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Sample records for simulated weak gene-gene

  1. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  2. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  3. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Heavy-ion collision simulations in various classical models are discussed. ... are also simulated in a 3-stage classical molecular dynamics (3S-CMD) ... considered as a weakly-bound cluster of deuteron and 4He nuclei, thus, ...

  4. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    82, No. 5. — journal of. May 2014 physics pp. 879–891. Classical simulations of heavy-ion fusion reactions and weakly-bound projectile breakup reactions ... on the collision energy and the moment of inertia of the deformed nucleus. ... where each individual nucleus consists of a number of protons and neutrons, in some.

  5. Overcoming Microsoft Excel's Weaknesses for Crop Model Building and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Christopher Teh Boon

    2011-01-01

    Using spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel for building crop models and running simulations can be beneficial. Excel is easy to use, powerful, and versatile, and it requires the least proficiency in computer programming compared to other programming platforms. Excel, however, has several weaknesses: it does not directly support loops for iterative…

  6. Simulation of Weak Signals of Nanotechnology Innovation in Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hi Yoo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is especially indispensable for new businesses or industries to predict the innovation of new technologies. This requires an understanding of how the complex process of innovation, which is accomplished through more efficient products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas, is adopted and diffused in the market, government, and society. Furthermore, detecting “weak signals” (signs of change in science and technology (S&T is also important to foretell events associated with innovations in technology. Thus, we explore the dynamic behavior of weak signals of a specific technological innovation using the agent-based simulating tool NetLogo. This study provides a deeper understanding of the early stages of complex technology innovation, and the models are capable of analyzing initial complex interaction structures between components of technologies and between agents engaged in collective invention.

  7. Weak simulated extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Knutson, T.R.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory atmosphere-land model version 2 (AM2/LM2) coupled to a 50-m-thick slab ocean model has been used to investigate remote responses to tropical deforestation. Magnitudes and significance of differences between a control run and a deforested run are assessed through comparisons of 50-yr time series, accounting for autocorrelation and field significance. Complete conversion of the broadleaf evergreen forests of South America, central Africa, and the islands of Oceania to grasslands leads to highly significant local responses. In addition, a broad but mild warming is seen throughout the tropical troposphere (deforested run and the control run are similar in magnitude and area to the differences between nonoverlapping segments of the control run. These simulations suggest that extratropical responses to complete tropical deforestation are unlikely to be distinguishable from natural climate variability.

  8. Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics from high resolution numerical simulations of weakly compressible turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzi, R.; Biferale, L.; Fisher, R.T.; Lamb, D.Q.; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    We report a detailed study of Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics from high resolution Direct Numerical Simulations of isotropic weakly compressible turbulence. Reynolds number at the Taylor microscale is estimated to be around 600. Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics is evaluated over a huge data

  9. Simulating the effect of muscle weakness and contracture on neuromuscular control of normal gait in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aaron S; Carty, Christopher P; Modenese, Luca; Barber, Lee A; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-01

    Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children. Initial muscle-driven simulations of walking with normal musculoskeletal properties by typically developing children were undertaken. Additional simulations with altered musculoskeletal properties were then undertaken; with muscle weakness and contracture simulated by reducing the maximum isometric force and tendon slack length, respectively, of selected muscles. Muscle activations and forces required across all simulations were then compared via waveform analysis. Maintenance of normal gait appeared robust to muscle weakness in isolation, with increased activation of weakened muscles the major compensatory strategy. With muscle contracture, reduced activation of the plantarflexors was required across the mid-portion of stance suggesting a greater contribution from passive forces. Increased activation and force during swing was also required from the tibialis anterior to counteract the increased passive forces from the simulated dorsiflexor muscle contracture. Improvements in plantarflexor and dorsiflexor motor function and muscle strength, concomitant with reductions in plantarflexor muscle stiffness may target the deficits associated with SCP that limit normal gait. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A genetic ensemble approach for gene-gene interaction identification

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    Ho Joshua WK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now become clear that gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions are ubiquitous and fundamental mechanisms for the development of complex diseases. Though a considerable effort has been put into developing statistical models and algorithmic strategies for identifying such interactions, the accurate identification of those genetic interactions has been proven to be very challenging. Methods In this paper, we propose a new approach for identifying such gene-gene and gene-environment interactions underlying complex diseases. This is a hybrid algorithm and it combines genetic algorithm (GA and an ensemble of classifiers (called genetic ensemble. Using this approach, the original problem of SNP interaction identification is converted into a data mining problem of combinatorial feature selection. By collecting various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP subsets as well as environmental factors generated in multiple GA runs, patterns of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions can be extracted using a simple combinatorial ranking method. Also considered in this study is the idea of combining identification results obtained from multiple algorithms. A novel formula based on pairwise double fault is designed to quantify the degree of complementarity. Conclusions Our simulation study demonstrates that the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm has comparable identification power to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and is slightly better than Polymorphism Interaction Analysis (PIA, which are the two most popular methods for gene-gene interaction identification. More importantly, the identification results generated by using our genetic ensemble algorithm are highly complementary to those obtained by PIA and MDR. Experimental results from our simulation studies and real world data application also confirm the effectiveness of the proposed genetic ensemble algorithm, as well as the potential benefits of

  11. Wang-Landau Reaction Ensemble Method: Simulation of Weak Polyelectrolytes and General Acid-Base Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsgesell, Jonas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2017-02-14

    We present a novel method for the study of weak polyelectrolytes and general acid-base reactions in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. The approach combines the advantages of the reaction ensemble and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Deprotonation and protonation reactions are simulated explicitly with the help of the reaction ensemble method, while the accurate sampling of the corresponding phase space is achieved by the Wang-Landau approach. The combination of both techniques provides a sufficient statistical accuracy such that meaningful estimates for the density of states and the partition sum can be obtained. With regard to these estimates, several thermodynamic observables like the heat capacity or reaction free energies can be calculated. We demonstrate that the computation times for the calculation of titration curves with a high statistical accuracy can be significantly decreased when compared to the original reaction ensemble method. The applicability of our approach is validated by the study of weak polyelectrolytes and their thermodynamic properties.

  12. Halo mass and weak galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in rescaled cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneby, Malin; Hilbert, Stefan; Angulo, Raúl E.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate 3D density and weak lensing profiles of dark matter haloes predicted by a cosmology-rescaling algorithm for N-body simulations. We extend the rescaling method of Angulo & White (2010) and Angulo & Hilbert (2015) to improve its performance on intra-halo scales by using models for the concentration-mass-redshift relation based on excursion set theory. The accuracy of the method is tested with numerical simulations carried out with different cosmological parameters. We find that predictions for median density profiles are more accurate than ˜5 % for haloes with masses of 1012.0 - 1014.5h-1 M⊙ for radii 0.05 baryons, are likely required for interpreting future (dark energy task force stage IV) experiments.

  13. A review for detecting gene-gene interactions using machine learning methods in genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ching Lee; Liew, Mei Jing; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Salleh, Abdul Hakim Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in genetic epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. These gene-gene interactions are also denoted as epitasis in which this phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs), support vector machine (SVM), and random forests (RFs) in such common and multifactorial disease. This paper gives an overview on machine learning methods, describing the methodology of each machine learning methods and its application in detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Lastly, this paper discussed each machine learning method and presents the strengths and weaknesses of each machine learning method in detecting gene-gene interactions in complex human disease.

  14. Parallel Simulation of HGMS of Weakly Magnetic Nanoparticles in Irrotational Flow of Inviscid Fluid

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    Kanok Hournkumnuard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS using a microferromagnetic wire for capturing weakly magnetic nanoparticles in the irrotational flow of inviscid fluid is simulated by using parallel algorithm developed based on openMP. The two-dimensional problem of particle transport under the influences of magnetic force and fluid flow is considered in an annular domain surrounding the wire with inner radius equal to that of the wire and outer radius equal to various multiples of wire radius. The differential equations governing particle transport are solved numerically as an initial and boundary values problem by using the finite-difference method. Concentration distribution of the particles around the wire is investigated and compared with some previously reported results and shows the good agreement between them. The results show the feasibility of accumulating weakly magnetic nanoparticles in specific regions on the wire surface which is useful for applications in biomedical and environmental works. The speedup of parallel simulation ranges from 1.8 to 21 depending on the number of threads and the domain problem size as well as the number of iterations. With the nature of computing in the application and current multicore technology, it is observed that 4–8 threads are sufficient to obtain the optimized speedup.

  15. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  16. Classical molecular dynamics simulation of weakly-bound projectile heavy-ion reactions

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    Morker Mitul R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-body classical molecular dynamics approach for heavy-ion reactions involving weakly bound projectiles is developed. In this approach a weakly bound projectile is constructed as a two-body cluster of the constituent tightly bound nuclei in a configuration corresponding to the observed breakup energy. This 3-body system with their individual nucleon configuration in their ground state is dynamically evolved for given initial conditions using the three-stage classical molecular dynamics approach (3S-CMD. Various levels of rigidbody constraints on the projectile constituents and the target are considered at appropriate stages. This 3-dimensional approach explicitly takes into account not only the long range Coulomb reorientation of the deformed collision partner but internal excitations and breakup probabilities at distances close to the barrier also. Dynamical simulations of 6Li+209Bi show all the possible reaction mechanism like complete fusion, incomplete fusion, scattering and breakup scattering. Complete fusion cross sections of 6Li+209Bi and 7Li+209Bi reactions are calculated in this approach with systematic relaxations of the rigid-body constraints on one or more constituent nuclei.

  17. What are the assets and weaknesses of HFO detectors? A benchmark framework based on realistic simulations.

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    Nicolas Roehri

    Full Text Available High-frequency oscillations (HFO have been suggested as biomarkers of epileptic tissues. While visual marking of these short and small oscillations is tedious and time-consuming, automatic HFO detectors have not yet met a large consensus. Even though detectors have been shown to perform well when validated against visual marking, the large number of false detections due to their lack of robustness hinder their clinical application. In this study, we developed a validation framework based on realistic and controlled simulations to quantify precisely the assets and weaknesses of current detectors. We constructed a dictionary of synthesized elements-HFOs and epileptic spikes-from different patients and brain areas by extracting these elements from the original data using discrete wavelet transform coefficients. These elements were then added to their corresponding simulated background activity (preserving patient- and region- specific spectra. We tested five existing detectors against this benchmark. Compared to other studies confronting detectors, we did not only ranked them according their performance but we investigated the reasons leading to these results. Our simulations, thanks to their realism and their variability, enabled us to highlight unreported issues of current detectors: (1 the lack of robust estimation of the background activity, (2 the underestimated impact of the 1/f spectrum, and (3 the inadequate criteria defining an HFO. We believe that our benchmark framework could be a valuable tool to translate HFOs into a clinical environment.

  18. A powerful score-based test statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Yuan, Zhongshang; Ji, Jiadong; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Li, Hongkai; Wu, Xuesen; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2016-01-29

    The genetic variants identified by Genome-wide association study (GWAS) can only account for a small proportion of the total heritability for complex disease. The existence of gene-gene joint effects which contains the main effects and their co-association is one of the possible explanations for the "missing heritability" problems. Gene-gene co-association refers to the extent to which the joint effects of two genes differ from the main effects, not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between genes. Generally, genes tend to work collaboratively within specific pathway or network contributing to the disease and the specific disease-associated locus will often be highly correlated (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium). Therefore, we proposed a novel score-based statistic (SBS) as a gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association. Various simulations illustrate that, under different sample sizes, marginal effects of causal SNPs and co-association levels, the proposed SBS has the better performance than other existed methods including single SNP-based and principle component analysis (PCA)-based logistic regression model, the statistics based on canonical correlations (CCU), kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCU), partial least squares path modeling (PLSPM) and delta-square (δ (2)) statistic. The real data analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) further confirmed its advantages in practice. SBS is a powerful and efficient gene-based method for detecting gene-gene co-association.

  19. Compensatory strategies during manual wheelchair propulsion in response to weakness in individual muscle groups: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Jonathan S; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    The considerable physical demand placed on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion is distributed among individual muscles. The strategy used to distribute the workload is likely influenced by the relative force-generating capacities of individual muscles, and some strategies may be associated with a higher injury risk than others. The objective of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion to identify compensatory strategies that can be used to overcome weakness in individual muscle groups and identify specific strategies that may increase injury risk. Identifying these strategies can provide rationale for the design of targeted rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing the development of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion were analyzed to identify compensatory strategies in response to individual muscle group weakness using individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of upper extremity demand. The simulation analyses found the upper extremity to be robust to weakness in any single muscle group as the remaining groups were able to compensate and restore normal propulsion mechanics. The rotator cuff muscles experienced relatively high muscle stress levels and exhibited compensatory relationships with the deltoid muscles. These results underline the importance of strengthening the rotator cuff muscles and supporting muscles whose contributions do not increase the potential for impingement (i.e., the thoracohumeral depressors) and minimize the risk of upper extremity injury in manual wheelchair users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review for Detecting Gene-Gene Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods in Genetic Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Lee Koo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in genetic epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. These gene-gene interactions are also denoted as epitasis in which this phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs, support vector machine (SVM, and random forests (RFs in such common and multifactorial disease. This paper gives an overview on machine learning methods, describing the methodology of each machine learning methods and its application in detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Lastly, this paper discussed each machine learning method and presents the strengths and weaknesses of each machine learning method in detecting gene-gene interactions in complex human disease.

  1. A kernel regression approach to gene-gene interaction detection for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas B; Schaid, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Gene-gene interactions are increasingly being addressed as a potentially important contributor to the variability of complex traits. Consequently, attentions have moved beyond single locus analysis of association to more complex genetic models. Although several single-marker approaches toward interaction analysis have been developed, such methods suffer from very high testing dimensionality and do not take advantage of existing information, notably the definition of genes as functional units. Here, we propose a comprehensive family of gene-level score tests for identifying genetic elements of disease risk, in particular pairwise gene-gene interactions. Using kernel machine methods, we devise score-based variance component tests under a generalized linear mixed model framework. We conducted simulations based upon coalescent genetic models to evaluate the performance of our approach under a variety of disease models. These simulations indicate that our methods are generally higher powered than alternative gene-level approaches and at worst competitive with exhaustive SNP-level (where SNP is single-nucleotide polymorphism) analyses. Furthermore, we observe that simulated epistatic effects resulted in significant marginal testing results for the involved genes regardless of whether or not true main effects were present. We detail the benefits of our methods and discuss potential genome-wide analysis strategies for gene-gene interaction analysis in a case-control study design. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  2. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling: Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, H. D.; Shakespeare, N. H.; Lepage, G. P.; MacKenzie, P. B.

    2002-05-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from 34 to 164) and couplings (from β~9 to β~60). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  3. Single-chain-in-mean-field simulations of weak polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonforte, F.; Welling, U.; Müller, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural properties of brushes which are composed of weak acidic and basic polyelectrolytes are studied in the framework of a particle-based approach that implicitly accounts for the solvent quality. Using a semi-grandcanonical partition function in the framework of the Single-Chain-in-Mean-Field (SCMF) algorithm, the weak polyelectrolyte is conceived as a supramolecular mixture of polymers in different dissociation states, which are explicitly treated in the partition function and sampled by the SCMF procedure. One obtains a local expression for the equilibrium acid-base reaction responsible for the regulation of the charged groups that is also incorporated to the SCMF sampling. Coupled to a simultaneous treatment of the electrostatics, the approach is shown to capture the main features of weak polyelectrolyte brushes as a function of the bulk pH in the solution, the salt concentration, and the grafting density. Results are compared to experimental and theoretical works from the literature using coarse-grained representations of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) polymer-based brushes. As the Born self-energy of ions can be straightforwardly included in the numerical approach, we also study its effect on the local charge regulation mechanism of the brush. We find that its effect becomes significant when the brush is dense and exposed to high salt concentrations. The numerical methodology is then applied (1) to the study of the kinetics of collapse/swelling of a P2VP brush and (2) to the ability of an applied voltage to induce collapse/swelling of a PAA brush in a pH range close to the pKa value of the polymer.

  4. GxGrare: gene-gene interaction analysis method for rare variants from high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minseok; Leem, Sangseob; Yoon, Joon; Park, Taesung

    2018-03-19

    With the rapid advancement of array-based genotyping techniques, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified common genetic variants associated with common complex diseases. However, it has been shown that only a small proportion of the genetic etiology of complex diseases could be explained by the genetic factors identified from GWAS. This missing heritability could possibly be explained by gene-gene interaction (epistasis) and rare variants. There has been an exponential growth of gene-gene interaction analysis for common variants in terms of methodological developments and practical applications. Also, the recent advancement of high-throughput sequencing technologies makes it possible to conduct rare variant analysis. However, little progress has been made in gene-gene interaction analysis for rare variants. Here, we propose GxGrare which is a new gene-gene interaction method for the rare variants in the framework of the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis. The proposed method consists of three steps; 1) collapsing the rare variants, 2) MDR analysis for the collapsed rare variants, and 3) detect top candidate interaction pairs. GxGrare can be used for the detection of not only gene-gene interactions, but also interactions within a single gene. The proposed method is illustrated with 1080 whole exome sequencing data of the Korean population in order to identify causal gene-gene interaction for rare variants for type 2 diabetes. The proposed GxGrare performs well for gene-gene interaction detection with collapsing of rare variants. GxGrare is available at http://bibs.snu.ac.kr/software/gxgrare which contains simulation data and documentation. Supported operating systems include Linux and OS X.

  5. Double-Bottom Chaotic Map Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Chi-Square Test to Determine Gene-Gene Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gene-gene interaction studies focus on the investigation of the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes for disease susceptibility. Statistical methods are widely used to search for a good model of gene-gene interaction for disease analysis, and the previously determined models have successfully explained the effects between SNPs and diseases. However, the huge numbers of potential combinations of SNP genotypes limit the use of statistical methods for analysing high-order interaction, and finding an available high-order model of gene-gene interaction remains a challenge. In this study, an improved particle swarm optimization with double-bottom chaotic maps (DBM-PSO) was applied to assist statistical methods in the analysis of associated variations to disease susceptibility. A big data set was simulated using the published genotype frequencies of 26 SNPs amongst eight genes for breast cancer. Results showed that the proposed DBM-PSO successfully determined two- to six-order models of gene-gene interaction for the risk association with breast cancer (odds ratio > 1.0; P value <0.05). Analysis results supported that the proposed DBM-PSO can identify good models and provide higher chi-square values than conventional PSO. This study indicates that DBM-PSO is a robust and precise algorithm for determination of gene-gene interaction models for breast cancer. PMID:24895547

  6. Simulations of tremor-related creep reveal a weak crustal root of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Bradley, Andrew M.; Johnson, Kaj M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep aseismic roots of faults play a critical role in transferring tectonic loads to shallower, brittle crustal faults that rupture in large earthquakes. Yet, until the recent discovery of deep tremor and creep, direct inference of the physical properties of lower-crustal fault roots has remained elusive. Observations of tremor near Parkfield, CA provide the first evidence for present-day localized slip on the deep extension of the San Andreas Fault and triggered transient creep events. We develop numerical simulations of fault slip to show that the spatiotemporal evolution of triggered tremor near Parkfield is consistent with triggered fault creep governed by laboratory-derived friction laws between depths of 20–35 km on the fault. Simulated creep and observed tremor northwest of Parkfield nearly ceased for 20–30 days in response to small coseismic stress changes of order 104 Pa from the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon Earthquake. Simulated afterslip and observed tremor following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake show a coseismically induced pulse of rapid creep and tremor lasting for 1 day followed by a longer 30 day period of sustained accelerated rates due to propagation of shallow afterslip into the lower crust. These creep responses require very low effective normal stress of ~1 MPa on the deep San Andreas Fault and near-neutral-stability frictional properties expected for gabbroic lower-crustal rock.

  7. Simulation of weak polyelectrolytes: a comparison between the constant pH and the reaction ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsgesell, Jonas; Holm, Christian; Smiatek, Jens

    2017-03-01

    The reaction ensemble and the constant pH method are well-known chemical equilibrium approaches to simulate protonation and deprotonation reactions in classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. In this article, we demonstrate the similarity between both methods under certain conditions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of a weak polyelectrolyte in order to compare the titration curves obtained by both approaches. Our findings reveal a good agreement between the methods when the reaction ensemble is used to sweep the reaction constant. Pronounced differences between the reaction ensemble and the constant pH method can be observed for stronger acids and bases in terms of adaptive pH values. These deviations are due to the presence of explicit protons in the reaction ensemble method which induce a screening of electrostatic interactions between the charged titrable groups of the polyelectrolyte. The outcomes of our simulation hint to a better applicability of the reaction ensemble method for systems in confined geometries and titrable groups in polyelectrolytes with different pKa values.

  8. Expected impact from weak reactions with light nuclei in corecollapse supernova simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of light nuclear clusters in simulations of core-collapse supernovae. Expressions for the reaction rates are developed for a large selection of charged current absorption and scattering processes with light clusters. Medium modifications are taken into account at the mean-field level. We explore the possible impact on the supernova dynamics and the neutrino signal during the mass accretion phase prior to the possible explosion onset as well as during the subsequent protoneutron star deleptnoization after the explosion onset has been launched.

  9. Simulations of non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics at strong and weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Norman Harold

    In this thesis heavy quarks are investigated using lattice nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD). Two major research works are presented. In the first major work, simulations are done for the three quarkonium systems cc¯, bc¯, and bb¯. The hyperfine splittings are computed at both leading and next-to-leading order in the relativistic expansion, using a large number of lattice spacings. A detailed comparison between mean-link and average plaquette tadpole renormalization schemes is undertaken with a number of features favouring the use of mean-links. These include much better scaling behavior of the hyperfine splittings and smaller relativistic corrections to the spin splittings. Signs of a breakdown in the NRQCD expansion are seen when the bare quark mass, in lattice units, falls below about one. In the second work, coefficients for the perturbative expansion of the static quark self energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations in the perturbative region of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A very large systematic study resulted in a major extension of existing methods. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of zero modes and to suppress tunneling between the degenerate Z3 vacua. The Monte Carlo results are in excellent agreement with analytic perturbation theory, which is known through second order. New results for the third order coefficient are reported. Preliminary work is reported on quark propagators which will be used to measure second order mass renormalizations for NRQCD fermions.

  10. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  11. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling: Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottier, H.D.; Shakespeare, N.H.; Lepage, G.P.; Mackenzie, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from 3 4 to 16 4 ) and couplings (from β≅9 to β≅60). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported

  12. Modeling and real time simulation of an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC system based on commutation failure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankour, Mohamed; Khiat, Mounir; Ghomri, Leila; Chaker, Abdelkader; Bessalah, Mourad

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and study of 12-pulse HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) based on real time simulation where the HVDC inverter is connected to a weak AC system. In goal to study the dynamic performance of the HVDC link, two serious kind of disturbance are applied at HVDC converters where the first one is the single phase to ground AC fault and the second one is the DC link to ground fault. The study is based on two different mode of analysis, which the first is to test the performance of the DC control and the second is focalized to study the effect of the protection function on the system behavior. This real time simulation considers the strength of the AC system to witch is connected and his relativity with the capacity of the DC link. The results obtained are validated by means of RT-lab platform using digital Real time simulator Hypersim (OP-5600), the results carried out show the effect of the DC control and the influence of the protection function to reduce the probability of commutation failures and also for helping inverter to take out from commutation failure even while the DC control fails to eliminate them. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak Lensing Peaks in Simulated Light-Cones: Investigating the Coupling between Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocoli, Carlo; Moscardini, Lauro; Baldi, Marco; Meneghetti, Massimo; Metcalf, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the statistical properties of weak lensing peaks in light-cones generated from cosmological simulations. In order to assess the prospects of such observable as a cosmological probe, we consider simulations that include interacting Dark Energy (hereafter DE) models with coupling term between DE and Dark Matter. Cosmological models that produce a larger population of massive clusters have more numerous high signal-to-noise peaks; among models with comparable numbers of clusters those with more concentrated haloes produce more peaks. The most extreme model under investigation shows a difference in peak counts of about 20% with respect to the reference ΛCDM model. We find that peak statistics can be used to distinguish a coupling DE model from a reference one with the same power spectrum normalisation. The differences in the expansion history and the growth rate of structure formation are reflected in their halo counts, non-linear scale features and, through them, in the properties of the lensing peaks. For a source redshift distribution consistent with the expectations of future space-based wide field surveys, we find that typically seventy percent of the cluster population contributes to weak-lensing peaks with signal-to-noise ratios larger than two, and that the fraction of clusters in peaks approaches one-hundred percent for haloes with redshift z ≤ 0.5. Our analysis demonstrates that peak statistics are an important tool for disentangling DE models by accurately tracing the structure formation processes as a function of the cosmic time.

  14. Full-sky Ray-tracing Simulation of Weak Lensing Using ELUCID Simulations: Exploring Galaxy Intrinsic Alignment and Cosmic Shear Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chengliang; Li, Guoliang; Kang, Xi; Luo, Yu; Xia, Qianli; Wang, Peng; Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Huiyuan; Jing, Yipeng; Mo, Houjun; Lin, Weipeng; Wang, Yang; Li, Shijie; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Youcai; Lim, S. H.; Tweed, Dylan; Cui, Weiguang

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic alignment of galaxies is an important systematic effect in weak-lensing surveys, which can affect the derived cosmological parameters. One direct way to distinguish different alignment models and quantify their effects on the measurement is to produce mock weak-lensing surveys. In this work, we use the full-sky ray-tracing technique to produce mock images of galaxies from the ELUCID N-body simulation run with WMAP9 cosmology. In our model, we assume that the shape of the central elliptical galaxy follows that of the dark matter halo, and that of the spiral galaxy follows the halo spin. Using the mock galaxy images, a combination of galaxy intrinsic shape and the gravitational shear, we compare the predicted tomographic shear correlations to the results of the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) and Deep Lens Survey (DLS). We find that our predictions stay between the KiDS and DLS results. We rule out a model in which the satellite galaxies are radially aligned with the center galaxy; otherwise, the shear correlations on small scales are too high. Most importantly, we find that although the intrinsic alignment of spiral galaxies is very weak, they induce a positive correlation between the gravitational shear signal and the intrinsic galaxy orientation (GI). This is because the spiral galaxy is tangentially aligned with the nearby large-scale overdensity, contrary to the radial alignment of the elliptical galaxy. Our results explain the origin of the detected positive GI term in the weak-lensing surveys. We conclude that in future analyses, the GI model must include the dependence on galaxy types in more detail.

  15. Precision measurements in the weak interaction framework: development of realistic simulations for the LPCTrap device installed at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This work belongs to the effort presently deployed to measure the angular correlation parameter a_β_ν in three nuclear beta decays ("6He"+, "3"5Ar"+ and "1"9Ne"+). The V-A structure of the weak interaction implies that a_β_ν = +1 for a pure Fermi transition and a_β_ν = -1/3 for a pure Gamow-Teller transition. A thorough measurement of this parameter to check any deviation from these values may lead to the discovery of possible exotic currents. Furthermore, the measurement of a_β_ν in mirror transitions allows the extraction of V_u_d, the first element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The LPCTrap apparatus, installed at GANIL, is designed to ready a continuous ion beam for injection in a dedicated Paul trap. This latter device allows to have a quasi-punctual source from which the decay products are detected in coincidence. It is from the study of the recoil ion time-of-flight (TOF) distribution that a_β_ν is withdrawn and, since 2010, the associated Shake-Off (SO) probabilities. This study requires the complete simulation of the LPCTrap experiments. The major part of this work is dedicated to such simulations, especially to the modeling of the trapped ion cloud dynamic. The Clouda program, which takes advantage of graphics processing unit (GPU), was developed in this context and its full characterization is presented here. Three important aspects are addressed: the electromagnetic trapping field, the realistic collisions between the ions and the buffer gas atoms and the space charge effect. The present work shows the importance of these simulations to increase the control of the systematic errors on a_β_ν. (author) [fr

  16. Review and analysis of strengths and weaknesses of agro-ecosystem models for simulating C and N fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Bechini, Luca; Bindi, Marco; Carozzi, Marco; Cavalli, Daniele; Conant, Richard; Dorich, Cristopher D; Doro, Luca; Ehrhardt, Fiona; Farina, Roberta; Ferrise, Roberto; Fitton, Nuala; Francaviglia, Rosa; Grace, Peter; Iocola, Ileana; Klumpp, Katja; Léonard, Joël; Martin, Raphaël; Massad, Raia Silvia; Recous, Sylvie; Seddaiu, Giovanna; Sharp, Joanna; Smith, Pete; Smith, Ward N; Soussana, Jean-Francois; Bellocchi, Gianni

    2017-11-15

    Biogeochemical simulation models are important tools for describing and quantifying the contribution of agricultural systems to C sequestration and GHG source/sink status. The abundance of simulation tools developed over recent decades, however, creates a difficulty because predictions from different models show large variability. Discrepancies between the conclusions of different modelling studies are often ascribed to differences in the physical and biogeochemical processes incorporated in equations of C and N cycles and their interactions. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modelling agricultural (crop and grassland) systems. In order to carry out this study, we selected the range of biogeochemical models used by the CN-MIP consortium of FACCE-JPI (http://www.faccejpi.com): APSIM, CERES-EGC, DayCent, DNDC, DSSAT, EPIC, PaSim, RothC and STICS. In our analysis, these models were assessed for the quality and comprehensiveness of underlying processes related to pedo-climatic conditions and management practices, but also with respect to time and space of application, and for their accuracy in multiple contexts. Overall, it emerged that there is a possible impact of ill-defined pedo-climatic conditions in the unsatisfactory performance of the models (46.2%), followed by limitations in the algorithms simulating the effects of management practices (33.1%). The multiplicity of scales in both time and space is a fundamental feature, which explains the remaining weaknesses (i.e. 20.7%). Innovative aspects have been identified for future development of C and N models. They include the explicit representation of soil microbial biomass to drive soil organic matter turnover, the effect of N shortage on SOM decomposition, the improvements related to the production and consumption of gases and an adequate simulations of gas transport in soil. On these bases, the assessment of trends and gaps in the modelling approaches currently employed to

  17. Supercluster simulations: impact of baryons on the matter power spectrum and weak lensing forecasts for Super-CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Aaron; Brown, Michael L.; Kay, Scott T.; Barnes, David J.

    2018-03-01

    We use a combination of full hydrodynamic and dark matter only simulations to investigate the effect that supercluster environments and baryonic physics have on the matter power spectrum, by re-simulating a sample of supercluster sub-volumes. On large scales we find that the matter power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has at least twice as much power as that measured from our random sample. Our investigation of the effect of baryonic physics on the matter power spectrum is found to be in agreement with previous studies and is weaker than the selection effect over the majority of scales. In addition, we investigate the effect of targeting a cosmologically non-representative, supercluster region of the sky on the weak lensing shear power spectrum. We do this by generating shear and convergence maps using a line-of-sight integration technique, which intercepts our random and supercluster sub-volumes. We find the convergence power spectrum measured from our supercluster sample has a larger amplitude than that measured from the random sample at all scales. We frame our results within the context of the Super-CLuster Assisted Shear Survey (Super-CLASS), which aims to measure the cosmic shear signal in the radio band by targeting a region of the sky that contains five Abell clusters. Assuming the Super-CLASS survey will have a source density of 1.5 galaxies arcmin-2, we forecast a detection significance of 2.7^{+1.5}_{-1.2}, which indicates that in the absence of systematics the Super-CLASS project could make a cosmic shear detection with radio data alone.

  18. Hybrid Simulation of Supersonic Flow of Weakly Ionized Plasma along Open Field Magnetic Line Effect of Background Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosunthara, Ampan; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    In previous study, we experimentally examined physical properties of supersonic flow of weakly ionized expanding arc-jet plasma through an open magnetic field line (Bmax 0.16T). We found supersonic velocity of helium plasma up to Mach 3 and the space potential drop at the end of the magnets. To understand the plasma in numerical point of view, the flows of ion and neutral are treated by particle-based Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, electron is treated as a fluid. The previous numerical study, we assumed 2 conditions. Ion and electron temperatures were the same (LTE condition). Ion and electron velocities were the same (current-free condition). We found that ion velocity decreased by collision with residual gas molecules (background pressure). We also found that space potential changing with background pressure. In other words, it was indicated that electric field exists and the current-free assumption is not proper. In this study, we add electron continuity and electron momentum equations to obtain electron velocity and space potential. We find that space potential changing with background pressure slightly. It is indicated that electron is essential to space potential formation than ion.

  19. Formal Analysis and Design of Supervisor and User Interface Allowing for Non-Deterministic Choices Using Weak Bi-Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazada Muhammad Umair Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In human machine systems, a user display should contain sufficient information to encapsulate expressive and normative human operator behavior. Failure in such system that is commanded by supervisor can be difficult to anticipate because of unexpected interactions between the different users and machines. Currently, most interfaces have non-deterministic choices at state of machine. Inspired by the theories of single user of an interface established on discrete event system, we present a formal model of multiple users, multiple machines, a supervisor and a supervisor machine. The syntax and semantics of these models are based on the system specification using timed automata that adheres to desirable specification properties conducive to solving the non-deterministic choices for usability properties of the supervisor and user interface. Further, the succinct interface developed by applying the weak bi-simulation relation, where large classes of potentially equivalent states are refined into a smaller one, enables the supervisor and user to perform specified task correctly. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to a model of a manufacturing system with several users interacting with their machines, a supervisor with several users and a supervisor with a supervisor machine to illustrate the design procedure of human–machine systems. The formal specification is validated by z-eves toolset.

  20. Ultrahigh-dimensional variable selection method for whole-genome gene-gene interaction analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueki Masao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide gene-gene interaction analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs is an attractive way for identification of genetic components that confers susceptibility of human complex diseases. Individual hypothesis testing for SNP-SNP pairs as in common genome-wide association study (GWAS however involves difficulty in setting overall p-value due to complicated correlation structure, namely, the multiple testing problem that causes unacceptable false negative results. A large number of SNP-SNP pairs than sample size, so-called the large p small n problem, precludes simultaneous analysis using multiple regression. The method that overcomes above issues is thus needed. Results We adopt an up-to-date method for ultrahigh-dimensional variable selection termed the sure independence screening (SIS for appropriate handling of numerous number of SNP-SNP interactions by including them as predictor variables in logistic regression. We propose ranking strategy using promising dummy coding methods and following variable selection procedure in the SIS method suitably modified for gene-gene interaction analysis. We also implemented the procedures in a software program, EPISIS, using the cost-effective GPGPU (General-purpose computing on graphics processing units technology. EPISIS can complete exhaustive search for SNP-SNP interactions in standard GWAS dataset within several hours. The proposed method works successfully in simulation experiments and in application to real WTCCC (Wellcome Trust Case–control Consortium data. Conclusions Based on the machine-learning principle, the proposed method gives powerful and flexible genome-wide search for various patterns of gene-gene interaction.

  1. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  2. Gene-gene, gene-environment, gene-nutrient interactions and single nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Amina; Mumtaz, Sadaf; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Aslam, Muhammad; Siddiqui, Arif; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Ahmad, Tausif

    2015-05-15

    Inflammation plays a significant role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The rise in the pro-inflammatory cytokines is the essential step in glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis in T2DM. Among the recognized markers are interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, IL-18, tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein, resistin, adiponectin, tissue plasminogen activator, fibrinogen and heptoglobins. Diabetes mellitus has firm genetic and very strong environmental influence; exhibiting a polygenic mode of inheritance. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various genes including those of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been reported as a risk for T2DM. Not all the SNPs have been confirmed by unifying results in different studies and wide variations have been reported in various ethnic groups. The inter-ethnic variations can be explained by the fact that gene expression may be regulated by gene-gene, gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions. This review highlights the impact of these interactions on determining the role of single nucleotide polymorphism of IL-6, TNF-α, resistin and adiponectin in pathogenesis of T2DM.

  3. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  4. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  5. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Laboratory simulation of Euclid-like sky images to study the impact of CCD radiation damage on weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prod'homme, T.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Short, A.; Kohley, R.

    2014-07-01

    Euclid is the ESA mission to map the geometry of the dark universe. It uses weak gravitational lensing, which requires the accurate measurement of galaxy shapes over a large area in the sky. Radiation damage in the 36 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) composing the Euclid visible imager focal plane has already been identified as a major contributor to the weak-lensing error budget; radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) distorts the galaxy images and introduces a bias in the galaxy shape measurement. We designed a laboratory experiment to project Euclid-like sky images onto an irradiated Euclid CCD. In this way - and for the first time - we are able to directly assess the effect of CTI on the Euclid weak-lensing measurement free of modelling uncertainties. We present here the experiment concept, setup, and first results. The results of such an experiment provide test data critical to refine models, design and test the Euclid data processing CTI mitigation scheme, and further optimize the Euclid CCD operation.

  7. Assessing the skill of hydrology models at simulating the water cycle in the HJ Andrews LTER: Assumptions, strengths and weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulated impacts of climate on hydrology can vary greatly as a function of the scale of the input data, model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simulate streamflow in model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simu...

  8. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  9. Research progress in machine learning methods for gene-gene interaction detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe-Ye; Tang, Zi-Jun; Xie, Min-Zhu

    2018-03-20

    Complex diseases are results of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. However, the detection of high-dimensional gene-gene interactions is computationally challenging. In the last two decades, machine-learning approaches have been developed to detect gene-gene interactions with some successes. In this review, we summarize the progress in research on machine learning methods, as applied to gene-gene interaction detection. It systematically examines the principles and limitations of the current machine learning methods used in genome wide association studies (GWAS) to detect gene-gene interactions, such as neural networks (NN), random forest (RF), support vector machines (SVM) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and provides some insights on the future research directions in the field.

  10. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

  11. Nbody Simulations and Weak Gravitational Lensing using new HPC-Grid resources: the PI2S2 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Costa, A.; Comparato, M.

    2008-08-01

    We present the main project of the new grid infrastructure and the researches, that have been already started in Sicily and will be completed by next year. The PI2S2 project of the COMETA consortium is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research and will be completed in 2009. Funds are from the European Union Structural Funds for Objective 1 regions. The project, together with a similar project called Trinacria GRID Virtual Laboratory (Trigrid VL), aims to create in Sicily a computational grid for e-science and e-commerce applications with the main goal of increasing the technological innovation of local enterprises and their competition on the global market. PI2S2 project aims to build and develop an e-Infrastructure in Sicily, based on the grid paradigm, mainly for research activity using the grid environment and High Performance Computer systems. As an example we present the first results of a new grid version of FLY a tree Nbody code developed by INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, already published in the CPC program Library, that will be used in the Weak Gravitational Lensing field.

  12. A global three dimensional hybrid simulation of the interaction between a weakly magnetized obstacle and the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Pavel; Hellinger, Petr; Schiver, D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 679, CP679 (2003), s. 485-488 ISSN 1551-7616. [Solar wind ten. Pisa, 17.06.2002-21.06.2002] Grant - others:ESA(NL) Prodex14529/00/NL/SFe; NSF(US) INT-0010111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : magnetized obstacle * solar wind * global hybrid simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  13. In vitro dissolution methodology, mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS), predicts better in vivo dissolution of a weak base drug, dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Susumu; Matsui, Kazuki; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-08-30

    USP apparatus I and II are gold standard methodologies for determining the in vitro dissolution profiles of test drugs. However, it is difficult to use in vitro dissolution results to predict in vivo dissolution, particularly the pH-dependent solubility of weak acid and base drugs, because the USP apparatus contains one vessel with a fixed pH for the test drug, limiting insight into in vivo drug dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs. This discrepancy underscores the need to develop new in vitro dissolution methodology that better predicts in vivo response to assure the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral drug products. Thus, the development of the in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) methodology is necessitated. The major goals of in vitro dissolution are to ensure the performance of oral drug products and the support of drug formulation design, including bioequivalence (BE). Orally administered anticancer drugs, such as dasatinib and erlotinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), are used to treat various types of cancer. These drugs are weak bases that exhibit pH-dependent and high solubility in the acidic stomach and low solubility in the small intestine (>pH 6.0). Therefore, these drugs supersaturate and/or precipitate when they move from the stomach to the small intestine. Also of importance, gastric acidity for cancer patients may be altered with aging (reduction of gastric fluid secretion) and/or co-administration of acid-reducing agents. These may result in changes to the dissolution profiles of weak base and the reduction of drug absorption and efficacy. In vitro dissolution methodologies that assess the impact of these physiological changes in the GI condition are expected to better predict in vivo dissolution of oral medications for patients and, hence, better assess efficacy, toxicity and safety concerns. The objective of this present study is to determine the initial conditions for a mini-Gastrointestinal Simulator (mGIS) to assess in vivo

  14. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  15. A PLSPM-Based Test Statistic for Detecting Gene-Gene Co-Association in Genome-Wide Association Study with Case-Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Fangyu; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhao, Jinghua; Xue, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    For genome-wide association data analysis, two genes in any pathway, two SNPs in the two linked gene regions respectively or in the two linked exons respectively within one gene are often correlated with each other. We therefore proposed the concept of gene-gene co-association, which refers to the effects not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. Furthermore, we constructed a novel statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association based on Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLSPM). Through simulation, the relationship between traditional interaction and co-association was highlighted under three different types of co-association. Both simulation and real data analysis demonstrated that the proposed PLSPM-based statistic has better performance than single SNP-based logistic model, PCA-based logistic model, and other gene-based methods. PMID:23620809

  16. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.

  17. Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adegoke, Olufemi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this CDA is to evaluate the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of breast cancer in two ongoing case-control studies, the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS...

  18. GoGene: gene annotation in the fast lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Conrad; Royer, Loic; Winnenburg, Rainer; Hakenberg, Jörg; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-07-01

    High-throughput screens such as microarrays and RNAi screens produce huge amounts of data. They typically result in hundreds of genes, which are often further explored and clustered via enriched GeneOntology terms. The strength of such analyses is that they build on high-quality manual annotations provided with the GeneOntology. However, the weakness is that annotations are restricted to process, function and location and that they do not cover all known genes in model organisms. GoGene addresses this weakness by complementing high-quality manual annotation with high-throughput text mining extracting co-occurrences of genes and ontology terms from literature. GoGene contains over 4,000,000 associations between genes and gene-related terms for 10 model organisms extracted from more than 18,000,000 PubMed entries. It does not cover only process, function and location of genes, but also biomedical categories such as diseases, compounds, techniques and mutations. By bringing it all together, GoGene provides the most recent and most complete facts about genes and can rank them according to novelty and importance. GoGene accepts keywords, gene lists, gene sequences and protein sequences as input and supports search for genes in PubMed, EntrezGene and via BLAST. Since all associations of genes to terms are supported by evidence in the literature, the results are transparent and can be verified by the user. GoGene is available at http://gopubmed.org/gogene.

  19. KiDS-450: cosmological constraints from weak-lensing peak statistics - II: Inference from shear peaks using N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Nicolas; Schneider, Peter; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Shan, HuanYuan; Asgari, Marika; Dietrich, Jörg P.; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Erben, Thomas; Grado, Aniello; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Nakajima, Reiko

    2018-02-01

    We study the statistics of peaks in a weak-lensing reconstructed mass map of the first 450 deg2 of the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450). The map is computed with aperture masses directly applied to the shear field with an NFW-like compensated filter. We compare the peak statistics in the observations with that of simulations for various cosmologies to constrain the cosmological parameter S_8 = σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}, which probes the (Ωm, σ8) plane perpendicularly to its main degeneracy. We estimate S8 = 0.750 ± 0.059, using peaks in the signal-to-noise range 0 ≤ S/N ≤ 4, and accounting for various systematics, such as multiplicative shear bias, mean redshift bias, baryon feedback, intrinsic alignment, and shear-position coupling. These constraints are ˜ 25 per cent tighter than the constraints from the high significance peaks alone (3 ≤ S/N ≤ 4) which typically trace single-massive haloes. This demonstrates the gain of information from low-S/N peaks. However, we find that including S/N KiDS-450. Combining shear peaks with non-tomographic measurements of the shear two-point correlation functions yields a ˜20 per cent improvement in the uncertainty on S8 compared to the shear two-point correlation functions alone, highlighting the great potential of peaks as a cosmological probe.

  20. Modeling and simulation of protein elution in linear pH and salt gradients on weak, strong and mixed cation exchange resins applying an extended Donnan ion exchange model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopp, Felix; Peeck, Lars; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2018-04-13

    Process development and characterization based on mathematic modeling provides several advantages and has been applied more frequently over the last few years. In this work, a Donnan equilibrium ion exchange (DIX) model is applied for modelling and simulation of ion exchange chromatography of a monoclonal antibody in linear chromatography. Four different cation exchange resin prototypes consisting of weak, strong and mixed ligands are characterized using pH and salt gradient elution experiments applying the extended DIX model. The modelling results are compared with the results using a classic stoichiometric displacement model. The Donnan equilibrium model is able to describe all four prototype resins while the stoichiometric displacement model fails for the weak and mixed weak/strong ligands. Finally, in silico chromatogram simulations of pH and pH/salt dual gradients are performed to verify the results and to show the consistency of the developed model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  2. The Born-Oppenheimer molecular simulations of infrared spectra of crystalline poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate with analysis of weak Csbnd H⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brela, Mateusz Z.; Boczar, Marek; Wójcik, Marek J.; Sato, Harumi; Nakajima, Takahito; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    In this letter we present results of study of weak Csbnd H⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonds of crystalline poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. The polymeric structure and IR spectra of PHB result from the presence of the weak hydrogen bonds. We applied the post-molecular dynamics analysis to consider a Cdbnd O motion as indirectly involved in the hydrogen bonds. Quantization of the nuclear motion of the oxygens was done to perform detailed analysis of the strength and properties of the Cdbnd O bands involved in the weak hydrogen bonds. We have also shown the dynamic character of the weak hydrogen bond interactions.

  3. Weak Solution and Weakly Uniformly Bounded Solution of Impulsive Heat Equations Containing “Maximum” Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyelami, Benjamin Oyediran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, criteria for the existence of weak solutions and uniformly weak bounded solution of impulsive heat equation containing maximum temperature are investigated and results obtained. An example is given for heat flow system with impulsive temperature using maximum temperature simulator and criteria for the uniformly weak bounded of solutions of the system are obtained.

  4. Systematic Search for Gene-Gene Interaction Effect on Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Systematic Search for Gene-Gene Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effect on Prostate Cancer Risk 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0488 5c. PROGRAM...Supported by this grant ) 1. Tao S, Wang Z, Feng J, Hsu FC, Jin G, Kin ST, Zhang Z, Gronberg H, Zheng, SL, Isaacs WB, XU J, Sun J. A Genome-Wide Search for...order interactions among estrogen- metabolism genes in sporadic breast cancer. Am J Hum Genet, 69, 138-47. 48. Marchini, J., Donnelly, P. and Cardon

  5. Weakly clopen functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated

  6. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  7. Association testing to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes in trio data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonok eLee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD occurs more often among males than females in a 4:1 ratio. Among theories used to explain the causes of ASD, the X chromosome and the Y chromosome theories attribute ASD to X-linked mutation and the male-limited gene expressions on the Y chromosome, respectively. Despite the rationale of the theory, studies have failed to attribute the sex-biased ratio to the significant linkage or association on the regions of interest on X chromosome. We further study the gender biased ratio by examining the possible interaction effects between two genes in the sex chromosomes. We propose a logistic regression model with mixed effects to detect gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes. We investigated the power and type I error rates of the approach for a range of minor allele frequencies and varying linkage disequilibrium between markers and QTLs. We also evaluated the robustness of the model to population stratification. We applied the model to a trio-family data set with an ASD affected male child to study gene-gene interactions on sex chromosomes.

  8. Gene-Gene Interactions in the Folate Metabolic Pathway and the Risk of Conotruncal Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conotruncal and related heart defects (CTRD are common, complex malformations. Although there are few established risk factors, there is evidence that genetic variation in the folate metabolic pathway influences CTRD risk. This study was undertaken to assess the association between inherited (i.e., case and maternal gene-gene interactions in this pathway and the risk of CTRD. Case-parent triads (n=727, ascertained from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, were genotyped for ten functional variants of nine folate metabolic genes. Analyses of inherited genotypes were consistent with the previously reported association between MTHFR A1298C and CTRD (adjusted P=.02, but provided no evidence that CTRD was associated with inherited gene-gene interactions. Analyses of the maternal genotypes provided evidence of a MTHFR C677T/CBS 844ins68 interaction and CTRD risk (unadjusted P=.02. This association is consistent with the effects of this genotype combination on folate-homocysteine biochemistry but remains to be confirmed in independent study populations.

  9. You've gotta be lucky: Coverage and the elusive gene-gene interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimherr, Matthew; Nicolae, Dan L

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to a large number of single-SNP association findings, but there has been, so far, no investigation resulting in the discovery of a replicable gene-gene interaction. In this paper, we examine some of the possible explanations for the lack of findings, and argue that coverage of causal variation not only has a large effect on the loss in power, but that the effect is larger than in the single-SNP analyses. We show that the product of linkage disequilibrium measures, r², between causal and tested SNPs offers a good approximation to the loss in efficiency as defined by the ratio of sample sizes that lead to similar power. We also demonstrate that, in addition to the huge search space, the loss in power due to coverage when using commercially available platforms makes the search for gene-gene interactions daunting. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  10. Comparison of information-theoretic to statistical methods for gene-gene interactions in the presence of genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucheston Lara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifactorial diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases are caused by the complex interplay between genes and environment. The detection of these interactions remains challenging due to computational limitations. Information theoretic approaches use computationally efficient directed search strategies and thus provide a feasible solution to this problem. However, the power of information theoretic methods for interaction analysis has not been systematically evaluated. In this work, we compare power and Type I error of an information-theoretic approach to existing interaction analysis methods. Methods The k-way interaction information (KWII metric for identifying variable combinations involved in gene-gene interactions (GGI was assessed using several simulated data sets under models of genetic heterogeneity driven by susceptibility increasing loci with varying allele frequency, penetrance values and heritability. The power and proportion of false positives of the KWII was compared to multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, restricted partitioning method (RPM and logistic regression. Results The power of the KWII was considerably greater than MDR on all six simulation models examined. For a given disease prevalence at high values of heritability, the power of both RPM and KWII was greater than 95%. For models with low heritability and/or genetic heterogeneity, the power of the KWII was consistently greater than RPM; the improvements in power for the KWII over RPM ranged from 4.7% to 14.2% at for α = 0.001 in the three models at the lowest heritability values examined. KWII performed similar to logistic regression. Conclusions Information theoretic models are flexible and have excellent power to detect GGI under a variety of conditions that characterize complex diseases.

  11. Numerical simulation analysis as a tool to identify areas of weakness in a turbine wind-blade and solutions for their reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAN, Venkadesh; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; GUILLAUMAT, Laurent; KHADHOUR, Aghihad

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the main sources of renewable energy that can benefit from new generation materials that exhibit good oxidation resistance and mechanical reliability. Composite materials are the best consideration for harsh environment and deep sea wind turbine manufacturing. In this study, a numerical simulation was implemented to predict the stress distribution over a wind turbineblade and to determine areas with high stress concentration. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was us...

  12. Mapping of novel powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from Agropyron cristatum chromosome 2P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Jingchang; Lu, Yuqing; Zhang, Jinpeng; Pan, Cuili; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-01-01

    A physical map of Agropyron cristatum 2P chromosome was constructed for the first time and the novel powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from chromosome 2P was(were) also mapped. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, is highly resistant to powdery mildew. Previous studies showed that wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 displayed high resistance to powdery mildew, and the resistance was attributable to A. cristatum chromosome 2P. To utilize and physically map the powdery mildew resistance gene(s), 15 wheat-A. cristatum 2P translocation lines and three A. cristatum 2P deletion lines with different chromosomal segment sizes, obtained from II-9-3 using 60 Co-γ ray irradiation, were characterized using cytogenetic and molecular marker analysis. A. cristatum 2P chromosomal segments in the translocations were translocated to different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 3B, 7B, 3D, 4D, and 6D. A physical map of the 2P chromosome was constructed with 82 STS markers, consisting of nine bins with 34 markers on 2PS and eight bins with 48 markers on 2PL. The BC 1 F 2 populations of seven wheat-A. cristatum 2P translocation lines (2PT-3, 2PT-4, 2PT-5, 2PT-6, 2PT-8, 2PT-9, and 2PT-10) were developed by self-pollination, tested with powdery mildew and genotyped with 2P-specific STS markers. From these results, the gene(s) conferring powdery mildew resistance was(were) located on 2PL bin FL 0.66-0.86 and 19 2P-specific markers were identified in this bin. Moreover, two new powdery mildew-resistant translocation lines (2PT-4 and 2PT-5) with small 2PL chromosome segments were obtained. The newly developed wheat lines with powdery mildew resistance and the closely linked molecular markers will be valuable for wheat disease breeding in the future.

  13. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  14. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  15. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  16. A Partial Least Square Approach for Modeling Gene-gene and Gene-environment Interactions When Multiple Markers Are Genotyped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ho, Gloria; Ye, Kenny; Strickler, Howard; Elston, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic association studies achieve an unprecedented level of resolution in mapping disease genes by genotyping dense SNPs in a gene region. Meanwhile, these studies require new powerful statistical tools that can optimally handle a large amount of information provided by genotype data. A question that arises is how to model interactions between two genes. Simply modeling all possible interactions between the SNPs in two gene regions is not desirable because a greatly increased number of degrees of freedom can be involved in the test statistic. We introduce an approach to reduce the genotype dimension in modeling interactions. The genotype compression of this approach is built upon the information on both the trait and the cross-locus gametic disequilibrium between SNPs in two interacting genes, in such a way as to parsimoniously model the interactions without loss of useful information in the process of dimension reduction. As a result, it improves power to detect association in the presence of gene-gene interactions. This approach can be similarly applied for modeling gene-environment interactions. We compare this method with other approaches: the corresponding test without modeling any interaction, that based on a saturated interaction model, that based on principal component analysis, and that based on Tukey’s 1-df model. Our simulations suggest that this new approach has superior power to that of the other methods. In an application to endometrial cancer case-control data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), this approach detected AKT1 and AKT2 as being significantly associated with endometrial cancer susceptibility by taking into account their interactions with BMI. PMID:18615621

  17. Guidelines for the naming of genes, gene products, and mutants in the opportunistic protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limper, Andrew H; Weiss, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    The opportunistic protists encompass a wide diversity of organisms including Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, cryptosporidia, microsporidia, and related genera. Recent advances in the molecular biology and cellular biochemistry of these organisms have led to the identification of an ever growing numbers of key genes and their cognate proteins. Until now, these molecules have not been designated using any consistent nomenclature system, leading to considerable confusion. The participants of the 11th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists met on August 3, 2010 to reach consensus of a nomenclature system for genes, gene products, and mutants in the opportunistic protists. The following summary reports the consensus agreement to move toward a unified nomenclature system for these organisms. The system is adapted from that used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Genome-wide identification of key modulators of gene-gene interaction networks in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Wang, Li-Ju; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chuang, Eric Y; Chen, Yidong

    2017-10-03

    With the advances in high-throughput gene profiling technologies, a large volume of gene interaction maps has been constructed. A higher-level layer of gene-gene interaction, namely modulate gene interaction, is composed of gene pairs of which interaction strengths are modulated by (i.e., dependent on) the expression level of a key modulator gene. Systematic investigations into the modulation by estrogen receptor (ER), the best-known modulator gene, have revealed the functional and prognostic significance in breast cancer. However, a genome-wide identification of key modulator genes that may further unveil the landscape of modulated gene interaction is still lacking. We proposed a systematic workflow to screen for key modulators based on genome-wide gene expression profiles. We designed four modularity parameters to measure the ability of a putative modulator to perturb gene interaction networks. Applying the method to a dataset of 286 breast tumors, we comprehensively characterized the modularity parameters and identified a total of 973 key modulator genes. The modularity of these modulators was verified in three independent breast cancer datasets. ESR1, the encoding gene of ER, appeared in the list, and abundant novel modulators were illuminated. For instance, a prognostic predictor of breast cancer, SFRP1, was found the second modulator. Functional annotation analysis of the 973 modulators revealed involvements in ER-related cellular processes as well as immune- and tumor-associated functions. Here we present, as far as we know, the first comprehensive analysis of key modulator genes on a genome-wide scale. The validity of filtering parameters as well as the conservativity of modulators among cohorts were corroborated. Our data bring new insights into the modulated layer of gene-gene interaction and provide candidates for further biological investigations.

  19. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  20. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  1. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  2. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  3. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  4. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  5. Probing supervoids with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.

  6. [Gene-gene interaction on central obesity in school-aged children in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Zhang, M X; Wu, L J; Gao, L W; Mi, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To investigate possible effect of 6 obesity-associated SNPs in contribution to central obesity and examine whether there is an interaction in the 6 SNPs in the cause of central obesity in school-aged children in China. Methods: A total of 3 502 school-aged children who were included in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) Study were selected, and based on the age and sex specific waist circumference (WC) standards in the BCAMS study, 1 196 central obese cases and 2 306 controls were identified. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood white cells using the salt fractionation method. A total of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms ( FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, BDNF rs6265, PCSK1 rs6235, SH2B1 rs4788102, and CSK rs1378942) were genotyped by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays with the GeneAmp 7900 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between 6 SNPs and central obesity. Gene-gene interactions among 6 polymorphic loci were analyzed by using the Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) method, and then logistic regression model was constructed to confirm the best combination of loci identified in the GMDR. Results: After adjusting gender, age, Tanner stage, physical activity and family history of obesity, the FTO rs9939609-A, MC4R rs17782313-C and BDNF rs6265-G alleles were associated with central obesity under additive genetic model ( OR =1.24, 95 %CI : 1.06-1.45, P =0.008; OR =1.26, 95 %CI : 1.11-1.43, P =2.98×10(-4); OR =1.18, 95 % CI : 1.06-1.32, P =0.003). GMDR analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction between MC4R rs17782313 and BDNF rs6265 ( P =0.001). The best two-locus combination showed the cross-validation consistency of 10/10 and testing accuracy of 0.539. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene-gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the

  7. Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF for computationally-efficient filtering of gene-gene interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Casey S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies are becoming the de facto standard in the genetic analysis of common human diseases. Given the complexity and robustness of biological networks such diseases are unlikely to be the result of single points of failure but instead likely arise from the joint failure of two or more interacting components. The hope in genome-wide screens is that these points of failure can be linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which confer disease susceptibility. Detecting interacting variants that lead to disease in the absence of single-gene effects is difficult however, and methods to exhaustively analyze sets of these variants for interactions are combinatorial in nature thus making them computationally infeasible. Efficient algorithms which can detect interacting SNPs are needed. ReliefF is one such promising algorithm, although it has low success rate for noisy datasets when the interaction effect is small. ReliefF has been paired with an iterative approach, Tuned ReliefF (TuRF, which improves the estimation of weights in noisy data but does not fundamentally change the underlying ReliefF algorithm. To improve the sensitivity of studies using these methods to detect small effects we introduce Spatially Uniform ReliefF (SURF. Results SURF's ability to detect interactions in this domain is significantly greater than that of ReliefF. Similarly SURF, in combination with the TuRF strategy significantly outperforms TuRF alone for SNP selection under an epistasis model. It is important to note that this success rate increase does not require an increase in algorithmic complexity and allows for increased success rate, even with the removal of a nuisance parameter from the algorithm. Conclusion Researchers performing genetic association studies and aiming to discover gene-gene interactions associated with increased disease susceptibility should use SURF in place of ReliefF. For instance, SURF should be

  8. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  9. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong [Physics Department, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  10. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  11. Network graph analysis of gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungyoung; Kwon, Min-Seok; Park, Taesung

    2012-12-01

    Most common complex traits, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cancers, are known to be associated with multiple genes, environmental factors, and their epistasis. Recently, the development of advanced genotyping technologies has allowed us to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs). For detecting the effects of multiple genes on complex traits, many approaches have been proposed for GWASs. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is one of the powerful and efficient methods for detecting high-order gene-gene (GxG) interactions. However, the biological interpretation of GxG interactions identified by MDR analysis is not easy. In order to aid the interpretation of MDR results, we propose a network graph analysis to elucidate the meaning of identified GxG interactions. The proposed network graph analysis consists of three steps. The first step is for performing GxG interaction analysis using MDR analysis. The second step is to draw the network graph using the MDR result. The third step is to provide biological evidence of the identified GxG interaction using external biological databases. The proposed method was applied to Korean Association Resource (KARE) data, containing 8838 individuals with 327,632 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in order to perform GxG interaction analysis of body mass index (BMI). Our network graph analysis successfully showed that many identified GxG interactions have known biological evidence related to BMI. We expect that our network graph analysis will be helpful to interpret the biological meaning of GxG interactions.

  12. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  13. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  14. Revisiting Weak Simulation for Substochastic Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, David N.; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    of the logic PCTL\\x, and its completeness was conjectured. We revisit this result and show that soundness does not hold in general, but only for Markov chains without divergence. It is refuted for some systems with substochastic distributions. Moreover, we provide a counterexample to completeness...

  15. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  16. Genome-wide search for gene-gene interactions in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Jiao

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC risk. However, these susceptibility loci known today explain only a small fraction of the genetic risk. Gene-gene interaction (GxG is considered to be one source of the missing heritability. To address this, we performed a genome-wide search for pair-wise GxG associated with CRC risk using 8,380 cases and 10,558 controls in the discovery phase and 2,527 cases and 2,658 controls in the replication phase. We developed a simple, but powerful method for testing interaction, which we term the Average Risk Due to Interaction (ARDI. With this method, we conducted a genome-wide search to identify SNPs showing evidence for GxG with previously identified CRC susceptibility loci from 14 independent regions. We also conducted a genome-wide search for GxG using the marginal association screening and examining interaction among SNPs that pass the screening threshold (p<10(-4. For the known locus rs10795668 (10p14, we found an interacting SNP rs367615 (5q21 with replication p = 0.01 and combined p = 4.19×10(-8. Among the top marginal SNPs after LD pruning (n = 163, we identified an interaction between rs1571218 (20p12.3 and rs10879357 (12q21.1 (nominal combined p = 2.51×10(-6; Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.03. Our study represents the first comprehensive search for GxG in CRC, and our results may provide new insight into the genetic etiology of CRC.

  17. Network Graph Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions in Genome-Wide Association Study Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most common complex traits, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cancers, are known to be associated with multiple genes, environmental factors, and their epistasis. Recently, the development of advanced genotyping technologies has allowed us to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs. For detecting the effects of multiple genes on complex traits, many approaches have been proposed for GWASs. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR is one of the powerful and efficient methods for detecting high-order gene-gene (GxG interactions. However, the biological interpretation of GxG interactions identified by MDR analysis is not easy. In order to aid the interpretation of MDR results, we propose a network graph analysis to elucidate the meaning of identified GxG interactions. The proposed network graph analysis consists of three steps. The first step is for performing GxG interaction analysis using MDR analysis. The second step is to draw the network graph using the MDR result. The third step is to provide biological evidence of the identified GxG interaction using external biological databases. The proposed method was applied to Korean Association Resource (KARE data, containing 8838 individuals with 327,632 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, in order to perform GxG interaction analysis of body mass index (BMI. Our network graph analysis successfully showed that many identified GxG interactions have known biological evidence related to BMI. We expect that our network graph analysis will be helpful to interpret the biological meaning of GxG interactions.

  18. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  19. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  20. Gene-gene interactions and gene polymorphisms of VEGFA and EG-VEGF gene systems in recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Tsz; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Chi; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Both vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) systems play major roles in angiogenesis. A body of evidence suggests VEGFs regulate critical processes during pregnancy and have been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). However, little information is available regarding the interaction of these two major major angiogenesis-related systems in early human pregnancy. This study was conducted to investigate the association of gene polymorphisms and gene-gene interaction among genes in VEGFA and EG-VEGF systems and idiopathic RPL. A total of 98 women with history of idiopathic RPL and 142 controls were included, and 5 functional SNPs selected from VEGFA, KDR, EG-VEGF (PROK1), PROKR1 and PROKR2 were genotyped. We used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis to choose a best model and evaluate gene-gene interactions. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was introduced to explore possible complex interactions. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL (P<0.01). The MDR test revealed that the KDR (Q472H) polymorphism was the best loci to be associated with RPL (P=0.02). IPA revealed EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3 signaling pathways. Two receptor gene polymorphisms [KDR (Q472H) and PROKR2 (V331M)] were significantly associated with idiopathic RPL. EG-VEGF and VEGFA systems shared several canonical signaling pathways that may contribute to gene-gene interactions, including the Akt, IL-8, EGFR, MAPK, SRC, VHL, HIF-1A and STAT3.

  1. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  2. GBOOST: a GPU-based tool for detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Ling Sing; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Yu, Weichuan

    2011-05-01

    Collecting millions of genetic variations is feasible with the advanced genotyping technology. With a huge amount of genetic variations data in hand, developing efficient algorithms to carry out the gene-gene interaction analysis in a timely manner has become one of the key problems in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Boolean operation-based screening and testing (BOOST), a recent work in GWAS, completes gene-gene interaction analysis in 2.5 days on a desktop computer. Compared with central processing units (CPUs), graphic processing units (GPUs) are highly parallel hardware and provide massive computing resources. We are, therefore, motivated to use GPUs to further speed up the analysis of gene-gene interactions. We implement the BOOST method based on a GPU framework and name it GBOOST. GBOOST achieves a 40-fold speedup compared with BOOST. It completes the analysis of Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium Type 2 Diabetes (WTCCC T2D) genome data within 1.34 h on a desktop computer equipped with Nvidia GeForce GTX 285 display card. GBOOST code is available at http://bioinformatics.ust.hk/BOOST.html#GBOOST.

  3. Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.

    2002-01-01

    A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified

  4. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  5. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  6. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  8. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  9. Gene-gene interactions of IRF5, STAT4, IKZF1 and ETS1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, J; Shan, S; Li, J; Zhao, H; Xin, Q; Liu, Y; Bian, X; Liu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Interferon (IFN) activation signaling and T helper 17 (Th17)-cell/B-cell regulation play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies have provided convincing evidence that polymorphisms in IRF5, STAT4, IKZF1 and ETS1 from these pathways may be involved in SLE by affecting gene expression or epistasis. We analyzed the genetic interaction in known SLE susceptibility loci from the four genes in northern Han Chinese. A total of 946 northern Han Chinese participated in this study (370 unrelated SLE patients and 576 healthy controls). Subjects underwent genotyping for the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2004640 in IRF5, rs7574865 in STAT4, rs4917014 in IKZF1 and rs1128334 in ETS1 by use of a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay and direct sequencing. Gene-gene interaction analysis involved direct counting, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and linear regression analysis. SLE patients and controls differed in allele frequencies of rs7574865, rs1128334 (P < 0.001) and rs4917014 (P < 0.01). Direct counting revealed that the frequency of risk homozygote combinations was higher for SLE patients than controls (P < 0.01). Furthermore, 2-, 3- and 4-way gene-gene epistasis in SLE was confirmed by parametric methods and MDR analysis. Gene expression analysis partially supported the findings. Our study confirmed the association of the IFN pathway or Th17/B-cells and the pathogenesis of SLE, and gene-gene interaction in this pathway may increase the risk of SLE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development and application of an interaction network ontology for literature mining of vaccine-associated gene-gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    Literature mining of gene-gene interactions has been enhanced by ontology-based name classifications. However, in biomedical literature mining, interaction keywords have not been carefully studied and used beyond a collection of keywords. In this study, we report the development of a new Interaction Network Ontology (INO) that classifies >800 interaction keywords and incorporates interaction terms from the PSI Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) and Gene Ontology (GO). Using INO-based literature mining results, a modified Fisher's exact test was established to analyze significantly over- and under-represented enriched gene-gene interaction types within a specific area. Such a strategy was applied to study the vaccine-mediated gene-gene interactions using all PubMed abstracts. The Vaccine Ontology (VO) and INO were used to support the retrieval of vaccine terms and interaction keywords from the literature. INO is aligned with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and imports terms from 10 other existing ontologies. Current INO includes 540 terms. In terms of interaction-related terms, INO imports and aligns PSI-MI and GO interaction terms and includes over 100 newly generated ontology terms with 'INO_' prefix. A new annotation property, 'has literature mining keywords', was generated to allow the listing of different keywords mapping to the interaction types in INO. Using all PubMed documents published as of 12/31/2013, approximately 266,000 vaccine-associated documents were identified, and a total of 6,116 gene-pairs were associated with at least one INO term. Out of 78 INO interaction terms associated with at least five gene-pairs of the vaccine-associated sub-network, 14 terms were significantly over-represented (i.e., more frequently used) and 17 under-represented based on our modified Fisher's exact test. These over-represented and under-represented terms share some common top-level terms but are distinct at the bottom levels of the INO hierarchy. The analysis of these

  11. Importance of weak minerals on earthquake mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneki, S.; Hirono, T.

    2017-12-01

    The role of weak minerals such as smectite and talc on earthquake mechanics is one of the important issues, and has been debated for recent several decades. Traditionally weak minerals in fault have been reported to weaken fault strength causing from its low frictional resistance. Furthermore, velocity-strengthening behavior of such weak mineral (talc) is considered to responsible for fault creep (aseismic slip) in the San Andreas fault. In contrast, recent studies reported that large amount of weak smectite in the Japan Trench could facilitate gigantic seismic slip during the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. To investigate the role of weak minerals on rupture propagation process and magnitude of slip, we focus on the frictional properties of carbonaceous materials (CMs), which is the representative weak materials widely distributed in and around the convergent boundaries. Field observation and geochemical analyses revealed that graphitized CMs-layer is distributed along the slip surface of a fossil plate-subduction fault. Laboratory friction experiments demonstrated that pure quartz, bulk mixtures with bituminous coal (1 wt.%), and quartz with layered coal samples exhibited almost similar frictional properties (initial, yield, and dynamic friction). However, mixtures of quartz (99 wt.%) and layered graphite (1 wt.%) showed significantly lower initial and yield friction coefficient (0.31 and 0.50, respectively). Furthermore, the stress ratio S, defined as (yield stress-initial stress)/(initial stress-dynamic stress), increased in layered graphite samples (1.97) compared to quartz samples (0.14). Similar trend was observed in smectite-rich fault gouge. By referring the reported results of dynamic rupture propagation simulation using S ratio of 1.4 (typical value for the Japan Trench) and 2.0 (this study), we confirmed that higher S ratio results in smaller slip distance by approximately 20 %. On the basis of these results, we could conclude that weak minerals have lower

  12. Standard and Null Weak Values

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberberg, Oded; Romito, Alessandro; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Weak value (WV) is a quantum mechanical measurement protocol, proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman. It consists of a weak measurement, which is weighed in, conditional on the outcome of a later, strong measurement. Here we define another two-step measurement protocol, null weak value (NVW), and point out its advantages as compared to WV. We present two alternative derivations of NWVs and compare them to the corresponding derivations of WVs.

  13. Weak openness and almost openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rose

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak openness and almost openness for arbitrary functions between topological spaces are defined as duals to the weak continuity of Levine and the almost continuity of Husain respectively. Independence of these two openness conditions is noted and comparison is made between these and the almost openness of Singal and Singal. Some results dual to those known for weak continuity and almost continuity are obtained. Nearly almost openness is defined and used to obtain an improved link from weak continuity to almost continuity.

  14. Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.

  15. Weak decays of stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)

  16. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  17. Weak values in collision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo Andreta; Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2018-05-01

    Weak measurements have an increasing number of applications in contemporary quantum mechanics. They were originally described as a weak interaction that slightly entangled the translational degrees of freedom of a particle to its spin, yielding surprising results after post-selection. That description often ignores the kinetic energy of the particle and its movement in three dimensions. Here, we include these elements and re-obtain the weak values within the context of collision theory by two different approaches, and prove that the results are compatible with each other and with the results from the traditional approach. To provide a more complete description, we generalize weak values into weak tensors and use them to provide a more realistic description of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  18. A partial least-square approach for modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions when multiple markers are genotyped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ho, Gloria; Ye, Kenny; Strickler, Howard; Elston, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Genetic association studies achieve an unprecedented level of resolution in mapping disease genes by genotyping dense single nucleotype polymorphisms (SNPs) in a gene region. Meanwhile, these studies require new powerful statistical tools that can optimally handle a large amount of information provided by genotype data. A question that arises is how to model interactions between two genes. Simply modeling all possible interactions between the SNPs in two gene regions is not desirable because a greatly increased number of degrees of freedom can be involved in the test statistic. We introduce an approach to reduce the genotype dimension in modeling interactions. The genotype compression of this approach is built upon the information on both the trait and the cross-locus gametic disequilibrium between SNPs in two interacting genes, in such a way as to parsimoniously model the interactions without loss of useful information in the process of dimension reduction. As a result, it improves power to detect association in the presence of gene-gene interactions. This approach can be similarly applied for modeling gene-environment interactions. We compare this method with other approaches, the corresponding test without modeling any interaction, that based on a saturated interaction model, that based on principal component analysis, and that based on Tukey's one-degree-of-freedom model. Our simulations suggest that this new approach has superior power to that of the other methods. In an application to endometrial cancer case-control data from the Women's Health Initiative, this approach detected AKT1 and AKT2 as being significantly associated with endometrial cancer susceptibility by taking into account their interactions with body mass index.

  19. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F 1 mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR→F 1 were high responders and EO-LR→F 1 were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy

  20. Methodological issues in detecting gene-gene interactions in breast cancer susceptibility: a population-based study in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onay Venus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that gene-gene interactions are ubiquitous in determining the susceptibility to common human diseases. The investigation of such gene-gene interactions presents new statistical challenges for studies with relatively small sample sizes as the number of potential interactions in the genome can be large. Breast cancer provides a useful paradigm to study genetically complex diseases because commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may additively or synergistically disturb the system-wide communication of the cellular processes leading to cancer development. Methods In this study, we systematically studied SNP-SNP interactions among 19 SNPs from 18 key genes involved in major cancer pathways in a sample of 398 breast cancer cases and 372 controls from Ontario. We discuss the methodological issues associated with the detection of SNP-SNP interactions in this dataset by applying and comparing three commonly used methods: the logistic regression model, classification and regression trees (CART, and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method. Results Our analyses show evidence for several simple (two-way and complex (multi-way SNP-SNP interactions associated with breast cancer. For example, all three methods identified XPD-[Lys751Gln]*IL10-[G(-1082A] as the most significant two-way interaction. CART and MDR identified the same critical SNPs participating in complex interactions. Our results suggest that the use of multiple statistical approaches (or an integrated approach rather than a single methodology could be the best strategy to elucidate complex gene interactions that have generally very different patterns. Conclusion The strategy used here has the potential to identify complex biological relationships among breast cancer genes and processes. This will lead to the discovery of novel biological information, which will improve breast cancer risk management.

  1. Hartman effect and weak measurements that are not really weak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Akhmatskaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that in wave packet tunneling, localization of the transmitted particle amounts to a quantum measurement of the delay it experiences in the barrier. With no external degree of freedom involved, the envelope of the wave packet plays the role of the initial pointer state. Under tunneling conditions such ''self-measurement'' is necessarily weak, and the Hartman effect just reflects the general tendency of weak values to diverge, as postselection in the final state becomes improbable. We also demonstrate that it is a good precision, or a 'not really weak' quantum measurement: no matter how wide the barrier d, it is possible to transmit a wave packet with a width σ small compared to the observed advancement. As is the case with all weak measurements, the probability of transmission rapidly decreases with the ratio σ/d.

  2. Weakly Collisional and Collisionless Astrophysical Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlok, Thomas

    are used to study weakly collisional, stratified atmospheres which offer a useful model of the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters. Using linear theory and computer simulations, we study instabilities that feed off thermal and compositional gradients. We find that these instabilities lead to vigorous...... investigate helium mixing in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxy clusters using Braginskii MHD. Secondly, we present a newly developed Vlasov-fluid code which can be used for studying fully collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind and hot accretions flows. The equations of Braginskii MHD...... associated with the ions and is thus well suited for studying collisionless plasmas. We have developed a new 2D-3V Vlasov-fluid code which works by evolving the phase-space density distribution of the ions while treating the electrons as an inertialess fluid. The code uses the particle-incell (PIC) method...

  3. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  4. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    Entanglement: Two quantum systems can be in a strongly correlated state even if .... These are resources which can be used to design quantum computer, quantum ...... Weak measurements have found numerous applications starting from the ...

  5. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  6. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York

    1991-01-01

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  7. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  8. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  9. A gene-gene interaction between polymorphisms in the OCT2 and MATE1 genes influences the renal clearance of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Christensen, Mette Marie; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between the renal clearance (CL(renal)) of metformin in healthy Caucasian volunteers and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.808G>T (rs316019) in OCT2 as well as the relevance of the gene-gene interactions between this SNP and (a) the ...

  10. Acute muscular weakness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pablo Javier Erazo Torricelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute muscle weakness in children is a pediatric emergency. During the diagnostic approach, it is crucial to obtain a detailed case history, including: onset of weakness, history of associated febrile states, ingestion of toxic substances/toxins, immunizations, and family history. Neurological examination must be meticulous as well. In this review, we describe the most common diseases related to acute muscle weakness, grouped into the site of origin (from the upper motor neuron to the motor unit. Early detection of hyperCKemia may lead to a myositis diagnosis, and hypokalemia points to the diagnosis of periodic paralysis. Ophthalmoparesis, ptosis and bulbar signs are suggestive of myasthenia gravis or botulism. Distal weakness and hyporeflexia are clinical features of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most frequent cause of acute muscle weakness. If all studies are normal, a psychogenic cause should be considered. Finding the etiology of acute muscle weakness is essential to execute treatment in a timely manner, improving the prognosis of affected children.

  11. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  12. PLASMA EMISSION BY WEAK TURBULENCE PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2014-11-10

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  13. Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a slipped disk in the spine) Stroke MUSCLE DISEASES Becker muscular dystrophy Dermatomyositis Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) Myotonic dystrophy POISONING Botulism Poisoning ( insecticides , nerve gas) ...

  14. A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Helen M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential public health benefits of targeting environmental interventions by genotype depend on the environmental and genetic contributions to the variance of common diseases, and the magnitude of any gene-environment interaction. In the absence of prior knowledge of all risk factors, twin, family and environmental data may help to define the potential limits of these benefits in a given population. However, a general methodology to analyze twin data is required because of the potential importance of gene-gene interactions (epistasis, gene-environment interactions, and conditions that break the 'equal environments' assumption for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Method A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918 assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction. Conclusion The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis

  15. Tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, J.Y.; Lu, J.; Qian, H.R.; Lin, H.X.; Zheng, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports progress made on the tagging of blast resistance gene(s) to DNA markers and on the initiation of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for blast resistance in rice improvement. A pair of near isogenic lines, K8OR and K79S, were developed using a Chinese landrace Hong-jiao-zhan as the resistance donor. Ten putatively positive markers were identified by screening 177 mapped DNA markers. Using the F 2 population of 143 plants and the derived F 3 lines, three Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) markers (RG81, RG869 and RZ397) on chromosome 12 of rice were identified to be closely linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-12(t). The genetic distance between Pi-12(t) and the closest marker RG869 was 5.1 cM. By employing the bulk segregant analysis (BSA) procedure, six of 199 arbitrary primers were found to produce positive Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands. Tight linkage between Pi-12(t) and three RAPD bands, each from a different primer, was confirmed after amplification of DNA of all F 2 individuals. Two fragments were cloned and sequenced, and two sequence characterised amplified re-ion (SCAR) markers were established. In two other F 3 populations, Xian-feng I/Tetep and Xian-feng, 1/Hong-jiao-zhan, the blast resistance was found to be controlled by interactions of two or more genes. One resistance gene was located in the vicinity of RG81 in both populations. Work to identify other gene(s) is currently under way. Marker assisted selection for blast resistance was initiated. Crosses were made between elite varieties and blast resistance donors to develop populations for DNA marker-assisted selection of blast resistance. In addition, 48 varieties widely used in current rice breeding programs were provided by rice breeders. DNA marker-based polymorphism among, these varieties and resistance donors were analysed to produce a database for future MAS program. (author)

  16. Towards a nonperturbative calculation of weak Hamiltonian Wilson coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mattia; Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit; Rbc; Ukqcd Collaborations

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method to compute the Wilson coefficients of the weak effective Hamiltonian to all orders in the strong coupling constant using Lattice QCD simulations. We perform our calculations adopting an unphysically light weak boson mass of around 2 GeV. We demonstrate that systematic errors for the Wilson coefficients C1 and C2 , related to the current-current four-quark operators, can be controlled and present a path towards precise determinations in subsequent works.

  17. Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A

    2002-01-01

    as well as specific complexes of modified glycopeptide antibiotics with their target peptide. The weak nature of bonding is substantiated by blackbody infrared dissociation, low-energy collisional excitation and force-field simulations. The results are consistent with a non-ergodic ECD cleavage mechanism.......We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...

  18. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  19. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  20. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  1. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength

  2. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  3. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  4. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  5. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  6. A deeper look at two concepts of measuring gene-gene interactions: logistic regression and interaction information revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielniczuk, Jan; Teisseyre, Paweł

    2018-03-01

    Detection of gene-gene interactions is one of the most important challenges in genome-wide case-control studies. Besides traditional logistic regression analysis, recently the entropy-based methods attracted a significant attention. Among entropy-based methods, interaction information is one of the most promising measures having many desirable properties. Although both logistic regression and interaction information have been used in several genome-wide association studies, the relationship between them has not been thoroughly investigated theoretically. The present paper attempts to fill this gap. We show that although certain connections between the two methods exist, in general they refer two different concepts of dependence and looking for interactions in those two senses leads to different approaches to interaction detection. We introduce ordering between interaction measures and specify conditions for independent and dependent genes under which interaction information is more discriminative measure than logistic regression. Moreover, we show that for so-called perfect distributions those measures are equivalent. The numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical findings indicating that interaction information and its modified version are more universal tools for detecting various types of interaction than logistic regression and linkage disequilibrium measures. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Mining disease genes using integrated protein-protein interaction and gene-gene co-regulation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Wang, Limei; Guo, Maozu; Zhang, Ruijie; Dai, Qiguo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Xuan, Ping; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    In humans, despite the rapid increase in disease-associated gene discovery, a large proportion of disease-associated genes are still unknown. Many network-based approaches have been used to prioritize disease genes. Many networks, such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI), KEGG, and gene co-expression networks, have been used. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been successfully applied for the determination of genes associated with several diseases. In this study, we constructed an eQTL-based gene-gene co-regulation network (GGCRN) and used it to mine for disease genes. We adopted the random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm to mine for genes associated with Alzheimer disease. Compared to the Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) PPI network alone, the integrated HPRD PPI and GGCRN networks provided faster convergence and revealed new disease-related genes. Therefore, using the RWR algorithm for integrated PPI and GGCRN is an effective method for disease-associated gene mining.

  8. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  11. Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-05-19

    We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)

  12. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  13. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  14. On Weak-BCC-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  15. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  16. The structure of weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of introducing righthanded currents on the structure of weak interaction is discussed. The ΔI=1/2 rule is in the spotlight. The discussion provides an interesting example in which the so-called Iizuka-Okubo-Zweing rule is not only evaded, but completely negated

  17. Coverings, Networks and Weak Topologies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dow, A.; Junnila, H.; Pelant, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 287-320 ISSN 0025-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/97/0216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Banach spaces * weak topologies * networks topologies Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Weak differentiability of product measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidergott, B.F.; Leahu, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study cost functions over a finite collection of random variables. For these types of models, a calculus of differentiation is developed that allows us to obtain a closed-form expression for derivatives where "differentiation" has to be understood in the weak sense. The technique

  19. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  20. Weak pion production from nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and renormalization of weak ∆ properties ... Furthermore, the angular distribution and the energy distribution of ... Here ψα(p ) and u(p) are the Rarita Schwinger and Dirac spinors for ∆ and nucleon.

  1. Weak transitions in 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt

  2. GENIE: a software package for gene-gene interaction analysis in genetic association studies using multiple GPU or CPU cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-gene interaction in genetic association studies is computationally intensive when a large number of SNPs are involved. Most of the latest Central Processing Units (CPUs have multiple cores, whereas Graphics Processing Units (GPUs also have hundreds of cores and have been recently used to implement faster scientific software. However, currently there are no genetic analysis software packages that allow users to fully utilize the computing power of these multi-core devices for genetic interaction analysis for binary traits. Findings Here we present a novel software package GENIE, which utilizes the power of multiple GPU or CPU processor cores to parallelize the interaction analysis. GENIE reads an entire genetic association study dataset into memory and partitions the dataset into fragments with non-overlapping sets of SNPs. For each fragment, GENIE analyzes: 1 the interaction of SNPs within it in parallel, and 2 the interaction between the SNPs of the current fragment and other fragments in parallel. We tested GENIE on a large-scale candidate gene study on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Using an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 graphics card, the GPU mode of GENIE achieves a speedup of 27 times over its single-core CPU mode run. Conclusions GENIE is open-source, economical, user-friendly, and scalable. Since the computing power and memory capacity of graphics cards are increasing rapidly while their cost is going down, we anticipate that GENIE will achieve greater speedups with faster GPU cards. Documentation, source code, and precompiled binaries can be downloaded from http://www.cceb.upenn.edu/~mli/software/GENIE/.

  3. HSD3B and gene-gene interactions in a pathway-based analysis of genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S Andrew

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is the 4(th most common cancer among men in the U.S. We analyzed variant genotypes hypothesized to modify major biological processes involved in bladder carcinogenesis, including hormone regulation, apoptosis, DNA repair, immune surveillance, metabolism, proliferation, and telomere maintenance. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between genetic variation affecting these processes and susceptibility in 563 genotyped urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 863 controls enrolled in a case-control study of incident bladder cancer conducted in New Hampshire, U.S. We evaluated gene-gene interactions using Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Statistical Epistasis Network analysis. The 3'UTR flanking variant form of the hormone regulation gene HSD3B2 was associated with increased bladder cancer risk in the New Hampshire population (adjusted OR 1.85 95%CI 1.31-2.62. This finding was successfully replicated in the Texas Bladder Cancer Study with 957 controls, 497 cases (adjusted OR 3.66 95%CI 1.06-12.63. The effect of this prevalent SNP was stronger among males (OR 2.13 95%CI 1.40-3.25 than females (OR 1.56 95%CI 0.83-2.95, (SNP-gender interaction P = 0.048. We also identified a SNP-SNP interaction between T-cell activation related genes GATA3 and CD81 (interaction P = 0.0003. The fact that bladder cancer incidence is 3-4 times higher in males suggests the involvement of hormone levels. This biologic process-based analysis suggests candidate susceptibility markers and supports the theory that disrupted hormone regulation plays a role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  4. Light weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2017-08-01

    Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.

  5. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  6. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  7. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  8. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, ..... by means of trees (connected graphs without cycles) and forests (disjoint unions of trees, see [6]) given in [3], by extending it to weak ... CR-submanifold. In this case, every tree is a K2. Finally, Theorem 3.8 of [3] can ...

  9. Weak polyelectrolyte complexation driven by associative charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Zervoudakis, Aristotle J.; Sidky, Hythem; Sikora, Benjamin J.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    2018-03-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes are relevant for a wide range of fields; in particular, they have been investigated as "smart" materials for chemical separations and drug delivery. The charges on weak polyelectrolytes are dynamic, causing polymer chains to adopt different equilibrium conformations even with relatively small changes to the surrounding environment. Currently, there exists no comprehensive picture of this behavior, particularly where polymer-polymer interactions have the potential to affect charging properties significantly. In this study, we elucidate the novel interplay between weak polyelectrolyte charging and complexation behavior through coupled molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. Specifically, we investigate a model of two equal-length and oppositely charging polymer chains in an implicit salt solution represented through Debye-Hückel interactions. The charging tendency of each chain, along with the salt concentration, is varied to determine the existence and extent of cooperativity in charging and complexation. Strong cooperation in the charging of these chains is observed at large Debye lengths, corresponding to low salt concentrations, while at lower Debye lengths (higher salt concentrations), the chains behave in apparent isolation. When the electrostatic coupling is long-ranged, we find that a highly charged chain strongly promotes the charging of its partner chain, even if the environment is unfavorable for an isolated version of that partner chain. Evidence of this phenomenon is supported by a drop in the potential energy of the system, which does not occur at the lower Debye lengths where both potential energies and charge fractions converge for all partner chain charging tendencies. The discovery of this cooperation will be helpful in developing "smart" drug delivery mechanisms by allowing for better predictions for the dissociation point of delivery complexes.

  10. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  11. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan

    2014-10-07

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  12. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-01-01

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  13. Gene-gene interaction between MSX1 and TP63 in Asian case-parent trios with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongjing; Schwender, Holger; Wang, Mengying; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Hongping; Zhou, Zhibo; Li, Jing; Wu, Tao; Beaty, Terri H

    2018-03-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modification, also known as sumoylation, is a crucial post-translational regulatory mechanisms involved in development of the lip and palate. Recent studies reported two sumoylation target genes, MSX1 and TP63, to have achieved genome-wide level significance in tests of association with nonsyndromic clefts. Here, we performed a candidate gene analysis considering gene-gene and gene-environment interaction for SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 to further explore the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). A total of 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 was analyzed among 1,038 Asian NSCL/P trios ascertained through an international consortium. Conditional logistic regression models were used to explore gene-gene (G × G) and gene-environment (G × E) interaction involving maternal environmental tobacco smoke and multivitamin supplementation. Bonferroni correction was used for G × E analysis and permutation tests were used for G × G analysis. While transmission disequilibrium tests and gene-environment interaction analysis showed no significant results, we did find signals of gene-gene interaction between SNPs near MSX1 and TP63. Three pairwise interactions yielded significant p values in permutation tests (rs884690 and rs9290890 with p = 9.34 × 10 -5 and empirical p = 1.00 × 10 -4 , rs1022136 and rs4687098 with p = 2.41 × 10 -4 and empirical p = 2.95 × 10 -4 , rs6819546 and rs9681004 with p = 5.15 × 10 -4 and empirical p = 3.02 × 10 -4 ). Gene-gene interaction between MSX1 and TP63 may influence the risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. Our study provided additional understanding of the genetic etiology of NSCL/P and underlined the importance of considering gene-gene interaction in the etiology of this common craniofacial malformation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  15. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  16. Why is gravity so weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goradia, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Why is gravity weak? Gravity is plagued with this and many other questions. After decades of exhausting work we do not have a clear answer. In view of this fact it will be shown in the following pages that there are reasons for thinking that gravity is just a composite force consisting of the long-range manifestations of short range nuclear forces that are too tiny to be measured at illuminated or long ranges by particle colliders. This is consistent with Einstein's proposal in 1919

  17. Weak decays of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1978-08-01

    The properties that may help to identify the two additional quark flavors that are expected to be discovered. These properties are lifetime, branching ratios, selection rules, and lepton decay spectra. It is also noted that CP violation may manifest itself more strongly in heavy particle decays than elsewhere providing a new probe of its origin. The theoretical progress in the understanding of nonleptonic transitions among lighter quarks, nonleptonic K and hyperon decay amplitudes, omega minus and charmed particle decay predictions, and lastly the Kobayashi--Maskawa model for the weak coupling of heavy quarks together with the details of its implications for topology and bottomology are treated. 48 references

  18. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  19. Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

  20. Color-weak compensation using local affine isometry based on discrimination threshold matching

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki, Rika; Kojima, Takanori; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    We develop algorithms for color-weak compensation and color-weak simulation based on Riemannian geometry models of color spaces. The objective function introduced measures the match of color discrimination thresholds of average normal observers and a color-weak observer. The developed matching process makes use of local affine maps between color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The method can be used to generate displays of images that provide color-normal and color-weak obser...

  1. Weak interactions at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    Prospects for the study of standard model weak interactions at the SSC are reviewed, with emphasis on the unique capability of the SSC to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking whether the associated new quanta are at the TeV scale or higher. Symmetry breaking by the minimal Higgs mechanism and by related strong interaction dynamical variants is summarized. A set of measurements is outlined that would calibrate the proton structure functions and the backgrounds to new physics. The ability to measure the three weak gauge boson vertex is found to complement LEP II, with measurements extending to larger Q 2 at a comparable statistical level in detectable decays. B factory physics is briefly reviewed as one example of a possible broad program of high statistics studies of sub-TeV scale phenomena. The largest section of the talk is devoted to the possible manifestations of symmetry breaking in the WW and ZZ production cross sections. Some new results are presented bearing on the ability to detect high mass WW and ZZ pairs. The principal conclusion is that although nonstandard model scenarios are typically more forgiving, the capability to study symmetry breaking in the standard model (and in related strong interaction dynamical variants) requires achieving the SSC design goals of √ s,L = 40Tev, 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . 28 refs., 5 figs

  2. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  3. Weak KAM for commuting Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavidovique, M

    2010-01-01

    For two commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians, we recover the commutation of the Lax–Oleinik semi-groups, a result of Barles and Tourin (2001 Indiana Univ. Math. J. 50 1523–44), using a direct geometrical method (Stoke's theorem). We also obtain a 'generalization' of a theorem of Maderna (2002 Bull. Soc. Math. France 130 493–506). More precisely, we prove that if the phase space is the cotangent of a compact manifold then the weak KAM solutions (or viscosity solutions of the critical stationary Hamilton–Jacobi equation) for G and for H are the same. As a corollary we obtain the equality of the Aubry sets and of the Peierls barrier. This is also related to works of Sorrentino (2009 On the Integrability of Tonelli Hamiltonians Preprint) and Bernard (2007 Duke Math. J. 136 401–20)

  4. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Quantum Field Theory created by Dirac and used by Fermi to describe weak ... of classical electrodynamics (from which the electric field and magnetic field can be obtained .... Universe. However, thanks to weak interactions, this can be done.

  5. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  6. The Cumulative Effect of Gene-Gene and Gene-Environment Interactions on the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Chinese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental factors interactions. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with PCa in Chinese men are less studied. We explored the association between 36 SNPs and PCa in 574 subjects from northern China. Body mass index (BMI, smoking, and alcohol consumption were determined through self-administered questionnaires in 134 PCa patients. Then gene-gene and gene-environment interactions among the PCa-associated SNPs were analyzed using the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR and logistic regression methods. Allelic and genotypic association analyses showed that six variants were associated with PCa and the cumulative effect suggested men who carried any combination of 1, 2, or ≥3 risk genotypes had a gradually increased PCa risk (odds ratios (ORs = 1.79–4.41. GMDR analysis identified the best gene-gene interaction model with scores of 10 for both the cross-validation consistency and sign tests. For gene-environment interactions, rs6983561 CC and rs16901966 GG in individuals with a BMI ≥ 28 had ORs of 7.66 (p = 0.032 and 5.33 (p = 0.046, respectively. rs7679673 CC + CA and rs12653946 TT in individuals that smoked had ORs of 2.77 (p = 0.007 and 3.11 (p = 0.024, respectively. rs7679673 CC in individuals that consumed alcohol had an OR of 4.37 (p = 0.041. These results suggest that polymorphisms, either individually or by interacting with other genes or environmental factors, contribute to an increased risk of PCa.

  7. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions with the lipoprotein(a)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解惠坚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of 10 singlenucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs)in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPARs)gene with lipoprotein(a)level,and to investigate if there is gene-gene interaction among the SNPs on lipoprotein(a)level.Methods Totally 644 subjects(234 men and 410 women)were enrolled from Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and Metabolic Syndrome Study Cohort,which was an urban community survey study conducted in Jiangsu province.Ten SNPs in PPARα(rs135539,rs4253778,

  8. Weakly distributive modules. Applications to supplement submodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we define and study weakly distributive modules as a proper generalization of distributive modules. We prove that, weakly distributive supplemented modules are amply supplemented. In a weakly distributive supplemented module every submodule has a unique coclosure. This generalizes a result of ...

  9. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  10. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, R

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  11. A universe without weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''weakless universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  12. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  13. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  14. The Search for Resilience Weak Spots in Automotive Mixed-Signal Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerzerho, V.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Bollen, G-J; Xing, Y

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the search for and resulting effects of resilience weak spots in a commercial Local Interconnect Network (LIN) transceiver. Industrial reliability simulations based on aging of devices have been used to locate these weak spots. The objective is to improve the resilience of the

  15. Assignment of adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) gene(s) to human chromosome 2 in rodent-human somatic cell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbschleb-Voogt, E; Grzeschik, K H; Pearson, P L; Meera Khan, P

    1981-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper indicate that the expression of human adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) in the human-rodent somatic cell hybrids is influenced by the state of confluency of the cells and the background rodent genome. Thus, the complement of the L-cell derived A9 or B82 mouse parent apparently prevents the expression of human ADCP in the interspecific somatic cell hybrids. In the a3, E36, or RAG hybrids the human ADCP expression was not prevented by the rodent genome and was found to be proportional to the degree of confluency of the cell in the culture as in the case of primary human fibroblasts. An analysis of human chromosomes, chromosome specific enzyme markers, and ADCP in a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids optimally maintained and harvested at full confluency has shown that the expression of human ADCP in the mouse (RAG)-human as well as in the hamster (E36 or a3)-human hybrids is determined by a gene(s) in human chromosome 2 and that neither chromosome 6 nor any other of the chromosomes of man carry any gene(s) involved in the formation of human ADCP at least in the Chinese hamster-human hybrids. A series of rodent-human hybrid clones exhibiting a mitotic separation of IDH1 and MDH1 indicated that ADCP is most probably situated between corresponding loci in human chromosome 2.

  16. Homological properties of modules with finite weak injective and weak flat dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define a class of relative derived functors in terms of left or right weak flat resolutions to compute the weak flat dimension of modules. Moreover, we investigate two classes of modules larger than that of weak injective and weak flat modules, study the existence of covers and preenvelopes, and give some applications.

  17. Weak boson emission in hadron collider processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, U.

    2007-01-01

    The O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections to many hadron collider processes are known to become large and negative at high energies, due to the appearance of Sudakov-like logarithms. At the same order in perturbation theory, weak boson emission diagrams contribute. Since the W and Z bosons are massive, the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections and the contributions from weak boson emission are separately finite. Thus, unlike in QED or QCD calculations, there is no technical reason for including gauge boson emission diagrams in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In most calculations of the O(α) electroweak radiative corrections, weak boson emission diagrams are therefore not taken into account. Another reason for not including these diagrams is that they lead to final states which differ from that of the original process. However, in experiment, one usually considers partially inclusive final states. Weak boson emission diagrams thus should be included in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In this paper, I examine the role of weak boson emission in those processes at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC for which the one-loop electroweak radiative corrections are known to become large at high energies (inclusive jet, isolated photon, Z+1 jet, Drell-Yan, di-boson, tt, and single top production). In general, I find that the cross section for weak boson emission is substantial at high energies and that weak boson emission and the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections partially cancel

  18. Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.

    2011-11-01

    Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non

  19. Spatial evolutionary games with weak selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Mridu; Durrett, Richard

    2017-06-06

    Recently, a rigorous mathematical theory has been developed for spatial games with weak selection, i.e., when the payoff differences between strategies are small. The key to the analysis is that when space and time are suitably rescaled, the spatial model converges to the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE). This approach can be used to analyze all [Formula: see text] games, but there are a number of [Formula: see text] games for which the behavior of the limiting PDE is not known. In this paper, we give rules for determining the behavior of a large class of [Formula: see text] games and check their validity using simulation. In words, the effect of space is equivalent to making changes in the payoff matrix, and once this is done, the behavior of the spatial game can be predicted from the behavior of the replicator equation for the modified game. We say predicted here because in some cases the behavior of the spatial game is different from that of the replicator equation for the modified game. For example, if a rock-paper-scissors game has a replicator equation that spirals out to the boundary, space stabilizes the system and produces an equilibrium.

  20. ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN WEAKLY IONIZED CHROMOSPHERIC PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-01

    Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase

  1. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  2. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements

  3. Fixed points of occasionally weakly biased mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Mahendra Singh, M. R. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Common fixed point results due to Pant et al. [Pant et al., Weak reciprocal continuity and fixed point theorems, Ann Univ Ferrara, 57(1), 181-190 (2011)] are extended to a class of non commuting operators called occasionally weakly biased pair[ N. Hussain, M. A. Khamsi A. Latif, Commonfixed points for JH-operators and occasionally weakly biased pairs under relaxed conditions, Nonlinear Analysis, 74, 2133-2140 (2011)]. We also provideillustrative examples to justify the improvements. Abstract....

  4. Robust weak measurements on finite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A new weak measurement procedure is introduced for finite samples which yields accurate weak values that are outside the range of eigenvalues and which do not require an exponentially rare ensemble. This procedure provides a unique advantage in the amplification of small nonrandom signals by minimizing uncertainties in determining the weak value and by minimizing sample size. This procedure can also extend the strength of the coupling between the system and measuring device to a new regime

  5. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, S.J.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon

  6. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  7. Weak strange particle production: advantages and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Baker, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic strange particle production developed at Jefferson Laboratory was an important source of information on strange particle electromagnetic formfactors and induced and transferred polarization. The high quality of the beam and the detection techniques involved could be an argument for detecting strange particles in weak interactions and answer questions about cross sections, weak formfactors, neutrino properties, which have not been investigated yet. The paper analyses some aspects related to the weak lambda production and detection with the Hall C facilities at Jefferson Laboratory and the limitations in measuring the weak interaction quantities. (authors)

  8. A Simple and Computationally Efficient Approach to Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions for Quantitative Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Jiang; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Andrews, Peter; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Van Gilst, Wiek H.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension of the two-class multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) algorithm that enables detection and characterization of epistatic SNP-SNP interactions in the context of a quantitative trait. The proposed Quantitative MDR (QMDR) method handles continuous data by modifying MDR's constructive induction algorithm to use a T-test. QMDR replaces the balanced accuracy metric with a T-test statistic as the score to determine the best interaction model. We used a simulation to ide...

  9. S-parameters for weakly excited slots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1999-01-01

    A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed......A simple approach to account for parasitic effects in weakly excited slots cut in the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is proposed...

  10. Low-energy Electro-weak Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides a systematic and controlled approach to low-energy nuclear physics. Here, we use chiral EFT to calculate low-energy weak Gamow-Teller transitions. We put special emphasis on the role of two-body (2b) weak currents within the nucleus and discuss their applications in predicting physical observables.

  11. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  12. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  14. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  15. Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.

  16. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A McKinney

    Full Text Available Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to

  17. Diagnosis of functional (psychogenic paresis and weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savkov V.S.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional (conversion neurological symptoms represent one of the most common situations faced by neurologists in their everyday practice. Among them, acute or subacute functional weakness may mimic very prevalent conditions such as stroke or traumatic injury. In the diagnosis of functional weakness, although elements of the history are helpful, physical signs are often of crucial importance in the diagnosis and positive signs are as important as absence of signs of disease. Hence, accurate and reliable positive signs of functional weakness are valuable for obtaining timely diagnosis and treatment, making it possible to avoid unnecessary or invasive tests and procedures up to thrombolysis. Functional weakness commonly presents as weakness of an entire limb, paraparesis, or hemiparesis, with observable or demonstrable inconsistencies and non-anatomic accompaniments. Documentation of limb movements during sleep, the arm drop test, the Babinski’s trunk-thigh test, Hoover tests, the Sonoo abductor test, and various dynamometer tests can provide useful bedside diagnostic information on functional weakness. We therefore present here a brief overview of the positive neurological signs of functional weakness available, both in the lower and in the upper limbs; but none should be used in isolation and must be interpreted in the overall context of the presentation. It should be borne in mind that a patient may have both a functional and an organic disorder.

  18. Emulating weak localization using a solid-state quantum circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Neill, C; Lucero, Erik; Mariantoni, Matteo; Barends, R; Chiaro, B; Kelly, J; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; O'Malley, P J J; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Yin, Yi; Cleland, A N; Martinis, John M

    2014-10-14

    Quantum interference is one of the most fundamental physical effects found in nature. Recent advances in quantum computing now employ interference as a fundamental resource for computation and control. Quantum interference also lies at the heart of sophisticated condensed matter phenomena such as Anderson localization, phenomena that are difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations. Here, employing a multiple-element superconducting quantum circuit, with which we manipulate a single microwave photon, we demonstrate that we can emulate the basic effects of weak localization. By engineering the control sequence, we are able to reproduce the well-known negative magnetoresistance of weak localization as well as its temperature dependence. Furthermore, we can use our circuit to continuously tune the level of disorder, a parameter that is not readily accessible in mesoscopic systems. Demonstrating a high level of control, our experiment shows the potential for employing superconducting quantum circuits as emulators for complex quantum phenomena.

  19. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  20. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  1. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  2. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Pasquetti, Richard; Popov, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i

  3. Subsidy Competition for FDI: Fierce or Weak?

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Havránek

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories, using both cross-sectional and panel data. Three crucial scenarios (including coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition) are tested employing OLS, iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and Blundell-Bond estimator. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported—although there is some weak sup...

  4. About some distinguishing features of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to strong and electromagnetic theories, additive conserved numbers (such as lepton, aromatic and another numbers) and γ 5 anomaly do not appear in the standard weak interaction theory. It means that in this interaction the additive numbers cannot be conserved. These results are the consequence of specific character of the weak interaction: the right components of spinors do not participate in this interaction. The schemes of violation of the aromatic and lepton numbers were considered

  5. Weak limits for quantum random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, Geoffrey; Janson, Svante; Scudo, Petra F.

    2004-01-01

    We formulate and prove a general weak limit theorem for quantum random walks in one and more dimensions. With X n denoting position at time n, we show that X n /n converges weakly as n→∞ to a certain distribution which is absolutely continuous and of bounded support. The proof is rigorous and makes use of Fourier transform methods. This approach simplifies and extends certain preceding derivations valid in one dimension that make use of combinatorial and path integral methods

  6. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  7. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  8. Assessing the joint effect of population stratification and sample selection in studies of gene-gene (environment interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng KF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the presence of population stratification (PS may cause the usual test in case-control studies to produce spurious gene-disease associations. However, the impact of the PS and sample selection (SS is less known. In this paper, we provide a systematic study of the joint effect of PS and SS under a more general risk model containing genetic and environmental factors. We provide simulation results to show the magnitude of the bias and its impact on type I error rate of the usual chi-square test under a wide range of PS level and selection bias. Results The biases to the estimation of main and interaction effect are quantified and then their bounds derived. The estimated bounds can be used to compute conservative p-values for the association test. If the conservative p-value is smaller than the significance level, we can safely claim that the association test is significant regardless of the presence of PS or not, or if there is any selection bias. We also identify conditions for the null bias. The bias depends on the allele frequencies, exposure rates, gene-environment odds ratios and disease risks across subpopulations and the sampling of the cases and controls. Conclusion Our results show that the bias cannot be ignored even the case and control data were matched in ethnicity. A real example is given to illustrate application of the conservative p-value. These results are useful to the genetic association studies of main and interaction effects.

  9. Isotropization and hydrodynamization in weakly coupled heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2015-01-01

    We numerically solve 2+1D effective kinetic theory of weak coupling QCD under longitudinal expansion relevant for early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We find agreement with viscous hydrodynamics and classical Yang-Mills simulations in the regimes where they are applicable. By choosing initial conditions that are motivated by color-glass-condensate framework we find that for Q=2GeV and $\\alpha_s$=0.3 the system is approximately described by viscous hydrodynamics well before $\\tau \\lesssim 1.0$ fm/c.

  10. Weak Interaction processes in core-collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the role that weak interaction processes play in supernova. This includes electron captures and inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS). Electron captures during the collapse occur mainly in heavy nuclei, however the proton contribution is responsible for the convergence of different models to a 'norm' stellar trajectory. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections at supernova neutrino energies can be determined from precise data on the magnetic dipole strength. The results agree well with large-scale shell-model calculations. When incorporated in core-collapse simulations INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy part of the supernova spectrum

  11. Hydrodynamic fluctuations from a weakly coupled scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G.; Laine, M.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of non-equilibrium dynamics of first-order cosmological phase transitions may involve a scalar field interacting weakly with the energy-momentum tensor of a thermal plasma. At late times, when the scalar field is approaching equilibrium, it experiences both damping and thermal fluctuations. We show that thermal fluctuations induce a shear viscosity and a gravitational wave production rate, and propose that including this tunable contribution may help in calibrating the measurement of the gravitational wave production rate in hydrodynamic simulations. Furthermore it may enrich their physical scope, permitting in particular for a study of the instability of growing bubbles.

  12. Enhancing QKD security with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, Jacob M.; Troupe, James E.

    2016-10-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 10/24/2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 11/8/2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. In the late 1980s, Aharonov and colleagues developed the notion of a weak measurement of a quantum observable that does not appreciably disturb the system.1, 2 The measurement results are conditioned on both the pre-selected and post-selected state of the quantum system. While any one measurement reveals very little information, by making the same measurement on a large ensemble of identically prepared pre- and post-selected (PPS) states and averaging the results, one may obtain what is known as the weak value of the observable with respect to that PPS ensemble. Recently, weak measurements have been proposed as a method of assessing the security of QKD in the well-known BB84 protocol.3 This weak value augmented QKD protocol (WV-QKD) works by additionally requiring the receiver, Bob, to make a weak measurement of a particular observable prior to his strong measurement. For the subset of measurement results in which Alice and Bob's measurement bases do not agree, the weak measurement results can be used to detect any attempt by an eavesdropper, Eve, to correlate her measurement results with Bob's. Furthermore, the well-known detector blinding attacks, which are known to perfectly correlate Eve's results with Bob's without being caught by conventional BB84 implementations, actually make the eavesdropper more visible in the new WV-QKD protocol. In this paper, we will introduce the WV-QKD protocol and discuss its generalization to the 6-state single qubit protocol. We will discuss the types of weak measurements that are optimal for this protocol, and compare the predicted performance of the 6- and 4-state WV-QKD protocols.

  13. Weak interactions in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    There ar many problems in astrophysics and cosmology in which the form of the weak interactions, their strength or the number of weakly interacting particles, is very important. It is possible that astronomical observations may give some information about the weak interactions. In the conventional hot big bang cosmological theory the number of leptons with associated neutrinos influences the speed of expansion of the Universe and the chemical composition of pre-galactic matter. The strength of the weak interaction, as exemplified by the half-life of the neutron, has a similar effect. In addition, the form of the weak interactions will determine how effectively neutrino viscosity can smooth out irregularities in the early Universe. Because neutrinos have a very long mean free path, they can escape from the central region of stars whereas photons can only escape from the surface. In late stages of stellar evolution, neutrino luminosity is often believed to be much greater than photon luminosity. This can both accelerate the cooling of dying stars and influence the stages of stellar evolution leading to the onset of supernova explosions. In pre-super-novae it is even possible that very dense stellar cores can be opaque to neutrinos and that the absorption or scattering of neutrinos can cause the explosion. These results depend crucially on the form of the weak interactions, with the discovery of neutral currents being very important. Until the solar neutrino experiment has been reconciled with theory, the possible role of uncertainties in the weak interactions cannot be ignored. (author)

  14. A Weakly Nonlinear Model for Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability in Incompressible Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Feng, Wang; Wen-Hua, Ye; Zheng-Feng, Fan; Chuang, Xue; Ying-Jun, Li

    2009-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability in two-dimensional incompressible fluids by expanding the perturbation velocity potential to third order. The third-order harmonic generation effects of single-mode perturbation are analyzed, as well as the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. The weakly nonlinear results are supported by numerical simulations. Density and resonance effects exist in the development of mode coupling. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  15. The Problem of Weak Governments and Weak Societies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Grdešić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that, for Eastern Europe, the simultaneous presence of weak governments and weak societies is a crucial obstacle which must be faced by analysts and reformers. The understanding of other normatively significant processes will be deficient without a consciousness-raising deliberation on this problem and its implications. This paper seeks to articulate the “relational” approach to state and society. In addition, the paper lays out a typology of possible patterns of relationship between state and society, dependent on whether the state is weak or strong and whether society is weak or strong. Comparative data are presented in order to provide an empirical support for the theses. Finally, the paper outlines two reform approaches which could enable breaking the vicious circle emerging in the context of weak governments and weak societies.

  16. A New Closed Form Approximation for BER for Optical Wireless Systems in Weak Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rahul; Khandelwal, Vineet; Jain, R. C.

    2018-04-01

    Weak atmospheric turbulence condition in an optical wireless communication (OWC) is captured by log-normal distribution. The analytical evaluation of average bit error rate (BER) of an OWC system under weak turbulence is intractable as it involves the statistical averaging of Gaussian Q-function over log-normal distribution. In this paper, a simple closed form approximation for BER of OWC system under weak turbulence is given. Computation of BER for various modulation schemes is carried out using proposed expression. The results obtained using proposed expression compare favorably with those obtained using Gauss-Hermite quadrature approximation and Monte Carlo Simulations.

  17. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1-64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η - χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  18. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio; Gomes, Diogo A.; Marcon, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Weak KAM theory for a weakly coupled system of Hamilton–Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Figalli, Alessio

    2016-06-23

    Here, we extend the weak KAM and Aubry–Mather theories to optimal switching problems. We consider three issues: the analysis of the calculus of variations problem, the study of a generalized weak KAM theorem for solutions of weakly coupled systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, and the long-time behavior of time-dependent systems. We prove the existence and regularity of action minimizers, obtain necessary conditions for minimality, extend Fathi’s weak KAM theorem, and describe the asymptotic limit of the generalized Lax–Oleinik semigroup. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis and mapping of leaf rust resistance in Aegilops speltoides Tausch derived bread wheat line Selection2427 carrying putative gametocidal gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M; Vinod; Sharma, J B; Mallick, Niharika; Tomar, S M S; Jha, S K

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427). None of the Lr genes introgressed from Ae. speltoides have been mapped to chromosome 3B. Since none of the designated seedling leaf rust resistance genes have been located on chromosome 3B, LrS2427 seems to be a novel gene. Selection2427 showed a unique property typical of gametocidal genes, that when crossed to other bread wheat cultivars, the F 1 showed partial pollen sterility and poor seed setting, whilst Selection2427 showed reasonable male and female fertility. Accidental co-transfer of gametocidal genes with LrS2427 may have occurred in Selection2427. Though LrS2427 did not show any segregation distortion and assorted independently of putative gametocidal gene(s), its utilization will be difficult due to the selfish behavior of gametocidal genes.

  1. Weakly damped modes in star clusters and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    A perturber may excite a coherent mode in a star cluster or galaxy. If the stellar system is stable, it is commonly assumed that such a mode will be strongly damped and therefore of little practical consequence other than redistributing momentum and energy deposited by the perturber. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is false; weakly damped modes exist and may persist long enough to have observable consequences. To do this, a method for investigating the dispersion relation for spherical stellar systems and for locating weakly damped modes in particular is developed and applied to King models of varying concentration. This leads to a following remarkable result: King models exhibit very weakly damped m = 1 modes over a wide range of concentration (0.67 less than or equal to c less than or equal to 1.5 have been examined). The predicted damping time is tens of hundreds of crossing times. This mode causes the peak density to shift from and slowly revolve about the initial center. The existence of the mode is supported by n-body simulation. Higher order modes and possible astronomical consequences are discussed. Weakly damped modes, for example, may provide a neutral explanation for observed discrepancies between density and kinematic centers in galaxies, off-center nuclei, the location of velocity cusps due to massive black holes, and both m = 1 and barlike disturbances of disks enbedded in massive halos or spheroids. Gravitational shocking may excite the m = 1 mode in globular clusters, which could modify their subsequent evolution and displace the positions of exotic remnants.

  2. Efficient quantum computing with weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, A P

    2011-01-01

    Projective measurements with high quantum efficiency are often assumed to be required for efficient circuit-based quantum computing. We argue that this is not the case and show that the fact that they are not required was actually known previously but was not deeply explored. We examine this issue by giving an example of how to perform the quantum-ordering-finding algorithm efficiently using non-local weak measurements considering that the measurements used are of bounded weakness and some fixed but arbitrary probability of success less than unity is required. We also show that it is possible to perform the same computation with only local weak measurements, but this must necessarily introduce an exponential overhead.

  3. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  4. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  5. Weak self-adjoint differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias, M L

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57; 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation. (fast track communication)

  6. On weakly D-differentiable operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Let DD be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space HH and aa a bounded operator on HH. We say that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, if for any pair of vectors ξ,ηξ,η from HH the function 〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉〈eitDae−itDξ,η〉 is differentiable. We give an elementary example of a bounded operator aa......, such that aa is weakly DD-differentiable, but the function eitDae−itDeitDae−itD is not uniformly differentiable. We show that weak  DD-differentiability   may be characterized by several other properties, some of which are related to the commutator (Da−aD)...

  7. Strong effects in weak nonleptonic decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.B.

    1980-04-01

    In this report the weak nonleptonic decays of kaons and hyperons are examined with the hope of gaining insight into a recently proposed mechanism for the ΔI = 1/2 rule. The effective Hamiltonian for ΔS = 1 weak nonleptonic decays and that for K 0 -anti K 0 mixing are calculated in the six-quark model using the leading logarithmic approximation. These are used to examine the CP violation parameters of the kaon system. It is found that if Penguin-type diagrams make important contributions to K → ππ decay amplitudes then upcoming experiments may be able to distinguish the six-quark model for CP violation from the superweak model. The weak radiative decays of hyperons are discussed with an emphasis on what they can teach us about hyperon nonleptonic decays and the ΔI = 1/2 rule

  8. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  9. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  10. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  11. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  12. Weak interactions of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    In weak-interaction models with two charged W bosons of comparable mass, there exists a novel possibility for the weak interactions of the b quark, in which the (u-barb)/sub R/ current occurs with maximal strength. It is noted that multimuon production in e + e - annihilation at above Q 2 > or approx. = (12 GeV) 2 will distinguish this scheme from the conventional one. We also present a Higgs system that leads naturally to this type of coupling, in a class of gauge models

  13. Fast measure proceeding of weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, J.

    1953-01-01

    The process of fast measure of the weak currents that we are going to describe briefly apply worthy of the provided currents by the sources to elevated value internal resistance, as it is the case for the ionization chamber, the photocells, mass spectroscopic tubes. The problem to measure weak currents is essentially a problem of amplifier and of input circuit. We intended to achieve a whole amplifier and input circuit with advanced performances, meaning that for a measured celerity we wanted to have an signal/noise ratio the most important as in the classic systems and for a same report signal/noise a more quickly done measure. (M.B.) [fr

  14. A Continuation Method for Weakly Kannan Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza-Ruiz David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first continuation method for contractive maps in the setting of a metric space was given by Granas. Later, Frigon extended Granas theorem to the class of weakly contractive maps, and recently Agarwal and O'Regan have given the corresponding result for a certain type of quasicontractions which includes maps of Kannan type. In this note we introduce the concept of weakly Kannan maps and give a fixed point theorem, and then a continuation method, for this class of maps.

  15. From Suitable Weak Solutions to Entropy Viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-12-16

    This paper focuses on the notion of suitable weak solutions for the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and discusses the relevance of this notion to Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of the paper is twofold (i) to recall basic mathematical properties of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and to show how they might relate to LES (ii) to introduce an entropy viscosity technique based on the notion of suitable weak solution and to illustrate numerically this concept. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  17. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  18. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  19. Categorization of States Beyond Strong and Weak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tikuisis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discourse on poor state performers has suffered from widely varying definitions on what distinguishes certain weak states from others. Indices that rank states from strong to weak conceal important distinctions that can adversely affect intervention policy. This deficiency is addressed by grouping states according to their performance on three dimensions of statehood: authority, legitimacy, and capacity. The resultant categorization identifies brittle states that are susceptible to regime change, impoverished states often considered as aid darlings, and fragile states that experience disproportionately high levels of violent internal conflict. It also provides a quantifiable means to analyze transitions from one state type to another for more insightful intervention policy.

  20. Theoretical status of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, L. K.

    1980-07-01

    An extended simple version of the Weinberg gauge model is proposed to bring together weak and electromagnetic interactions under one theory. The essential features of the standard SU/sub 2/ (operating on)U/sub 1/ gauge scheme with four leptons and four quark flavours is recalled. Charged-current and neutral current interactions are described. Non-leptonic decays of strange particles are studied. The treatment is extended to 6-leptons and 6-quark flavours. The short comings of this model are discussed. Speculations on the unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are made.

  1. CPT non-invariance and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.

    1973-01-01

    In this talk, I will describe a possible violation of CPT invariance in the domain of weak interactions. One can construct a model of weak interactions which, in order to be consistent with all experimental data, must violate CPT maximally. The model predicts many specific results for decay processes which could be tested in the planned neutral hyperon beam or neutrino beam at NAL. The motivations and the physical idea in the model are explained and the implications of the model are discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Identification of Differentially Methylated Sites with Weak Methylation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA methylation is an epigenetic alteration crucial for regulating stress responses. Identifying large-scale DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution is made possible by whole genome bisulfite sequencing. An essential task following the generation of bisulfite sequencing data is to detect differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs among treatments. Most statistical methods for DMC detection do not consider the dependency of methylation patterns across the genome, thus possibly inflating type I error. Furthermore, small sample sizes and weak methylation effects among different phenotype categories make it difficult for these statistical methods to accurately detect DMCs. To address these issues, the wavelet-based functional mixed model (WFMM was introduced to detect DMCs. To further examine the performance of WFMM in detecting weak differential methylation events, we used both simulated and empirical data and compare WFMM performance to a popular DMC detection tool methylKit. Analyses of simulated data that replicated the effects of the herbicide glyphosate on DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana show that WFMM results in higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting DMCs compared to methylKit, especially when the methylation differences among phenotype groups are small. Moreover, the performance of WFMM is robust with respect to small sample sizes, making it particularly attractive considering the current high costs of bisulfite sequencing. Analysis of empirical Arabidopsis thaliana data under varying glyphosate dosages, and the analysis of monozygotic (MZ twins who have different pain sensitivities—both datasets have weak methylation effects of <1%—show that WFMM can identify more relevant DMCs related to the phenotype of interest than methylKit. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs are genomic regions with different DNA methylation status across biological samples. DMRs and DMCs are essentially the same

  3. The Weakly Nonlinear Magnetorotational Instability in a Local Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. E.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.

    2017-05-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a fundamental process of accretion disk physics, but its saturation mechanism remains poorly understood despite considerable theoretical and computational effort. We present a multiple-scales analysis of the non-ideal MRI in the weakly nonlinear regime—that is, when the most unstable MRI mode has a growth rate asymptotically approaching zero from above. Here, we develop our theory in a local, Cartesian channel. Our results confirm the finding by Umurhan et al. that the perturbation amplitude follows a Ginzburg-Landau equation. We further find that the Ginzburg-Landau equation will arise for the local MRI system with shear-periodic boundary conditions, when the effects of ambipolar diffusion are considered. A detailed force balance for the saturated azimuthal velocity and vertical magnetic field demonstrates that, even when diffusive effects are important, the bulk flow saturates via the combined processes of reducing the background shear and rearranging and strengthening the background vertical magnetic field. We directly simulate the Ginzburg-Landau amplitude evolution for our system, and demonstrate the pattern formation our model predicts on long scales of length- and timescales. We compare the weakly nonlinear theory results to a direct numerical simulation of the MRI in a thin-gap Taylor Couette flow.

  4. The Weakly Nonlinear Magnetorotational Instability in a Local Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S. E. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Oishi, Jeffrey S., E-mail: seclark@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a fundamental process of accretion disk physics, but its saturation mechanism remains poorly understood despite considerable theoretical and computational effort. We present a multiple-scales analysis of the non-ideal MRI in the weakly nonlinear regime—that is, when the most unstable MRI mode has a growth rate asymptotically approaching zero from above. Here, we develop our theory in a local, Cartesian channel. Our results confirm the finding by Umurhan et al. that the perturbation amplitude follows a Ginzburg–Landau equation. We further find that the Ginzburg–Landau equation will arise for the local MRI system with shear-periodic boundary conditions, when the effects of ambipolar diffusion are considered. A detailed force balance for the saturated azimuthal velocity and vertical magnetic field demonstrates that, even when diffusive effects are important, the bulk flow saturates via the combined processes of reducing the background shear and rearranging and strengthening the background vertical magnetic field. We directly simulate the Ginzburg–Landau amplitude evolution for our system, and demonstrate the pattern formation our model predicts on long scales of length- and timescales. We compare the weakly nonlinear theory results to a direct numerical simulation of the MRI in a thin-gap Taylor Couette flow.

  5. A weak balance: the contribution of muscle weakness to postural instability and falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, G.C.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Allum, J.H.J.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle strength is a potentially important factor contributing to postural control. In this article, we consider the influence of muscle weakness on postural instability and falling. We searched the literature for research evaluating muscle weakness as a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling

  6. Weakly nonlocal symplectic structures, Whitham method and weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltsev, A Ya

    2005-01-01

    We consider the special type of field-theoretical symplectic structures called weakly nonlocal. The structures of this type are, in particular, very common for integrable systems such as KdV or NLS. We introduce here the special class of weakly nonlocal symplectic structures which we call weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type. We investigate then the connection of such structures with the Whitham averaging method and propose the procedure of 'averaging' the weakly nonlocal symplectic structures. The averaging procedure gives the weakly nonlocal symplectic structure of hydrodynamic type for the corresponding Whitham system. The procedure also gives 'action variables' corresponding to the wave numbers of m-phase solutions of the initial system which give the additional conservation laws for the Whitham system

  7. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of

  8. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  9. Weak MSO: automata and expressiveness modulo bisimilarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carreiro, F.; Facchini, A.; Venema, Y.; Zanasi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We prove that the bisimulation-invariant fragment of weak monadic second-order logic (WMSO) is equivalent to the fragment of the modal μ-calculus where the application of the least fixpoint operator μp.φ is restricted to formulas φ that are continuous in p. Our proof is automata-theoretic in nature;

  10. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  11. Weak contractions via $\\lambda$-sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    In this note, we discuss common fixed point for a family of self mapping defined on a metric type space and satisfying a weakly contractive condition. In our development, we make use of the $\\lambda$-sequence approach and also of a certain class of real valued maps. We derive some implications for self-mappings on quasi-pseudometric type spaces.

  12. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  13. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B→B 1 B 2 -barγ are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b→sγ electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived

  14. Weak NNM couplings and nuclear parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    After many years of careful theoretical and experimental study of nuclear parity violation, rough empirical values for weak parity violation nucleon-nucleon-meson vertices have been deduced. We address some of the physics which has been learned from this effort and show that it has implications for work going on outside this field. (author)

  15. Weak universality in inhomogeneous Ising quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karevski, Dragi

    2006-01-01

    The Ising quantum chain with arbitrary coupling distribution {λ i } leading to an anisotropic scaling is considered. The smallest gap of the chain is connected to the surface magnetization by the relation Λ 1 = m s ({λ i })m s ({λ -1 i }). For some aperiodic distribution {λ i }, a weak universality of the critical behaviour is found. (letter to the editor)

  16. Broken color symmetry and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de

  17. Solitons and Weakly Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical descriptions of solitons and weakly nonlinear waves propagating in plasma media are reviewed, with particular attention to the Korteweg-de Vries (KDV) equation and the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). The modifications of these basic equations due to the effects of resonant...

  18. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  19. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Gauge theories of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1978-08-01

    Two lectures are presented on the Weinberg--Salam--Glashow--Iliopoulos--Maiani gauge theory for weak interactions. An attempt is made to give some impressions of the generality of this model, how it was developed, variations found in the literature, and the status of the standard model. 21 references

  1. Electric properties of weakly nonideal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K; Radtke, R

    1984-01-01

    The progress in theory as well as in diagnostics and measurement during the last fifteen years is reviewed. Starting from the transport theory of ideal plasmas physically justified corrections are introduced which allow the quantitative calculation of the transport properties of weakly nonideal plasmas. Essential coefficients and numerical data of the electrical conductivity for plasmas of technical importance are given in tables and diagrams.

  2. Localization on weakly disordered Cayley tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezini, A.; Olivier, G.

    1980-08-01

    The localization model of Kumar et al. is critically re-examined for the approximation γ → 0, which describes weak disorder. By using an improved method of approximation, we have studied the displacement of the band and the mobility edges and compared the result of Kumar et al. and Abou-Chacra et al. in the light of the present approximation. (author)

  3. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  4. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  5. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  6. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  7. Weak-interaction rates in stellar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β-decay and electron captures, are studied in several mass regions at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. In particular, we study odd-A nuclei in the pf-shell region, which are involved in presupernova formations. Weak rates are relevant to understand the late stages of the stellar evolution, as well as the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle proton-neutron random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. First, the energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength are discussed and compared with the available experimental information, measured under terrestrial conditions from charge-exchange reactions. Then, the sensitivity of the weak-interaction rates to both astrophysical densities and temperatures is studied. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus and to the electron captures from the degenerate electron plasma.

  8. Black holes and the weak cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of black holes is developed under the assumption of the weak cosmic censorship. It includes Hawking's theory of black holes in the future asymptotically predictable space-times as a special case but it also applies to the cosmological situations including models with nonzero cosmological constant of both signs. (author)

  9. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  10. Practical Weak-lensing Shear Measurement with Metacalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 510, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Huff, Eric M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Metacalibration is a recently introduced method to accurately measure weak gravitational lensing shear using only the available imaging data, without need for prior information about galaxy properties or calibration from simulations. The method involves distorting the image with a small known shear, and calculating the response of a shear estimator to that applied shear. The method was shown to be accurate in moderate-sized simulations with galaxy images that had relatively high signal-to-noise ratios, and without significant selection effects. In this work we introduce a formalism to correct for both shear response and selection biases. We also observe that for images with relatively low signal-to-noise ratios, the correlated noise that arises during the metacalibration process results in significant bias, for which we develop a simple empirical correction. To test this formalism, we created large image simulations based on both parametric models and real galaxy images, including tests with realistic point-spread functions. We varied the point-spread function ellipticity at the five-percent level. In each simulation we applied a small few-percent shear to the galaxy images. We introduced additional challenges that arise in real data, such as detection thresholds, stellar contamination, and missing data. We applied cuts on the measured galaxy properties to induce significant selection effects. Using our formalism, we recovered the input shear with an accuracy better than a part in a thousand in all cases.

  11. Finding novel relationships with integrated gene-gene association network analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using species-independent text-mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreula, Sanna M; Kaewphan, Suwisa; Ginter, Filip; Jones, Patrik R

    2018-01-01

    The increasing move towards open access full-text scientific literature enhances our ability to utilize advanced text-mining methods to construct information-rich networks that no human will be able to grasp simply from 'reading the literature'. The utility of text-mining for well-studied species is obvious though the utility for less studied species, or those with no prior track-record at all, is not clear. Here we present a concept for how advanced text-mining can be used to create information-rich networks even for less well studied species and apply it to generate an open-access gene-gene association network resource for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a representative model organism for cyanobacteria and first case-study for the methodology. By merging the text-mining network with networks generated from species-specific experimental data, network integration was used to enhance the accuracy of predicting novel interactions that are biologically relevant. A rule-based algorithm (filter) was constructed in order to automate the search for novel candidate genes with a high degree of likely association to known target genes by (1) ignoring established relationships from the existing literature, as they are already 'known', and (2) demanding multiple independent evidences for every novel and potentially relevant relationship. Using selected case studies, we demonstrate the utility of the network resource and filter to ( i ) discover novel candidate associations between different genes or proteins in the network, and ( ii ) rapidly evaluate the potential role of any one particular gene or protein. The full network is provided as an open-source resource.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase P1, gene-gene interaction, and lung cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population: An updated meta-analysis and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ming Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To assess the impact of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism on the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population, an updated meta-analysis and review was performed. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified from PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biology Medicine published through January 22, 2015. The odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations. Results: A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2026 lung cancer cases and 2451 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significantly increased lung cancer risk was associated with the variant genotypes of GSTP1 polymorphism in the Chinese population (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84. In subgroup analyses stratified by geographic area and source of controls, the significant results were found in population-based studies (GG vs. AA: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.13-2.31; GG vs. AG: OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.16; GG vs. AA + AG: OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.26. A gene-gene interaction analysis showed that there was an interaction for individuals with combination of GSTM1 (or GSTT1 null genotype and GSTP1 (AG + GG mutant genotype for lung cancer risk in Chinese. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism may increase the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population.

  13. Gene-gene combination effect and interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP polymorphisms for serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. METHODS: The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35-69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001. Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present.

  14. Compatibility between weak gel and microorganisms in weak gel-assisted microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Ma, Tao

    2018-03-20

    To investigate weak gel-assisted microbial flooding in Block Wang Long Zhuang in the Jiangsu Oilfield, the compatibility of weak gel and microbe was evaluated using laboratory experiments. Bacillus sp. W5 was isolated from the formation water in Block Wang Long Zhuang. The rate of oil degradation reached 178 mg/day, and the rate of viscosity reduction reached 75.3%. Strain W5 could produce lipopeptide with a yield of 1254 mg/L. Emulsified crude oil was dispersed in the microbial degradation system, and the average diameter of the emulsified oil particles was 18.54 μm. Bacillus sp. W5 did not affect the rheological properties of the weak gel, and the presence of the weak gel did not significantly affect bacterial reproduction (as indicated by an unchanged microbial biomass), emulsification (surface tension is 35.56 mN/m and average oil particles size is 21.38 μm), oil degradation (162 mg/day) and oil viscosity reduction (72.7%). Core-flooding experiments indicated oil recovery of 23.6% when both weak gel and Bacillus sp. W5 were injected into the system, 14.76% when only the weak gel was injected, and 9.78% with strain W5 was injected without the weak gel. The results demonstrate good compatibility between strains W5 and the weak gel and highlight the application potential of weak gel-assisted microbial flooding. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Weak mixing below the weak scale in dark-matter direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2018-02-01

    If dark matter couples predominantly to the axial-vector currents with heavy quarks, the leading contribution to dark-matter scattering on nuclei is either due to one-loop weak corrections or due to the heavy-quark axial charges of the nucleons. We calculate the effects of Higgs and weak gauge-boson exchanges for dark matter coupling to heavy-quark axial-vector currents in an effective theory below the weak scale. By explicit computation, we show that the leading-logarithmic QCD corrections are important, and thus resum them to all orders using the renormalization group.

  16. Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders

  17. Asymptotic theory of weakly dependent random processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rio, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Presenting tools to aid understanding of asymptotic theory and weakly dependent processes, this book is devoted to inequalities and limit theorems for sequences of random variables that are strongly mixing in the sense of Rosenblatt, or absolutely regular. The first chapter introduces covariance inequalities under strong mixing or absolute regularity. These covariance inequalities are applied in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 to moment inequalities, rates of convergence in the strong law, and central limit theorems. Chapter 5 concerns coupling. In Chapter 6 new deviation inequalities and new moment inequalities for partial sums via the coupling lemmas of Chapter 5 are derived and applied to the bounded law of the iterated logarithm. Chapters 7 and 8 deal with the theory of empirical processes under weak dependence. Lastly, Chapter 9 describes links between ergodicity, return times and rates of mixing in the case of irreducible Markov chains. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises. The book is an updated and extended ...

  18. Nulling tomography with weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; White, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We explore several strategies of eliminating (or nulling) the small-scale information in weak lensing convergence power spectrum measurements in order to protect against undesirable effects, for example, the effects of baryonic cooling and pressure forces on the distribution of large-scale structures. We selectively throw out the small-scale information in the convergence power spectrum that is most sensitive to the unwanted bias, while trying to retain most of the sensitivity to cosmological parameters. The strategies are effective in the difficult but realistic situations when we are able to guess the form of the contaminating effect only approximately. However, we also find that the simplest scheme of simply not using information from the largest multipoles works about as well as the proposed techniques in most, although not all, realistic cases. We advocate further exploration of nulling techniques and believe that they will find important applications in the weak lensing data mining

  19. A dynamical weak scale from inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tevong, E-mail: tty20@cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical scanning of the Higgs mass by an axion-like particle during inflation may provide a cosmological component to explaining part of the hierarchy problem. We propose a novel interplay of this cosmological relaxation mechanism with inflation, whereby the backreaction of the Higgs vacuum expectation value near the weak scale causes inflation to end. As Hubble drops, the relaxion's dissipative friction increases relative to Hubble and slows it down enough to be trapped by the barriers of its periodic potential. Such a scenario raises the natural cut-off of the theory up to ∼ 10{sup 10} GeV, while maintaining a minimal relaxion sector without having to introduce additional scanning scalars or new physics coincidentally close to the weak scale.

  20. Weak-light phase locking for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    The long armlengths of the LISA interferometer, and the finite aperture of the telescope, lead to an optical power attenuation of ∼10 -10 of the transmitted to received light. Simple reflection at the end of the arm is therefore not an optimum interferometric design. Instead, a local laser is offset phase locked to the weak incoming beam, transferring the phase information of the incoming to the outgoing light. This paper reports on an experiment to characterize a weak-light phase-locking scheme suitable for LISA in which a diode-pumped, Nd:YAG, non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO) is offset phase locked to a low-power (13 pW) frequency stabilized master NPRO. Preliminary results of the relative phase noise of the slave laser shows shot noise limited performance above 0.4 Hz. Excess noise is observed at lower frequencies, most probably due to thermal effects in the optical arrangement and phase-sensing electronics

  1. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  2. Quantum Groups, Property (T), and Weak Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Michael; Kerr, David

    2018-06-01

    For second countable discrete quantum groups, and more generally second countable locally compact quantum groups with trivial scaling group, we show that property (T) is equivalent to every weakly mixing unitary representation not having almost invariant vectors. This is a generalization of a theorem of Bekka and Valette from the group setting and was previously established in the case of low dual by Daws, Skalski, and Viselter. Our approach uses spectral techniques and is completely different from those of Bekka-Valette and Daws-Skalski-Viselter. By a separate argument we furthermore extend the result to second countable nonunimodular locally compact quantum groups, which are shown in particular not to have property (T), generalizing a theorem of Fima from the discrete setting. We also obtain quantum group versions of characterizations of property (T) of Kerr and Pichot in terms of the Baire category theory of weak mixing representations and of Connes and Weiss in terms of the prevalence of strongly ergodic actions.

  3. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  4. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  5. Bound states in weakly disordered spin ladders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlego, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: arlego@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Cabra, D.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Honecker, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Rossini, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-04-30

    We study the appearance of bound states in the spin gap of spin-12 ladders induced by weak bond disorder. Starting from the strong-coupling limit, i.e., the limit of weakly coupled dimers, we perform a projection on the single-triplet subspace and derive the position of bound states for the single impurity problem of one modified coupling as well as for small impurity clusters. The case of a finite concentration of impurities is treated with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the strong-coupling limit and compared with numerical results. Further, we analyze the details in the structure of the density of states and relate their origin to the influence of impurity clusters.

  6. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  7. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  8. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS......). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated....

  9. The weak conversion rate in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches

  10. BCS superconductivity for weakly coupled clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, J.

    1992-01-01

    BCS superconductivity is expected to have fairly high critical temperatures when clusters of moderate sizes are weakly coupled to form a crystal. This remark extends to quasi zerodimensional cases, a remark initially made by Labbe for quasi one-dimensional ones and by Hirsch, Bok and Labbe for quasi twodimensional ones. Possible applications are envisaged for twodimensional clusters (fullerene) or threedimensional ones (metal clusters, Chevrel phases). Conditions for optimal applicability of the scheme are somewhat restricted. (orig.)

  11. Deep inelastic inclusive weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of deep inelastic inclusive interactions is reviewed, emphasizing applications to electromagnetic and weak charged current processes. The following reactions are considered: e + N → e + X, ν + N → μ - + X, anti ν + N → μ + + X where X denotes a summation over all final state hadrons and the ν's are muon neutrinos. After a discussion of scaling, the quark-parton model is invoked to explain the principle experimental features of deep inelastic inclusive reactions

  12. Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8 B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun

  13. Search for weakly decaying b -flavored pentaquarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alfonso Albero, A.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; D'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Atzeni, M.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; BacK, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baker, S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; BarsuK, S.; Barter, W.; Baryshnikov, F.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Beiter, A.; Bel, L. J.; Beliy, N.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; BeraneK, S.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Berninghoff, D.; Bertholet, E.; Bertolin, A.; Betancourt, C.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. O.; Van Beuzekom, M.; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørn, M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; BlusK, S.; Bocci, V.; Boettcher, T.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bordyuzhin, I.; Borghi, S.; BorisyaK, M.; Borsato, M.; Bossu, F.; Boubdir, M.; BowcocK, T. J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brodzicka, J.; Brundu, D.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Byczynski, W.; Cadeddu, S.; Cai, H.; Calabrese, R.; Calladine, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D. H.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Chamont, D.; Chapman, M. G.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. F.; Chitic, S. G.; Chobanova, V.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Chubykin, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; CiezareK, G.; Clarke, P. E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collins, P.; Colombo, T.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Coombs, G.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Costa Sobral, C. M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; CraiK, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Da Cunha Marinho, F.; Da Silva, C. L.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Serio, M.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. T.; Decamp, D.; Del Buono, L.; Dembinski, H. P.; Demmer, M.; DendeK, A.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Douglas, L.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Durante, P.; Durham, J. M.; Dutta, D.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Ebert, M.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fazzini, D.; Federici, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez, G.; Fernandez Declara, P.; Fernandez Prieto, A.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Lopes, L.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fini, R. A.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; FitzpatricK, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Franco Lima, V.; FranK, M.; Frei, C.; Fu, J.; FunK, W.; Furfaro, E.; Färber, C.; Gabriel, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Martin, L. M.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; GericK, D.; GersabecK, E.; GersabecK, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gizdov, K.; Gligorov, V. V.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorelov, I. V.; Gotti, C.; Govorkova, E.; Grabowski, J. P.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greim, R.; Grillo, L.; Gruber, L.; Gruberg Cazon, B. R.; Grünberg, O.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Göbel, C.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; HancocK, T. H.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Hasse, C.; Hatch, M.; Hecker, M.; Heinicke, K.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hopchev, P. H.; Huard, Z. C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Ibis, P.; IdziK, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; JuriK, N.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Kariuki, J. M.; Karodia, S.; Kazeev, N.; Kecke, M.; Keizer, F.; Kelsey, M.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Klimkovich, T.; Koliiev, S.; Kolpin, M.; Kopecna, R.; Koppenburg, P.; Kosmyntseva, A.; Kotriakhova, S.; Kozeiha, M.; KravchuK, L.; Kreps, M.; Kress, F.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; KucharczyK, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lefèvre, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; LesiaK, T.; Leverington, B.; Liang, X.; Likhomanenko, T.; Lindner, R.; Lionetto, F.; Lisovskyi, V.; Loh, D.; Loi, A.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Lyu, X.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Macko, V.; MackowiaK, P.; Maddrell-Mander, S.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Maisuzenko, D.; Majewski, M. W.; Malde, S.; Malecki, B.; Malinin, A.; Maltsev, T.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marangotto, D.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marinangeli, M.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurice, E.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Mead, J. V.; Meadows, B.; Meaux, C.; Meier, F.; Meinert, N.; MelnychuK, D.; MerK, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Millard, E.; Minard, M. N.; Minzoni, L.; Mitzel, D. S.; Mogini, A.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Mombächer, T.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morello, M. J.; Morgunova, O.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; NaiK, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nogay, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Ossowska, A.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pais, P. R.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Pastore, A.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Pereima, D.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; PietrzyK, B.; PietrzyK, G.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pisani, F.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Placinta, V.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poli Lener, M.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Pomery, G. J.; Ponce, S.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Poslavskii, S.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Prisciandaro, J.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Pullen, H.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Qin, J.; Quagliani, R.; Quintana, B.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; RaniuK, I.; Ratnikov, F.; Raven, G.; Ravonel Salzgeber, M.; Reboud, M.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Remon Alepuz, C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Robert, A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Rollings, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rudolph, M. S.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Ruiz Vidal, J.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sadykhov, E.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarpis, G.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schellenberg, M.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schreiner, H. F.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepulveda, E. S.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva De Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Simone, S.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Soares Lavra, L.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J.P.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefko, P.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stemmle, S.; Stenyakin, O.; Stepanova, M.; Stevens, H.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, J.; Sun, L.; SwienteK, K.; Syropoulos, V.; SzumlaK, T.; Szymanski, M.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tilley, M. J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; TolK, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R.; Tournefier, E.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tully, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Usachov, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagner, A.; Vagnoni, V.; Valassi, A.; Valat, S.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Venkateswaran, A.; Verlage, T. A.; Vernet, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Viana Barbosa, J. V.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Viemann, H.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vitti, M.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voneki, B.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Waldi, R.; Walsh, J.; Ward, D. R.; WarK, H. M.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Weisser, C.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Winn, M.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; WiteK, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, M.; Xu, Q.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Yin, H.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zarebski, K. A.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhukov, V.; Zonneveld, J. B.; Zucchelli, S.

    2018-01-01

    Investigations of the existence of pentaquark states containing a single b (anti)quark decaying weakly into four specific final states J/ψK+π-p, J/ψK-π-p, J/ψK-π+p, and J/ψφ(1020)p are reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb-1 in 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions acquired

  14. Nonmesonic weak decay of the hypertriton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennhold, C.; Ramos, A.; Aruliah, D.A.; Oelfke, U.

    1992-01-01

    The nonmesonic weak decay of Λ 3 H is evaluated microscopically in the pion exchange model. The correlated three-body wave function of the hypertriton is approximated by a bound Λ-deuteron system obtained by averaging the YN interaction over the deuteron wave function. The relevant matrix elements are calculated in momentum space. The resulting decay rate is 4.9% of the free Λ decay rate

  15. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  16. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  17. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Equilibration and hydrodynamics at strong and weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schee, Wilke

    2017-11-01

    We give an updated overview of both weak and strong coupling methods to describe the approach to a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics, a process now called hydrodynamisation. At weak coupling the very first moments after a heavy ion collision is described by the colour-glass condensate framework, but quickly thereafter the mean free path is long enough for kinetic theory to become applicable. Recent simulations indicate thermalization in a time t ∼ 40(η / s) 4 / 3 / T [L. Keegan, A. Kurkela, P. Romatschke, W. van der Schee, Y. Zhu, Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories, JHEP 04 (2016) 031. arxiv:arXiv:1512.05347, doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2016)031], with T the temperature at that time and η / s the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density. At (infinitely) strong coupling it is possible to mimic heavy ion collisions by using holography, which leads to a dual description of colliding gravitational shock waves. The plasma formed hydrodynamises within a time of 0.41/T recent extension found corrections to this result for finite values of the coupling, when η / s is bigger than the canonical value of 1/4π, which leads to t ∼ (0.41 + 1.6 (η / s - 1 / 4 π)) / T [S. Grozdanov, W. van der Schee, Coupling constant corrections in holographic heavy ion collisions, arxiv:arXiv:1610.08976]. Future improvements include the inclusion of the effects of the running coupling constant in QCD.

  19. Policy-based benchmarking of weak heaps and their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Asger; Edelkamp, Stefan; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental study where we evaluated the practical efficiency of three worst-case efficient priority queues: 1) a weak heap that is a binary tree fulfilling half-heap ordering, 2) a weak queue that is a forest of perfect weak heaps, and 3) a runrelaxed weak queue tha...

  20. Statistics of resonances in a one-dimensional chain: a weak disorder limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinayak

    2012-01-01

    We study statistics of resonances in a one-dimensional disordered chain coupled to an outer world simulated by a perfect lead. We consider a limiting case for weak disorder and derive some results which are new in these studies. The main focus of this study is to describe the statistics of the scattered complex energies. We derive compact analytic statistical results for long chains. A comparison of these results has been found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations. (paper)

  1. Charge correlation effects on ionization of weak polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotopoulos, A Z

    2009-01-01

    Ionization curves of weak polyelectrolytes were obtained as a function of the charge coupling strength from Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to many earlier studies, the present work treats counterions explicitly, thus allowing the investigation of charge correlation effects at strong couplings. For conditions representing typical weak polyelectrolytes in water near room temperature, ionization is suppressed because of interactions between nearby dissociated groups, as also seen in prior work. A novel finding here is that, for stronger couplings, relevant for non-aqueous environments in the absence of added salt, the opposite behavior is observed-ionization is enhanced relative to the behavior of the isolated groups due to ion-counterion correlation effects. The fraction of dissociated groups as a function of position along the chain also behaves non-monotonically. Dissociation is highest near the ends of the chains for aqueous polyelectrolytes and highest at the chain middle segments for non-aqueous environments. At intermediate coupling strengths, dissociable groups appear to behave in a nearly ideal fashion, even though chain dimensions still show strong expansion effects due to ionization. These findings provide physical insights on the impact of competition between acid/base chemical equilibrium and electrostatic attractions in ionizable systems.

  2. Linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a weakly curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael

    2015-04-01

    We extend our study of all-order linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a flat space [1, 2] to fluids in weakly curved spaces. The underlying microscopic theory is a finite temperature super-Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The AdS/CFT correspondence relates black brane solutions of the Einstein gravity in asymptotically locally AdS5 geometry to relativistic conformal fluids in a weakly curved 4D background. To linear order in the amplitude of hydrodynamic variables and metric perturbations, the fluid's energy-momentum tensor is computed with derivatives of both the fluid velocity and background metric resummed to all orders. We extensively discuss the meaning of all order hydrodynamics by expressing it in terms of the memory function formalism, which is also suitable for practical simulations. In addition to two viscosity functions discussed at length in refs. [1, 2], we find four curvature induced structures coupled to the fluid via new transport coefficient functions. In ref. [3], the latter were referred to as gravitational susceptibilities of the fluid. We analytically compute these coefficients in the hydrodynamic limit, and then numerically up to large values of momenta.

  3. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  4. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  5. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  6. Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensationfor Individual Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Takanori; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show howto estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak ob...

  7. Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. D.; Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ng, K. Y. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Marshall, P. J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Meyers, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bard, D. J., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: dstn@cmu.edu, E-mail: boutigny@in2p3.fr, E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: jmeyers314@stanford.edu [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8150 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a spatial process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear or Gaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we expect our algorithm to require parallel high-performance computing resources for application to ongoing wide field lensing surveys.

  8. Are Sb4n (n>1) clusters weakly interacting tetrahedra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1993-03-01

    The electronic and atomic structure of Sb 4 and Sb 8 clusters is studied using the ab-initio molecular dynamics method in the local density approximation. While for Sb 4 we obtain a regular tetrahedron to be about 2.0 eV lower in energy than a bent rhombus, for Sb 8 two structures, (1) two weakly interaction tetrahedra and (2) a bent rhombus interacting with a stretched tetrahedron, obtained from the simulated annealing lie only within about 0.1 eV indicating the importance of the bent rhombus structure for larger clusters. As compared to two isolated tetrahedra, the binding energy of Sb 8 is about 0.5 eV. Our results are thus in excellent agreement with the experimental data which show predominantly the abundance of tetramers above room temperature. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Structure and weak hydrogen bonds in liquid acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Maria A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to investigate the structure and hydrogen bonds formation in liquid acetaldehyde. An all atom model for the acetaldehyde have been optimized in the present work. Theoretical values obtained for heat of vaporisation and density of the liquid are in good agreement with experimental data. Graphics of radial distribution function indicate a well structured liquid compared to other similar dipolar organic liquids. Molecular mechanics minimization in gas phase leads to a trimer of very stable structure. The geometry of this complex is in very good agreement with the rdf. The shortest site-site correlation is between oxygen and the carbonyl hydrogen, suggesting that this correlation play a important role in the liquid structure and properties. The OxxxH average distance and the C-HxxxO angle obtained are characteristic of weak hydrogen bonds.

  10. Weak solutions to interdiffusion models with Vegard rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapa, Lucjan; BoŻek, Bogusław; Danielewski, Marek

    2018-01-01

    In this work we consider the diffusional transport in an r-component solid solution. The one and multidimensional models are expressed by the nonlinear systems of strongly coupled differential equations with the initial and the nonlinear coupled boundary conditions. They are obtained from the local mass conservation law for fluxes which are a sum of the diffusional and Darken drift terms, together with the Vegard rule. The considered boundary conditions allow the physical system to be not only closed but also open. The theorems on existence, uniqueness and properties of global weak solutions in the one-dimensional case are formulated. The agreement between the theoretical results, numerical simulations and experimental data in the one-dimensional case is shown.

  11. Feasibility of isotachochromatography as a method for the preparative separation of weak acids and weak bases. I. Theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, C.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental equation of isotachochromatography, i.e., isotachophoresis translated into ion-exchange chromatography, has been derived for weak acids and weak bases. Weak acids are separated on strong cation exchangers and weak bases on strong anion exchangers. According to theory, the elution

  12. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Smout, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 4-7) and weakly alkaline (pH >7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their

  13. The magnetosphere under weak solar wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere was very strongly disturbed during the passage of the strong shock and the following interacting ejecta on 21–25 October 2001. These disturbances included two intense storms (Dst*≈−250 and −180 nT, respectively. The cessation of this activity at the start of 24 October ushered in a peculiar state of the magnetosphere which lasted for about 28 h and which we discuss in this paper. The interplanetary field was dominated by the sunward component [B=(4.29±0.77, −0.30±0.71, 0.49±0.45 nT]. We analyze global indicators of geomagnetic disturbances, polar cap precipitation, ground magnetometer records, and ionospheric convection as obtained from SuperDARN radars. The state of the magnetosphere is characterized by the following features: (i generally weak and patchy (in time low-latitude dayside reconnection or reconnection poleward of the cusps; (ii absence of substorms; (iii a monotonic recovery from the previous storm activity (Dst corrected for magnetopause currents decreasing from ~−65 to ~−35 nT, giving an unforced decreased of ~1.1 nT/h; (iv the probable absence of viscous-type interaction originating from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability; (v a cross-polar cap potential of just 20–30 kV; (vi a persistent, polar cap region containing (vii very weak, and sometimes absent, electron precipitation and no systematic inter-hemisphere asymmetry. Whereas we therefore infer the presence of a moderate amount of open flux, the convection is generally weak and patchy, which we ascribe to the lack of solar wind driver. This magnetospheric state approaches that predicted by Cowley and Lockwood (1992 but has never yet been observed.

  14. Spectral line profiles in weakly turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capes, H.; Voslamber, D.

    1976-07-01

    The unified theory of line broadening by electron perturbers is generalized to include the case of a weakly turbulent plasma. The collision operator in the line shape expression is shown to be the sum of two terms, both containing effects arising from the non-equilibrium nature of the plasma. One of the two terms represents the influence of individual atom-particle interactions occuring via the nonequilibrium dielectric plasma medium. The other term is due to the interaction of the atom with the turbulent waves. Both terms contain damping and diffusion effects arising from the plasma turbulence

  15. Weak mixing angles and heavy flavours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1984-05-01

    The present status of the weak mixing angles, in the standard six quark model, is reviewed. The implications of the recent measurements of the beauty lifetime and branching ratios are discussed, in the framework of the Kobayashi-Maskawa and the Wolfenstein parametrizations. Expectations for B(sup)o - B(sup)-o mixing and consequences for the collider data are given. Other topics briefly reviewed are CP-violation, top quark mass and possible implications of the existence of a fourth family. (author)

  16. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  17. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  18. Unification of electromagnetic, strong and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Phi; Duong Anh Duc

    1993-09-01

    The Unification of Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak Interactions is realized in the framework of the Quantum Field Theory, established in an 8-dimensional Unified Space. Two fundamental, spinor and vector field equations are considered. The first of the matter particles and the second is of the gauge particles. Interaction Lagrangians are formed from the external and internal currents and the external and internal vector field operators. Generators of the local gauge transformations are the combinations of the matrices of the first field equation. (author). 15 refs

  19. Relativistic rapprochement of weak and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the relativistic Yukawa potentials for the nuclear (quark) field and the field of intermediate vector W-, Z-bosons, it is shown that the interactions described by them increase differently with growing velocity (the weak one increases more rapidly). According to the estimates, they are compared (at distances of the 'action radius' of nuclear forces) at an energy of about 10 12 GeV (10 6 GeV for the pion field) what is smaller than the corresponding value in the model of 'grand unification'. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  20. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated.

  1. Superconductivity in multilayer perovskite. Weak coupling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koikegami, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the superconductivity of a three-dimensional d-p model with a multilayer perovskite structure on the basis of the second-order perturbation theory within the weak coupling framework. Our model has been designed with multilayer high-T c superconducting cuprates in mind. In our model, multiple Fermi surfaces appear, and the component of a superconducting gap function develops on each band. We have found that the multilayer structure can stabilize the superconductivity in a wide doping range. (author)

  2. Weak measurement and its experimental realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flack, R; Hiley, B J

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the real part of the weak value of the momentum operator at a post selected position is discussed and the meaning of the experimentally determined stream-lines in the Toronto experiment of Kocsis et al is re-examined. We argue against interpreting the energy flow lines as photon trajectories. The possibility of performing an analogous experiment using atoms is proposed in order that a direct comparison can be made with the trajectories calculated by Philippidis, Dewdney and Hiley using the Bohm approach.

  3. Weak field approximation of new general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masayasu; Masukawa, Junnichi

    1985-01-01

    In the weak field approximation, gravitational field equations of new general relativity with arbitrary parameters are examined. Assuming a conservation law delta sup(μ)T sub(μν) = 0 of the energy-momentum tensor T sub(μν) for matter fields in addition to the usual one delta sup(ν)T sub(μν) = 0, we show that the linearized gravitational field equations are decomposed into equations for a Lorentz scalar field and symmetric and antisymmetric Lorentz tensor fields. (author)

  4. New quark model with weak triplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Hori, S.; Yamada, E.; Yamanashi, K.; Abe, Y.

    1976-01-01

    We propose a new anomaly-free quark model with weak isotriplets for quarks. The ΔI=1/2 enhancement may be accounted for, the requirement of Golowich and Holstein being satisfied. There arises a mixing of left-handed charmed quarks with left-handed nucleonic ones - such mixing essentially gives an overall explanation of neutral-current effects, inclusive y distribution, the ratio sigma/sup T/(anti νd)/sigma/sup T/(νd), and copious dilepton events in ν and anti ν reactions

  5. Excavating wide inclines in weak strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N N [Ukrspetsstroiproekt (USSR)

    1990-09-01

    Discusses schemes for excavation of transport inclines in surface mines under conditions of weak, unstable rocks characterized by a high water content. The schemes are aimed at maximum reduction of excavation operations without infringing the safety of personnel. Use of walking draglines (the EhSh-20/90, EhSh-100/100 and EhSh-10/70) is evaluated. Optimum schemes for incline excavation and determining optimum slope inclination are described on the example of the Berezovsk brown coal surface mine in the USSR. Efficiency of optimum schemes is analyzed: range of excavation, safety degree, landslide hazards, water influx rate, accident rate, etc.

  6. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-26

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.

  7. On Uniform Weak König's Lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The so-called weak Konig's lemma WKL asserts the existence of an infinite path b in any infinite binary tree (given by a representing function f). Based on this principle one can formulate subsystems of higher-order arithmetic which allow to carry out very substantial parts of classical mathematics...... which-relative to PRA -implies the schema of 10-induction). In this setting one can consider also a uniform version UWKL of WKL which asserts the existence of a functional which selects uniformly in a given infinite binary tree f an infinite path f of that tree. This uniform version of WKL...

  8. The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algattawi, A.; Elshyrih, H.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies investigated that weak electromagnetic fields remove calcium ions bound to the membranes of living cells, making them more likely to tear,. There is an enzyme that destroys DNA this enzyme leaking through the membranes of lysosomes explains the fragmentation of DNA. This case was seen in cells exposed to mobile phone signals. When this occurs in the germ line it reduces fertility and predicts genetic damage in future generations. Although leakage of calcium ions into the cytosol (the main part of the cell) accelerates the growth, but it also promotes the growth of tumors. Leakage of calcium ions into neurons (brain cells) makes nerve impulses accounting for pain and other neurological symptoms in electro sensitive. It also reduces the signal to noise ratio of the brain making it less likely to respond. This may be partially responsible for the increased accident rate of drivers using mobile phones. More details for the molecular mechanisms to explain characteristics of electromagnetic exposure are needed, e.g. I) why weak fields are more effective than strong ones, II) why some frequencies such as 16 Hz are especially potent and III) why pulsed fields do more damage

  9. Critical potentials, leptons, and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; Lewin, J.D.

    1977-12-01

    A theoretical study is made of the interaction of very strong localised electromagnetic potentials with charged leptons, and with the vacuum state. The principal objective is to investigate the phenomena which occur when the potential reaches or exceeds the critical value at which bound levels are drawn into the lower continuum. The behaviour of bound and continuum solutions of the Dirac equation for the specific model of a short range potential well in an arbitrarily large bounded volume is examined in detail. Vacuum polarisation effects are computed by summation over the infinite set of single particle levels, and special attention is given to the behaviour of the overall charge distribution as the potential strength increases through the critical value. The most significant features of the results are (a) the formation of highly localised electron or muon bound states, (b) similar critical potential strengths for electrons and muons, and (c) redefinition of the vacuum by one charge unit at the critical potential. These features are analogous to some properties of leptonic and hadronic weak currents, and the hypothesis is proposed that strong short range potentials may provide a possible mediating mechanism for the weak interaction and also a lepton confinement mechanism within the structure of hadrons. (author)

  10. Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2018-06-01

    The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.

  11. Weak pion production off the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model for the weak pion production off the nucleon, which besides the delta pole mechanism [weak excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance and its subsequent decay into Nπ], includes also some background terms required by chiral symmetry. We refit the C 5 A (q 2 ) form factor to the flux-averaged ν μ p→μ - pπ + ANL q 2 -differential cross section data, finding a substantially smaller contribution of the delta pole mechanism than traditionally assumed in the literature. Within this scheme, we calculate several differential and integrated cross sections, including pion angular distributions, induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos and driven both by charged and neutral currents. In all cases we find that the background terms produce quite significant effects, and that they lead to an overall improved description of the data, as compared to the case where only the delta pole mechanism is considered. We also show that the interference between the delta pole and the background terms produces parity-violating contributions to the pion angular differential cross section, which are intimately linked to T-odd correlations in the contraction between the leptonic and hadronic tensors. However, these latter correlations do not imply a genuine violation of time-reversal invariance because of the existence of strong final state interaction effects

  12. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  13. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  14. Weak interactions in hot nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction rates for electron capture, neutrino absorption, and neutrino scattering in hot asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated with two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces by use of correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and the one-quasiparticle quasi-hole response functions are calculated with a large microcanonical sample and the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Results for matter at a temperature of 10 MeV, proton fraction 0.4, and densities ρ=(1/2),1,(3/2)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the equilibrium density of symmetric nuclear matter, are presented to illustrate the method. In general, the strength of the response is shifted to higher-energy transfers when compared with that of a noninteracting Fermi gas. The shift in the response and the weakness of effective operators as compared with the bare operators significantly reduce the cross sections for electron capture and neutrino scattering by factors of ∼2.5-3.5. In contrast, the symmetry energy enhances the neutrino absorption reaction rate relative to the Fermi gas. However, this reaction rate is still quite small because of Pauli blocking

  15. On Using a Space Telescope to Detect Weak-lensing Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nathan; Wright, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Ignoring redshift dependence, the statistical performance of a weak-lensing survey is set by two numbers: the effective shape noise of the sources, which includes the intrinsic ellipticity dispersion and the measurement noise, and the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements. In this paper, we provide some general guidance for weak-lensing shear measurements from a “generic” space telescope by looking for the optimum wavelength bands to maximize the galaxy flux signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and minimize ellipticity measurement error. We also calculate an effective galaxy number per square degree across different wavelength bands, taking into account the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements and the effective shape noise of sources. Galaxy data collected from the ultra-deep UltraVISTA Ks-selected and R-selected photometric catalogs (Muzzin et al. 2013) are fitted to radially symmetric Sérsic galaxy light profiles. The Sérsic galaxy profiles are then stretched to impose an artificial weak-lensing shear, and then convolved with a pure Airy Disk PSF to simulate imaging of weak gravitationally lensed galaxies from a hypothetical diffraction-limited space telescope. For our model calculations and sets of galaxies, our results show that the peak in the average galaxy flux S/N, the minimum average ellipticity measurement error, and the highest effective galaxy number counts all lie around the K-band near 2.2 μm.

  16. A weak lensing analysis of the PLCK G100.2-30.4 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovich, M.; Formicola, I.; Meneghetti, M.; Bartalucci, I.; Bourdin, H.; Mazzotta, P.; Moscardini, L.; Ettori, S.; Arnaud, M.; Pratt, G. W.; Aghanim, N.; Dahle, H.; Douspis, M.; Pointecouteau, E.; Grado, A.

    2015-07-01

    We present a mass estimate of the Planck-discovered cluster PLCK G100.2-30.4, derived from a weak lensing analysis of deep Subaru griz images. We perform a careful selection of the background galaxies using the multi-band imaging data, and undertake the weak lensing analysis on the deep (1 h) r -band image. The shape measurement is based on the Kaiser-Squires-Broadhurst algorithm; we adopt the PSFex software to model the point spread function (PSF) across the field and correct for this in the shape measurement. The weak lensing analysis is validated through extensive image simulations. We compare the resulting weak lensing mass profile and total mass estimate to those obtained from our re-analysis of XMM-Newton observations, derived under the hypothesis of hydrostatic equilibrium. The total integrated mass profiles agree remarkably well, within 1σ across their common radial range. A mass M500 ~ 7 × 1014M⊙ is derived for the cluster from our weak lensing analysis. Comparing this value to that obtained from our reanalysis of XMM-Newton data, we obtain a bias factor of (1-b) = 0.8 ± 0.1. This is compatible within 1σ with the value of (1-b) obtained in Planck 2015 from the calibration of the bias factor using newly available weak lensing reconstructed masses. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope (University of Tokyo).

  17. A study of solid wall models for weakly compressible SPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valizadeh, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.valizadeh@monash.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Monaghan, Joseph J., E-mail: joe.monaghan@monash.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    This paper is concerned with a comparison of two methods of treating solid wall boundaries in the weakly compressible (SPH) method. They have been chosen because of their wide use in simulations. These methods are the boundary force particles of Monaghan and Kajtar [24] and the use of layers of fixed boundary particles. The latter was first introduced by Morris et al. [26] but has since been improved by Adami et al. [1] whose algorithm involves interpolating the pressure and velocity from the actual fluid to the boundary particles. For each method, we study the effect of the density diffusive terms proposed by Molteni and Colagrossi [19] and modified by Antuono et al. [3]. We test the methods by a series of simulations commencing with the time-dependent spin-down of fluid within a cylinder and the behaviour of fluid in a box subjected to constant acceleration at an angle to the walls of the box, and concluding with a dam break over a triangular obstacle. In the first two cases the results from the two methods can be compared to analytical solutions while, in the latter case, they can be compared with experiments and other methods. These results show that the method of Adami et al. together with density diffusion is in very satisfactory agreement with the experimental results and is, overall, the best of the methods discussed here.

  18. Application of Various Statistical Models to Explore Gene-Gene Interactions in Folate, Xenobiotic, Toll-Like Receptor and STAT4 Pathways that Modulate Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupasree, Yedluri; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Varshaa, Ravi; Mahalakshmi, Govindaraj Swathika; Kumaraswami, Konda; Rajasekhar, Liza; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In view of our previous studies showing an independent association of genetic polymorphisms in folate, xenobiotic, and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways with the risk for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we have developed three statistical models to delineate complex gene-gene interactions between folate, xenobiotic, TLR, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) signaling pathways in association with the molecular pathophysiology of SLE. We developed additive, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and artificial neural network (ANN) models. The additive model, although the simplest, suggested a moderate predictability of 30 polymorphisms of these four pathways (area under the curve [AUC] 0.66). MDR analysis revealed significant gene-gene interactions among glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1 and STAT4 (rs3821236 and rs7574865) polymorphisms, which account for moderate predictability of SLE. The MDR model for specific auto-antibodies revealed the importance of gene-gene interactions among cytochrome P450, family1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) m1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) H108L, solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1 (SLC19A1) G80A, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), TLR5, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR), thymidylate synthase (TYMS). and STAT4 polymorphisms. The ANN model for disease prediction showed reasonably good predictability of SLE risk with 30 polymorphisms (AUC 0.76). These polymorphisms contribute towards the production of SSB and anti-dsDNA antibodies to the extent of 48 and 40%, respectively, while their contribution for the production of antiRNP, SSA, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies varies between 20 and 30%. The current study highlighted the importance of genetic polymorphisms in folate, xenobiotic, TLR, and STAT4 signaling pathways as moderate predictors of SLE risk and delineates the molecular pathophysiology associated with these single nucleotide

  19. Meson exchange and neutral weak currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries to determine weak neutral currents in nuclei will be effected by the presence of meson exchange currents. Present low momentum transfer calculations, based on a flavor independent framework, show these effects to be small. In general, however, as the momentum transfer increases to values typical of deep-inelastic scattering, fragmentation functions show a clear flavor dependence. It is suggested that a good experimental starting point for understanding the flavor dependence of meson production and exchange currents is the Q{sup 2} dependence of parity-violating asymmetry in inclusive single pion electroproduction. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy is necessary to approach momentum transfers where this process begins to scale.

  20. Astrophysical evidence for weak new forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.; Cloutier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent observations of the orbital precession rate for eclipsing binary star systems appear to be in disagreement with the predictions of general relativity. We here analyse whether these discrepancies can be interpreted as being due to the existence of a new, long range, very weak force. We find that, with a conservative estimate of the astrophysical errors involved, the binary-star data by itself is consistent with what would be expected of a new force. The coupling and range required to fit the data can be consistent with the present limits on the existence of new forces. The strongest constraints come from recent terrestrial searches for a ''fifth force''. This analysis underlines the fact that these binary star systems are sensitive to forces whose coupling strength can be as low as 10 -5 that of gravity

  1. Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de

    2012-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies

  2. General gauge mediation at the weak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapen, Simon [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Redigolo, Diego [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06,UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589,LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Shih, David [New High Energy Theory Center, Rutgers University,Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-03-09

    We completely characterize General Gauge Mediation (GGM) at the weak scale by solving all IR constraints over the full parameter space. This is made possible through a combination of numerical and analytical methods, based on a set of algebraic relations among the IR soft masses derived from the GGM boundary conditions in the UV. We show how tensions between just a few constraints determine the boundaries of the parameter space: electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB), the Higgs mass, slepton tachyons, and left-handed stop/sbottom tachyons. While these constraints allow the left-handed squarks to be arbitrarily light, they place strong lower bounds on all of the right-handed squarks. Meanwhile, light EW superpartners are generic throughout much of the parameter space. This is especially the case at lower messenger scales, where a positive threshold correction to m{sub h} coming from light Higgsinos and winos is essential in order to satisfy the Higgs mass constraint.

  3. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  4. Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system

  5. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor...... is covariantly conserved, while the trace anomaly vanishes if the massless field is conformally coupled to gravity. Conformal coupling also ensures a finite Casimir energy and finite values of the pressure upon parallel plates. These results have been extended to an electromagnetic field subject to perfect...... conductor (hence idealized) boundary conditions on parallel plates, by various authors. The regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor has beene valuated up to second order in the gravity acceleration. In both the scalar and the electromagnetic case, studied to first order in the gravity...

  6. Gluon Bremsstrahlung in Weakly-Coupled Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Peter

    2009-01-01

    I report on some theoretical progress concerning the calculation of gluon bremsstrahlung for very high energy particles crossing a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. (i) I advertise that two of the several formalisms used to study this problem, the BDMPS-Zakharov formalism and the AMY formalism (the latter used only for infinite, uniform media), can be made equivalent when appropriately formulated. (ii) A standard technique to simplify calculations is to expand in inverse powers of logarithms ln(E/T). I give an example where such expansions are found to work well for ω/T≥10 where ω is the bremsstrahlung gluon energy. (iii) Finally, I report on perturbative calculations of q.

  7. Acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled premixed flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieuwen, Tim; Mohan, Sripathi; Rajaram, Rajesh; Preetham, [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled (i.e., u'/S{sub L}<1) premixed flames. Specifically, it determines the transfer function relating the spectrum of the acoustic pressure oscillations, P'({omega}), to that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the approach flow, U'({omega}). In the weakly wrinkled limit, this transfer function is local in frequency space; i.e., velocity fluctuations at a frequency {omega} distort the flame and generate sound at the same frequency. This transfer function primarily depends upon the flame Strouhal number St (based on mean flow velocity and flame length) and the correlation length, {lambda}, of the flow fluctuations. For cases where the ratio of the correlation length and duct radius {lambda}/a>>1, the acoustic pressure and turbulent velocity power spectra are related by P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively. For cases where {lambda}/a<<1, the transfer functions take the form P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}({psi}-{delta}ln({lambda}/a))U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively, where (PS) and {delta} are constants. The latter result demonstrates that this transfer function does not exhibit a simple power law relationship in the high frequency region of the spectra. The simultaneous dependence of this pressure-velocity transfer function upon the Strouhal number and correlation length suggests a mechanism for the experimentally observed maximum in acoustic spectra and provides some insight into the controversy in the literature over how this peak should scale with the flame Strouhal number.

  8. Weak links in high critical temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Francesco; Kirtley, John R.

    2005-11-01

    The traditional distinction between tunnel and highly transmissive barriers does not currently hold for high critical temperature superconducting Josephson junctions, both because of complicated materials issues and the intrinsic properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS). An intermediate regime, typical of both artificial superconductor-barrier-superconductor structures and of grain boundaries, spans several orders of magnitude in the critical current density and specific resistivity. The physics taking place at HTS surfaces and interfaces is rich, primarily because of phenomena associated with d-wave order parameter (OP) symmetry. These phenomena include Andreev bound states, the presence of the second harmonic in the critical current versus phase relation, a doubly degenerate state, time reversal symmetry breaking and the possible presence of an imaginary component of the OP. All these effects are regulated by a series of transport mechanisms, whose rules of interplay and relative activation are unknown. Some transport mechanisms probably have common roots, which are not completely clear and possibly related to the intrinsic nature of high-TC superconductivity. The d-wave OP symmetry gives unique properties to HTS weak links, which do not have any analogy with systems based on other superconductors. Even if the HTS structures are not optimal, compared with low critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions, the state of the art allows the realization of weak links with unexpectedly high quality quantum properties, which open interesting perspectives for the future. The observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and the qubit proposals represent significant achievements in this direction. In this review we attempt to encompass all the above aspects, attached to a solid experimental basis of junction concepts and basic properties, along with a flexible phenomenological background, which collects ideas on the Josephson effect in the presence

  9. Weak links in high critical temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafuri, Francesco; Kirtley, John R

    2005-01-01

    The traditional distinction between tunnel and highly transmissive barriers does not currently hold for high critical temperature superconducting Josephson junctions, both because of complicated materials issues and the intrinsic properties of high temperature superconductors (HTS). An intermediate regime, typical of both artificial superconductor-barrier-superconductor structures and of grain boundaries, spans several orders of magnitude in the critical current density and specific resistivity. The physics taking place at HTS surfaces and interfaces is rich, primarily because of phenomena associated with d-wave order parameter (OP) symmetry. These phenomena include Andreev bound states, the presence of the second harmonic in the critical current versus phase relation, a doubly degenerate state, time reversal symmetry breaking and the possible presence of an imaginary component of the OP. All these effects are regulated by a series of transport mechanisms, whose rules of interplay and relative activation are unknown. Some transport mechanisms probably have common roots, which are not completely clear and possibly related to the intrinsic nature of high-T C superconductivity. The d-wave OP symmetry gives unique properties to HTS weak links, which do not have any analogy with systems based on other superconductors. Even if the HTS structures are not optimal, compared with low critical temperature superconductor Josephson junctions, the state of the art allows the realization of weak links with unexpectedly high quality quantum properties, which open interesting perspectives for the future. The observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling and the qubit proposals represent significant achievements in this direction. In this review we attempt to encompass all the above aspects, attached to a solid experimental basis of junction concepts and basic properties, along with a flexible phenomenological background, which collects ideas on the Josephson effect in the presence

  10. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  11. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  12. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10 -11 . In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs

  14. Weak Disposability in Nonparametric Production Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group at Wageningen University in The Netherlands Weak disposability of outputs means that firms can abate harmful emissions by decreasing the activity level. Modeling weak disposability in nonparametric production analysis has caused some confusion.

  15. Weakly Idempotent Lattices and Bilattices, Non-Idempotent Plonka Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidova D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study weakly idempotent lattices with an additional interlaced operation. We characterize interlacity of a weakly idempotent semilattice operation, using the concept of hyperidentity and prove that a weakly idempotent bilattice with an interlaced operation is epimorphic to the superproduct with negation of two equal lattices. In the last part of the paper, we introduce the concepts of a non-idempotent Plonka function and the weakly Plonka sum and extend the main result for algebras with the well known Plonka function to the algebras with the non-idempotent Plonka function. As a consequence, we characterize the hyperidentities of the variety of weakly idempotent lattices, using non-idempotent Plonka functions, weakly Plonka sums and characterization of cardinality of the sets of operations of subdirectly irreducible algebras with hyperidentities of the variety of weakly idempotent lattices. Applications of weakly idempotent bilattices in multi-valued logic is to appear.

  16. A Novel Blind Source Separation Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Weak Signal against Strong Interference in Passive Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjie Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Passive Radar System, obtaining the mixed weak object signal against the super power signal (jamming is still a challenging task. In this paper, a novel framework based on Passive Radar System is designed for weak object signal separation. Firstly, we propose an Interference Cancellation algorithm (IC-algorithm to extract the mixed weak object signals from the strong jamming. Then, an improved FastICA algorithm with K-means cluster is designed to separate each weak signal from the mixed weak object signals. At last, we discuss the performance of the proposed method and verify the novel method based on several simulations. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Qubit state tomography in a superconducting circuit via weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lupei; Xu, Luting; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2017-03-01

    In this work we present a study on a new scheme for measuring the qubit state in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) system, based on weak measurement and the concept of weak value. To be applicable under generic parameter conditions, our formulation and analysis are carried out for finite-strength weak measurement, and in particular beyond the bad-cavity and weak-response limits. The proposed study is accessible to present state-of-the-art circuit QED experiments.

  18. Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eides, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift in hydrogen and muonium are discussed. The problem of sign of the weak-interaction contribution to HFS is clarified, and simple physical arguments that make this sign evident are presented. It is shown that weak-interaction contributions to HFS in hydrogen and muonium have opposite signs. A weak-interaction contribution to the Lamb shift is obtained. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.

  20. quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points for non-commutative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    Abstract. In this article, we introduce the notions of weak boundary repre- sentation, quasi hyperrigidity and weak peak points in the non-commutative setting for operator systems in C∗-algebras. An analogue of Saskin's theorem relating quasi hyperrigidity and weak Choquet boundary for particular classes of C∗-algebras is ...

  1. Linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a weakly curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We extend our study of all-order linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a flat space (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.90.086003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2014)064) to fluids in weakly curved spaces. The underlying microscopic theory is a finite temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The AdS/CFT correspondence relates black brane solutions of the Einstein gravity in asymptotically locally AdS 5 geometry to relativistic conformal fluids in a weakly curved 4D background. To linear order in the amplitude of hydrodynamic variables and metric perturbations, the fluid’s energy-momentum tensor is computed with derivatives of both the fluid velocity and background metric resummed to all orders. We extensively discuss the meaning of all order hydrodynamics by expressing it in terms of the memory function formalism, which is also suitable for practical simulations. In addition to two viscosity functions discussed at length in refs. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.90.086003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2014)064), we find four curvature induced structures coupled to the fluid via new transport coefficient functions. In ref. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.80.065026), the latter were referred to as gravitational susceptibilities of the fluid. We analytically compute these coefficients in the hydrodynamic limit, and then numerically up to large values of momenta.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics on graphs: Efficient method for weak selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng; Wang, Long; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph

    2009-04-01

    Investigating the evolutionary dynamics of game theoretical interactions in populations where individuals are arranged on a graph can be challenging in terms of computation time. Here, we propose an efficient method to study any type of game on arbitrary graph structures for weak selection. In this limit, evolutionary game dynamics represents a first-order correction to neutral evolution. Spatial correlations can be empirically determined under neutral evolution and provide the basis for formulating the game dynamics as a discrete Markov process by incorporating a detailed description of the microscopic dynamics based on the neutral correlations. This framework is then applied to one of the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology: the evolution of cooperation. We demonstrate that the degree heterogeneity of a graph impedes cooperation and that the success of tit for tat depends not only on the number of rounds but also on the degree of the graph. Moreover, considering the mutation-selection equilibrium shows that the symmetry of the stationary distribution of states under weak selection is skewed in favor of defectors for larger selection strengths. In particular, degree heterogeneity—a prominent feature of scale-free networks—generally results in a more pronounced increase in the critical benefit-to-cost ratio required for evolution to favor cooperation as compared to regular graphs. This conclusion is corroborated by an analysis of the effects of population structures on the fixation probabilities of strategies in general 2×2 games for different types of graphs. Computer simulations confirm the predictive power of our method and illustrate the improved accuracy as compared to previous studies.

  3. Linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a weakly curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yanyan; Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-04-24

    We extend our study of all-order linearly resummed hydrodynamics in a flat space (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.90.086003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2014)064) to fluids in weakly curved spaces. The underlying microscopic theory is a finite temperature N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. The AdS/CFT correspondence relates black brane solutions of the Einstein gravity in asymptotically locally AdS{sub 5} geometry to relativistic conformal fluids in a weakly curved 4D background. To linear order in the amplitude of hydrodynamic variables and metric perturbations, the fluid’s energy-momentum tensor is computed with derivatives of both the fluid velocity and background metric resummed to all orders. We extensively discuss the meaning of all order hydrodynamics by expressing it in terms of the memory function formalism, which is also suitable for practical simulations. In addition to two viscosity functions discussed at length in refs. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.90.086003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2014)064), we find four curvature induced structures coupled to the fluid via new transport coefficient functions. In ref. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.80.065026), the latter were referred to as gravitational susceptibilities of the fluid. We analytically compute these coefficients in the hydrodynamic limit, and then numerically up to large values of momenta.

  4. Weak lensing Study in VOICE Survey I: Shear Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liping; Liu, Dezi; Radovich, Mario; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Covone, Giovanni; Vaccari, Mattia; Amaro, Valeria; Brescia, Massimo; Capaccioli, Massimo; De Cicco, Demetra; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Miller, Lance; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Pignata, Giuliano

    2018-06-01

    The VST Optical Imaging of the CDFS and ES1 Fields (VOICE) Survey is a Guaranteed Time program carried out with the ESO/VST telescope to provide deep optical imaging over two 4 deg2 patches of the sky centred on the CDFS and ES1 pointings. We present the cosmic shear measurement over the 4 deg2 covering the CDFS region in the r-band using LensFit. Each of the four tiles of 1 deg2 has more than one hundred exposures, of which more than 50 exposures passed a series of image quality selection criteria for weak lensing study. The 5σ limiting magnitude in r- band is 26.1 for point sources, which is ≳1 mag deeper than other weak lensing survey in the literature (e.g. the Kilo Degree Survey, KiDS, at VST). The photometric redshifts are estimated using the VOICE u, g, r, i together with near-infrared VIDEO data Y, J, H, Ks. The mean redshift of the shear catalogue is 0.87, considering the shear weight. The effective galaxy number density is 16.35 gal/arcmin2, which is nearly twice the one of KiDS. The performance of LensFit on such a deep dataset was calibrated using VOICE-like mock image simulations. Furthermore, we have analyzed the reliability of the shear catalogue by calculating the star-galaxy cross-correlations, the tomographic shear correlations of two redshift bins and the contaminations of the blended galaxies. As a further sanity check, we have constrained cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. For a flat ΛCDM model we have obtained Σ _8 = σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.68^{+0.11}_{-0.15}.

  5. Landau fluid model for weakly nonlinear dispersive magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2005-01-01

    In may astrophysical plasmas such as the solar wind, the terrestrial magnetosphere, or in the interstellar medium at small enough scales, collisions are negligible. When interested in the large-scale dynamics, a hydrodynamic approach is advantageous not only because its numerical simulations is easier than of the full Vlasov-Maxwell equations, but also because it provides a deep understanding of cross-scale nonlinear couplings. It is thus of great interest to construct fluid models that extended the classical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to collisionless situations. Two ingredients need to be included in such a model to capture the main kinetic effects: finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and Landau damping, the only fluid-particle resonance that can affect large scales and can be modeled in a relatively simple way. The Modelization of Landau damping in a fluid formalism is hardly possible in the framework of a systematic asymptotic expansion and was addressed mainly by means of parameter fitting in a linearized setting. We introduced a similar Landau fluid model but, that has the advantage of taking dispersive effects into account. This model properly describes dispersive MHD waves in quasi-parallel propagation. Since, by construction, the system correctly reproduces their linear dynamics, appropriate tests should address the nonlinear regime. In a first case, we show analytically that the weakly nonlinear modulational dynamics of quasi-parallel propagating Alfven waves is well captured. As a second test we consider the parametric decay instability of parallel Alfven waves and show that numerical simulations of the dispersive Landau fluid model lead to results that closely match the outcome of hybrid simulations. (Author)

  6. Revisiting the thermal effect on shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated shock propagation in weakly ionized plasmas and observed the following anomalous effects: shock acceleration, shock recovery, shock weakening, shock spreading, and splitting. It was generally accepted that the thermal effect can explain most of the experimental results. However, little attention was paid to the shock recovery. In this paper, the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas is studied by fluid simulation. It is found that the shock acceleration, weakening, and splitting appear after it enters the plasma (thermal) region. The shock splits into two parts right after it leaves the thermal region. The distance between the splitted shocks keeps decreasing until they recover to one. This paper can explain a whole set of features of the shock wave propagation in weakly ionized plasmas. It is also found that both the shock curvature and the splitting present the same photoacoustic deflection (PAD) signals, so they cannot be distinguished by the PAD experiments.

  7. Weak measurement from the electron displacement current: new path for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, D; Colomés, E; Oriols, X; Zanghì, N

    2015-01-01

    The interest on weak measurements is rapidly growing during the last years as a unique tool to better understand and predict new quantum phenomena. Up to now many theoretical and experimental weak-measurement techniques deal with (relativistic) photons or cold atoms, but there is much less investigation on (non-relativistic) electrons in up-to-date electronics technologies. We propose a way to perform weak measurements in nanoelectronic devices through the measurement of the total current (particle plus displacement component) in such devices. We study the interaction between an electron in the active region of a electron device with a metal surface working as a sensing electrode by means of the (Bohmian) conditional wave function. We perform numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations to reconstruct the Bohmian trajectories in the iconic double slit experiment. This work opens new paths for understanding the quantum properties of an electronic system as well as for exploring new quantum engineering applications in solid state physics. (paper)

  8. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouteris, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of

  10. Weak convergence and uniform normalization in infinitary rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    the starkly surprising result that for any orthogonal system with finitely many rules, the system is weakly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under weak convergence if{f} it is weakly normalizing under strong convergence if{f} it is strongly normalizing under strong...... convergence. As further corollaries, we derive a number of new results for weakly convergent rewriting: Systems with finitely many rules enjoy unique normal forms, and acyclic orthogonal systems are confluent. Our results suggest that it may be possible to recover some of the positive results for strongly...

  11. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion for weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses using azimuthal elastic impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Pan, Xinpeng; Ji, Yuxin; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2017-08-01

    A system of aligned vertical fractures and fine horizontal shale layers combine to form equivalent orthorhombic media. Weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses play an important role in the description of orthorhombic anisotropy (OA). We propose a novel approach of utilizing seismic reflection amplitudes to estimate weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses from observed seismic data, based on azimuthal elastic impedance (EI). We first propose perturbation in stiffness matrix in terms of weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses, and using the perturbation and scattering function, we derive PP-wave reflection coefficient and azimuthal EI for the case of an interface separating two OA media. Then we demonstrate an approach to first use a model constrained damped least-squares algorithm to estimate azimuthal EI from partially incidence-phase-angle-stack seismic reflection data at different azimuths, and then extract weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses from the estimated azimuthal EI using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion method. In addition, a new procedure to construct rock physics effective model is presented to estimate weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses from well log interpretation results (minerals and their volumes, porosity, saturation, fracture density, etc.). Tests on synthetic and real data indicate that unknown parameters including elastic properties (P- and S-wave impedances and density), weak anisotropy parameters and fracture weaknesses can be estimated stably in the case of seismic data containing a moderate noise, and our approach can make a reasonable estimation of anisotropy in a fractured shale reservoir.

  12. Classical treatments of quantum mechanical effects in collisions of weakly bound complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jose G.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2005-01-01

    Classical and quantum simulations of Ne + Ar 2 collision dynamics are performed in order to investigate where quantum mechanical effects are most important and where classical simulations provide good descriptions of the dynamics. It is found that when Ar 2 is in a low-lying vibrational state, the differences between the results of quantum and quasiclassical simulations are profound. However, excellent agreement between the results of the quantum and classical simulations can be achieved when the initial conditions for the classical trajectories are sampled from the quantum phase space distribution given by the Wigner function. These effects are largest when collisions occur under constrained geometries or when Ar 2 is in its ground vibrational state. The results of this work suggest that sampling the initial conditions using the Wigner function provides a straightforward way to incorporate the most important quantum mechanical effects in simulations of collisions involving very cold weakly bound complexes

  13. Study of weak interaction with p-p colliding beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, Jiro; Sugawara, Hirotaka

    1975-01-01

    Weak interaction in the energy range of TRISTAN project is discussed. The cross-section of production of weak boson in p-p reaction was calculated with the parton model. The observation of weak boson may be possible. The production rate of neutral weak boson was also estimated on the basis of the Weinberg model, and was almost same as that of weak boson. The method of observation of weak boson is suggested. The direct method is the observation of lepton pair due to the decay of neutral weak boson. It is expected that the spectrum of decay products (+ -) in the decay of weak boson shows a characteristic feature, and it shows the existence of weak boson. Weak interaction makes larger contribution in case of large momentum transfer than electromagnetic interaction. When the momentum transfer is larger than 60 GeV/c, the contribution of weak interaction is dominant over the others. Therefore, the experiments at high energy will give informations concerning the relations among the interactions of elementary particles. Possibility of study on the Higgs scalar meson is also discussed. (Kato, T.)

  14. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  15. Photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses photoinitiated reactions in weakly bonded binary complexes in which the constituents are only mildly perturbed by the intermolecular bond. Such complexes, with their large zero point excursions, set the stage for events that occur following electronic excitation of one of the constituents. This can take several forms, but in all cases, entrance channel specificity is imposed by the character of the complex as well as the nature of the photoinitiation process. This has enabled us to examine aspects of bimolecular processes: steric effects, chemical branching ratios, and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, monitoring reactions directly in the time domain can reveal mechanisms that cannot be inferred from measurements of nascent product excitations. Consequently, we examined several systems that had been studied previously by our group with product state resolution. With CO 2 /HI, in which reaction occurs via a HOCO intermediate, the rates agree with RRKM predictions. With N 2 O/HI, the gas phase single collision reaction yielding OH + N 2 has been shown to proceed mainly via an HNNO intermediate that undergoes a 1,3-hydrogen shift to the OH + N 2 channel. With complexes, ab initio calculations and high resolution spectroscopic studies of analogous systems suggest that the hydrogen, while highly delocalized, prefers the oxygen to the nitrogen. We observe that OH is produced with a fast risetime (< 250 fs) which can be attributed to either direct oxygen-side attack or rapid HNNO decomposition and/or a termolecular contribution involving the nearby iodine

  16. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, L.E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A.M.; Valenzuela, I.

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C_μ_ν_ρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F_4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g≃F_4/f, with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  17. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibáñez, L.E.; Montero, M. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Uranga, A.M. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Valenzuela, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik,Fohringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Center for Extreme Matter and Emergent Phenomena,Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-05

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C{sub μνρ} coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F{sub 4}. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g≃F{sub 4}/f, with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  18. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanas, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    A Λ hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the A X(K - , π - ) Λ A X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free Λ decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ - ) and Γ(Λ → nπ 0 ) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay NΛ → Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) (∼ 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ - ), Γ(Λ → nπ 0 ) and Γ(Λn → nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon ΔI =1/2 rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K - , π - ) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for Λ 4 He

  19. Weak interactions - formulae, results, and derivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietschmann, H

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide experimental and theoretical physicists working in the field of weak interactions with a reference work which includes all the formulae and results needed in actual research. The derivation of these formulae is also given in detail for some typical examples to facilitate their use. New developments in unified gauge theories have been included as well as the decay processes of the new particles such as intermediate bosons and tau-lepton. In order to supply the research worker with a convenient working aid, frequently occurring mathematical formulae as well as phase space integrals and the Dirac algebra have been included. Treatment of field operators - also with respect to discrete transformations C, P, T and G - as well as products of invariant functions are provided. Particular emphasis has been placed on the Lagrangian of unified electroweak interactions. The major portion of the work is, of course, devoted to formulae for decay processes and scattering cross-sections. Useful formulae in e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions and a small dictionary for translations into other forms for the space-time metric are collected in appendices.

  20. Planckian axions and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C.; Long, Cody; McAllister, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Several recent works http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/020, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP08(2015)032, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2015)023 have claimed that the Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) excludes super-Planckian displacements of axion fields, and hence large-field axion inflation, in the absence of monodromy. We argue that in theories with N≫1 axions, super-Planckian axion diameters D are readily allowed by the WGC. We clarify the nontrivial relationship between the kinetic matrix K — unambiguously defined by its form in a Minkowski-reduced basis — and the diameter of the axion fundamental domain, emphasizing that in general the diameter is not solely determined by the eigenvalues f_1"2≤…≤f_N"2 of K: the orientations of the eigenvectors with respect to the identifications imposed by instantons must be incorporated. In particular, even if one were to impose the condition f_N M_p_l does not immediately imply the existence of unsuppressed higher harmonic contributions to the potential. Finally, we argue that in effective axion-gravity theories, the zero-form version of the WGC can be satisfied by gravitational instantons that make negligible contributions to the potential.

  1. Neutron star formation and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.

    1986-01-01

    The only known direct diagnostic of the central event is its neutrino emission. The imprint of the entire internal evolution is stamped on the spectrum, mix of flavors, luminosities, and features of the accompanying neutrino burst. Detection and scrutiny of this neutrino signal will test theories concerning stellar collapse, type II supernovae, and the formation of neutron stars in ways impossible by other means. Despite the fact that an incredible 3x10 53 ergs may be emitted in neutrinos after the initiation of collapse, the very weakness of the neutrino/matter interaction that allows them to penetrate the stellar envelope and escape makes their detection at the Earth very difficult. Though neutrino astronomy is not yet a mature discipline, the physical theories of collapse have progressed to a sufficient degree that specific and detailed predictions can be made about the neutrino emissions that with future detector technology might be tested. The time seems propitious to summarize and review what is known and suspected about the neutrino signature of collapse, the potential for its detection, and how it can be used to test our ideas about the death of massive stars and the birth of neutrino stars. (orig./BBOE)

  2. Forensic bitemark identification: weak foundations, exaggerated claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Michael J.; Albright, Thomas; Bohan, Thomas L.; Bierer, Barbara E.; Bowers, C. Michael; Bush, Mary A.; Bush, Peter J.; Casadevall, Arturo; Cole, Simon A.; Denton, M. Bonner; Diamond, Shari Seidman; Dioso-Villa, Rachel; Epstein, Jules; Faigman, David; Faigman, Lisa; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Garrett, Brandon L.; Giannelli, Paul C.; Greely, Henry T.; Imwinkelried, Edward; Jamieson, Allan; Kafadar, Karen; Kassirer, Jerome P.; Koehler, Jonathan ‘Jay’; Korn, David; Mnookin, Jennifer; Morrison, Alan B.; Murphy, Erin; Peerwani, Nizam; Peterson, Joseph L.; Risinger, D. Michael; Sensabaugh, George F.; Spiegelman, Clifford; Stern, Hal; Thompson, William C.; Wayman, James L.; Zabell, Sandy; Zumwalt, Ross E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several forensic sciences, especially of the pattern-matching kind, are increasingly seen to lack the scientific foundation needed to justify continuing admission as trial evidence. Indeed, several have been abolished in the recent past. A likely next candidate for elimination is bitemark identification. A number of DNA exonerations have occurred in recent years for individuals convicted based on erroneous bitemark identifications. Intense scientific and legal scrutiny has resulted. An important National Academies review found little scientific support for the field. The Texas Forensic Science Commission recently recommended a moratorium on the admission of bitemark expert testimony. The California Supreme Court has a case before it that could start a national dismantling of forensic odontology. This article describes the (legal) basis for the rise of bitemark identification and the (scientific) basis for its impending fall. The article explains the general logic of forensic identification, the claims of bitemark identification, and reviews relevant empirical research on bitemark identification—highlighting both the lack of research and the lack of support provided by what research does exist. The rise and possible fall of bitemark identification evidence has broader implications—highlighting the weak scientific culture of forensic science and the law's difficulty in evaluating and responding to unreliable and unscientific evidence. PMID:28852538

  3. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  4. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  5. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H. B.; Brene, N.

    1991-08-01

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity χ which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity χ has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important rôle either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity χ tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms.

  6. Splitting of the weak hypercharge quantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-08-05

    The ratio between the weak hypercharge quantum for particles having no coupling to the gauge bosons corresponding to the semi-simple component of the gauge group and the smallest hypercharge quantum for particles that do have such couplings is exceptionally large for the standard model, considering its rank. To compare groups with respect to this property we propose a quantity {chi} which depends on the rank of the group and the splitting ratio of the hypercharge(s) to be found in the group. The quantity {chi} has maximal value for the gauge group of the standard model. This suggests that the hypercharge splitting may play an important role either in the origin of the gauge symmetry at a fundamental scale or in some kind of selection mechanism at a scale perhaps nearer to the experimental scale. Such a selection mechanism might be what we have called confusion which removes groups with many (so-called generalized) automorphisms. The quantity {chi} tends to be large for groups with few generalized automorphisms. (orig.).

  7. Bc meson weak decays and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Chao, K.

    1997-01-01

    The form factors for B c transitions are calculated with a relativistic constituent quark model based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. The rates for some semileptonic and nonleptonic B c weak decays and CP-violating asymmetries for two-body hardonic B c decays are estimated as well. The calculated widths are compared with those predicted in other quark models of mesons. For the most promising signatures for the discovery of B c : B c →ψlν→(l '+ l '- )lν and B c →ψπ→(l '+ l '- )π (with l ' =e or μ), the combined branching ratios are, respectively, estimated to be 1.06x10 -3 and 4.8a 1 2 x10 -5 for τ B c =0.5 ps and as large as 2.56x10 -3 and 1.15a 1 2 x10 -4 for τ B c =1.2 ps. There are large CP-violating effects in some B c decay modes, and the rates for some of these (e.g., B c →ψD * ,η c D, and η c D * , etc.) are large too. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Strong eukaryotic IRESs have weak secondary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhua Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that eukaryotic Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES lack secondary structure and to examine the generality of the hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IRESs of the yeast and the fruit fly are located in the 5'UTR immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The minimum folding energy (MFE of 60 nt RNA segments immediately upstream of the initiation codons was calculated as a proxy of secondary structure stability. MFE of the reverse complements of these 60 nt segments was also calculated. The relationship between MFE and empirically determined IRES activity was investigated to test the hypothesis that strong IRES activity is associated with weak secondary structure. We show that IRES activity in the yeast and the fruit fly correlates strongly with the structural stability, with highest IRES activity found in RNA segments that exhibit the weakest secondary structure. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a subset of eukaryotic IRESs exhibits very low secondary structure in the 5'-UTR sequences immediately upstream of the initiation codon. The consistency in results between the yeast and the fruit fly suggests a possible shared mechanism of cap-independent translation initiation that relies on an unstructured RNA segment.

  9. Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy

  10. On Characterizing weak defining hyperplanes (weak Facets in DEA with Constant Returns to Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Akbarian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Production Possibility Set (PPS is defined as a set of inputs and outputs of a system in which inputs can produce outputs. The Production Possibility Set of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA model is contain of two types defining hyperplanes (facets; strong and weak efficient facets. In this paper, the problem of finding weak defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model is dealt with. However, the equation of strong defining hyperplanes of the PPS of the CCR model can be found in this paper. We state and prove some properties relative to our method. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed model, some numerical examples are finally provided. Our algorithm can easily be implemented using existing packages for operation research, such as GAMS.

  11. Stochastic Resonance in an Underdamped System with Pinning Potential for Weak Signal Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic resonance (SR has been proved to be an effective approach for weak sensor signal detection. This study presents a new weak signal detection method based on a SR in an underdamped system, which consists of a pinning potential model. The model was firstly discovered from magnetic domain wall (DW in ferromagnetic strips. We analyze the principle of the proposed underdamped pinning SR (UPSR system, the detailed numerical simulation and system performance. We also propose the strategy of selecting the proper damping factor and other system parameters to match a weak signal, input noise and to generate the highest output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Finally, we have verified its effectiveness with both simulated and experimental input signals. Results indicate that the UPSR performs better in weak signal detection than the conventional SR (CSR with merits of higher output SNR, better anti-noise and frequency response capability. Besides, the system can be designed accurately and efficiently owing to the sensibility of parameters and potential diversity. The features also weaken the limitation of small parameters on SR system.

  12. Stochastic Resonance in an Underdamped System with Pinning Potential for Weak Signal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibin; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2015-08-28

    Stochastic resonance (SR) has been proved to be an effective approach for weak sensor signal detection. This study presents a new weak signal detection method based on a SR in an underdamped system, which consists of a pinning potential model. The model was firstly discovered from magnetic domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic strips. We analyze the principle of the proposed underdamped pinning SR (UPSR) system, the detailed numerical simulation and system performance. We also propose the strategy of selecting the proper damping factor and other system parameters to match a weak signal, input noise and to generate the highest output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, we have verified its effectiveness with both simulated and experimental input signals. Results indicate that the UPSR performs better in weak signal detection than the conventional SR (CSR) with merits of higher output SNR, better anti-noise and frequency response capability. Besides, the system can be designed accurately and efficiently owing to the sensibility of parameters and potential diversity. The features also weaken the limitation of small parameters on SR system.

  13. Non-Gaussian information from weak lensing data via deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arushi; Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Haiman, Zoltán

    2018-05-01

    Weak lensing maps contain information beyond two-point statistics on small scales. Much recent work has tried to extract this information through a range of different observables or via nonlinear transformations of the lensing field. Here we train and apply a two-dimensional convolutional neural network to simulated noiseless lensing maps covering 96 different cosmological models over a range of {Ωm,σ8} . Using the area of the confidence contour in the {Ωm,σ8} plane as a figure of merit, derived from simulated convergence maps smoothed on a scale of 1.0 arcmin, we show that the neural network yields ≈5 × tighter constraints than the power spectrum, and ≈4 × tighter than the lensing peaks. Such gains illustrate the extent to which weak lensing data encode cosmological information not accessible to the power spectrum or even other, non-Gaussian statistics such as lensing peaks.

  14. Standard and non-standard weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This work consists of independent chapters, all deal with weak interactions. The first chapter deals with left-right symmetric theories. Two main versions of these theories are discussed and compared. In addition, the K - K-bar mixing term is analysed: it has been known for several years now that in a left-right symmetric model there are new contributions to the mixing of kaons. We show that in the most appealing left-right symmetric model - the new contributions add up constructively. Consequently, we may derive reliable bounds on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson and the average mass of the (unavoidable) physical Higgs scalars. We also show that the new contributions are proportional to a new CP violating phase. While all previous treatments of the K - K-bar system were limited to the minimal model, we are able to show that our results hold also in the general case of nonminimal models. The second chapter deals with the possibility that W and Z are composite. Three experimental tests are discussed: (i) Universality -if W is composite then its coupling to the fermions is expected to deviate from universality. Since such deviations were not yet seen -we derive a lower bound on the compositeness scale. (ii) Possible enhancement of the reaction p-bar+p→Z 0 +γ+any - we show that if Z 0 is composite then the cross section for the above process might be considerably enhanced and this effect can be measured at CERN and Fermilab.(iii) The eeγ events of the 1983 run in CERN - we show that in contradiction to suggestions made in several papers, these events may not be explained by a composite-Z decaying through a scalar. In the last chapter we discuss the quark mixing angles

  15. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Michael J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A Λ hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the AX(K-, π-) $A\\atop{Λ}$X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free Λ decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-) and Γ(Λ → nπ0) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay NΛ → Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) (~ 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-), Γ(Λ → nπ0) and Γ(Λn → nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon ΔI ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K-, π-) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for $4\\atop{Λ}$He.

  16. Inclusive weak decays of charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    Inclusive analysis provide a different insight into the understanding of weak decay physics. This thesis experimentally determines inclusive decay predictions of charmed D mesons. Exclusive decay predictions are also used from a variety of theoretical models to make predictions about inclusive properties. Both experimental and theoretical realms benefit from the new techniques presented in this thesis. Inclusive properties derived are the multiplicity distributions, average multiplicities and inclusive branching ratios of charged particles, charged and neutral kaons, and charged pions. The center-of-mass momentum spectra of charged and neutral kaons are also obtained. Additionally, in the theoretical realm only, the inclusive properties of neutral pions, and the center-of-mass momentum spectra of charged and neutral pions are determined. The experimental analysis, which uses data from the mark II experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, employs an unfold technique utilizing fold matrices to obtain the charged particle and kaon properties. A new enhanced unfold technique involving fold tensors obtains the first-ever results for the inclusive charged pion properties. The average strange quark contents and the average charged lepton multiplicities of the D + , D 0 and D + 8 are also presented. In the theoretical analysis, the exclusive decay mode predictions from the factorization model for Bauer, Stech and Wirbel; the quark diagram scheme of Chau and Cheng; and the QCD sum rules model of Block and Shifman are processed to determine inclusive predictions will lead to a better understanding of the model. The thesis also derives inclusive predictions from the D meson exclusive branching ratios compiled by the Particle Data Group

  17. Weak values in a classical theory with an epistemic restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanjai, Angela; Cavalcanti, Eric G; Bartlett, Stephen D; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Weak measurement of a quantum system followed by postselection based on a subsequent strong measurement gives rise to a quantity called the weak value: a complex number for which the interpretation has long been debated. We analyse the procedure of weak measurement and postselection, and the interpretation of the associated weak value, using a theory of classical mechanics supplemented by an epistemic restriction that is known to be operationally equivalent to a subtheory of quantum mechanics. Both the real and imaginary components of the weak value appear as phase space displacements in the postselected expectation values of the measurement device's position and momentum distributions, and we recover the same displacements as in the quantum case by studying the corresponding evolution in our theory of classical mechanics with an epistemic restriction. By using this epistemically restricted theory, we gain insight into the appearance of the weak value as a result of the statistical effects of post selection, and this provides us with an operational interpretation of the weak value, both its real and imaginary parts. We find that the imaginary part of the weak value is a measure of how much postselection biases the mean phase space distribution for a given amount of measurement disturbance. All such biases proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value vanish in the limit where disturbance due to measurement goes to zero. Our analysis also offers intuitive insight into how measurement disturbance can be minimized and the limits of weak measurement. (paper)

  18. Initial conditions for hydrodynamics from weakly coupled pre-equilibrium evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeliauskas, Aleksas

    2017-01-01

    We use leading order effective kinetic theory to simulate the pre-equilibrium evolution of transverse energy and flow perturbations in heavy-ion collisions. We provide a Green function which propagates the initial perturbations of the energy-momentum tensor to a time when hydrodynamics becomes applicable. With this map, the pre-thermal evolution from saturated nuclei to hydrodynamics can be modeled in the framework of weakly coupled QCD. (paper)

  19. Initial conditions for hydrodynamics from weakly coupled pre-equilibrium evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Keegan, Liam; Mazeliauskas, Aleksas; Teaney, Derek

    2016-01-01

    We use effective kinetic theory, accurate at weak coupling, to simulate the pre-equilibrium evolution of transverse energy and flow perturbations in heavy-ion collisions. We provide a Green function which propagates the initial perturbations to the energy-momentum tensor at a time when hydrodynamics becomes applicable. With this map, the complete pre-thermal evolution from saturated nuclei to hydrodynamics can be modelled in a perturbatively controlled way.

  20. Weak lensing magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E. M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Aleksić, J.; Ponce, R.; Castander, F. J.; Hoyle, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of weak lensing magnification on galaxy number counts is studied by cross-correlating the positions of two galaxy samples, separated by redshift, using the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data set. This analysis is carried out for galaxies that are selected only by its photometric redshift. An extensive analysis of the systematic effects, using new methods based on simulations is performed, including a Monte Carlo sampling of the selection function of the survey.

  1. Improved FRT Control Scheme for DFIG Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Chen, Zhe; Iov, Florin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved coordinated fault ridethrough (FRT) control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine, (WT), in a weak grid. A technique for grid synchronization against voltage excursions, i.e., a Dual Second Order Generalized Integrator – Frequency ...... controllers to counteract rotor as well as stator currents and regulate the rotor speed. Simulation results which assure the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is presented....

  2. ON THE ACCURACY OF WEAK-LENSING CLUSTER MASS RECONSTRUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Matthew R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2011-01-01

    We study the bias and scatter in mass measurements of galaxy clusters resulting from fitting a spherically symmetric Navarro, Frenk, and White model to the reduced tangential shear profile measured in weak-lensing (WL) observations. The reduced shear profiles are generated for ∼10 4 cluster-sized halos formed in a ΛCDM cosmological N-body simulation of a 1 h -1 Gpc box. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the scatter in the WL masses derived using this fitting method has irreducible contributions from the triaxial shapes of cluster-sized halos and uncorrelated large-scale matter projections along the line of sight. Additionally, we find that correlated large-scale structure within several virial radii of clusters contributes a smaller, but nevertheless significant, amount to the scatter. The intrinsic scatter due to these physical sources is ∼20% for massive clusters and can be as high as ∼30% for group-sized systems. For current, ground-based observations, however, the total scatter should be dominated by shape noise from the background galaxies used to measure the shear. Importantly, we find that WL mass measurements can have a small, ∼5%-10%, but non-negligible amount of bias. Given that WL measurements of cluster masses are a powerful way to calibrate cluster mass-observable relations for precision cosmological constraints, we strongly emphasize that a robust calibration of the bias requires detailed simulations that include more observational effects than we consider here. Such a calibration exercise needs to be carried out for each specific WL mass estimation method, as the details of the method determine in part the expected scatter and bias. We present an iterative method for estimating mass M 500c that can eliminate the bias for analyses of ground-based data.

  3. Discretization-dependent model for weakly connected excitable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro André; Alonso, Sergio; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo

    2018-03-01

    Pattern formation has been widely observed in extended chemical and biological processes. Although the biochemical systems are highly heterogeneous, homogenized continuum approaches formed by partial differential equations have been employed frequently. Such approaches are usually justified by the difference of scales between the heterogeneities and the characteristic spatial size of the patterns. Under different conditions, for example, under weak coupling, discrete models are more adequate. However, discrete models may be less manageable, for instance, in terms of numerical implementation and mesh generation, than the associated continuum models. Here we study a model to approach discreteness which permits the computer implementation on general unstructured meshes. The model is cast as a partial differential equation but with a parameter that depends not only on heterogeneities sizes, as in the case of quasicontinuum models, but also on the discretization mesh. Therefore, we refer to it as a discretization-dependent model. We validate the approach in a generic excitable media that simulates three different phenomena: the propagation of action membrane potential in cardiac tissue, in myelinated axons of neurons, and concentration waves in chemical microemulsions.

  4. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  5. Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Gergely

    The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...

  6. Neutral-current weak interactions at an EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Deshpande, A.; Kumar, K.S.; Riordan, S. [Stony Brook University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    A simulation study of measurements of neutral current structure functions of the nucleon at the future high-energy and high-luminosity polarized electron-ion collider (EIC) is presented. A new series of γ-Z interference structure functions, F{sub 1}{sup γZ}, F{sub 3}{sup γZ}, g{sub 1}{sup γZ}, g{sub 5}{sup γZ} become accessible via parity-violating asymmetries in polarized electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Within the context of the quark-parton model, they provide a unique and, in some cases, yet-unmeasured combination of unpolarized and polarized parton distribution functions. The uncertainty projections for these structure functions using electron-proton collisions are considered for various EIC beam energy configurations. Also presented are uncertainty projections for measurements of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} θ{sub W} using electron-deuteron collisions which cover a much higher Q{sup 2} than that accessible in fixed target measurements. QED and QCD radiative corrections and effects of detector smearing are included with the calculations. (orig.)

  7. Combining large number of weak biomarkers based on AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Tian, Lili; Liu, Song

    2015-12-20

    Combining multiple biomarkers to improve diagnosis and/or prognosis accuracy is a common practice in clinical medicine. Both parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed for finding the optimal linear combination of biomarkers to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), primarily focusing on the setting with a small number of well-defined biomarkers. This problem becomes more challenging when the number of observations is not order of magnitude greater than the number of variables, especially when the involved biomarkers are relatively weak. Such settings are not uncommon in certain applied fields. The first aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate the performance of existing linear combination methods under such settings. The second aim is to propose a new combination method, namely, the pairwise approach, to maximize AUC. Our simulation studies demonstrated that the performance of several existing methods can become unsatisfactory as the number of markers becomes large, while the newly proposed pairwise method performs reasonably well. Furthermore, we apply all the combination methods to real datasets used for the development and validation of MammaPrint. The implication of our study for the design of optimal linear combination methods is discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Quenching of weak interactions in nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the one-body Fermi and Gamow-Teller charge-current and vector and axial-vector neutral-current nuclear matrix elements in nucleon matter at densities of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24 fm -3 and proton fractions ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The correlated states for nucleon matter are obtained by operating on Fermi-gas states by a symmetrized product of pair correlation operators determined from variational calculations with the Argonne-v18 and Urbana-IX two- and three-nucleon interactions. The squares of the charge- current matrix elements are found to be quenched by 20-25 % by the short-range correlations in nucleon matter. Most of the quenching is due to spin-isospin correlations induced by the pion exchange interactions which change the isospins and spins of the nucleons. A large part of it can be related to the probability for a spin-up proton quasiparticle to be a bare spin-up/down proton/neutron. Within the interval considered, the charge-current matrix elements do not have significant dependence on the matter density, proton fraction, and magnitudes of nucleon momenta; however, they do depend on momentum transfer. The neutral-current matrix elements have a significant dependence on the proton fraction. We also calculate the matrix elements of the nuclear Hamiltonian in the same correlated basis. These provide relatively mild effective interactions that give the variational energies in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The calculated two-nucleon effective interaction describes the spin-isospin susceptibilities of nuclear and neutron matter fairly accurately. However terms greater than or equal to three-body terms are necessary to reproduce the compressibility. Realistic calculations of weak interaction rates in nucleon matter can presumably be carried out using the effective operators and interactions studied here. All presented results use the simple two-body cluster approximation to calculate the correlated basis matrix elements. This allows for a clear

  10. Proximal Limb Weakness Reverting After CSF Diversion In Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about two young girls who developed progressive visual failure secondary to increased intracranial pressure and had significant proximal muscle weakness of limbs. Patients with elevated intracranial pressure (ICP may present with "false localizing signs", besides having headache, vomiting and papilledema. Radicular pain as a manifestation of raised ICP is rare and motor weakness attributable to polyradiculopathy is exceptional. Two patients with increased intracranial pressure without lateralizing signs′ had singnificant muscle weakness. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests did not disclose any other cause for weakness. Following theco-peritoneal shunt, in both patients, there was variable recovery of vision but the proximal weakness and symptoms of elevated ICP improved rapidly. Recognition of this uncommon manifestation of raised ICP may obviate the need for unnecessary investigation and reduce morbidity due to weakness by CSF diversion procedure.

  11. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglicki, Zdzislaw

    2011-01-01

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  12. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  13. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary

  14. Weak value distributions for spin 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.; McRoberts, B.; Shukla, P.

    2011-05-01

    The simplest weak measurement is of a component of spin 1/2. For this observable, the probability distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the weak value, and their joint probability distribution, are calculated exactly for pre- and postselected states uniformly distributed over the surface of the Poincaré-Bloch sphere. The superweak probability, that the real part of the weak value lies outside the spectral range, is 1/3. This case, with just two eigenvalues, complements our previous calculation (Berry and Shukla 2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 354024) of the universal form of the weak value probability distribution for an operator with many eigenvalues.

  15. Weak value distributions for spin 1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Dennis, M R; McRoberts, B; Shukla, P

    2011-01-01

    The simplest weak measurement is of a component of spin 1/2. For this observable, the probability distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the weak value, and their joint probability distribution, are calculated exactly for pre- and postselected states uniformly distributed over the surface of the Poincare-Bloch sphere. The superweak probability, that the real part of the weak value lies outside the spectral range, is 1/3. This case, with just two eigenvalues, complements our previous calculation (Berry and Shukla 2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 354024) of the universal form of the weak value probability distribution for an operator with many eigenvalues.

  16. Towards automatic global error control: Computable weak error expansion for the tau-leap method

    KAUST Repository

    Karlsson, Peer Jesper; Tempone, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work develops novel error expansions with computable leading order terms for the global weak error in the tau-leap discretization of pure jump processes arising in kinetic Monte Carlo models. Accurate computable a posteriori error approximations are the basis for adaptive algorithms, a fundamental tool for numerical simulation of both deterministic and stochastic dynamical systems. These pure jump processes are simulated either by the tau-leap method, or by exact simulation, also referred to as dynamic Monte Carlo, the Gillespie Algorithm or the Stochastic Simulation Slgorithm. Two types of estimates are presented: an a priori estimate for the relative error that gives a comparison between the work for the two methods depending on the propensity regime, and an a posteriori estimate with computable leading order term. © de Gruyter 2011.

  17. Assessing Ozone Detectability on Weakly Oxygenated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward; Olson, Stephanie; Reinhard, Christopher; Ridgwell, Andy; Kane, Stephen R.; Meadows, Victoria; Lyons, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    Space-based telescope mission concepts currently under development by NASA would be capable of directly imaging exoplanets within the habitable zones of their host stars. The spectroscopic data from such missions could provide an opportunity to detect biosignatures. The strongest remotely detectable signature of life on our planet today is the photosynthetically produced oxygen (O2) in our atmosphere. However, recent studies of Earth’s geochemical proxy record suggest that for all but the last ~500 million years, atmospheric O2 would have been undetectable to a remote observer, a potential false negative for life. During an extended period in Earth’s middle history (2.0 – 0.7 billion years ago, Ga), O2 was likely present but in low concentrations, with pO2 estimates of ~ 0.1 – 1% of present-day levels. Recent biogeochemical modeling results have suggested methane (CH4) was likewise undetectably low during this period. Although O2 has a weak spectral impact in reflected light at abundances consistent with Earth’s middle history, O3 in photochemical equilibrium with that O2 would produce notable spectral features in the UV Hartley-Huggins band (~0.25 µm), with a weaker impact in the mid-IR band near 9.7 µm. Thus, taking Earth history as an informative example, there likely exists a category of exoplanets for which conventional biosignatures can only be identified in the UV. We use simulated observations to emphasize the importance of UV capabilities in the design of future space-based direct imaging telescopes such as HabEx or LUVOIR to detect O3 on planets with weakly oxygenated states. We also show that under low-O2 conditions, seasonal variations in O2 production and consumption by the biosphere could manifest as time-variable O3. Such seasonality in the Hartley-Huggins band provides both an opportunity and a challenge for remote life-detection studies because this biosignature may only be detectable intermittently over a planet’s orbital period

  18. V819 TAU: A RARE WEAK-LINED T TAURI STAR WITH A WEAK INFRARED EXCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Forrest, W. J.; Manoj, P.; Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Sargent, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    We use Spitzer data to infer that the small infrared excess of V819 Tau, a weak-lined T Tauri star in Taurus, is real and not attributable to a 'companion' 10'' to the south. We do not confirm the mid-infrared excess in HBC 427 and V410 X-ray 3, which are also non-accreting T Tauri stars in the same region; instead, for the former object, the excess arises from a red companion 9'' to the east. A single-temperature blackbody fit to the continuum excess of V819 Tau implies a dust temperature of 143 K; however, a better fit is achieved when the weak 10 and 20 μm silicate emission features are also included. We infer a disk of sub-μm silicate grains between about 1 AU and several 100 AU with a constant surface density distribution. The mid-infrared excess of V819 Tau can be successfully modeled with dust composed mostly of small amorphous olivine grains at a temperature of 85 K, and most of the excess emission is optically thin. The disk could still be primordial, but gas-poor and therefore short-lived, or already at the debris disk stage, which would make it one of the youngest debris disk systems known.

  19. Earthquake nucleation in weak subducted carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawski, Robert M.; Stipp, Michael; Niemeijer, André R.; Spiers, Christopher J.; Behrmann, Jan H.

    2016-09-01

    Ocean-floor carbonate- and clay-rich sediments form major inputs to subduction zones, especially at low-latitude convergent plate margins. Therefore, knowledge of their frictional behaviour is fundamental for understanding plate-boundary earthquakes. Here we report results of mechanical tests performed on simulated fault gouges prepared from ocean-floor carbonates and clays, cored during IODP drilling offshore Costa Rica. Clay-rich gouges show internal friction coefficients (that is, the slope of linearized shear stress versus normal stress data) of μint = 0.44 - 0.56, irrespective of temperature and pore-fluid pressure (Pf). By contrast, μint for the carbonate gouge strongly depends on temperature and pore-fluid pressure, with μint decreasing dramatically from 0.84 at room temperature and Pf = 20 MPa to 0.27 at T = 140 °C and Pf = 120 MPa. This effect provides a fundamental mechanism of shear localization and earthquake generation in subduction zones, and makes carbonates likely nucleation sites for plate-boundary earthquakes. Our results imply that rupture nucleation is prompted by a combination of temperature-controlled frictional instability and temperature- and pore-pressure-dependent weakening of calcareous fault gouges.

  20. Weak interactions, quark masses and spontaneous violation of parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, R.L.

    1976-09-01

    A six quark model is discussed for the weak interactions of hadrons in which parity is violated spontaneously in an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory. Quarks with very small masses are required and their weak interactions approximate those of the Weinberg-Salam model. Suppression of strangeness-changing neutral currents requires at least seven quarks. (author)

  1. Covenants with Weak Swords: ISO 14001 and Facilities' Environmental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoski, Matthew; Prakash, Aseem

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programs are codes of progressive environmental conduct that firms pledge to adopt. This paper investigates whether ISO 14001, a voluntary program with a weak sword--a weak monitoring and sanctioning mechanism--can mitigate shirking and improve participants' environmental performance. Sponsored by the International…

  2. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  3. Polarization phenomena in isobar production by a weak neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esajbegyan, S.V.; Matinyan, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    Polarization phenomen connected with weak neutral currents producing the isobar in the lepton-nucleon scattering are considered. It is shown that measurement of the angular distribution of π mesons so as to detect also the longitudinally polarized decay nucleon can provide usefull information about validity of various models including a weak neutral current

  4. Proposed ripplon induced weak localization of electrons over liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahm, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ripplon induced weak localization is proposed for electrons on a liquid helium surface. Ripplon scattering is quasi-elastic, the ripplon are quasi-static relative to the electron velocity, and the relative change in occupation number of the ripplon state in a scattering event is small. Conditions for the observation of ripplon induced weak localization are calculated

  5. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  6. Weak decay amplitudes in large N/sub c/ QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    A systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes is presented using the large N/sub c/ expansion of quantum chromodynamics. In the K-meson system, this analysis is applied to the calculation of the weak decay amplitudes, weak mixing and CP violation. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. On n-weak amenability of Rees semigroup algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    semigroups. In this work, we shall consider this class of Banach algebras. We examine the n-weak amenability of some semigroup algebras, and give an easier example of a Banach algebra which is n-weakly amenable if n is odd. Let L1(G) be the group algebra of a locally compact group G (§3.3 of [3]). Then Johnson.

  8. The Maslov index in weak symplectic functional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We recall the Chernoff-Marsden definition of weak symplectic structure and give a rigorous treatment of the functional analysis and geometry of weak symplectic Banach spaces. We define the Maslov index of a continuous path of Fredholm pairs of Lagrangian subspaces in continuously varying Banach...

  9. Introduction to unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing the present status of weak interaction phenomenology we discuss the basic principles of gauge theories. Then we show how Higgs mechanism can give massive quanta of interaction. The so-called 'Weinberg-Salam' model, which unifies electromagnetic and weak interactions, is described. We conclude with a few words on unification with strong interactions and gravity [fr

  10. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a promine...

  11. Measures of weak noncompactness, nonlinear Leray-Schauder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we establish some new nonlinear Leray-Schauder alternatives for the sum and the product of weakly sequentially continuous operators in Banach algebras satisfying certain sequential condition (P). The main condition in our results is formulated in terms of axiomatic measures of weak noncompactness.

  12. Equilibration and hydrodynamics at strong and weak coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schee, Wilke van der

    2017-01-01

    We give an updated overview of both weak and strong coupling methods to describe the approach to a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics, a process now called hydrodynamisation. At weak coupling the very first moments after a heavy ion collision is described by the colour-glass condensate

  13. A young woman with weakness of the legs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previously well 22-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness of her legs and urinary incontinence over 7 days. Clinically she was healthy, with no skin rashes. On neurological examination she had profound bilateral weakness of the lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, a positive Babinski sign and a T6 ...

  14. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  15. Array design considerations for exploitation of stable weakly dispersive modal pulses in the deep ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A.

    2017-07-01

    Modal pulses are broadband contributions to an acoustic wave field with fixed mode number. Stable weakly dispersive modal pulses (SWDMPs) are special modal pulses that are characterized by weak dispersion and weak scattering-induced broadening and are thus suitable for communications applications. This paper investigates, using numerical simulations, receiver array requirements for recovering information carried by SWDMPs under various signal-to-noise ratio conditions without performing channel equalization. Two groups of weakly dispersive modal pulses are common in typical mid-latitude deep ocean environments: the lowest order modes (typically modes 1-3 at 75 Hz), and intermediate order modes whose waveguide invariant is near-zero (often around mode 20 at 75 Hz). Information loss is quantified by the bit error rate (BER) of a recovered binary phase-coded signal. With fixed receiver depths, low BERs (less than 1%) are achieved at ranges up to 400 km with three hydrophones for mode 1 with 90% probability and with 34 hydrophones for mode 20 with 80% probability. With optimal receiver depths, depending on propagation range, only a few, sometimes only two, hydrophones are often sufficient for low BERs, even with intermediate mode numbers. Full modal resolution is unnecessary to achieve low BERs. Thus, a flexible receiver array of autonomous vehicles can outperform a cabled array.

  16. Curved Radio Spectra of Weak Cluster Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand certain observed features of arc-like giant radio relics such as the rareness, uniform surface brightness, and curved integrated spectra, we explore a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model for radio relics in which a spherical shock impinges on a magnetized cloud containing fossil relativistic electrons. Toward this end, we perform DSA simulations of spherical shocks with the parameters relevant for the Sausage radio relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, and calculate the ensuing radio synchrotron emission from re-accelerated electrons. Three types of fossil electron populations are considered: a delta-function like population with the shock injection momentum, a power-law distribution, and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The surface brightness profile of the radio-emitting postshock region and the volume-integrated radio spectrum are calculated and compared with observations. We find that the observed width of the Sausage relic can be explained reasonably well by shocks with speed {u}{{s}}˜ 3× {10}3 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and sonic Mach number {M}{{s}}˜ 3. These shocks produce curved radio spectra that steepen gradually over (0.1-10){ν }{br} with a break frequency {ν }{br}˜ 1 GHz if the duration of electron acceleration is ˜60-80 Myr. However, the abrupt increase in the spectral index above ˜1.5 GHz observed in the Sausage relic seems to indicate that additional physical processes, other than radiative losses, operate for electrons with {γ }{{e}}≳ {10}4.

  17. Phenomena in coupled superconducting weak links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between two independently biasable coupled superconducting microbridges were studied. Some bridges were fabricated within 2 mu m of each other. Quasiparticles from one bridge affect the other. In a second type of sample, the microbridges were separated by 10 mu m and coupled via a resistive shunt. The interaction results from the current flowing through the shunt. Similar effects are seen in both types of samples. In opposed biased bridges, the effective critical current is decreased because of the interaction. For series biased bridges, the effective critical current of one bridge is decreased or increased, depending on the voltage across the other bridge. These interactions lead to voltage steps in the I-V curves where, for opposed biased bridges, both voltages increase; for series bias, one voltage increases, the other decreases. Experimental results are in reasonable agreement with a second-order perturbation calculation and with an analog simulation. Voltage locking is found for both biasing configurations in both types of samples. Locking can occur simultaneously with a voltage step, resulting in nascent voltage locking which can also occur in conjunction with hysteresis. The effect of a voltage in the pad between the two proximity coupled bridges is to vary the voltage at which locking occurs, which in turn alters the shape of the locking curve. Locking range is calculated in two models for comparison with the two types of samples. The first explicitly considers the time delay for propagation of the charge-imbalance wave from one bridge to the other. The second model considers the current flowing in the resistive/inductive coupling shunt

  18. Microwave-assisted Weak Acid Hydrolysis of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeong Seo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin was hydrolyzed by microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis with 2% formic acid at 37 oC, 50 oC, and100 oC for 1 h. The most effective hydrolysis was observed at 100 oC. Hydrolysis products were investigated using matrixassistedlaser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Most cleavages predominantly occurred at the C-termini ofaspartyl residues. For comparison, weak acid hydrolysis was also performed in boiling water for 20, 40, 60, and 120 min. A 60-min weak acid hydrolysis in boiling water yielded similar results as a 60-min microwave-assisted weak acid hydrolysis at100 oC. These results strongly suggest that microwave irradiation has no notable enhancement effect on acid hydrolysis of proteinsand that temperature is the major factor that determines the effectiveness of weak acid hydrolysis.

  19. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Recent research (Flache, 1996; Flache and Macy, 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  20. The rational weakness of strong ties : Failure of group solidarity in a highly cohesive group of rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Yamamoto, H

    2006-01-01

    Recent research (Flache 1996; Flache and Macy 1996) suggests a "weakness of strong ties." Cohesive social networks may undermine group solidarity, rather than sustain it. In the original analysis, simulations showed that adaptive actors learn cooperation in bilateral exchanges faster than

  1. Induction generator models in dynamic simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans; Akhmatov, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained...

  2. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC CHROMATIC EFFECTS ON WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma

  3. IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC CHROMATIC EFFECTS ON WEAK LENSING MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Joshua E.; Burchat, Patricia R., E-mail: jmeyers314@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Current and future imaging surveys will measure cosmic shear with statistical precision that demands a deeper understanding of potential systematic biases in galaxy shape measurements than has been achieved to date. We use analytic and computational techniques to study the impact on shape measurements of two atmospheric chromatic effects for ground-based surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST): (1) atmospheric differential chromatic refraction and (2) wavelength dependence of seeing. We investigate the effects of using the point-spread function (PSF) measured with stars to determine the shapes of galaxies that have different spectral energy distributions than the stars. We find that both chromatic effects lead to significant biases in galaxy shape measurements for current and future surveys, if not corrected. Using simulated galaxy images, we find a form of chromatic “model bias” that arises when fitting a galaxy image with a model that has been convolved with a stellar, instead of galactic, PSF. We show that both forms of atmospheric chromatic biases can be predicted (and corrected) with minimal model bias by applying an ordered set of perturbative PSF-level corrections based on machine-learning techniques applied to six-band photometry. Catalog-level corrections do not address the model bias. We conclude that achieving the ultimate precision for weak lensing from current and future ground-based imaging surveys requires a detailed understanding of the wavelength dependence of the PSF from the atmosphere, and from other sources such as optics and sensors. The source code for this analysis is available at https://github.com/DarkEnergyScienceCollaboration/chroma.

  4. Electrical localization of weakly electric fish using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiar, Greg; Mamatjan, Yasin; Adler, Andy; Jun, James; Maler, Len

    2013-01-01

    Weakly Electric Fish (WEF) emit an Electric Organ Discharge (EOD), which travels through the surrounding water and enables WEF to locate nearby objects or to communicate between individuals. Previous tracking of WEF has been conducted using infrared (IR) cameras and subsequent image processing. The limitation of visual tracking is its relatively low frame-rate and lack of reliability when visually obstructed. Thus, there is a need for reliable monitoring of WEF location and behaviour. The objective of this study is to provide an alternative and non-invasive means of tracking WEF in real-time using neural networks (NN). This study was carried out in three stages. First stage was to recreate voltage distributions by simulating the WEF using EIDORS and finite element method (FEM) modelling. Second stage was to validate the model using phantom data acquired from an Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) based system, including a phantom fish and tank. In the third stage, the measurement data was acquired using a restrained WEF within a tank. We trained the NN based on the voltage distributions for different locations of the WEF. With networks trained on the acquired data, we tracked new locations of the WEF and observed the movement patterns. The results showed a strong correlation between expected and calculated values of WEF position in one dimension, yielding a high spatial resolution within 1 cm and 10 times higher temporal resolution than IR cameras. Thus, the developed approach could be used as a practical method to non-invasively monitor the WEF in real-time.

  5. Chiral perturbation theory approach to hadronic weak amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael, E. de

    1989-01-01

    We are concerned with applications to the non-leptonic weak interactions in the sector of light quark flavors: u, d and s. Both strangeness changing ΔS=1 and ΔS=2 non-leptonic transitions can be described as weak perturbations to the strong effective chiral Lagrangian; the chiral structure of the weak effective Lagrangian being dictated by the transformation properties of the weak non-leptonic Hamiltonian of the Standard Model under global SU(3) Left xSU(3) Right rotations of the quark-fields. These lectures are organized as follows. Section 2 gives a review of the basic properties of chiral symmetry. Section 3 explains the effective chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian of the Standard Model to lowest order in derivatives and masses. Section 4 deals with non-leptonic weak transitions in the presence of electromagnetism. Some recent applications to radiative kaon decays are reviewed and the effect of the so called electromagnetic penguin like diagrams is also discussed. Section 5 explains the basic ideas of the QCD-hadronic duality approach to the evaluation of coupling constants of the non-leptonic chiral weak Lagrangian. (orig./HSI)

  6. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  7. Weak signal transmission in complex networks and its application in detecting connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Liu, Zonghua; Li, Baowen

    2009-10-01

    We present a network model of coupled oscillators to study how a weak signal is transmitted in complex networks. Through both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we find that the response of other nodes to the weak signal decays exponentially with their topological distance to the signal source and the coupling strength between two neighboring nodes can be figured out by the responses. This finding can be conveniently used to detect the topology of unknown network, such as the degree distribution, clustering coefficient and community structure, etc., by repeatedly choosing different nodes as the signal source. Through four typical networks, i.e., the regular one dimensional, small world, random, and scale-free networks, we show that the features of network can be approximately given by investigating many fewer nodes than the network size, thus our approach to detect the topology of unknown network may be efficient in practical situations with large network size.

  8. Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Connected to a Weak Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulanwar, Elsayed; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    and smoothness at the point of connection (POC) in order to maximise the wind power penetration into such networks. Intensive simulation case studies under different network topology and wind speed ranges reveal the effectiveness of the AVC scheme to effectively suppress the POC voltage variations particularly......Significant voltage fluctuations and power quality issues pose considerable constraints on the efficient integration of remotely located wind turbines into weak networks. Besides, 3p oscillations arising from the wind shear and tower shadow effects induce further voltage perturbations during...... continuous operation. This study investigates and analyses the repercussions raised by integrating a doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine into an ac network of different parameters and very weak conditions. An adaptive voltage control (AVC) strategy is proposed to retain voltage constancy...

  9. On the role of weak interface in crack blunting process in nanoscale layered composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Ping; Xu, Kewei; Wang, Fei; Lu, Tianjian

    2018-03-01

    Heterointerface in a nanoscale metallic layered composite could improve its crack resistance. However, the influence of metallic interface structures on crack propagation has not been well understood at atomic scale. By using the method of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the crack propagation behavior in Cu-Nb bilayer is compared with that in Cu-Ni bilayer. We find that the weak Cu-Nb interface plays an important role in hindering crack propagation in two ways: (i) dislocation nucleation at the interface releases stress concentration for the crack to propagate; (ii) the easily sheared weak incoherent interface blunts the crack tip. The results are helpful for understanding the interface structure dependent crack resistance of nanoscale bicrystal interfaces.

  10. Detecting a Weak Association by Testing its Multiple Perturbations: a Data Mining Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Min-Tzu; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-05-01

    Many risk factors/interventions in epidemiologic/biomedical studies are of minuscule effects. To detect such weak associations, one needs a study with a very large sample size (the number of subjects, n). The n of a study can be increased but unfortunately only to an extent. Here, we propose a novel method which hinges on increasing sample size in a different direction-the total number of variables (p). We construct a p-based `multiple perturbation test', and conduct power calculations and computer simulations to show that it can achieve a very high power to detect weak associations when p can be made very large. As a demonstration, we apply the method to analyze a genome-wide association study on age-related macular degeneration and identify two novel genetic variants that are significantly associated with the disease. The p-based method may set a stage for a new paradigm of statistical tests.

  11. Precision phase estimation based on weak-value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Liu, Xiong; Luo, Lan; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a precision method for phase estimation based on the weak-value amplification (WVA) technique using a monochromatic light source. The anomalous WVA significantly suppresses the technical noise with respect to the intensity difference signal induced by the phase delay when the post-selection procedure comes into play. The phase measured precision of this method is proportional to the weak-value of a polarization operator in the experimental range. Our results compete well with the wide spectrum light phase weak measurements and outperform the standard homodyne phase detection technique.

  12. Detection of weak optical signals with a laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    Detection of weak and extremely weak light signals amplified by linear and four-wave mixing laser amplifiers is analyzed. Photoelectron distributions are found for different input photon statistics over a wide range of gain. Signal-to-noise ratios are calculated and analyzed for preamplification schemes using linear and four-wave mixing amplifiers. Calculations show that the high signal-to-noise ratio (much higher than unity), ensuring reliable detection of weak input signals, can be attained only with a four-wave mixing preamplification scheme. Qualitative dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio on the quantum statistical properties of both signal and idler waves is demonstrated

  13. The definite article in Romance expletives and long weak definites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Teresa Espinal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on some issues involving expletive articles and long weak definites in Romance (mainly Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese and Catalan, in comparison to DPs that elicit a strong reading. We show the similarities between expletive definites and long weak definites, and we argue for an analysis in common to other polarity items in terms of polarity sensitivity. We reach the conclusion that the definite article in Romance comes in two variants: the referentially unique variant (to be translated as the semantic 'iota 'operator and the polar variant, formally characterized with an abstract [+σ] feature, that encodes a weak bound reading (to be semantically translated by an existential operator.

  14. Linear optics implementation of weak values in Hardy's paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, S.E.; Payne, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup for the implementation of weak measurements in the context of the gedanken experiment known as Hardy's paradox. As Aharonov et al. [Y. Aharonov, A. Botero, S. Popescu, B. Reznik, and J. Tollaksen, Phys. Lett. A301, 130 (2002)] showed, these weak values form a language with which the paradox can be resolved. Our analysis shows that this language is indeed consistent and experimentally testable. It also reveals exactly how a combination of weak values can give rise to an apparently paradoxical result

  15. The quantum to classical crossover for a weak link capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, T.P.; Clark, T.D.; Prance, H.; Prance, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a model weak link, an ultra-small capacitor subject to tunnelling, to ohmic dissipation and fed with an external displacement current. The framework we employ is the new approach of quantum state diffusion, which treats individual open quantum systems as well as being able to generate the conventional ensemble averages. We show how evidence, for archetypal quantum behaviour (coherent oscillations) and archetypal classical behaviour (chaos) arises, for weak links whose parameters are related by a rather modest scaling. Interestingly, the quantum behaviour can arise for a weak link with intrinsic parameter values such that it could exhibit chaos, if it were a purely classical device

  16. Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, Abraham G., E-mail: kofmana@gmail.com; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2012-11-01

    This paper starts with a brief review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov–Albert–Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the measurement strength. The optimal conditions for weak PPS measurements are obtained in the strongly-nonlinear regime, where the magnitude of the average pointer deflection is equal or close to the maximum. This maximum is independent of the measurement strength, being typically of the order of the pointer uncertainty. In the optimal regime, the small parameter of the theory is comparable to the overlap of the pre- and post-selected states. We show that the amplification coefficient in the weak PPS measurements is generally a product of two qualitatively different factors. The effects of the free system and meter Hamiltonians are discussed. We also estimate the size of the ensemble required for a measurement and identify optimal and efficient meters for weak measurements. Exact solutions are obtained for a certain class of the measured observables. These solutions are used for numerical calculations, the results of which agree with the theory

  17. Nonperturbative theory of weak pre- and post-selected measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, Abraham G.; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief review of the topic of strong and weak pre- and post-selected (PPS) quantum measurements, as well as weak values, and afterwards presents original work. In particular, we develop a nonperturbative theory of weak PPS measurements of an arbitrary system with an arbitrary meter, for arbitrary initial states of the system and the meter. New and simple analytical formulas are obtained for the average and the distribution of the meter pointer variable. These formulas hold to all orders in the weak value. In the case of a mixed preselected state, in addition to the standard weak value, an associated weak value is required to describe weak PPS measurements. In the linear regime, the theory provides the generalized Aharonov–Albert–Vaidman formula. Moreover, we reveal two new regimes of weak PPS measurements: the strongly-nonlinear regime and the inverted region (the regime with a very large weak value), where the system-dependent contribution to the pointer deflection decreases with increasing the measurement strength. The optimal conditions for weak PPS measurements are obtained in the strongly-nonlinear regime, where the magnitude of the average pointer deflection is equal or close to the maximum. This maximum is independent of the measurement strength, being typically of the order of the pointer uncertainty. In the optimal regime, the small parameter of the theory is comparable to the overlap of the pre- and post-selected states. We show that the amplification coefficient in the weak PPS measurements is generally a product of two qualitatively different factors. The effects of the free system and meter Hamiltonians are discussed. We also estimate the size of the ensemble required for a measurement and identify optimal and efficient meters for weak measurements. Exact solutions are obtained for a certain class of the measured observables. These solutions are used for numerical calculations, the results of which agree with the theory

  18. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, J.; Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry

  19. Practical advantages of almost-balanced-weak-value metrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Chen, Zekai; Howell, John C.

    2017-06-01

    Precision measurements of ultrasmall linear velocities of one of the mirrors in a Michelson interferometer are performed using two different weak-value techniques. We show that the technique of almost-balanced weak values (ABWV) offers practical advantages over the technique of weak-value amplification, resulting in larger signal-to-noise ratios and the possibility of longer integration times due to robustness to slow drifts. As an example of the performance of the ABWV protocol we report a velocity sensitivity of 60 fm/s after 40 h of integration time. The sensitivity of the Doppler shift due to the moving mirror is 150 nHz.

  20. Weak Localisation in Clean and Highly Disordered Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilke, Michael; Massicotte, Mathieu; Whiteway, Eric; Yu, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We look at the magnetic field induced weak localisation peak of graphene samples with different mobilities. At very low temperatures, low mobility samples exhibit a very broad peak as a function of the magnetic field, in contrast to higher mobility samples, where the weak localisation peak is very sharp. We analyze the experimental data in the context of the localisation length, which allows us to extract, both the localisation length and the phase coherence length of the samples, regardless of their mobilities. This analysis is made possible by the observation that the localisation length undergoes a generic weak localisation dependence with striking universal properties

  1. Testing the weak gravity-cosmic censorship connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisford, Toby; Horowitz, Gary T.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2018-03-01

    A surprising connection between the weak gravity conjecture and cosmic censorship has recently been proposed. In particular, it was argued that a promising class of counterexamples to cosmic censorship in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Λ theory would be removed if charged particles (with sufficient charge) were present. We test this idea and find that indeed if the weak gravity conjecture is true, one cannot violate cosmic censorship this way. Remarkably, the minimum value of charge required to preserve cosmic censorship appears to agree precisely with that proposed by the weak gravity conjecture.

  2. Tight Bell Inequalities and Nonlocality in Weak Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegell, Mordecai

    A general class of Bell inequalities is derived based on strict adherence to probabilistic entanglement correlations observed in nature. This derivation gives significantly tighter bounds on local hidden variable theories for the well-known Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, and also leads to new proofs of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem. This method is applied to weak measurements and reveals nonlocal correlations between the weak value and the post-selection, which rules out various classical models of weak measurement. Implications of these results are discussed. Fetzer-Franklin Fund of the John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust.

  3. Control on frontal thrust progression by the mechanically weak Gondwana horizon in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Das, Animesh

    2018-03-01

    This study integrates field evidence with laboratory experiments to show the mechanical effects of a lithologically contrasting stratigraphic sequence on the development of frontal thrusts: Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Daling Thrust (DT) in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya (DSH). We carried out field investigations mainly along two river sections in the DSH: Tista-Kalijhora and Mahanadi, covering an orogen-parallel stretch of 20 km. Our field observations suggest that the coal-shale dominated Gondwana sequence (sandwiched between the Daling Group in the north and Siwaliks in the south) has acted as a mechanically weak horizon to localize the MBT and DT. We simulated a similar mechanical setting in scaled model experiments to validate our field interpretation. In experiments, such a weak horizon at a shallow depth perturbs the sequential thrust progression, and causes a thrust to localize in the vicinity of the weak zone, splaying from the basal detachment. We correlate this weak-zone-controlled thrust with the DT, which accommodates a large shortening prior to activation of the weak zone as a new detachment with ongoing horizontal shortening. The entire shortening in the model is then transferred to this shallow detachment to produce a new sequence of thrust splays. Extrapolating this model result to the natural prototype, we show that the mechanically weak Gondwana Sequence has caused localization of the DT and MBT in the mountain front of DSH.

  4. Undecidability of Weak Bisimilarity for PA-Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, J.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the problem whether two PA-processes are weakly bisimilar is undecidable. We combine several proof techniques to provide a reduction from Post's correspondence problem to our problem: existential quantification technique, masking technique and deadlock elimination technique....

  5. Nuclear Weak Rates and Detailed Balance in Stellar Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misch, G. Wendell, E-mail: wendell@sjtu.edu, E-mail: wendell.misch@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Detailed balance is often invoked in discussions of nuclear weak transitions in astrophysical environments. Satisfaction of detailed balance is rightly touted as a virtue of some methods of computing nuclear transition strengths, but I argue that it need not necessarily be strictly obeyed in astrophysical environments, especially when the environment is far from weak equilibrium. I present the results of shell model calculations of nuclear weak strengths in both charged-current and neutral-current channels at astrophysical temperatures, finding some violation of detailed balance. I show that a slight modification of the technique to strictly obey detailed balance has little effect on the reaction rates associated with these strengths under most conditions, though at high temperature the modified technique in fact misses some important strength. I comment on the relationship between detailed balance and weak equilibrium in astrophysical conditions.

  6. Modular overconstrained weak-link mechanism for ultraprecision motion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Deming; Toellner, Thomas S.; Alp, Esen E.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a novel miniature overconstrained weak-link mechanism that will allow positioning of two crystals with better than 50 nrad angular resolution and nanometer linear driving sensitivity. The precision and stability of this structure allow the user to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as does a single channel-cut crystal, so we call it an ''artificial channel-cut crystal.'' Unlike the traditional kinematic linear spring mechanisms, the overconstrained weak-link mechanism provides much higher structure stiffness and stability. Using a laminar structure configured and manufactured by chemical etching and lithography techniques, we are able to design and build a planar-shape, high stiffness, high precision weak-link mechanism. In this paper, we present recent developments for the overconstrained weak-link mechanism. Applications of this new technique to synchrotron radiation instrumentation are also discussed

  7. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  8. Polarised neutron diffraction studies on weak ferromagnetism - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishna, P.

    1982-10-01

    The physical basis of the phenomenon of weak ferromagnetism in certain antiferromagnetic insulators is briefly discussed. A survey of the contributions of polarised neutron diffraction towards the elucidation of different aspects of this field is presented

  9. On weakly BR-closed functions between topological spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Miguel; Ekici, Erdal; Jafari, Saeid; Moshokoa, Seithuti P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a new class of functions called weakly BR-closed functions. Moreover, we investigate not only some of their basic properties but also their relationships with other types of already well-known functions.

  10. Heavy-Quark Effective Theory and Weak Matrix Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of weak decays of heavy flavours are reviewed. Applications to exclusive semileptonic B decays, the semileptonic branching ratio and charm counting, beauty lifetimes, and hadronic B decays are discussed.

  11. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Blackburn, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results

  12. Notification: FY 2018 CSB Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    December 26, 2017. The OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2018 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  13. The weak interaction in nuclear, particle and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, K.; Klapdor, H.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concepts of weak interactions and their importance and consequences for nuclear physics, particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and cosmology. After a general introduction to elementary particles and interactions the Fermi theory of weak interactions is described together with its connection with nuclear structure and beta decay including the double beta decay. Then, after a general description of gauge theories the Weinberg-Salam theory of the electroweak interactions is introduced. Thereafter the weak interactions are considered in the framework of grand unification. Then the physics of neutrinos is discussed. Thereafter connections of weak interactions with astrophysics are considered with special regards to the gravitational collapse and the synthesis of heavy elements in the r-process. Finally, the connections of grand unified theories and cosmology are considered. (HSI) With 141 figs., 39 tabs

  14. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  15. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  16. Compressive strength of brick masonry made with weak mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Steen; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    2013-01-01

    in the joint will ensure a certain level of load-carrying capacity. This is due to the interaction between compression in the weak mortar and tension in the adjacent bricks. This paper proposes an expression for the compressive strength of masonry made with weak lime mortars (fm... of masonry depends only on the strength of the bricks. A compression failure in masonry made with weak mortars occurs as a tension failure in the bricks, as they seek to prevent the mortar from being pressed out of the joints. The expression is derived by assuming hydrostatic pressure in the mortar joints......, which is the most unfavourable stress distribution with respect to tensile stresses in bricks. The expression is compared with the results of compression tests of masonry made with weak mortars. It can take into account bricks with arbitrary dimensions as well as perforated bricks. For a stronger mortar...

  17. Qweak: A Precision Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Armstrong; Todd Averett; James Birchall; James Bowman; Roger Carlini; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Charles Davis; J. Doornbos; James Dunne; Rolf Ent; Jens Erler; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; David Gaskell; Klaus Grimm; C. Hagner; F. Hersman; Maurik Holtrop; Kathleen Johnston; R.T. Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Cynthia Keppel; Elie Korkmaz; Stanley Kowalski; Lawrence Lee; Allison Lung; David Mack; Stanislaw Majewski; Gregory Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Norman Morgan; Allena Opper; Shelley Page; Seppo Penttila; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; William Ramsay; Michael Ramsey-musolf; Julie Roche; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Riad Suleiman; Simon Taylor; Willem Van Oers; Steven Wells; W.S. Wilburn; Stephen Wood; Carl Zorn

    2004-01-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q 2 of a longitudinally polarized electron beam on a proton target. The experiment will measure the weak charge of the proton, and thus the weak mixing angle at low energy scale, providing a precision test of the Standard Model. Since the value of the weak mixing angle is approximately 1/4, the weak charge of the proton Q w p = 1-4 sin 2 θ w is suppressed in the Standard Model, making it especially sensitive to the value of the mixing angle and also to possible new physics. The experiment is approved to run at JLab, and the construction plan calls for the hardware to be ready to install in Hall C in 2007. The theoretical context of the experiment and the status of its design are discussed

  18. Theory of weakly nonlinear self-sustained detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz; Kasimov, Aslan R.; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of weakly nonlinear multidimensional self-sustained detonations based on asymptotic analysis of the reactive compressible Navier-Stokes equations. We show that these equations can be reduced to a model consisting of a forced

  19. Existence of Weak Solutions for a Nonlinear Elliptic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert RobertP

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to the following Dirichlet boundary value problem, which occurs when modeling an injection molding process with a partial slip condition on the boundary. We have in ; in ; , and on .

  20. Weak neutral currents discovery: a giant step for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullia, A.; Vialle, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Subatomic particles interact with different kinds of forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational). In case of the weak force, the interaction is due to the exchange of intermediate charged (W +,- ) and neutral (Z 0 ) bosons. These cases are referred as 'charged currents' and 'neutral currents', respectively. The evidence for such weak neutral currents appeared in the Gargamelle international collaboration whose aim was to study in-depth neutrino interactions (and thus weak interactions) through the use of a giant heavy liquid bubble chamber at CERN. In a collaboration meeting in March 1972, the Milan team showed the first hints of neutral currents in neutrino interactions with at least one pion outgoing. In 1974, 2 new leptonic neutral current candidate events were found in Gargamelle films and the Fermilab team confirmed the result a few months later. (A.C.)