overlap checker, a check for missing or extra library links, unit tests, steering file level tests, a sophisticated high-level validation suite, and an issue tracker. The technological development infrastructure is complemented by organizational means to coordinate the development.
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm laboratory experiments : Data analysis and simulation
De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; DAriano, M; Fei, SM; Haven, E; Hiesmayr, B; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Larsson, JA
2012-01-01
Data produced by laboratory Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) experiments is tested against the hypothesis that the statistics of this data is given by quantum theory of this thought experiment. Statistical evidence is presented that the experimental data, while violating Bell inequalities, does
Clinical practice guideline: Bell's Palsy executive summary.
Baugh, Reginald F; Basura, Gregory J; Ishii, Lisa E; Schwartz, Seth R; Drumheller, Caitlin Murray; Burkholder, Rebecca; Deckard, Nathan A; Dawson, Cindy; Driscoll, Colin; Gillespie, M Boyd; Gurgel, Richard K; Halperin, John; Khalid, Ayesha N; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Micco, Alan; Munsell, Debra; Rosenbaum, Steven; Vaughan, William
2013-11-01
The American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) has published a supplement to this issue featuring the new Clinical Practice Guideline: Bell's Palsy. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose, and key action statements. The 11 recommendations developed encourage accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment and, when applicable, facilitate patient follow-up to address the management of long-term sequelae or evaluation of new or worsening symptoms not indicative of Bell's palsy. There are myriad treatment options for Bell's palsy; some controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of several of these options, and there are consequent variations in care. In addition, there are numerous diagnostic tests available that are used in the evaluation of patients with Bell's palsy. Many of these tests are of questionable benefit in Bell's palsy. Furthermore, while patients with Bell's palsy enter the health care system with facial paresis/paralysis as a primary complaint, not all patients with facial paresis/paralysis have Bell's palsy. It is a concern that patients with alternative underlying etiologies may be misdiagnosed or have an unnecessary delay in diagnosis. All of these quality concerns provide an important opportunity for improvement in the diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.
New loophole for the EPR paradox
Feldmann, Michel
1999-01-01
We exhibit a classical model free from any paradox which exactly simulates the spin EPR test. We conclude that Bell's inequality violation is a strictly classical phenomenon, contrary to a general belief.
van de Graaf, R. C.; IJpma, F. F. A.; Nicolai, J-P A.; Werker, P. M. N.
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of
Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan
2011-01-01
We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.
Belle II Technical Design Report
Abe, T; Adamczyk, K; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Akai, K; Aloi, M; Andricek, L; Aoki, K; Arai, Y; Arefiev, A; Arinstein, K; Arita, Y; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Barberio, E; Barvich, T; Belous, K; Bergauer, T; Bhardwaj, V; Bhuyan, B; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bonvicini, G; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Brovchenko, O; Browder, T E; Cao, G; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Chen, K -F; Chen, P; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C -C; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Choi, S -K; Chung, K; Comerma, A; Cooney, M; Cowley, D E; Critchlow, T; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dieguez, A; Dierlamm, A; Dillon, M; Dingfelder, J; Dolenec, R; Dolezal, Z; Drasal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dungel, W; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Enomoto, A; Epifanov, D; Esen, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Garcia, M Fernandez; Fifield, T; Fischer, P; Flanagan, J; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Freixas, L; Frey, A; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Fukuma, Y; Funakoshi, Y; Furukawa, K; Fuster, J; Gabyshev, N; Cueto, A Gaspar de Valenzuela; Garmash, A; Garrido, L; Geisler, Ch; Gfall, I; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Gorton, I; Grzymkowski, R; Guo, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Haruyama, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashi, K; Hayashii, H; Heck, M; Heindl, S; Heller, C; Hemperek, T; Higuchi, T; Horii, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Huang, C -H; Hwang, S; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iglesias, C; Iida, Y; Iijima, T; Imamura, M; Inami, K; Irmler, C; Ishizuka, M; Itagaki, K; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwai, G; Iwai, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Iwata, S; Jang, H; Ji, X; Jinno, T; Jones, M; Julius, T; Kageyama, T; Kah, D H; Kakuno, H; Kamitani, T; Kanazawa, K; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, M; Kawai, Y; Kawasaki, T; Kennedy, J; Kichimi, H; Kikuchi, M; Kiesling, C; Kim, B K; Kim, G N; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J -B; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Kim, S K; Kim, K T; Kim, T Y; Kinoshita, K; Kishi, K; Kisielewski, B; van Dam, K Kleese; Knopf, J; Ko, B R; Koch, M; Kodys, P; Koffmane, C; Koga, Y; Kohriki, T; Koike, S; Koiso, H; Kondo, Y; Korpar, S; Kouzes, R T; Kreidl, Ch; Kreps, M; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Krueger, H; Kruth, A; Kuhn, W; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kupper, S; Kuzmin, A; Kvasnicka, P; Kwon, Y -J; Lacasta, C; Lange, J S; Lee, I -S; Lee, M J; Lee, M W; Lee, S -H; Lemarenko, M; Li, J; Li, W D; Li, Y; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Liventsev, D; Virto, A Lopez; Makida, Y; Mao, Z P; Marinas, C; Masuzawa, M; Matvienko, D; Mitaroff, W; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Miyoshi, T; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, D; Moll, A; Mori, T; Morita, A; Morita, Y; Moser, H -G; Martin, D Moya; Mueller, T; Muenchow, D; Murakami, J; Myung, S S; Nagamine, T; Nakamura, I; Nakamura, T T; Nakano, E; Nakano, H; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nam, S -H; Natkaniec, Z; Nedelkovska, E; Negishi, K; Neubauer, S; Ng, C; Ninkovic, J; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Novikov, E; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, S; Ohmi, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ohshima, T; Ohuchi, N; Oide, K; Olsen, S L; Ono, M; Ono, Y; Onuki, Y; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, H; Park, H K; Peak, L S; Peng, T; Peric, I; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Petric, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Prim, M; Prothmann, K; Regimbal, K; Reisert, B; Richter, R H; Riera-Babures, J; Ritter, A; Ritter, A; Ritter, M; Roehrken, M; Rorie, J; Rosen, M; Rozanska, M; Ruckman, L; Rummel, S; Rusinov, V; Russell, R M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, K; Sakai, Y; Santelj, L; Sasaki, T; Sato, N; Sato, Y; Scheirich, J; Schieck, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Schwenker, B; Seljak, A; Senyo, K; Seon, O -S; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shebalin, V; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shiizuka, S; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Simonis, H J; Singh, J B; Sinha, R; Sitarz, M; Smerkol, P; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Suetsugu, Y; Sugihara, S; Sugimura, T; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Takagaki, H; Takasaki, F; Takeichi, H; Takubo, Y; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, S; Taniguchi, N; Tarkovsky, E; Tatishvili, G; Tawada, M; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsunada, K; Tu, Y -C; Uchida, T; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S; Valentan, M; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vazquez, P; Vila, I; Vilella, E; Vinokurova, A; Visniakov, J; Vos, M; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wassatch, A; Watanabe, M; Watase, Y; Weiler, T; Wermes, N; Wescott, R E; White, E; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Williams, K M; Won, E; Xu, H; Yabsley, B D; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, H; Yamaoka, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yin, Y; Yoon, H; Yu, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zander, D; Zdybal, M; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhilich, V; Zhou, P; Zhulanov, V; Zivko, T; Zupanc, A; Zyukova, O
2010-01-01
The Belle detector at the KEKB electron-positron collider has collected almost 1 billion Y(4S) events in its decade of operation. Super-KEKB, an upgrade of KEKB is under construction, to increase the luminosity by two orders of magnitude during a three-year shutdown, with an ultimate goal of 8E35 /cm^2 /s luminosity. To exploit the increased luminosity, an upgrade of the Belle detector has been proposed. A new international collaboration Belle-II, is being formed. The Technical Design Report presents physics motivation, basic methods of the accelerator upgrade, as well as key improvements of the detector.
Alexander Graham Bell (170th birthday anniversary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. P. Samokhin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A brief overview of the main works and achievements of Alexander Graham Bell, an educated teacher for the hard of hearing and public figure, author of 30 US patents, is mainly given in the field of telephony and sound recording and reproduction. Biographical information about the Bell family, as well as some interesting facts from his life and activities are given. Scotsman by birth, A. Bell from his youthful years was carried away by the acoustic features of the human voice apparatus and devoted his entire life to teaching the deaf to the perception of oral speech. The first success in this field Bell reached, opening a private school for the deaf in Boston. Bell's creation of the phone was the result of his attempts to facilitate communication with the hard-of-hearing and led to the development of mass communications technology around the world. Alexander Bell is also known for his achievements in the design of hydroplanes, hydrofoils and as one of the founders of the popular magazine National Geographic. He was awarded many honorable awards and academic titles.
Using complete measurement statistics for optimal device-independent randomness evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto-Silleras, O; Pironio, S; Silman, J
2014-01-01
The majority of recent works investigating the link between non-locality and randomness, e.g. in the context of device-independent cryptography, do so with respect to some specific Bell inequality, usually the CHSH inequality. However, the joint probabilities characterizing the measurement outcomes of a Bell test are richer than just the degree of violation of a single Bell inequality. In this work we show how to take this extra information into account in a systematic manner in order to optimally evaluate the randomness that can be certified from non-local correlations. We further show that taking into account the complete set of outcome probabilities is equivalent to optimizing over all possible Bell inequalities, thereby allowing us to determine the optimal Bell inequality for certifying the maximal amount of randomness from a given set of non-local correlations. (paper)
Breunig, H. Latham
1990-01-01
This article describes the family of Alexander Graham Bell, including research and therapeutic work in speech and hearing impairments spanning three generations. Bell's life and discoveries are discussed, including the formation of the American Association for the Promotion of Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, whose history and organization are…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, C. Barker
2003-01-01
History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity......History of nerves, Bell's Idea, Bell-Magendie law, Bell-Magendie controversy, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie, P.W. Lund, D.F. Eschricht, Herbert Mayo, Johannes Müller, Claude Bernard, spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, recurrent sensitivity...
John Bell and the Identical Twins
1984-01-01
A biographical profile of John S.Bell is presented based on extensive interviews the author had with Bell. Bell’s vierws on the quantum theory are presented along with a simple explanation of his idenity.
Effects of Bell Speed and Flow Rate on Evaporation of Water Spray from a Rotary Bell Atomizer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajan Ray
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A phase doppler anemometer (PDA was used to determine the effects of evaporation on water spray for three rotary bell atomizer operational variable parameters: shaping air, bell speed and liquid flow. Shaping air was set at either 200 standard liters per minute (L/min or 300 L/min, bell speed was set to 30, 40 or 50 thousand rotations per minute (krpm and water flow rate was varied between 100, 200 or 300 cubic centimeters per minute (cm3/min. The total evaporation between 22.5 and 37.5 cm from the atomizer (cm3/s was calculated for all the combinations of those variables. Evaporation rate increased with higher flow rate and bell speed but no statistically significant effects were obtained for variable shaping air on interactions between parameters.
Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Johns
Full Text Available In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control, with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell or with a functional bell (functional bell. The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.
Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?
Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna
2015-01-01
In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277
... have been linked to Bell's palsy include the virus that causes: Cold sores and genital herpes (herpes simplex) Chickenpox and shingles (herpes zoster) Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr) Cytomegalovirus infections Respiratory illnesses (adenovirus) German measles (rubella) ...
van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P
2011-01-01
Unlike his eponymous fame suggests, Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) was an anatomist, draughtsman and surgeon rather than purely a physiologist. He was born and educated in Edinburgh but spent most of his working life in London (1804 to 1836). It was there he started a School of Anatomy, alongside a fledgling surgical practice, just as his elder brother John had done in Edinburgh. In 1814 he joined the surgical staff at the Middlesex Hospital. In 1810 he surmised from occasional animal experiments that the anterior and posterior spinal roots differed in function. Yet it was left to the Frenchman Magendie to identify that these functions were motor and sensory: a discovery that induced Bell into an ungentlemanly feud. Bell also slightly erred on the functions of the trigeminal and facial nerve, but his description of the features of idiopathic facial palsy is unrivalled.
78 FR 51123 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron
2013-08-20
...-0734; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-080-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting...
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zela, F de [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)
2008-12-19
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zela, F de
2008-01-01
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class
A performance study of WebDav access to storages within the Belle II collaboration
Pardi, S.; Russo, G.
2017-10-01
WebDav and HTTP are becoming popular protocols for data access in the High Energy Physics community. The most used Grid and Cloud storage solutions provide such kind of interfaces, in this scenario tuning and performance evaluation became crucial aspects to promote the adoption of these protocols within the Belle II community. In this work, we present the results of a large-scale test activity, made with the goal to evaluate performances and reliability of the WebDav protocol, and study a possible adoption for the user analysis. More specifically, we considered a pilot infrastructure composed by a set of storage elements configured with the WebDav interface, hosted at the Belle II sites. The performance tests include a comparison with xrootd and gridftp. As reference tests we used a set of analysis jobs running under the Belle II software framework, accessing the input data with the ROOT I/O library, in order to simulate as much as possible a realistic user activity. The final analysis shows the possibility to achieve promising performances with WebDav on different storage systems, and gives an interesting feedback, for Belle II community and for other high energy physics experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solomon, A. I.
2010-01-01
The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.
Review of ϕ3 measurements at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Červenkov, Daniel
2016-01-01
One of the main goals of the Belle experiment (and the upcoming Belle II experiment) is to measure parameters of electro-weak CP violation (CPV). A useful way to parametrize CPV is through the use of unitarity triangles. A brief introduction tounitarity triangle measurements of CP violation is presented, followed by a summary of recent results from the Belle experiment concerning measurements of the least well constrained angle of the standard unitarity triangle — ϕ_3/γ
Plasma Fibrinogen in Patients With Bell Palsy.
Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Yinda; Li, Shiting
2016-10-01
To determine the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with Bell palsy and explore the significances of it in Bell palsy. One hundred five consecutive patients with facial paralysis were divided into 3 groups: group I (Bell palsy), group II (temporal bone fractures), and group III (facial nerve schwannoma). In addition, 22 volunteers were defined as control group. Two milliliters fasting venous blood from elbow was collected, and was evaluated by CA-7000 Full-Automatic Coagulation Analyzer. The plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly higher in the group of patients with Bell palsy (HB IV-VI) than that in the control group (P 0.05); similarly, there was also no marked difference between group III and control group (P >0.05). In group I, the plasma fibrinogen levels became higher with the HB grading increase. The plasma fibrinogen level of HB-VI was highest. Plasma fibrinogen has an important clinical meaning in Bell palsy, which should be used as routine examination items. Defibrinogen in treatment for patients with high plasma fibrinogen content also should be suggested.
Bell's Palsy in Children (BellPIC): protocol for a multicentre, placebo-controlled randomized trial.
Babl, Franz E; Mackay, Mark T; Borland, Meredith L; Herd, David W; Kochar, Amit; Hort, Jason; Rao, Arjun; Cheek, John A; Furyk, Jeremy; Barrow, Lisa; George, Shane; Zhang, Michael; Gardiner, Kaya; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Berkowitz, Robert; Sullivan, Frank; Porrello, Emily; Dalziel, Kim Marie; Anderson, Vicki; Oakley, Ed; Hopper, Sandy; Williams, Fiona; Wilson, Catherine; Williams, Amanda; Dalziel, Stuart R
2017-02-13
Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neurone facial paralysis is characterized by sudden onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. While there is high level evidence in adults demonstrating an improvement in the rate of complete recovery of facial nerve function when treated with steroids compared with placebo, similar high level studies on the use of steroids in Bell's palsy in children are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of steroids in Bell's palsy in children in a randomised placebo-controlled trial. We are conducting a randomised, triple-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the use of prednisolone to improve recovery from Bell's palsy at 1 month. Study sites are 10 hospitals within the Australian and New Zealand PREDICT (Paediatric Research in Emergency Departments International Collaborative) research network. 540 participants will be enrolled. To be eligible patients need to be aged 6 months to Bell's palsy to one of the participating hospital emergency departments. Patients will be excluded in case of current use of or contraindications to steroids or if there is an alternative diagnosis. Participants will receive either prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 50 mg/day or taste matched placebo for 10 days. The primary outcome is complete recovery by House-Brackmann scale at 1 month. Secondary outcomes include assessment of recovery using the Sunnybrook scale, the emotional and functional wellbeing of the participants using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Child Health Utility 9D Scale, pain using Faces Pain Scale Revised or visual analogue scales, synkinesis using a synkinesis assessment questionnaire and health utilisation costs at 1, 3 and 6 months. Participants will be tracked to 12 months if not recovered earlier. Data analysis will be by intention to treat with primary outcome presented as differences in proportions and an odds ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mônica Alcantara de Oliveira Santos
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Embora a paralisia de Bell seja o tipo mais frequente de paralisia facial periférica,sua causa ainda é objeto de inúmeros questionamentos. A reativação do vírus varicela zoster tem sido considerada uma das principais causas da paralisia de Bell, porém, os poucos trabalhos que estudam a prevalência do VVZ como agente etiológico da PB são japoneses, o que determina características geográficas e populacionais bastante díspares de nossa população. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a frequência do vírus varicela zoster em saliva de indivíduos com PB, pela técnica de PCR. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 171 pacientes com PFP, sendo 120 pacientes portadores de paralisia de Bell, com até uma semana de evolução, sem uso prévio de drogas antivirais. O grupo controle foi composto de 20 adultos sadios. Nestes indivíduos foram coletadas três amostras de saliva em semanas consecutivas, para pesquisa de DNA viral pela técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: O vírus varicela zoster foi encontrado em amostras de saliva de dois pacientes com paralisia de Bell (1,7%. Nenhum vírus foi identificado no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Foi verificada frequência de 1,7% para vírus varicela zoster em amostras de saliva de pacientes com paralisia de Bell, pela técnica de PCR.Although Bell's palsy is the major cause of acute peripheral facial palsy, its pathogenesis remains unknown. Reactivation of the varicella zoster virus has been implicated as one of the main causes of Bell's palsy, however, studies which investigate the varicella zoster virus reactivation in Bell's palsy patients are mostly Japanese and, therefore, personal and geographic characteristics are quite different from our population. AIMS: To determine varicella zoster virus frequency in saliva samples from patients with Bell's palsy, using PCR. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred seventy one patients with acute peripheral facial palsy were prospectively enrolled in this study. One hundred twenty
Minimax discrimination of quasi-Bell states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Kentaro [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)
2014-12-04
An optimal quantum measurement is considered for the so-called quasi-Bell states under the quantum minimax criterion. It is shown that the minimax-optimal POVM for the quasi-Bell states is given by its square-root measurement and is applicable to the teleportation of a superposition of two coherent states.
Alexander Graham Bell (170th birthday anniversary)
V. P. Samokhin; K. V. Meshcherinova
2017-01-01
A brief overview of the main works and achievements of Alexander Graham Bell, an educated teacher for the hard of hearing and public figure, author of 30 US patents, is mainly given in the field of telephony and sound recording and reproduction. Biographical information about the Bell family, as well as some interesting facts from his life and activities are given. Scotsman by birth, A. Bell from his youthful years was carried away by the acoustic features of the human voice apparatus and dev...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-04-01
When Protech Mining moved onto a greenfields site near Ermelo in mid-November last year to start work on the establishment of a box cut for an underground bituminous coal and anthracite mine for Delta Colliery, the company could not have foreseen the difficulties it was to encounter from the unusually high rainfall which fell, almost without abatement, from the time the first sod was turned. Production at the so called Mooiplants mine will commence in March 2001. Mining will take place at a maximum depth of 47 m and coal will be extracted from underground by two conveyor belts and stockpiled. Bell B40 CM mining trucks and an 18 Bell B20 articulated dump truck will be in the haulage fleet. 3 photos.
BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-03-01
The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs
BELLE progress report. 1995 April - 1996 March
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-03-01
The scientific goals of the BELLE experiment continue to be of great interest. The large number of papers during the past year that identify measurements that can be done with BELLE reflects the considerable interest in the theoretical community in these physics issues. This is also demonstrated by the approval during the past year of two major B physics projects: the BaBar experiment at SLAC and the HERAB experiment at DESY. Both projects have schedules that put them into direct competition with BELLE for the important goal of testing the KM predictions for CP violations in B meson decays. Other projects addressing this physics are planned for the Tevatron collider and have been proposed both for the LHC and RHIC. The BELLE collaboration remains committed to its goal of being the first group to provide conclusive evidence either confirming or refuting the KM model. The year 1995 was an exciting time for the BELLE experiment. All of the major technology choices were finalized and a final detector configuration has been established. Continued R and D has resulted in improved performance expectations for a number of detector subsystems. The procurement of materials for major subsystems is underway and construction of long leadtime items has started. A construction schedule has been established and an integration strategy is being developed. This report describes the status of BELLE with an emphasis on progress since the last LCPAC meeting in January 1995. (J.P.N.). 90 refs.
Clinical studies on Bell's palsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yoshio
1985-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the salivary gland scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate for the prognosis of Bell's palsy. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with Bell's palsy and 15 normal subjects. After intravenous injection of 10 mCt of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, sequential scintigrams were taken with a scintillation camera every one minute for 25 minutes. At 15 minutes after injection, both of normal subjects and patients were given ascorbic acid to stimulate the secretion of saliva. By the present method, the time activity curve was examined for the regions of interest over the parotid and submandibular glands and backgrounds. In normal subjects, values of the concentration and excretory ratio between the right and left sides of the parotid and submandibular glands were more than 80%. Some patients with Bell's palsy showed a decreased concentration and/or excretory ratio less than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the parotid glands. This suggests a functional involvement of the facial nerve in the salivary secretion from the parotid glands. On examination within 10 days of the onset of Bell's palsy, 31 cases with complete recovery showed values of the concentration ratio and/or excretory ratio more than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the submandibular glands. In contrast, 9 cases with imcomplete recovery showed low values of the concentration ratio and excretory ratio less than 80%. In the latter, more active treatments such as decompression operation should be considerd in the early stage of the palsy. The salivary scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate is more valuable as an early prognostic indicator for Bell's palsy compared with other prognostic tests such as the lid vibration test, the stapedial reflex test, the electrogustometry, the nerve excitability test and the evoked electromyography. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Tian-Yu; Jiang, Li-Zhen
2014-01-01
In order to avoid the risk of information leakage during the information mutual transmission between two authorized participants, i.e. Alice and Bob, a quantum dialogue protocol based on the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states and the shared secret Bell state is proposed. The proposed protocol integrates the ideas of block transmission, two-step transmission and unitary operation encoding together using the Bell states as the information carriers. Besides the entanglement swapping between any two Bell states, a shared secret Bell state is also used to overcome the information leakage problem, which not only makes Bob aware of the prepared initial state but also is used for Bob's encoding and entanglement swapping. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol can resist the general active attacks from an outside eavesdropper Eve. Moreover, the relation between the maximal amount of information Eve can gain and the detection probability is derived. (paper)
Private random numbers produced by entangled ions and certified by Bell's theorem
Hayes, David; Matsukevich, Dzmitry; Maunz, Peter; Monroe, Chris; Olmschenk, Steven
2010-03-01
It has been shown that entangled particles can be used to generate numbers whose privacy and randomness are guaranteed by the violation of a Bell inequality [1,2]. The authenticity of the bit stream produced is guaranteed when the system used can close the detection loophole and when the entangled particles are non-interacting. We report the use of remotely located trapped ions with near perfect state detection efficiency as a private random number generator. By entangling the ions through photon interference and choosing the measurement settings using a pseudo-random number generator, we measure a CHSH correlation function that is more than seven standard deviations above the classical limit. With a total of 3016 events, we are able to certify the generation of 42 new random numbers with 99% confidence. [1] S. Pironio et al.(submitted to Nature, arXiv:0911.3427) [2] Colbeck, R. PhD Dissertation (2007)
["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].
Zhao, Jing-Sheng
2017-04-25
As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.
Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?
Kupczynski, Marian
2017-11-01
Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.
Is Einsteinian no-signalling violated in Bell tests?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kupczynski Marian
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Relativistic invariance is a physical law verified in several domains of physics. The impossibility of faster than light influences is not questioned by quantum theory. In quantum electrodynamics, in quantum field theory and in the standard model relativistic invariance is incorporated by construction. Quantum mechanics predicts strong long range correlations between outcomes of spin projection measurements performed in distant laboratories. In spite of these strong correlations marginal probability distributions should not depend on what was measured in the other laboratory what is called shortly: non-signalling. In several experiments, performed to test various Bell-type inequalities, some unexplained dependence of empirical marginal probability distributions on distant settings was observed. In this paper we demonstrate how a particular identification and selection procedure of paired distant outcomes is the most probable cause for this apparent violation of no-signalling principle. Thus this unexpected setting dependence does not prove the existence of superluminal influences and Einsteinian no-signalling principle has to be tested differently in dedicated experiments. We propose a detailed protocol telling how such experiments should be designed in order to be conclusive. We also explain how magical quantum correlations may be explained in a locally causal way.
Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vona, Nicola; Liang, Yeong-Cherng
2014-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)
Quantum mechanics and its limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mittig, W.
1977-01-01
Bell has shown (Bell's inequality) that local hidden variable theories lead to predictions in contradiction with quantum mechanics. This has been tested in low energy proton-proton scattering by the simultaneous measurement of the polarisation of the two protons. The results are in agreement with quantum mechanics and thus in contradiction with the inequality of Bell [fr
Faulkner's Southern belle - myth or reality?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataša Intihar Klančar
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with heroines of William Faulkner's novels Light in August, Absalom, Absalom!, The Sound and the Fury, The Unvanquished, The Town and his short story "A Rose for Emily". The Southern belle features as a recurring character in Faulkner's fiction, her fragility, modesty, weakness yet strength, beauty, sincerity, generous nature, status and her fall from innocence comprise her central characteristics. Confronted with various expectations of Southern society and with the hardships of war, the belle is faced with many obstacles and challenges. Faulkner's heroines face a wide array of problems that prevent them from being and/or remaining a Southern belle. Let us name a few: Lena's inappropriate social status, Joanna's wrong roots, Mrs. Hightower's inability to fulfill her duties as the minister's wife, Ellen's miserable marriage, Judith's sad love life, Rosa's feelings of inferiority and humiliation, Mrs. Compson's failure as a mother, Caddy's weak rebellion against male convention, Drusilla's male characteristics, Linda's unrequited love and Emily's dark secret, to name a few. Through these characters and their destinies Faulkner shows a decaying South whose position has changed considerably over the years. Can the Southern belle save it? Can she save herself?
Towards Device-Independent Information Processing on General Quantum Networks
Lee, Ciarán M.; Hoban, Matty J.
2018-01-01
The violation of certain Bell inequalities allows for device-independent information processing secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers. However, this only holds for the Bell network, in which two or more agents perform local measurements on a single shared source of entanglement. To overcome the practical constraints that entangled systems can only be transmitted over relatively short distances, large-scale multisource networks have been employed. Do there exist analogs of Bell inequalities for such networks, whose violation is a resource for device independence? In this Letter, the violation of recently derived polynomial Bell inequalities will be shown to allow for device independence on multisource networks, secure against nonsignaling eavesdroppers.
Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamambang Lum
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies have measured gender inequality at levels lower than the country. We sought to develop neighbourhood indicators of gender inequality, and assess their ability to capture variability in gender inequality across Québec, Canada. Methods Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas. Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods. Results Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone. Conclusion Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.
A general practice approach to Bell's palsy.
Phan, Nga T; Panizza, Benedict; Wallwork, Benjamin
2016-11-01
Bell's palsy is characterised by an acute onset of unilateral, lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve in the absence of an identifiable cause. Establishing the correct diagnosis is imperative and choosing the correct treatment options can optimise the likelihood of recovery. This article summarises our understanding of Bell's palsy and the evidence-based management options available for adult patients. The basic assessment should include a thorough history and physical examination as the diagnosis of Bell's palsy is based on exclusion. For confirmed cases of Bell's palsy, corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment and should be initiated within 72 hours of symptom onset. Antiviral therapy in combination with corticosteroid therapy may confer a small benefit and may be offered on the basis of shared decision making. Currently, no recommendations can be made for acupuncture, physical therapy, electrotherapy or surgical decompression because well-designed studies are lacking and available data are of low quality.
The BELLE silicon vertex detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alimonti, G.; Aihara, H.; Alexander, J.; Asano, Y.; Bakich, A.; Bozek, A.; Banas, E.; Browder, T.; Dragic, J.; Fukunaga, C.; Gordon, A.; Guler, H.; Everton, C.; Heenan, E.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Hastings, N.; Hara, T.; Hojo, T.; Higuchi, T.; Iwai, G.; Ishino, H.; Jalocha, P.; Korotuschenko, K.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Lange, J.S.; Li, Y.; Marlow, D.; Moloney, G.; Moffitt, L.; Mori, S.; Matsubara, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Ostrowicz, W.; Palka, H.; Peak, L.S.; Ryuko, J.; Rozanska, M.; Sevior, M.; Shimada, J.; Sumisawa, K.; Stock, R.; Stanic, S.; Swain, S.; Taylor, G.; Takasaki, F.; Tajima, H.; Trabelsi, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M. E-mail: tanakam@post.kek.jp; Takahashi, S.; Tomura, T.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsujita, Y.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.E.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Zhao, H.; Zontar, D
2000-10-11
A silicon vertex detector has been developed for the BELLE experiment at the KEK B-factory to be used to determine the relative displacements of B-meson decay vertices for CP violation measurements. The device has been successfully installed and operated with high-luminosity beam conditions. The average strip yield is larger than 96%, including the preamplifier electronics yield and the detector is currently working stably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17-40. The measured impact parameter resolution agrees with expectations based on Monte Carlo simulations, and the measured D{sup 0} lifetime is in good agreement with the particle data group's average of other measurements. Several B{yields}J/{psi}K events produced at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance have been detected and separate decay vertices have been found.
Measurement and adjustment of dumb-bells for 9-cell TESLA cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Wencan; Quan Shengwen; Hao Jiankui; Jiang Tao; Zhang Baocheng; Zhao Kui
2008-01-01
Correct Dumb-bells are very important to make sure the right field flatness, frequency of TM010 mode and length of 9-cell TESLA cavity. The shape of the dumb-bells will be wrong due to deep drawing, machining and EB welding. Then, the dumb-bells should be adjusted after iris and stiffness welding according to the mechanical and microwave measurement. Peking University has set up facilities for measuring and correcting the dumb-bells. This paper discusses the method of measuring and correcting the dumb-bells. (authors)
Quantum Nonlocality and Reality
Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan
2016-09-01
Preface; Part I. John Stewart Bell: The Physicist: 1. John Bell: the Irish connection Andrew Whitaker; 2. Recollections of John Bell Michael Nauenberg; 3. John Bell: recollections of a great scientist and a great man Gian-Carlo Ghirardi; Part II. Bell's Theorem: 4. What did Bell really prove? Jean Bricmont; 5. The assumptions of Bell's proof Roderich Tumulka; 6. Bell on Bell's theorem: the changing face of nonlocality Harvey R. Brown and Christopher G. Timpson; 7. Experimental tests of Bell inequalities Marco Genovese; 8. Bell's theorem without inequalities: on the inception and scope of the GHZ theorem Olival Freire, Jr and Osvaldo Pessoa, Jr; 9. Strengthening Bell's theorem: removing the hidden-variable assumption Henry P. Stapp; Part III. Nonlocality: Illusions or Reality?: 10. Is any theory compatible with the quantum predictions necessarily nonlocal? Bernard d'Espagnat; 11. Local causality, probability and explanation Richard A. Healey; 12. Bell inequality and many-worlds interpretation Lev Vaidman; 13. Quantum solipsism and non-locality Travis Norsen; 14. Lessons of Bell's theorem: nonlocality, yes; action at a distance, not necessarily Wayne C. Myrvold; 15. Bell non-locality, Hardy's paradox and hyperplane dependence Gordon N. Fleming; 16. Some thoughts on quantum nonlocality and its apparent incompatibility with relativity Shan Gao; 17. A reasonable thing that just might work Daniel Rohrlich; 18. Weak values and quantum nonlocality Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; Part IV. Nonlocal Realistic Theories: 19. Local beables and the foundations of physics Tim Maudlin; 20. John Bell's varying interpretations of quantum mechanics: memories and comments H. Dieter Zeh; 21. Some personal reflections on quantum non-locality and the contributions of John Bell Basil J. Hiley; 22. Bell on Bohm Sheldon Goldstein; 23. Interactions and inequality Philip Pearle; 24. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models Stephen L. Adler; 25. Towards an objective
Testing quantum mechanics at Da{phi}Ne
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Di Domenica, A. [Rome Univ. 2 (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1997-12-31
After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell`s inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a {Phi}-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author) 13 refs.
Relativistic quantum nonlocality for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Shahpoor
2008-01-01
Lorentz transformation of the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is studied. Also we obtain the relativistic spin joint measurement for the transformed state. Using these results it is shown that Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the three-qubit GHZ state in the relativistic regime. For ultrarelativistic particles we obtain the critical value for boost speed, which Bell's inequality is not violated for velocities smaller than this value. We also show that in the ultrarelativistic limit Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the GHZ state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cinabro, David
2016-01-01
The major goals of our work on Belle II were to complete our contributions, a 64-channel PIN diode-based radiation monitor, to the precursor detector called Beast II and the electronics for the endcap K-Long/Muon (E-KLM) detector. This was done by Professor Cinabro, Technician Gutierrez, and undergraduate labor supported by US-Japan funds. Professor Bonvicini through US-Japan funds led the development and installation of a beamstrahlung monitor system in the Belle II interaction region. Graduate students Farhat and DiCarlo worked on this. We also worked on charm physics analysis.
Beat characteristics and beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell
Kim, Seock-Hyun; Lee, Chi-Wook; Lee, Jang-Moo
2005-03-01
King Seong-deok Divine Bell is the second oldest bell in Korea. The bell is considered to have the best sound quality among Korean bells. The beat phenomenon is one of the most important characteristics for the sound of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell. In this study, the relationships between the modal parameters and the peculiar beat phenomena of the bell are investigated. It is theoretically proved from the beat characteristics that the sound might indeed be heard differently depending on the listening positions. The beat map method is introduced to visualize the beat distribution properties. It is shown that the beat maps can be drawn with a theoretical model based on the modal data of the bell. Using the beat maps of the King Seong-deok Divine Bell, it is investigated why clear and unclear beats, large and small amplitudes of the vibrations are repeated periodically along the circumference of the bell. Furthermore, the effect of the striking position on the beat distribution property is examined systematically.
Robust track fitting in the Belle II inner tracking detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadler, Moritz; Frühwirth, Rudolf
2012-01-01
Track fitting in the new inner tracker of the Belle II experiment uses the GENFIT package. In the latter both a standard Kalman filter and a robust extension, the deterministic annealing filter (DAF), are implemented. This contribution presents the results of a simulation experiment which examines the performance of the DAF in the inner tracker, in terms of outlier detection ability and of the impact of different kinds of background on the quality of the fitted tracks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Takanori
2003-01-01
We review the current status and the future perspectives of the Belle experiment and KEKB asymmetric e + e - collider. Thanks to many efforts of Belle collaborators and KEKB accelerator staffs, we could accumulate a 41.8 fb -1 data by the end of 2001 (more than 80 fb -1 data by the end of summer, 2002), also the KEKB recorded the highest peak luminosity (7.35 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 ) in the world. Furthermore, the Super KEKB project is being proposed not only to extract the CP violation parameters and moduluses of the CKM matrix with high accuracy, but also to search for B rare decays and explore beyond the Standard Model
Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. A. Bueri
1984-12-01
Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.
Official regulations and perceptual aspects of bell ringing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kovačič Mojca
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Through the analytical approach of studying official and perception-related discourse on bell ringing I accentuate the complexity of aspects that the sound of church bell presents in contemporary society. I point out the misleading officially defined level of noise nuisance and reveal how, when and why bell ringing is perceived as a positive or negative part of the acoustic environment. The study argues for a holistic approach to the noise nuisance issues, still much underestimated in the official discourse, that co-create our everyday soundscape.
Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junfang Fan
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.
The Bells' Capture note TH-3054-CERN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartouni, Ed P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-01-29
This document revisits the paper by M. Bell and J. S. Bell “Capture of Cooling Electrons by Cool Protons” TH-3054-CERN (March 30, 1981). I expand the treatment to include e^{+}e^{-} capture.
Common questions about Bell palsy.
Albers, Janet R; Tamang, Stephen
2014-02-01
Bell palsy is an acute affliction of the facial nerve, resulting in sudden paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of the face. Testing patients with unilateral facial paralysis for diabetes mellitus or Lyme disease is not routinely recommended. Patients with Lyme disease typically present with additional manifestations, such as arthritis, rash, or facial swelling. Diabetes may be a comorbidity of Bell palsy, but testing is not needed in the absence of other indications, such as hypertension. In patients with atypical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement can be used to rule out cranial mass effect and to add prognostic value. Steroids improve resolution of symptoms in patients with Bell palsy and remain the preferred treatment. Antiviral agents have a limited role, and may improve outcomes when combined with steroids in patients with severe symptoms. When facial paralysis is prolonged, surgery may be indicated to prevent ocular desiccation secondary to incomplete eyelid closure. Facial nerve decompression is rarely indicated or performed. Physical therapy modalities, including electrostimulation, exercise, and massage, are neither beneficial nor harmful.
Bell automation system on STM32F4 Discovery board
Božović, Denis
2017-01-01
A bell automation system is a device, the aim of which is to maximize the automation of bell ringing and thus release from duty the person in charge of it. The modern way of life and forms of employment generally make it difficult for human bell-ringers to carry out the task as they did for centuries. In this thesis it is explained what can be expected of the bell automation system in the regions of Slovenia, and why it is desirable that it supports certain functionalities. Using as an exampl...
The Real "Toll" of A. G. Bell: Lessons about Eugenics
Greenwald, Brian H.
2009-01-01
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
[Bell's palsy and facial pain associated with toxocara infection].
Bachtiar, Arian; Auer, Herbert; Finsterer, Josef
2012-10-01
Toxocarosis involving cranial nerves is extremely rare and almost exclusively concerns the optic nerve. Toxocarosis involving the seventh cranial nerve has not been reported. A 33y male developed left-sided Bell's palsy two days after left-sided otalgia 6y before. Despite extensive diagnostic work-up at that time the cause of Bell's palsy remained unknown. During the following years Bell's palsy slightly improved but retromandibular pain remained almost unchanged and he developed enlarged lymph nodes along the jugular veins, submandibularly, and in the trigonum caroticum. Re-evaluation 6y later revealed an increased titer of serum antibodies against Toxocara canis and a positive Westernblot for Toxocara canis ES-antigen. Despite absent eosinophilia in the serum, toxocarosis was diagnosed and a therapy with albendazole initiated, with benefit for retromandibular pain, but hardly for Bell's palsy or enlarged lymph nodes. CSF investigations after albendazole revealed a positive Westernblot for antibodies against toxocara but absent pleocytosis or eosinophilia, and negative PCR for Toxocara canis. Visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis may be associated with Bell's palsy, retromandibular pain, and lymphadenopathy. A causal relation between Bell's palsy and the helminthosis remains speculative. Adequate therapy years after onset of the infestation may be of limited benefit.
van de Graaf, R C; IJpma, F F A; Nicolai, J-P A; Werker, P M N
2009-11-01
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few documents. In 1804 and 1805, Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink (1762-1832) published what appears to be the first known extensive study on idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. His description of this condition was quite accurate. He located several other early descriptions and concluded from this literature that, previously, the condition had usually been confused with other afflictions (such as 'spasmus cynicus', central facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia). According to Thomassen à Thuessink, idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by 'rheumatism' or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristiane A. Kasse
2002-10-01
Full Text Available Introdução: O núcleo do nervo facial e do núcleo olivar superior são conectados por fibras, desta forma uma lesão nesta conecção poderia interferir na função das células ciliadas externas, alterando o exame de emissão otoacústica por produtos de distorção (EOAPD. Objetivo: Observar a possibilidade da paralisia de Bell afetar a função das células ciliadas externas através da EOAPD. Forma do Estudo: Prospectivo clínico. Material e Método: Quarenta pacientes com paralisia de Bell foram comparados com 69 pacientes normais (grupo controle, usando EOAPD. Resultados: Os pacientes com paralisia de Bell e EOAPD alterados foram de 17,5% e no grupo controle de 7,2%, sem diferença estatística entre os valores. Não se observou também uma correlação entre o reflexo estapediano e o grau da paralisia facial com a EOAPD. Conclusão: Não observamos correlação entre EOAPD e a paralisia de Bell.Introduction: The facial nucleus and olivar nucleus are connected with fibers, then a lesion in this conection could interfer in the outer cell function changing the result of otoacoustic emission product distortion test (DPOE. Objective: To observe the possibility of Bell's palsy affect the function of outer hair cells, using the DPOE test. Study Design: Prospective clinical. Material and Method: Forty patients with Bell's palsy were compared with 69 patients without symptons (control group using DPOE. Results: The patients with Bell's palsy without DPOE response were 17.5% and in the control group, 7.2%, without statistical difference between them. We did not observe a correlation with stapedium reflex and degree of palsy and DPOE. Conclusion: There was no correlation with Bell's palsy and DPOE.
Nonlocality in many-body quantum systems detected with two-body correlators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tura, J., E-mail: jordi.tura@icfo.es [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Augusiak, R.; Sainz, A.B. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Lücke, B.; Klempt, C. [Institut für Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Lewenstein, M.; Acín, A. [ICFO—Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA—Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Lluis Campanys 3, 08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2015-11-15
Contemporary understanding of correlations in quantum many-body systems and in quantum phase transitions is based to a large extent on the recent intensive studies of entanglement in many-body systems. In contrast, much less is known about the role of quantum nonlocality in these systems, mostly because the available multipartite Bell inequalities involve high-order correlations among many particles, which are hard to access theoretically, and even harder experimentally. Standard, “theorist- and experimentalist-friendly” many-body observables involve correlations among only few (one, two, rarely three...) particles. Typically, there is no multipartite Bell inequality for this scenario based on such low-order correlations. Recently, however, we have succeeded in constructing multipartite Bell inequalities that involve two- and one-body correlations only, and showed how they revealed the nonlocality in many-body systems relevant for nuclear and atomic physics [Tura et al., Science 344 (2014) 1256]. With the present contribution we continue our work on this problem. On the one hand, we present a detailed derivation of the above Bell inequalities, pertaining to permutation symmetry among the involved parties. On the other hand, we present a couple of new results concerning such Bell inequalities. First, we characterize their tightness. We then discuss maximal quantum violations of these inequalities in the general case, and their scaling with the number of parties. Moreover, we provide new classes of two-body Bell inequalities which reveal nonlocality of the Dicke states—ground states of physically relevant and experimentally realizable Hamiltonians. Finally, we shortly discuss various scenarios for nonlocality detection in mesoscopic systems of trapped ions or atoms, and by atoms trapped in the vicinity of designed nanostructures.
Low-momentum track finding in Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lettenbichler, J; Frühwirth, R; Nadler, M; Glattauer, R
2012-01-01
The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) of the Belle II experiment is a newly developed device with four measurement layers. Track finding in the SVD will be done both in conjunction with the Central Drift Chamber and in stand-alone mode. The reconstruction of very-low-momentum tracks in stand-alone mode is a big challenge, especially in view of the low redundancy and the large expected background. We describe an approach for track finding in this domain, where a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter is combined with a Hopfield network which finds an optimal subset of non-overlapping tracks. We present results on simulated data and evaluate them in terms of efficiency and purity.
Bell trajectories for revealing quantum control mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dennis, Eric; Rabitz, Herschel
2003-01-01
The dynamics induced while controlling quantum systems by optimally shaped laser pulses have often been difficult to understand in detail. A method is presented for quantifying the importance of specific sequences of quantum transitions involved in the control process. The method is based on a ''beable'' formulation of quantum mechanics due to John Bell that rigorously maps the quantum evolution onto an ensemble of stochastic trajectories over a classical state space. Detailed mechanism identification is illustrated with a model seven-level system. A general procedure is presented to extract mechanism information directly from closed-loop control experiments. Application to simulated experimental data for the model system proves robust with up to 25% noise
Delayed facial nerve decompression for Bell's palsy.
Kim, Sang Hoon; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Jong Ha; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun
2016-07-01
Incomplete recovery of facial motor function continues to be long-term sequelae in some patients with Bell's palsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of transmastoid facial nerve decompression after steroid and antiviral treatment in patients with late stage Bell's palsy. Twelve patients underwent surgical decompression for Bell's palsy 21-70 days after onset, whereas 22 patients were followed up after steroid and antiviral therapy without decompression. Surgical criteria included greater than 90 % degeneration on electroneuronography and no voluntary electromyography potentials. This study was a retrospective study of electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review between 2006 and 2013. Recovery from facial palsy was assessed using the House-Brackmann grading system. Final recovery rate did not differ significantly in the two groups; however, all patients in the decompression group recovered to at least House-Brackmann grade III at final follow-up. Although postoperative hearing threshold was increased in both groups, there was no significant between group difference in hearing threshold. Transmastoid decompression of the facial nerve in patients with severe late stage Bell's palsy at risk for a poor facial nerve outcome reduced severe complications of facial palsy with minimal morbidity.
All Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt polytopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pironio, Stefano
2014-01-01
The correlations that admit a local hidden-variable model are described by a family of polytopes, whose facets are the Bell inequalities. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is the simplest such Bell inequality and is a facet of every Bell polytope. We investigate for which Bell polytopes the CHSH inequality is also the unique (non-trivial) facet. We prove that the CHSH inequality is the unique facet for all bipartite polytopes where at least one party has a binary choice of dichotomic measurements, irrespective of the number of measurement settings and outcomes for the other party. Based on numerical results, we conjecture that it is also the unique facet for all bipartite polytopes involving two measurements per party where at least one measurement is dichotomic. Finally, we remark that these two situations can be the only ones for which the CHSH inequality is the unique facet, i.e., any polytope that does not correspond to one of these two cases necessarily has facets that are not of the CHSH form. As a byproduct of our approach, we derive a new family of facet inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
All Clauser-Home-Shimony-Holt polytopes
Pironio, Stefano
2014-10-01
The correlations that admit a local hidden-variable model are described by a family of polytopes, whose facets are the Bell inequalities. The Clauser-Home-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is the simplest such Bell inequality and is a facet of every Bell polytope. We investigate for which Bell polytopes the CHSH inequality is also the unique (non-trivial) facet. We prove that the CHSH inequality is the unique facet for all bipartite polytopes where at least one party has a binary choice of dichotomic measurements, irrespective of the number of measurement settings and outcomes for the other party. Based on numerical results, we conjecture that it is also the unique facet for all bipartite polytopes involving two measurements per party where at least one measurement is dichotomic. Finally, we remark that these two situations can be the only ones for which the CHSH inequality is the unique facet, i.e., any polytope that does not correspond to one of these two cases necessarily has facets that are not of the CHSH form. As a byproduct of our approach, we derive a new family of facet inequalities. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.
Belle II silicon vertex detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others
2016-09-21
The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.
... palsy was named after a Scottish doctor, Sir Charles Bell, who studied the two facial nerves that ... who focuses on how the nervous system works — will do a test called electromyography (say: eh-lek- ...
Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality
Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.
2012-01-01
The rise in consumption inequality in response to the increase in income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality while the standard incomplete
Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality
Lepetyuk, V.; Stoltenberg, C.A.
2013-01-01
The rise in within-group consumption inequality in response to the increase in within-group income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Run-Hua; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Zhong Hong
2011-01-01
We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)
Eugenics Past and Present: Remembering Buck v. Bell.
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
2001-01-01
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…
Chiang, Yen-Sheng
2015-11-01
Inequality measures are widely used in both the academia and public media to help us understand how incomes and wealth are distributed. They can be used to assess the distribution of a whole society-global inequality-as well as inequality of actors' referent networks-local inequality. How different is local inequality from global inequality? Formalizing the structure of reference groups as a network, the paper conducted a computational experiment to see how the structure of complex networks influences the difference between global and local inequality assessed by a selection of inequality measures. It was found that local inequality tends to be higher than global inequality when population size is large; network is dense and heterophilously assorted, and income distribution is less dispersed. The implications of the simulation findings are discussed.
Violation of local realism with freedom of choice.
Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Kofler, Johannes; Ramelow, Sven; Ma, Xiao-Song; Herbst, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Langford, Nathan K; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton
2010-11-16
Bell's theorem shows that local realistic theories place strong restrictions on observable correlations between different systems, giving rise to Bell's inequality which can be violated in experiments using entangled quantum states. Bell's theorem is based on the assumptions of realism, locality, and the freedom to choose between measurement settings. In experimental tests, "loopholes" arise which allow observed violations to still be explained by local realistic theories. Violating Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing all such loopholes is one of the most significant still open challenges in fundamental physics today. In this paper, we present an experiment that violates Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions. We also explain that the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes can be closed only within nondeterminism, i.e., in the context of stochastic local realism.
Inequality in health versus inequality in lifestyle choices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnstein Øvrum
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Repeated Norwegian cross-sectional data for the period 2005 to 2011 are used to compare sources of inequality in health, as represented by self-assessed health and obesity, with sources of inequality in lifestyles that are central to the production of health, as represented by physical activity, cigarette smoking and dietary behavior. Sources of overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in these lifestyle and health indicators are compared by estimating probit models, and by decomposing the explained part of the associated Gini and concentration indices with respect to education and income. As potential sources of inequality, we consider education, income, occupation, age, gender, marital status, psychological traits and childhood circumstances. Our results suggest that sources of inequality in health are not necessarily representative of sources of inequality in underlying lifestyles. While education is generally an important source of overall inequality in both lifestyles and health, income is unimportant in all lifestyle indicators except physical activity. In several cases, education and income are clearly outranked by other factors in terms of explaining overall inequality, such as gender in eating fruits and vegetables and age in fish consumption. These results suggest that it is important to decompose both overall inequality and socioeconomic inequality in different lifestyle and health indicators. In indicators where other factors than education and income are clearly most important, policy makers should consider to target these factors to efficiently improve overall population health.
2012-05-30
... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. 11...-AA00 Safety Zone; Belle Pass Dredge Operations, Belle Pass, Mile Marker 1.0 to Mile Marker (-0.2), Port...
Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Mujaddidah
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is still debated, and the cause is still unknown. The underlying hypothesis is ischemic, vascular, viral, bacterial, hereditary, and immunologic. Therapy done so far is to improve facial nerve function and healing process. The management of the therapy used will be closely related to the structure of the anatomy and its functions and associated abnormalities. The modalities of Bell's Palsy therapy are with corticosteroids and antivirals, facial exercises, electrostimulation, physiotherapy and decompression operations. Approximately 80-90% of patients with Bell's palsy recover completely within 6 months, even in 50-60% of cases improved within 3 weeks. Approximately 10% experienced persistent facial muscle asymmetry, and 5% experienced severe sequelae, and 8% of cases were recurrent.
77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters
2012-10-22
... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...
Connect the Book. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell
Brodie, Carolyn S.
2004-01-01
Cell phones, video phones, voice messaging?one wonders what Alexander Graham Bell would have thought about the many venues today for electronic communication with one another. Bell's March 10, 1876 invention is now 128 years old, but there is no doubt that Bell's "talking machine" changed the world. This article presents a brief review of the…
Degenerate r-Stirling Numbers and r-Bell Polynomials
Kim, T.; Yao, Y.; Kim, D. S.; Jang, G.-W.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to exploit umbral calculus in order to derive some properties, recurrence relations, and identities related to the degenerate r-Stirling numbers of the second kind and the degenerate r-Bell polynomials. Especially, we will express the degenerate r-Bell polynomials as linear combinations of many well-known families of special polynomials.
77 FR 30232 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters
2012-05-22
...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...
Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).
Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida
2013-06-01
Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.
Quantum nonlocality and reality 50 years of Bell's theorem
Gao, Shan
2016-01-01
Description Contents Resources Courses About the Authors Combining twenty-six original essays written by an impressive line-up of distinguished physicists and philosophers of physics, this anthology reflects some of the latest thoughts by leading experts on the influence of Bell's theorem on quantum physics. Essays progress from John Bell's character and background, through studies of his main work, and on to more speculative ideas, addressing the controversies surrounding the theorem, and investigating the theorem's meaning and its deep implications for the nature of physical reality. Combined, they present a powerful comment on the undeniable significance of Bell's theorem for the development of ideas in quantum physics over the past 50 years. Questions surrounding the assumptions and significance of Bell's work still inspire discussion in the field of quantum physics. Adding to this with a theoretical and philosophical perspective, this balanced anthology is an indispensable volume for students and researc...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
2017-01-01
This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...
77 FR 68055 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters
2012-11-15
... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joko Purwanto
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.
Cirpaciu, D; Goanta, C M; Cirpaciu, M D
2014-01-01
Bell's palsy in known as the most common cause of facial paralysis, determined by the acute onset of lower motor neuron weakness of the facial nerve with no detectable cause. With a lifetime risk of 1 in 60 and an annual incidence of 11-40/100,000 population, the condition resolves completely in around 71% of the untreated cases. Clinical trials performed for Bell's palsy have reported some recurrences, ipsilateral or contralateral to the side affected in the primary episode of facial palsy. Only few data are found in the literature. Melkersson-Rosenthal is a rare neuromucocutaneous syndrome characterized by recurrent facial paralysis, fissured tongue (lingua plicata), orofacial edema. We attempted to analyze some clinical and epidemiologic aspects of recurrent idiopathic palsy, and to develop relevant correlations between the existing data in literature and those obtained in this study. This is a retrospective study carried out on a 10-years period for adults and a five-year period for children. A number of 185 patients aged between 4 and 70 years old were analyzed. 136 of them were adults and 49 were children. 22 of 185 patients with Bell's palsy (12%) had a recurrent partial or complete facial paralysis with one to six episodes of palsy. From this group of 22 cases, 5 patients were diagnosed with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. The patients' age was between 4 and 70 years old, with a medium age of 27,6 years. In the group studied, fifteen patients, meaning 68%, were women and seven were men. The majority of patients in our group with more than two facial palsy episodes had at least one episode on the contralateral side. Our study found a significant incidence of recurrences of idiopathic facial palsy. Recurrent idiopathic facial palsy and Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is diagnosed more often in young females. Recurrence is more likely to occur in the first two years from the onset, which leads to the conclusion that we should have a follow up of patients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
2017-01-01
This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...
The track finding algorithm of the Belle II vertex detectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilka Tadeas
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Belle II experiment is a high energy multi purpose particle detector operated at the asymmetric e+e− - collider SuperKEKB in Tsukuba (Japan. In this work we describe the algorithm performing the pattern recognition for inner tracking detector which consists of two layers of pixel detectors and four layers of double sided silicon strip detectors arranged around the interaction region. The track finding algorithm will be used both during the High Level Trigger on-line track reconstruction and during the off-line full reconstruction. It must provide good efficiency down to momenta as low as 50 MeV/c where material effects are sizeable even in an extremely thin detector as the VXD. In addition it has to be able to cope with the high occupancy of the Belle II detectors due to the background. The underlying concept of the track finding algorithm, as well as details of the implementation are outlined. The algorithm is proven to run with good performance on simulated ϒ(4S → BB̄ events with an efficiency for reconstructing tracks of above 90% over a wide range of momentum.
Neutron polarimetric test of Leggett's contextual model of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitzer, C.; Bartosik, H.; Klepp, J.; Sponar, S.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, J.
2009-01-01
Full text: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument attempted to dispute quantum theory. With the Bell inequality it was possible to set up an experimental test of the EPR argument. Here, we describe the rebuilding of the measurement station at the tangential beam exit of the TRIGA reactor of the Atominstitut in Vienna. A new polarimeter setup was constructed and adjusted to generate Bell states by entangling a neutron's energy and spin. After accomplishing visibilities of up to 98.7 %, it was possible to test a Leggett-type inequality, which challenges a 'contextual' hidden variable theory. Such a contextual model would have been capable of reproducing former Bell inequality violations. Measurement results of this Leggett inequality and a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality show violations of this hidden variable model. Hence noncontextual and contextual hidden variable theories can be excluded simultaneously and quantum mechanical predictions are confirmed. (author)
Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
2009-01-01
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...
Williams, J D; Lehman, R
1988-01-01
A technique is described in which "jingle bells" are sutured in three positions on the face at the points of maximum excursion of the facial musculature when stimulated by a Hilger nerve stimulator set at 2 mA. The procedure is used to monitor movement of the facial nerve while the surgeon dissects the nerve in the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal.
Thermal simulations of the new design for the BELLE silicon vertex detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragic, J.
2000-01-01
Full text: The experienced imperfections of the BELLE silicon vertex detector, SVD1 motioned the design of a new detector, SVD2, which targets on improving the main weaknesses encountered in the old design. In this report we focus on tile thermal aspects of the SVD2 ladder, whereby sufficient cooling of the detector is necessary in order to minimise the detector leakage currents. It is estimated that reducing the temperature of the silicon detector from 25 deg C to 15 deg C would result in a 50% reduction in leak current. Further, cooling the detector would help minimize mechanical stresses from the thermal cycling. Our task is to ensure that the heat generated by the readout chips is conducted down the SVD hybrid unit effectively, such that the chip and the hybrid temperature does not overbear the SVD silicon sensor temperature. We considered the performance of two materials to act as a heat spreading plate which is glued between the two hybrids in order to improve the heat conductivity of the hybrid unit, namely Copper and Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite (TPG). The effects of other ladder components were also considered in order to enhance the cooling of the silicon detectors. Finite element analysis with ANSYS software was used to simulate the thermal conditions of the SVD2 hybrid unit, in accordance with the baseline design for the mechanical structure of the ladder. It was found that Cu was a preferred material as it achieved equivalent silicon sensor cooling (3.6 deg C above cooling point), while its mechanical properties rendered it a lot more practical. Suppressing, the thermal path via a rib support block, by increasing its thermal resistivity, as well as increasing thermal conductivity of the ribs in the hybrid region, were deemed essential in the effective cooling of the silicon sensors
Silicon micro-vertex detector for Belle II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanty, Gagan
2013-01-01
The Belle experiment at the KEK B-factory is Japan provided the landmark experimental confirmation of CP violation mechanism within the standard model that led to the physics Nobel prize in 2008. In its second phase, called Belle II, it would seek for the holy-grail of new physics using rare decays of B and D mesons and tau leptons as a probe, in complimentary to the direct searches carried out with the LHC experiments. An important component of this upgrade is to replace the innermost subdetector, namely the silicon micro-vertex detector (SVD). The new SVD will, like the old one, consist of four layers of double-sided silicon strip detector, but made from 6âĂİ wafers and located at higher radii as a novel, two-layer DEPFET pixel detector will be inserted very dose to the beam- pipe. Starting with the physics motivation, we discuss the design concept, fabrication and the Indian contributions toward the Belle II SVD. (author)
Diagnosis and management of patients with Bell's palsy.
Mooney, Tracy
Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis) is the most common cause of acute unilateral facial nerve paralysis. Although it is usually a self-limiting condition, it can be distressing for the patient. Many people who experience one-sided facial paralysis fear that it is a symptom of stroke. However, there are subtle differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. This article discusses potential causes of the condition and identifies the differences between Bell's palsy and stroke. In addition, appropriate strategies for the care of patients with the condition are suggested. Management includes antiviral medication, corticosteroid therapy, eye care, botulinum toxin type A injection, physiotherapy, surgery and acupuncture. Psychological and emotional care of these patients is also important because any facial disability caused by facial nerve paralysis can result in anxiety and stress.
Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy
Nur Mujaddidah
2017-01-01
Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve) with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter) on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is sti...
Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grice, W. P. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee (United States)
2011-10-15
A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.
Reluctant genius Alexander Graham Bell and the passion for invention
Gray, Charlotte
2011-01-01
The popular image of Alexander Graham Bell is that of an elderly American patriarch, memorable only for his paunch, his Santa Claus beard, and the invention of the telephone. In this magisterial reassessment based on thorough new research, acclaimed biographer Charlotte Gray reveals Bell's wide-ranging passion for invention and delves into the private life that supported his genius. The child of a speech therapist and a deaf mother, and possessed of superbly acute hearing, Bell developed an early interest in sound. His understanding of how sound waves might relate to electrical waves enabled h
N-particle nonclassicality without N-particle correlations
Wieśniak, Marcin; Nawareg, Mohamed; Żukowski, Marek
2012-10-01
Most of known multipartite Bell inequalities involve correlation functions for all subsystems. They are useless for entangled states without such correlations. We give a method of derivation of families of Bell inequalities for N parties, which involve, e.g., only (N-1)-partite correlations, but still are able to detect proper N-partite entanglement. We present an inequality which reveals five-partite entanglement despite using only four-partite correlations. Classes of inequalities introduced here can be put into a handy form of a single nonlinear inequality. An example is given of an N-qubit state, which strongly violates such an inequality, despite having no N-qubit correlations. This surprising property might be of potential value for quantum information tasks.
For whom bell toils: medical imaging by telephone.
Kuhfeld, A W
1991-01-01
The use of the induction balance, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell to cancel out line interference on his telephone, to determine the location of bullets inside the human body is discussed. Experiments conducted to locate a bullet in the body of US President Garfield, who had been shot by an assassin in 1881, are described. The trials on Garfield were unsuccessful, but the approach was later perfected by Bell.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldstein, G.R.; Jaffe, R.L.; Ji, X.
1995-01-01
Various issues surrounding a recently proposed inequality among twist-two quark distributions in the nucleon are discussed. We provide a rigorous derivation of the inequality in QCD, including radiative corrections and scale dependence. We also give a more heuristic, but more physical derivation, from which we show that a similar inequality does not exist among twist-three quark distributions. We demonstrate that the inequality does not constrain the nucleon's tensor charge. Finally we explore physical mechanisms for saturating the inequality, arguing it is unlikely to occur in nature
FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muenchow, David; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liu, Ming; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)
2011-07-01
Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a design luminosity of 8.10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. At Belle II the estimated event rate is {<=}30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be {<=}7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.
Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Altomani Neves Dias
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS for this purpose. The experiment was performed using four seed lots of bell pepper hybrids in two periods, and the evaluations involved germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, saturated salt accelerated aging and image analysis. The use of seedling imaging analysis by SVISis a new approach for bell pepper seed vigor evaluation. Both the software and traditional tests provided sufficient information for seed vigor analysis, enabling the segregation of the analyzed seed lots. Thus, the new method fulfills the requirement for an efficient, rapid, cost-effective and standardized method that allows comparisons among laboratories and avoids human influence on the interpretation of the results. SVIS can be considered a feasible option to be included in quality assurance programs of the bell pepper seed industry.
Bell's palsy: aetiology, clinical features and multidisciplinary care.
Eviston, Timothy J; Croxson, Glen R; Kennedy, Peter G E; Hadlock, Tessa; Krishnan, Arun V
2015-12-01
Bell's palsy is a common cranial neuropathy causing acute unilateral lower motor neuron facial paralysis. Immune, infective and ischaemic mechanisms are all potential contributors to the development of Bell's palsy, but the precise cause remains unclear. Advancements in the understanding of intra-axonal signal molecules and the molecular mechanisms underpinning Wallerian degeneration may further delineate its pathogenesis along with in vitro studies of virus-axon interactions. Recently published guidelines for the acute treatment of Bell's palsy advocate for steroid monotherapy, although controversy exists over whether combined corticosteroids and antivirals may possibly have a beneficial role in select cases of severe Bell's palsy. For those with longstanding sequaelae from incomplete recovery, aesthetic, functional (nasal patency, eye closure, speech and swallowing) and psychological considerations need to be addressed by the treating team. Increasingly, multidisciplinary collaboration between interested clinicians from a wide variety of subspecialties has proven effective. A patient centred approach utilising physiotherapy, targeted botulinum toxin injection and selective surgical intervention has reduced the burden of long-term disability in facial palsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Local realistic theories and quantum mechanics for the two-neutral-kaon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalitz, R.H.; Garbarino, G.
2001-01-01
The predictions of local realistic theories for the observables concerning the evolution of a K 0 K-bar 0 quantum entangled pair (created in the decay of the phi-meson) are discussed. It is shown, in agreement with Bell's theorem, that the most general local hidden-variable model fails in reproducing the whole set of quantum-mechanical joint probabilities. We achieve these conclusion by employing two different approaches. In the first approach, the local realistic observables are deduced from the most general premises concerning locality and realism, and Bell-like inequalities are not employed. The other approach makes use of Bell's inequalities. In the first approach, under particular conditions for the detection times, the discrepancy between quantum mechanics and local realism for the time-dependent asymmetry turns out to be not less than 20%. A similar incompatibility can be made evident by means of a Bell-type test by employing both Wigner's and (once properly normalized probabilities are used) Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt's inequalities. Because of its relatively low experimental accuracy, the data obtained by the CPLEAR collaboration for the asymmetry parameter do not yet allow a decisive test of local realism. Such a test, both with and without the use of Bell's inequalities, should be feasible in the future at the Frascati PHI-factory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Syue Liou
Full Text Available This population-based cohort study investigated the risk of developing peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD in patients with Bell's palsy.We used longitudinal claims data of health insurance of Taiwan to identify 5,152 patients with Bell's palsy newly diagnosed in 2000-2010 and a control cohort of 20,608 patients without Bell's palsy matched by propensity score. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR of PAOD were assessed by the end of 2013.The incidence of PAOD was approximately 1.5 times greater in the Bell's palsy group than in the non-Bell's palsy controls (7.75 vs. 4.99 per 1000 person-years. The Cox proportional hazards regression analysis measured adjusted HR was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.35-1.76 for the Bell's palsy group compared to the non-Bell's palsy group, after adjusting for sex, age, occupation, income and comorbidities. Men were at higher risk of PAOD than women in the Bell's palsy group, but not in the controls. The incidence of PAOD increased with age in both groups, but the Bell's palsy group to control group HR of PAOD decreased as age increased. The systemic steroid treatment reduced 13% of PAOD hazard for Bell's palsy patients, compared to those without the treatment, but not significant.Bell's palsy appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing PAOD. Further pathophysiologic, histopathology and immunologic research is required to explore the underlying biologic mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2015-07-15
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertlmann, Reinhold A.
2015-01-01
John Bell, with whom I had a fruitful collaboration and warm friendship, is best known for his seminal work on the foundations of quantum physics, but he also made outstanding contributions to particle physics and accelerator physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Addison, Tony; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tarp, Finn
2017-01-01
Many low‐ and middle‐income countries are achieving good rates of economic growth, while high inequality remains a priority concern. Some countries meanwhile have low growth, high inequality, and pervasive poverty—often linked to their fragility. There is now active debate on how countries should...... set themselves goals for achieving both absolute poverty reduction and lower inequality. But policy action needs to be better served by analysis and data....
Beat map drawing method for large oriental bell based on operational deflection shape method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Joong Hyeok; Kim, Seock Hyun [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Seok [TB Tires Development 1 Team, R and D Center, Kumho Tire, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
Oriental bells produce a peculiar sound in the form of beats, which are periodic repetitions of strong and weak sounds. A beating sound with a proper period gives the illusion of the bell being alive and breathing. To produce a good beating sound, appropriate modal parameters are required for beat tuning after casting the bell. Conventionally, modal parameters were extracted using frequency response functions of the excitation and response signals. However, a large oriental bell is usually struck by a heavy wooden hammer and hence, only the response signal can be measured. In this study, we extract the modal parameters using the response signal only and employ the data to predict the beat properties of the bell sound. Finally, the validity of the predicted beat properties is experimentally verified for a large oriental bell.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosicka, M; Ramanathan, R; Gnaciński, P; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, P; Severini, S
2016-01-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions. (paper)
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.
2016-04-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Cui, Han; Chen, Yi; Zhong, Weizheng; Yu, Haibo; Li, Zhifeng; He, Yuhai; Yu, Wenlong; Jin, Lei
2016-01-01
Bell's palsy is a kind of peripheral neural disease that cause abrupt onset of unilateral facial weakness. In the pathologic study, it was evidenced that ischemia of facial nerve at the affected side of face existed in Bell's palsy patients. Since the direction of facial nerve blood flow is primarily proximal to distal, facial skin microcirculation would also be affected after the onset of Bell's palsy. Therefore, monitoring the full area of facial skin microcirculation would help to identify the condition of Bell's palsy patients. In this study, a non-invasive, real time and full field imaging technology - laser speckle imaging (LSI) technology was applied for measuring facial skin blood perfusion distribution of Bell's palsy patients. 85 participants with different stage of Bell's palsy were included. Results showed that Bell's palsy patients' facial skin perfusion of affected side was lower than that of the normal side at the region of eyelid, and that the asymmetric distribution of the facial skin perfusion between two sides of eyelid is positively related to the stage of the disease (P Bell's palsy patients, and we discovered that the facial skin blood perfusion could reflect the stage of Bell's palsy, which suggested that microcirculation should be investigated in patients with this neurological deficit. It was also suggested LSI as potential diagnostic tool for Bell's palsy.
Radiation Hardness Study of CsI(Tl) Crystals for Belle II Calorimeter
Matvienko, D V; Sedov, E V; Shwartz, B A
2017-01-01
The Belle II calorimeter (at least, its barrel part) consists of CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals which have been used at the Belle experiment. We perform the radiation hardness study of some typical Belle crystals and conclude their light output reductions are acceptable for Belle II experiment where the absorption dose can reach 10 krad during the detector operation. CsI(Tl) crystals have high stablity and low maintenance cost and are considered as possible option for the calorimeter of the future Super-Charm-Tau factory (SCT) in Novosibirsk. Our study demonstrates sufficiently high radiation hardness of CsI(Tl) crystals for SCT conditions.
Sufficiency of Bell's conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gutkowski, D; Masotto, G [Istituto di Matematica della Universita di Palermo (Italy); Valdes, M V
1979-04-11
It is shown that, if the results of measurements of spin components of two-spin one-half particles coupled to a singlet state with respect to n=3 directions satisfy Bell's conditions, then these results are compatible with a local hidden-variable theory. The previous statement is extended to the case n=4.
Update on managing Bell's palsy.
2008-07-01
Each year in the UK, around 1 in 5,000 people develops Bell's palsy--idiopathic unilateral lower motor neurone facial weakness of rapid onset. Of those who are not treated, about 16% end up with permanent moderate to severe weakness, which can result in facial dysfunction and disfigurement, and psychological difficulties. There has been longstanding controversy about what, if any, treatment should be given, with potential alternatives including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, acupuncture and physiotherapy. We last reviewed this condition in 2006, indicating that "published trials on the efficacy of drug treatments have been poor and no firm conclusions can be drawn about the benefit of any single drug", and "it is unclear what place, if any, acupuncture and physiotherapy have in the management of patients with Bell's palsy". Here we update our conclusions in the light of recently published evidence.
Testing quantum mechanics at DaφNe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Domenica, A.
1997-01-01
After a brief introduction to EPR-paradox and Bell's inequality, it is shown that a Bell-like inequality can be formulated for the neutral kaon system at a Φ-factory using the Pauli spin formalism, in our case called K-spin, and taking into account CP violation. Experimental methods to reveal tiny violations of this inequality by quantum mechanics are discussed. The statistical accuracy achievable at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory, seems adequate to successfully perform such a test. (author)
Increased risk of Bell palsy in patients with migraine: a nationwide cohort study.
Peng, Kuan-Po; Chen, Yung-Tai; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Wang, Shuu-Jiun
2015-01-13
To evaluate the association between migraine and Bell palsy and to examine the effects of age, sex, migraine subtype, and comorbid risk factors for Bell palsy. This nationwide cohort study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Subjects aged 18 years or older with neurologist-diagnosed migraine from 2005 to 2009 were included. A nonheadache age- and propensity score-matched control cohort was selected for comparison. All subjects were followed until the end of 2010, death, or the occurrence of a Bell palsy event. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals to compare the risk of Bell palsy between groups. Both cohorts (n = 136,704 each) were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. During the follow-up period, 671 patients (424,372 person-years) in the migraine cohort and 365 matched control subjects (438,677 person-years) were newly diagnosed with Bell palsy (incidence rates, 158.1 and 83.2/100,000 person-years, respectively). The adjusted hazard ratio for Bell palsy was 1.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.68-2.17; p Bell palsy remained significant in sensitivity analyses, and tests of interaction failed to reach significance in all subgroup analyses. Migraine is a previously unidentified risk factor for Bell palsy. The association between these 2 conditions suggests a linked disease mechanism, which is worthy of further exploration. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures for cohesionless small bodies
Descamps, Pascal
2016-02-01
In a previous paper (Descamps, P. [2015]. Icarus 245, 64-79), we developed a specific method aimed to retrieve the main physical characteristics (shape, density, surface scattering properties) of highly elongated bodies from their rotational lightcurves through the use of dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures. The present work is a test of this method. For that purpose we introduce near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures which are base dumb-bell equilibrium shapes modulated by lognormal statistics. Such synthetic irregular models are used to generate lightcurves from which our method is successfully applied. Shape statistical parameters of such near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped objects are in good agreement with those calculated for example for the Asteroid (216) Kleopatra from its dog-bone radar model. It may suggest that such bilobed and elongated asteroids can be approached by equilibrium figures perturbed be the interplay with a substantial internal friction modeled by a Gaussian random sphere.
Improvement of AczÃƒÂ©l's Inequality and Popoviciu's Inequality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanhe Wu
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We generalize and sharpen AczÃƒÂ©l's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality by means of two classical inequalities, a unified improvement of AczÃƒÂ©l's inequality and Popoviciu's inequality is given. As application, an integral inequality of AczÃƒÂ©l-Popoviciu type is established.
EFFORTS AND INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BOLIVIAN LABOR MARKET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fátima Rico Encinas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The equitable distribution of income, along with human development indices, is among the factors that differentiate developed from developing countries. In this paper, efforts and other variables related to the circumstances of individuals were quantified and analyzed together with traditional determinants in order to explain inequality in the working population of Bolivia. We estimated econometric models by merging the extended Mincer equation with John Roemer’s theory of Inequality of Opportunity. We find that efforts are important determinants of the levels of wage inequality in the country as well as regional development, labor informality, gender and ethnicity. In this sense, the paper separates the part of wage inequality that may be attributed to situations that are beyond the control of individuals and that can be attributed to conscious decisions. Micro simulations determined that it would be possible to reduce inequality by as much as 21% if it gives people the chance to make similar efforts to improve their wages.
Existence of ''free will'' as a problem in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peres, A.
1986-01-01
The proof of Bell's inequality is based on the assumption that distant observers can freely and independently choose their experiments. As Bell's inequality is experimentally violated, it appears that distant physical systems may behave as a single, nonlocal, indivisible entity. This apparent contradiction is resolved. It is shown that the ''free will'' assumption is, under usual circumstances, an excellent approximation
Song, Yun; Li, Yongming; Wang, Wenhua
2018-02-01
This paper proposed a new and efficient multiparty quantum direct secret sharing (QDSS) by using swapping quantum entanglement of Bell states. In the proposed scheme, the quantum correlation between the possible measurement results of the members (except dealer) and the original local unitary operation encoded by the dealer was presented. All agents only need to perform Bell measurements to share dealer's secret by recovering dealer's operation without performing any unitary operation. Our scheme has several advantages. The dealer is not required to retain any photons, and can further share a predetermined key instead of a random key to the agents. It has high capacity as two bits of secret messages can be transmitted by an EPR pair and the intrinsic efficiency approaches 100%, because no classical bit needs to be transmitted except those for detection. Without inserting any checking sets for detecting the eavesdropping, the scheme can resist not only the existing attacks, but also the cheating attack from the dishonest agent.
Patterned Inequalities and the Inequality Regime of a Swedish Housing Company
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kristina Boréus
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, the authors analyze inequalities between different groups of employees at a housing company in a larger Swedish city. The concept of inequality regime is taken as a point of departure. The purposes of the article are three: first, to add to knowledge of how inequality is generated at an organizational level at specific workplaces; second, to contribute to the understanding of how different practices, processes, and meanings of inequality regimes may interact to create and reinforce inequalities between natives and immigrants; and, third, to contribute to the empirical usefulness of the concept of inequality regime by demonstrating how it can be operationalized and combined with other concepts in the analysis. The study shows how the practices, processes, and meanings at the given workplace generated and reproduced different kinds of inequalities: unequal wages, an ethnic division of labor, unequal influence and job security, and unequal opportunities to capitalize on useful skills (i.e., language competence. Important conclusions are that different kinds of inequalities may reinforce each other by creating vicious circles, and subtler forms of inequality may partly explain explicit wage inequalities.
Hamilton, Kendra
2009-01-01
The "Bennett Belle." The words conjure an image that is genteel, old-fashioned--hats and gloves, brown-skinned women in flowing white dresses beaming as they take that final walk to graduation. The Bennett College for Women campus certainly reinforces the image, with its broad, tree-shaded lawns and quadrangle and its historic buildings--fully 15…
Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.
Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel
2014-01-01
In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.
Bell Palsy and Acupuncture Treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Betul Battaloglu Inanc
2013-08-01
A 22-year-old female patient, a midwifery student, had treatment with corticosteroid and antiviral agents as soon as Bell Palsy (BP was diagnosed (House-Breckman stage 6. Six weeks later, patient didn’t recover, while in House-Breckman stage 3, acupuncture was perfomed and local and distal acupoints were used with ears, body and face. Ear acupuncture point was used two times with detection. In the course of six sessions body and face points were stimulated by electroacupuncture. After ten acupuncture treatments, the subjective symptoms and the facial motion on the affected side improved. There was an spotting ecchymosis the ST2 points on. The symmetry of the face is a determinant of facial charm and influences interpersonal attraction for adults, children and pregnant women. Medical options for the sequelae of BP are limited. Acupuncture’s effectively in Bell palsy patients’ should be shown with more clinical and electrophysiological studies.
Comparing conditions for macrorealism: Leggett-Garg inequalities versus no-signaling in time
Halliwell, J. J.
2017-07-01
We consider two different types of conditions which were proposed to test macrorealism in the context of a system described by a single dichotomic variable Q . This is the view that a macroscopic system evolving in time possesses definite properties which can be determined without disturbing the future or past state. The Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities, the most commonly studied test, are only necessary conditions for macrorealism, but, building on earlier work J. J. Halliwell, Phys. Rev. A 93, 022123 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.022123, it is shown that when the four three-time LG inequalities are augmented with a certain set of two-time inequalities also of the LG form, Fine's theorem applies and these augmented conditions are then both necessary and sufficient. A comparison is carried out with a very different set of necessary and sufficient conditions for macrorealism, namely the no-signaling in time (NSIT) conditions proposed by J. Kofler and C. Brukner, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052115 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052115 and L. Clemente and J. Kofler, Phys. Rev. A 91, 062103 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.062103, which ensure that all probabilities for Q at one and two times are independent of whether earlier or intermediate measurements are made in a given run, and do not require (but imply) the LG inequalities. We argue that tests based on the LG inequalities have the form of very weak classicality conditions and can be satisfied in the face of moderate interference effects, but those based on NSIT conditions have the form of much stronger coherence witness conditions, satisfied only for zero interference. The two tests differ in their implementation of noninvasive measurability and so are testing different notions of macrorealism: the augmented LG tests are indirect, entailing a combination of the results of different experiments with only compatible quantities measured in each experimental run, in close analogy with Bell tests, and are primarily tests for macrorealism
Index files for Belle II - very small skim containers
Sevior, Martin; Bloomfield, Tristan; Kuhr, Thomas; Ueda, I.; Miyake, H.; Hara, T.
2017-10-01
The Belle II experiment[1] employs the root file format[2] for recording data and is investigating the use of “index-files” to reduce the size of data skims. These files contain pointers to the location of interesting events within the total Belle II data set and reduce the size of data skims by 2 orders of magnitude. We implement this scheme on the Belle II grid by recording the parent file metadata and the event location within the parent file. While the scheme works, it is substantially slower than a normal sequential read of standard skim files using default root file parameters. We investigate the performance of the scheme by adjusting the “splitLevel” and “autoflushsize” parameters of the root files in the parent data files.
Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging in Bell's palsy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Yasushi; Kawamura, Yuji; Yanagihara, Naoaki; Sadamoto, Masanori; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko.
1991-01-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out in 27 patients with Bell's palsy. T1-weighted spin-echo images (TR500/TE25-34) were taken before and after the intravenous administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) with 0.5T superconductive MRI. There was significant enhancement at the geniculate ganglion and the horizontal segment of the involved facial nerve in 22 patients (81.5%) and at the vertical segment in 20 (74.1%). Enhancement at the meatal fundus was seen in only 4 patients (14.9%) and at the labyrinthine segment in 8 (29.6%). These results corroborate other evidence that the geniculate ganglion is involved most frequently in Bell's palsy. In addition, the enhancement of the proximal portion, i.e. the meatal fundus and the labyrinthine segment of the nerve, although not common, noted in this study may be important in the diagnosis and treatment of Bell's palsy. (author)
Sun, Baochun; Zhou, Chengyong; Han, Zeli
2015-02-01
The aim of this study was to compare genetic predilection and recurrence tendency between facial palsy in Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) and Bell's palsy We carried out an investigation on patients with facial palsy in MRS and those with Bell's palsy who visited the outpatient department in our hospital between February 2009 and February 2013. They were asked about familial history and whether it was the first episode, with the results recorded and compared. There were 16 patients with facial palsy in MRS and 860 patients with Bell's palsy involved in the study. Familial history was positive in 5 of 16 patients (31.3%) with facial palsy in MRS and 56 of 860 patients (6.5%) with Bell's palsy (P palsy in MRS and 88 of 860 cases (10.2%) with Bell's palsy had a history of facial palsy in the past (P Bell's palsy, facial palsy in MRS has an obvious genetic predilection and recurrence tendency. © The Author(s) 2014.
Game, cloud architecture and outreach for The BIG Bell Test
Abellan, Carlos; Tura, Jordi; Garcia, Marta; Beduini, Federica; Hirschmann, Alina; Pruneri, Valerio; Acin, Antonio; Marti, Maria; Mitchell, Morgan
The BIG Bell test uses the input from the Bellsters, self-selected human participants introducing zeros and ones through an online videogame, to perform a suite of quantum physics experiments. In this talk, we will explore the videogame, the data infrastructure and the outreach efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration. First, we will discuss how the game was designed so as to eliminate possible feedback mechanisms that could influence people's behavior. Second, we will discuss the cloud architecture design for scalability as well as explain how we sent each individual bit from the users to the labs. Also, and using all the bits collected via the BIG Bell test interface, we will show a data analysis on human randomness, e.g. are younger Bellsters more random than older Bellsters? Finally, we will talk about the outreach and communication efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration, exploring both the social media campaigns as well as the close interaction with teachers and educators to bring the project into classrooms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier
2016-01-01
Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job as a th...
Various quantum nonlocality tests with a commercial two-photon entanglement source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomarico, Enrico; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Rochdi, Anas; Gisin, Nicolas
2011-01-01
Nonlocality is a fascinating and counterintuitive aspect of nature, revealed by the violation of a Bell inequality. The standard and easiest configuration in which Bell inequalities can be measured has been proposed by Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH). However, alternative nonlocality tests can also be carried out. In particular, Bell inequalities requiring multiple measurement settings can provide deeper fundamental insights about quantum nonlocality, as well as offering advantages in the presence of noise and detection inefficiency. In this paper we show how these nonlocality tests can be performed using a commercially available source of entangled photon pairs. We report the violation of a series of these nonlocality tests (I 3322 , I 4422 , and chained inequalities). With the violation of the chained inequality with 4 settings per side we put an upper limit at 0.49 on the local content of the states prepared by the source (instead of 0.63 attainable with CHSH). We also quantify the amount of true randomness that has been created during our experiment (assuming fair sampling of the detected events).
Impact adding bifurcation in an autonomous hybrid dynamical model of church bell
Brzeski, P.; Chong, A. S. E.; Wiercigroch, M.; Perlikowski, P.
2018-05-01
In this paper we present the bifurcation analysis of the yoke-bell-clapper system which corresponds to the biggest bell "Serce Lodzi" mounted in the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus Kostka, Lodz, Poland. The mathematical model of the system considered in this work has been derived and verified based on measurements of dynamics of the real bell. We perform numerical analysis both by direct numerical integration and path-following method using toolbox ABESPOL (Chong, 2016). By introducing the active yoke the position of the bell-clapper system with respect to the yoke axis of rotation can be easily changed and it can be used to probe the system dynamics. We found a wide variety of periodic and non-periodic solutions, and examined the ranges of coexistence of solutions and transitions between them via different types of bifurcations. Finally, a new type of bifurcation induced by a grazing event - an "impact adding bifurcation" has been proposed. When it occurs, the number of impacts between the bell and the clapper is increasing while the period of the system's motion stays the same.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brent A. Langellier
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV, to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences in preferences, neighborhood-level barriers or facilitators of bubblegum chewing (e.g., access to bubblegum shops, and agents’ preferences for segregation, homophily, and clustering (i.e., the ‘tightness’ of social networks. I further use BV to understand whether segregation and social network characteristics impact whether the effects of a bubblegum-reduction intervention that is very effective in the short term are durable over time, as well as to identify intervention strategies to reduce attenuation of the intervention effects. In addition to BV, I also present results from an ABM based on the distribution and social characteristics of the population in Philadelphia, PA. This model explores similar questions to BV, but examines racial/ethnic inequalities in soda consumption based on agents’ social characteristics and baseline soda consumption probabilities informed by the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Collectively, the models suggest that residential segregation is a fundamental process for the production and persistence of health inequalities. The other major conclusion of the study is that, for behaviors that are subject to social influence and that cluster within social groups, interventions that are randomly-targeted to individuals with ‘bad’ behaviors will likely experience a large degree of recidivism to pre-intervention behaviors. In contrast
Color and illuminance level of lighting can modulate willingness to eat bell peppers.
Hasenbeck, Aimee; Cho, Sungeun; Meullenet, Jean-François; Tokar, Tonya; Yang, Famous; Huddleston, Elizabeth A; Seo, Han-Seok
2014-08-01
Food products are often encountered under colored lighting, particularly in restaurants and retail stores. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether the color of ambient lighting can affect consumers' motivation for consumption. This study aimed to determine whether color (Experiment 1) and illuminance level (Experiment 2) of lighting can influence consumers' liking of appearance and their willingness to eat bell peppers. For red, green, and yellow bell peppers, yellow and blue lighting conditions consistently increased participants' liking of appearance the most and the least, respectively. Participants' willingness to consume bell peppers increased the most under yellow lighting and the least under blue lighting. In addition, a dark condition (i.e. low level of lighting illuminance) decreased liking of appearance and willingness to eat the bell peppers compared to a bright condition (i.e. high level of lighting illuminance). Our findings demonstrate that lighting color and illuminance level can influence consumers' hedonic impression and likelihood to consume bell peppers. Furthermore, the influences of color and illuminance level of lighting appear to be dependent on the surface color of bell peppers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling
Mayer, Susan E.
2010-01-01
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
Dynamic inequalities on time scales
Agarwal, Ravi; Saker, Samir
2014-01-01
This is a monograph devoted to recent research and results on dynamic inequalities on time scales. The study of dynamic inequalities on time scales has been covered extensively in the literature in recent years and has now become a major sub-field in pure and applied mathematics. In particular, this book will cover recent results on integral inequalities, including Young's inequality, Jensen's inequality, Holder's inequality, Minkowski's inequality, Steffensen's inequality, Hermite-Hadamard inequality and Čebyšv's inequality. Opial type inequalities on time scales and their extensions with weighted functions, Lyapunov type inequalities, Halanay type inequalities for dynamic equations on time scales, and Wirtinger type inequalities on time scales and their extensions will also be discussed here in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. M. Dannan
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In 2016 Prof. Fozi M. Dannan from Damascus, Syria, proposed an interesting inequality for three positive numbers with unit product. It became widely known but was not proved yet in spite of elementary formulation. In this paper we prove this inequality together with similar ones, its proof occurred to be rather complicated. We propose some proofs based on different ideas: Lagrange multipliers method, geometrical considerations, Klamkin–type inequalities for symmetric functions, usage of symmetric reduction functions of computer packages. Also some corollaries and generalizations are considered, they include cycle inequalities, triangle geometric inequalities, inequalities for arbitrary number of values and special forms of restrictions on numbers, applications to cubic equations and symmetric functions.
Bell-type quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino
2005-01-01
In his paper (1986 Beables for quantum field theory Phys. Rep. 137 49-54) John S Bell proposed how to associate particle trajectories with a lattice quantum field theory, yielding what can be regarded as a vertical bar Ψ vertical bar 2 -distributed Markov process on the appropriate configuration space. A similar process can be defined in the continuum, for more or less any regularized quantum field theory; we call such processes Bell-type quantum field theories. We describe methods for explicitly constructing these processes. These concern, in addition to the definition of the Markov processes, the efficient calculation of jump rates, how to obtain the process from the processes corresponding to the free and interaction Hamiltonian alone, and how to obtain the free process from the free Hamiltonian or, alternatively, from the one-particle process by a construction analogous to 'second quantization'. As an example, we consider the process for a second quantized Dirac field in an external electromagnetic field. (topical review)
Multigraph approach to quantum non-locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabelo, Rafael; Duarte, Cristhiano; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; López-Tarrida, Antonio J; Cabello, Adán
2014-01-01
Non-contextuality (NC) and Bell inequalities can be expressed as bounds Ω for positive linear combinations S of probabilities of events, S⩽Ω. Exclusive events in S can be represented as adjacent vertices of a graph called the exclusivity graph of S. In the case that events correspond to the outcomes of quantum projective measurements, quantum probabilities are intimately related to the Grötschel–Lovász–Schrijver theta body of the exclusivity graph. Then, one can easily compute an upper bound to the maximum quantum violation of any NC or Bell inequality by optimizing S over the theta body and calculating the Lovász number of the corresponding exclusivity graph. In some cases, this upper bound is tight and gives the exact maximum quantum violation. However, in general, this is not the case. The reason is that the exclusivity graph does not distinguish among the different ways exclusivity can occur in Bell-inequality (and similar) scenarios. An interesting question is whether there is a graph-theoretical concept which accounts for this problem. Here we show that, for any given N-partite Bell inequality, an edge-coloured multigraph composed of N single-colour graphs can be used to encode the relationships of exclusivity between each party's parts of the events. Then, the maximum quantum violation of the Bell inequality is exactly given by a refinement of the Lovász number that applies to these edge-coloured multigraphs. We show how to calculate upper bounds for this number using a hierarchy of semi-definite programs and calculate upper bounds for I 3 , I 3322 and the three bipartite Bell inequalities whose exclusivity graph is a pentagon. The multigraph-theoretical approach introduced here may remove some obstacles in the program of explaining quantum correlations from first principles. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)
Bell's "Theorem": loopholes vs. conceptual flaws
Kracklauer, A. F.
2017-12-01
An historical overview and detailed explication of a critical analysis of what has become known as Bell's Theorem to the effect that, it should be impossible to extend Quantum Theory with the addition of local, real variables so as to obtain a version free of the ambiguous and preternatural features of the currently accepted interpretations is presented. The central point on which this critical analysis, due originally to Edwin Jaynes, is that Bell incorrectly applied probabilistic formulas involving conditional probabilities. In addition, mathematical technicalities that have complicated the understanding of the logical or mathematical setting in which current theory and experimentation are embedded, are discussed. Finally, some historical speculations on the sociological environment, in particular misleading aspects, in which recent generations of physicists lived and worked are mentioned.
The distribution of urban population and income: explorations using six Asian cases.
Chakravorty, S
1993-02-01
"Urban concentration (or primacy) and inequality (in size distribution of income) are expected to follow bell shaped curves through the development process. Spatial convergence (through investments in transportation etc.) is expected to precede income convergence. Using longitudinal data from six Asian countries (Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and India) this paper shows that (i) the bell shapes for urban concentration and income inequality generally hold, and (ii) the temporal relationship between the curve peaks is determined by geographical factors (for urban concentration); income inequality is seen to be more policy amenable." excerpt
Multiqubit nonlocality in families of 3- and 4-qubit entangled states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghose, S; Debnath, S; Sinclair, N; Kabra, A [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Stock, R, E-mail: sghose@wlu.c [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)
2010-11-07
We investigate genuine multiqubit nonlocality in families of entangled 3- and 4-qubit pure states by analyzing a Bell-type inequality that is violated only if all qubits are nonlocally correlated. We present detailed numerical studies of the relationship between entanglement and violation of the Svetlichny Bell-type inequality in an experimentally accessible set of 3-qubit pure states, and identify the special nonlocality property of the maximal slice states in the space of all 3-qubit pure states. We also analyze nonlocal correlations in 3-qubit generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and extend our analysis to the case of 4-qubit generalized GHZ states. We show that like the 3-qubit case, some 4-qubit generalized GHZ states do not violate a Bell inequality that tests for genuine 4-qubit nonlocality. Furthermore, the location of the boundary between the states that do violate the inequality and those that do not is the same for the 3- and 4-qubit generalized GHZ states.
BELÉM E A BELLE ÉPOQUE DA BORRACHA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geraldo Mártires Coelho
2016-12-01
Full Text Available O artigo discute a história e a vida de Belém na passagem do século XIX para o século XX, marcada por um conjunto de elementos sociais, intelectuais e artísticos que refletiam as influências da cultura e da sociedade europeia, principalmente francesa, do período. Em termos de Brasil, esse processo se verificou em Belém e no Rio de Janeiro: era a chamada Belle Époque. Cultivou-se o gosto pelo que vinha da Europa, o que podia ser visto na maneira de se vestir das elites locais e na vida social que levavam em Belém. A literatura, a pintura e a música, cultuadas por essas mesmas elites, faziam da cidade um grande centro de vida intelectual e artística. É preciso, no entanto, observar que a Belle Époque faz parte de um processo maior, o da mundialização da cultura. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Belém; Belle Époque; Mundialização da cultura. ABSTRACT This article treats the history and life of Belem (capital city of Para State/Brazil during the passage from XIX to XX century that was marked by a set of social, intellectual and artistic elements, which reflected the influences from European culture and society, especially the French one in such period. In terms of Brazil, that process was seen in Belem and Rio de Janeiro; it was called Belle Époque. It was cultivated a taste to whatever came from Europe, what could be seen on the dressing fashion of the local elites and the social live they had in Belem. Literature, painting and music, idolised by the same elite made the city a huge centre of intellectual and artistic life. However, it is needed to consider that Belle Époque is part of a bigger process, the globalization one. KEY WORDS: Belém; Belle Époque; Culture globalization. RESUMEN El artículo discute la historia de la vida de Belém en la pasaje del siglo XIX para el siglo XX, marcada por un conjunto de elementos sociales, intelectuales y artísticos que reflejaban las influencias de la cultura y de la sociedad
The Clinical Study about Honilirls Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's Palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Chae-Woo
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Objectives : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effect on Bell's palsy according to the injection of herbal medicine induced from the Hominis Placenta. Methods : We measured the facial palsy changes of the patients who were admitted for Bell's palsy in the Oriental Medical hospital of Dongeui medical center from 03-01-2004 to 07-31-2004. Bell's palsy patients were divided into two groups. One group(A group was injected with Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture. The other group(B group was injected with normal saline. Then effects of these treatment was evaluated by Yanagihara's unweighted grading system. Results : A group was marked more higher than B group in treatment outcome. we discovered that it is significant differences between two groups after 4 week. Conclusions : These results provided that A group is more effective than B group. For clearly proving the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy, it is need more sample's number and more treatment's duration.
Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.
2010-01-01
In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)
Bell Canyon test summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.
1981-04-01
The Bell Canyon Test was an in situ evaluation of the ability of a cement grout plug to seal boreholes. It consisted of a 2-m-long, 20-cm-diameter grout plug in an anhydrite formation at a depth of 1370 m, directly above an aquifer that provided a 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) differential pressure. The aquifer had a production capability of 38,000 l/day (240 bbl/day, 10 4 gal/day). The observed leakage after plug installation was 0.6 l/day, which is equivalent to a 50 microdarcy flow path assuming all flow occurred through the plug cross-sectional area. Laboratory results and analysis of field data indicate that the bulk of the flow occurred through a microstructure at the interface between the plug and the host rock. The Bell Canyon Test demonstrated that a plug could be formulated, emplaced, and tested under actual conditions and provide acceptable performance. When these results are related to the WIPP performance assessment models, they provide additional confidence that borehole plugging can be accomplished satisfactorily. The Bell Canyon results can also be used as basis for future activities in the generic repository sealing program for similar emplacements and performance assessment evaluations. If the observed leakage rates are not acceptable at other sites, the BCT results would indicate that the first step in improving such emplacements should deal with improved bonding of the plug to the rock at these sites. The results obtained from the BCT, when coupled with results from long-term durability assessments, form a plug performance data basis for repository designers at other proposed waste repository sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sylvester, G.S.
1980-01-01
In the Ising-type models of statistical mechanics and the related quantum field theories, an inequality of Ginibre implies useful positivity and monotonicity properties: the Griffiths correlation inequalities. Essentially, the Ginibre inequality states that certain functions on the cycle group of a graph are positive definite. This has been proved for arbitrary graphs when the spin dimensions is 1 or 2 (classical Ising or plane rotator models). We give a counterexample to show that these spin dimensions are the only ones for which the Ginibre inequality is generally true: there are graphs for which it never holds when the spin dimension is at least 3. On the other hand, we show that for any graph the inequality holds for the apparent leading term in the large-spin-dimension limit. (The leading term vanishes in the graph of the counterexample.) Based on these results, one expects the Ginibre inequality to be true in most instances, with infrequent exceptions. A numerical survey supports this. The surprising failure of the Ginibre inequality in higher dimensions need not necessarily mean the Griffiths inequalities fail as well, but a different approach to them is required. (orig.)
Genealogy of John and Charles Bell: their relationship with the children of Charles Shaw of Ayr.
Kaufman, M
2005-11-01
The Reverend William Bell had six children who survived infancy. Two of his sons entered the legal profession and two other sons became distinguished anatomists and surgeons--John Bell, said for 20 years to have been the leading operating surgeon in Britain and throughout the world--and Sir Charles Bell, possibly the most distinguished anatomist and physiologist of his day. Information is not known about the fifth son or their sister. Charles Shaw, a lawyer of Ayr, had four sons and two daughters who survived infancy. Two of his sons, John and Alexander, became anatomists and later surgeons at the Middlesex Hospital, and both worked closely with Charles Bell at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy. His third son entered the law and his fourth son became a distinguished soldier. The two daughters of Charles Shaw married into the Bell family: Barbara married George Joseph Bell and Marion married Mr (later Sir) Charles Bell.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanović-Gavrilović Biljana D.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Inequality can be analyzed from various aspects. In this paper our attention is drawn to economic inequality, most frequently manifested through income and wealth. The measurement of economic inequality is a complex task. The Lorenz curve and a number of numerical indices are applied, and let us mention the following ones: the Gini coefficient, the coefficient of variation, the Theil index and the Atkinson measure. These indices do satisfy the criteria (principles presenting, according to general consent an appropriate measure of economic inequality: anonymity (symmetry principle, population principle, relative income principle and the Dalton principle of transfer. In recent times, the problem of inequality has been attracting a lot of attention. The explanation should be sought in the widening of income differences (within individual countries and between them and also in new knowledge about the relationship between inequality and development. The attitude to inequality being determined mainly by the economic development level (as presented in the Kuznets hypothesis is gradually being replaced by the attitude to inequality being the determinant of income and its growth. Contrary to previous beliefs about the stronger income inequalities being favorable to the economic growth, more recent research has pointed to the fact that a more equal distribution of income through various channels, can possibly act as an efficient stimulus of growth.
Aerogel RICH for the Belle II forward PID
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishida, S., E-mail: shohei.nishida@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Adachi, I. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Hamada, N. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Hara, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Iijima, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Kawai, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Korpar, S.; Krizan, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogawa, S. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sumiyoshi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Tabata, M. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara (Japan); Tahirovic, E. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Yoshida, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji (Japan); Yusa, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)
2014-12-01
The Belle II spectrometer, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron–positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. The counter will provide a 4σ separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector (HAPD) has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The readout electronics is based on the custom developed ASIC. The design of the components is currently being finalized and part of their mass production have already started. Herein, we report the final design of the counter and a prototype test conducted with test beams at DESY. - Highlights: • We are constructing a RICH counter with aerogel radiator for Belle II. • Beam test for the prototype Aerogel RICH shows its good performance. • The effect of the neutron irradiation of the photodetector is examined.
Trigger Timing Module for SVD2 upgrade at Belle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, M.C.; Gao, Z.W.; Guo, Y.N.; Kawasaki, T.; Ueno, K.; Velikzhanin, Y.S.
2003-01-01
We have developed a Trigger Timing Module (TTM2) for the control and readout electronics (CORE) of the upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD2) for use in the BELLE experiment. Eleven Trigger Timing Modules located at one VME-crate provide timing and strobe signals for the SVD2 CORE electronics and make communication between SVD2 and Global Decision Logic of the BELLE data acquisition system. The main motivation to make a new TTM design is to avoid glitches
Ghoussoub, Nassif
2013-01-01
The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of...