WorldWideScience

Sample records for simulated organic sludge

  1. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  2. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-12

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  3. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.; LIU, J.; ARTHUR, SARA E.; HUTCHERSON, SHEILA K.; QIAN, MORRIS; ANDERSON, HOWARD L.

    2000-01-01

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases

  4. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory simulated sludge vitrification demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. This project plans to demonstrate vitrification of simulated wastes that are considered representatives of wastes found throughout the DOE complex. For the most part, the primary constituent of the wastes is flocculation aids, such as Fe(OH) 3 , and natural filter aids, such as diatomaceous earth and perlite. The filter aids consist mostly of silica, which serves as an excellent glass former; hence, the reason why vitrification is such a viable option. LANL is currently operating a liquid waste processing plant which produces an inorganic sludge similar to other waste water treatment streams. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification and the likelihood of success is high, it shall be tested at CU. The objective of this task is to characterize the process behavior and glass product formed upon vitrification of simulated LANL sludge. The off-gases generated from the production runs will also be characterized to help further develop vitrification processes for mixed and low level wastes

  6. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  7. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  8. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  9. Electrical resistivities of glass melts containing simulated SRP waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.

    1978-08-01

    One option for the long-term management of radioactive waste at the Savannah River Plant is to solidify the waste in borosilicate glass by using a continuous, joule-heated, ceramic melter. Electrical resistivities that are needed for melter design were measured for melts of two borosilicate, glass-forming mixtures, each of which was combined with various amounts of several simulated-waste sludges. The simulated sludge spanned the composition range of actual sludges sampled from SRP waste tanks. Resistivities ranged from 6 to 10 ohm-cm at 500 0 C. Melt composition and temperature were correlated with resistivity. Resistivity was not a simple function of viscosity. 15 figures, 4 tables

  10. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge

  11. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  12. Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2010-03-23

    The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste [HLW]) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

  13. Hanford Sludge Simulant Selection for Soil Mechanics Property Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Beric E.; Russell, Renee L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Brown, Garrett N.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2010-01-01

    The current System Plan for the Hanford Tank Farms uses relaxed buoyant displacement gas release event (BDGRE) controls for deep sludge (i.e., high level waste (HLW)) tanks, which allows the tank farms to use more storage space, i.e., increase the sediment depth, in some of the double-shell tanks (DSTs). The relaxed BDGRE controls are based on preliminary analysis of a gas release model from van Kessel and van Kesteren. Application of the van Kessel and van Kesteren model requires parametric information for the sediment, including the lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus. No lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus in situ measurements for Hanford sludge are currently available. The two chemical sludge simulants will be used in follow-on work to experimentally measure the van Kessel and van Kesteren model parameters, lateral earth pressure at rest, and shear modulus.

  14. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Gao Ding; Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin; Du Wei

    2010-01-01

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k 20 (the first-order rate constant at 20 o C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k 20 , k 20s (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 o C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d -1 , respectively.

  15. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  16. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms.

  17. Alternative treatment for septic tank sludge: co-digestion with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; den Hamer, D; Komboi, J; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-02-01

    Co-disposal of septic tank sludge had a positive effect on the municipal solid waste (MSW) stabilisation process in Bioreactor Landfill simulators. Co-disposal experiments were carried out using the Bioreactor Landfill approach aiming to solve the environmental problems caused by indiscriminate and inadequate disposal of MSW and especially of septic tank sludge. The simulator receiving septic tank sludge exhibited a 200 days shorter lag-phase as compared to the 350 days required by the control simulator to start the exponential biogas production. Additionally, the simulator with septic sludge apparently retained more moisture (>60% w/w), which enhanced the overall conversion of organic matter hence increasing the biogas production (0.60 m3 biogas kg(-1)VS(converted)) and removal efficiency of 60% for VS from the simulator. Alkaline pH values (pH>8.5) did not inhibit the biogas production; moreover it contributed to reduce partially the negative effects of NH(4)(+) (>2 g L(-1)) due to NH(3) volatilisation thus reducing the nitrogen content of the residues. Associated risks and hazards with septage disposal were practically eliminated as total coliform and faecal coliform contents were reduced by 99% and 100%, respectively at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that co-disposal has two direct benefits, including the safe and environmentally sound disposal of septic tank sludge and an improvement of the overall performance of the Bioreactor Landfill by increasing moisture retention and supplying a more acclimatised bacterial population.

  18. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  19. An activated sludge model for xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (ASM-X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plósz, Benedek; Lehnberg, K.; Dott, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an evaluation of the process model developed by Plósz et al. (2010a) to predict the fate of antibiotics xenobiotic organic micro-pollutants (XOMs) in activated sludge systems. Instead of spiking the batch reactors with reference substances, observations were made using...... the XOMs content of pre-clarified municipal sewage. Evaluation of the model structure is carried out in dynamic simulations using data obtained in samples taken in a measuring campaign in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Our results suggest that the sorption...... deteriorate; thereby hindering the effluent quality of secondary treatment step, and thereby increasing the XOM mass load on the tertiary treatment step. Besides the impact of different redox conditions, divalent iron-salt dosing used for enhanced phosphorus removal and pH have been identified as potential...

  20. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for ... The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the whole plant is .... sludge will contain an important part of the XOCs which were.

  1. Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants through sludge anaerobic digestion: effect of low-organic-content sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Li, Huan

    2017-09-18

    During anaerobic digestion, low-organic-content sludge sometimes is used as feedstock, resulting in deteriorated digestion performance. The operational experience of conventional anaerobic digestion cannot be applied to this situation. To investigate the feature of low-organic-content sludge digestion and explain its intrinsic mechanism, batch experiments were conducted using designed feedstock having volatile solids (VS) contents that were 30-64% of total solids (TS). The results showed that the accumulative biogas yield declined proportionally from 173.7 to 64.8 ml/g VS added and organic removal rate decreased from 34.8 to 11.8% with decreasing VS/TS in the substrate. The oligotrophic environment resulting from low-organic-content substrates led to decreased microbial activity and a switch from butyric fermentation to propionic fermentation. A first-order model described the biogas production from the batch experiments very well, and the degradation coefficient decreased from 0.159 to 0.069 day -1 , exhibiting a positive relation with organic content in substrate. The results observed here corroborated with data from published literature on anaerobic digestion of low-organic-content sludge and showed that it may not be feasible to recover energy from sludge with an organic content lower than 50% through mono digestion.

  2. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gwon Woo; Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively

  3. Simulation Analysis of Sludge Disposal and Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Gravity Pressure Reactor via Wet Air Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gwon Woo [Biomass and Waste Energy Laboratory, KIER, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Wan; Lee, Hong-Cheol; Hwang, In-Ju [Environmental and Plant Engineering Research Institute, KICT, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Efficacious wastewater treatment is essential for increasing sewage sludge volume and implementing strict environmental regulations. The operation cost of sludge treatment amounts up to 50% of the total costs for wastewater treatment plants, therefore, an economical sludge destruction method is crucially needed. Amid several destruction methods, wet air oxidation (WAO) can efficiently treat wastewater containing organic pollutants. It can be used not only for sludge destruction but also for useful by-product production. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs), one of many byproducts, is considered to be an important precursor of biofuel and chemical materials. Its high reaction condition has instituted the study of gravity pressure reactor (GPR) for an economical process of WAO to reduce operation cost. Simulation of subcritical condition was conducted using Aspen Plus with predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong (PSRK) equation of state. Conjointly, simulation analysis for GPR depth, oxidizer type, sludge flow rate and oxidizer injection position was carried out. At GPR depth of 1000m and flow rate of 2 ton/h, the conversion and yield of VFAs were 92.02% and 0.17g/g, respectively.

  4. Survey in organic contaminants content in sewage sludge from the Emilia Romagna region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovi, P.; Sassi, D.; Piccinini, S.; Rossi, L.

    2008-01-01

    Data was collected on the organic pollutants cited in the Working document on sludge, 3. draft (AOX, LAS, DEHP, NPE, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F), for sewage sludge deriving from 12 municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants and 7 agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants located in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), taking samples in spring, summer and winter. The limit values given in the Working document were sporadically exceeded. The most frequent contamination was associated with LAS, in particular in the winter period. Results confirmed lower organic contaminant contents in sludge of agro-industrial origin, compared to sludge from municipal-industrial wastewater treatment plants, with generally not detectable values for the majority of organic pollutants. Comparison of the results collected in this survey with values recorded in other European countries shows that the organic contaminant content of sewage sludge obtained in plants in the Emilia-Romagna region, excepting LAS, is reasonable [it

  5. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  6. Synergistic and alkaline stability studies of mixtures of simulated high level waste sludge with selected energetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the stability of mercury oxalate and mercury fulminate in alkaline sludge simulating Savannah River Site waste. These compounds represent two classes of energetic compounds previously speculated as potential components in sludge stored without a supernatant liquid

  7. TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges

  8. Sludge disintegration techniques - assessment of their impacts on solubilization of organic carbon and methane production

    OpenAIRE

    Fatoorehchi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    In the present thesis, ozone, sodium hydroxide and ultrasound were conducted to disintegrate the excess sludge prior to anaerobic digestion with the aim of improving methane production. The impacts of different sludge disintegration methods on the molecular size distribution of DOC solubilized after disintegration were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with online organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD).

  9. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and ...

  10. Removal of Organic Micropollutants by Aerobic Activated Sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Nan

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the removal mechanism of non-acclimated and acclimated aerobic activated sludge for 29 target organic micropollutants (OMPs) at low concentration. The selection of the target OMPs represents a wide range of physical-chemical properties such as hydrophobicity, charge state as well as a diverse range of classes, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. The removal mechanisms of OMPs include adsorption, biodegradation, hydrolysis, and vaporization. Adsorption and biodegradation were found to be the main routes for OMPs removal for all target OMPs. Target OMPs responded to the two dominant removal routes in different ways: (1) complete adsorption, (2) strong biodegradation and weak adsorption, (3) medium biodegradation and adsorption, and (4) weak sorption and weak biodegradatio. Kinetic study showed that adsorption of atenolol, mathylparaben and propylparaben well followed first-order model (R2: 0.939 to 0.999) with the rate constants ranging from 0.519-7.092 h-1. For biodegradation kinetics, it was found that benzafibrate, bisphenol A, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine and DEET followed zero-order model (K0:1.15E-4 to 0.0142 μg/Lh-1, R2: 0.991 to 0.999), while TCEP, naproxen, dipehydramine, oxybenzone and sulfamethoxazole followed first-order model (K1:1.96E-4 to 0.101 h-1, R2: 0.912 to 0.996). 4 Inhibition by sodium azide (NaN3)and high temperature sterilization was compared, and it was found that high temperature sterilization will damage cells and change the sludge charge state. For the OMPs adaptation removal study, it was found that some of OMPs effluent concentration decreased, which may be due to the slow adaptation of the sludge or the increase of certain bacteria culture; some increased due to chromic toxicity of the chemicals; most of the OMPs had stable effluent concentration trend, it was explained that some of the OMPs were too difficutl to remove while other showed strong quick adaptation

  11. IMPACT OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL AGING ON DWPF SIMULATED SLUDGE PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R; Michael Stone, M

    2006-01-01

    The research and development programs in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other high-level waste vitrification processes require the use of both nonradioactive waste simulants and actual waste samples. While actual waste samples are the ideal materials to study, acquiring large quantities of actual waste is difficult and expensive. Tests utilizing actual high-level waste require the use of expensive shielded cells facilities to provide sufficient shielding for the researchers. Nonradioactive waste simulants have been used for laboratory testing, pilot-scale testing and full-scale integrated facility testing. These waste simulants were designed to reproduce the chemical and, if possible, the physical properties of the actual high-level waste. This technical report documents a study on the impact of irradiating a Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and of additional tests on aging a SB3 simulant by additional thermal processing. Prior simulant development studies examined methods of producing sludge and supernate simulants and processes that could be used to alter the physical properties of the simulant to more accurately mimic the properties of actual waste. Development of a precipitated sludge simulant for the River Protection Project (RPP) demonstrated that the application of heat for a period of time could significantly alter the rheology of the sludge simulant. The RPP precipitated simulant used distillation to concentrate the sludge solids and produced a reduction in sludge yield stress of up to 80% compared to the initial sludge properties. Observations at that time suggested that a substantial fraction of the iron hydroxide had converted to the oxide during the distillation. DWPF sludge simulant studies showed a much smaller reduction in yield stress (∼10%), demonstrated the impact of shear on particle size, and showed that smaller particle sizes yielded higher yield stress products. The current study documented in this report focuses

  12. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  13. The dimensional stability and elastic modulus of cemented simulant Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    Dimensional changes and elastic modulus have been monitored on cemented simulant sludge stored in various environments. Specimens prepared using a blended cement show no serious detrimental effects during sealed storage, underwater storage or freeze/thaw cycling. (author)

  14. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic......) significant reductions of Salmonella were found, while the die out at low temperatures (below 10°C) was limited. FS was not reduced systematically during storage, and therefore, FS is not usable as indicator organism for the hygienic properties of sludge during storage....

  15. MONITORING OF ORGANIC POLLUTION AND MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATTER FROM SLUDGE LANDFILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLIMANE LAHSAINI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The biotransformation during the 3 years of sludge landfilling was evaluated by physicochemical analysis and phytotoxicity test. The final product exhibited a high degree of decomposition rate (51.06 % than the controls as shown by a decrease of C/N ratio of about 19.67. The results showed that the lipid, surfactant and polyphenol as main compound of the sludge were breakdown over time. The concentrations decreased from 29.9 to 11.8 mg·g-1 and 3.4 to 0.6 mg·g-1, respectively for surfactant and polyphenols after 3 years of landfilling. This corresponds to a reduction of 80.2 % for polyphenols and 60.4 % for surfactant, due to the microorganisms activity. Total lipids decrease from 16.5 to 6.27 mg·g-1 of dry matter, representing an abatement rate of about 62 %. The evolution of organic matter reflects the progress of the humification process, which judging by the increase in the polymerization degree, is about 20 %. The landfilling efficiency to reduce phytotoxicity of sludge was confirmed by the germination index, which reached 52 and 59 %, respectively for alfalfa and cress after 3 years of landfilling. These results are promising and pave the way for agricultural spreading of sludge.

  16. Relationship between organic matter humification and bioavailability of sludge-borne copper and cadmium during long-term sludge amendment to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of sludge as soil amendment poses certain risk of heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the relationship between organic matter in composted sludge and its heavy metals bioavailability over 7 years. Periodic monitoring indicated a gradual increase in organic matter degradation, accompanied by changing degrees of polymerization, i.e., ratio of humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) coupled with incremental exchangeable fraction of copper (Cu) in sludge, with a growing rate of 74.7%, rather than that in soil. However, cadmium (Cd) in composted sludge exhibited an independent manner. Linear-regression analysis revealed that the total proportion of the Cu active fraction (exchangeable plus carbonate bound) was better correlated with the degree of polymerization (DP) and humification ratio (HR) than the degradation ratio of organic matter. Overall, amount of uptaken Cu was more dependent on the humification degree of organic matter, especially the proportion of HA in humus. - Highlights: • Organic matter in sludge degraded with time goes after sludge was recycled to soil. • DP in sludge is well coupled with incremental uptaken fraction of its borne copper. • Profiles of Cadmium fractions in sludge exhibit an independent manner.

  17. Vendor Testing of Sensitive Compounds in Simulated Dry Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1999-01-01

    This assessment covers thermal screening, differential scanning calorimetry, and impact sensitivity testing on Mercury Fulminate, and mixtures of the fulminate in dry inorganic sludge, which is present in large quantities in a number of storage tanks at Westinghouse Savannah River

  18. Production and remediation of low sludge simulated Purex waste glasses, 2: Effects of sludge oxide additions on glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but was less durable than most other simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Further, the measured durability of Purex 4 glass was not as well correlated with the durability predicted from the DWPF process control algorithm, probably because the algorithm was developed to predict the durability of SRS high-level waste glasses with higher sludge content than Purex 4. A melter run, designated Purex 4 Remediation, was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by the DWPF glass durability algorithm. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the glass durability was determined by the Product Consistency Test method. This document details the durability data and subsequent analysis

  19. Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.E.; Sauerbeck, D.R.; L'Hermite, P.

    1992-01-01

    Sewage sludge production in Europe will continue to rise as a result of higher environmental standards, making disposal increasingly difficult in the future. A considerable part of this sludge is spread beneficially on agricultural land as an organic fertilizer, however, this outlet is very sensitive to the problems associated with the inorganic and organic contaminants which sludge inevitably contains. Much research has been devoted to the problems of contaminants in sludge and their potential effects on soil, plants, animals and man in recent years, and the European Commission's Concerted Action COST 681 has provided a valuable forum for the exchange of views and progress of research on sludge treatment and disposal. This book contains 19 papers presented to a joint meeting of Working Party 4 (Agricultural Value) and Working Party 5 (Environmental Effects) of COST 681, held at the German Federal Research Centre of Agriculture (FAL), Braunschweig on 6-8 June 1990. The meeting addressed two areas of current concern; the occurrence, behaviour and transfer of sludge-derived organic contaminants (Session 1), and the influence of inorganic and organic contaminants on soil micro-organisms and their activities (Session 2)

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  1. Relationship between centrifugation and drying of sludge and the organic halogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Hrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on determination of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX concentration in the digested sludge from the sewage treatment plant and the losses of this component during dewatering and drying of sludge. Drying of the sludge from wastewater treatment plant is not extended too much in Czech Republic. In this work, the AOX are monitored, because AOX is one of the limits restraining use of the sludge on an agricultural land. Another reason is technological demand for using the sludge in cement processing, because chlorine in AOX can cause decrease in a heat transfer effect in a cement kiln. It is clear from the results that both centrifuged and dried sludge from the sewage treatment plant Brno fulfilled limits for using sludge on agriculture land. They can also be composted, in case they meet other requirements. If not, it is a possibility of co-incineration in cement kiln. In such case, limit for total chlorine including the AOX is required too. This limit was not exceeded. Another aim was to calculate a mass balance of AOX during the centrifugation and drying processes. It was found out, that after centrifugation the main part of AOX remained in the centrifuged sludge (96.4 %. The rest was drawn-off with reject water. 60 % of AOX in the reject water were dissolved compounds. A similar situation occurred during the drying process. More than 99 % of AOX was bound in the dried sludge. The air and vaporised water contained such quantity of AOX, which corresponded with the amount of the dust in the air and the amount of particles of sludge in vaporised water.

  2. Sludge batch 9 simulant runs using the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brandenburg, C. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Luther, M. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Woodham, W. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Testing was completed to develop a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) nitric-glycolic acid chemical process flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC simulations were completed using SB9 sludge simulant, Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT) simulant and Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) simulant. Ten sludge-only Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four SRAT/Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles, and one actual SB9 sludge (SRAT/SME cycle) were completed. As has been demonstrated in over 100 simulations, the replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid virtually eliminates the CPC’s largest flammability hazards, hydrogen and ammonia. Recommended processing conditions are summarized in section 3.5.1. Testing demonstrated that the interim chemistry and Reduction/Oxidation (REDOX) equations are sufficient to predict the composition of DWPF SRAT product and SME product. Additional reports will finalize the chemistry and REDOX equations. Additional testing developed an antifoam strategy to minimize the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) peak at boiling, while controlling foam based on testing with simulant and actual waste. Implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF is recommended. This flowsheet not only eliminates the hydrogen and ammonia hazards but will lead to shorter processing times, higher elemental mercury recovery, and more concentrated SRAT and SME products. The steady pH profile is expected to provide flexibility in processing the high volume of strip effluent expected once the Salt Waste Processing Facility starts up.

  3. Antifoam Degradation Products in Off Gas and Condensate of Sludge Batch 9 Simulant Nitric-Formic Flowsheet Testing for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-14

    Ten chemical processing cell (CPC) experiments were performed using simulant to evaluate Sludge Batch 9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on eight of the ten. The other two were SRAT cycles only. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has previously shown antifoam decomposes to form flammable organic products, (hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), trimethylsilanol (TMS), and propanal), that are present in the vapor phase and condensate of the CPC vessels. To minimize antifoam degradation product formation, a new antifoam addition strategy was implemented at SRNL and DWPF to add antifoam undiluted.

  4. Low Thermal Pretreatment as Method for Increasing the Bioavailability of Organic Matters in Domestic Mixed Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, primary and secondary sludge are fed into anaerobic digestion. However, the microbial cell exists in secondary sludge are an unfavorable substrate for biodegradation. Thermal pretreatment is proved to increase the bioavailability of organic and improve the biodegradation subsequently. During low thermal pretreatment, both intracellular (within the microbial cell and extracellular (within the polymeric network materials were extracted. This process increases the bioavailability meaning that organic compounds are accessible to the microorganisms for their degradation. This research aims to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on domestic mixed sludge disintegration. Domestic mixed sludge was thermally treated at 70°C for various holding times. The pre-thermally treated domestic mixed sludge was measured for protein and carbohydrates following the Lowry Method, and Phenol-Sulphuric Acid Method respectively. DR 6000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer, DRB200 Reactor (digester and COD vial (TNT plus 822 were used for COD determination, based on Reactor Digestion Method approved by USEPA. The results showed that the organic matter in domestic mixed sludge is efficiently solubilised during thermal treatment organic matter. The higher soluble yield for each monitored parameter determined in this study indicated that low thermal pretreatment improve bioavailability.

  5. Essential oil production of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus under organic compost containing sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia V. d'Ávila

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the main urban polluting agents are the sewers, which even with proper treatment end up generating a polluting waste, the sewage sludge. One of the options for the disposal of this sludge is the use in agriculture, due to its high content of organic matter and nutrients. This study aimed to use urban sewage sludge for lemongrass cultivation and essential oil production. The plants were grown in soil containing different organic compost doses (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha-1, formed from the sewage sludge composting process and waste of urban vegetation pruning. At harvest, plants were analyzed for the concentration of nutrients, chlorophyll content, number of tillers, biomass production, essential oil content and the microbiological quality of the leaves. The results showed that the addition of the compost increased the levels of nutrients in the plants, mainly nitrogen, positively influencing the production of tillers, biomass, chlorophyll contents, yield and essential oil content.

  6. Compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings: the heavy metal speciation and total organic carbon content in the compacted sludge specimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW, and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment.

  7. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign) and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated

  8. Treatment aerobic conjugate of sludges of septic tanks and household organic solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed at to evaluate the co-composting as technological alternative to the treatment of sludges of septic tanks with household organic solid wastes originating from cities of small and medium loads. The sludges and the domiciliary organic solid waste were collected in Cabaceiras, Caraúbas and Queimadas, state of Paraíba. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three repetitions, totaling 12 reactors, of cylindrical configuration in polyethylene of 100 L of capacity. Each reactor was fed with 50 kg substratum with variable composition in function of the sludge fraction: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The manual turning was accomplished three times a week and the temperature was monitored daily. The total destruction of helminth eggs in period differentiated in function of the sludges fraction (14, 28, 35 and 63 days and the medium transformation of 54.1% of sludges in biosolids class A and class B, with favorable characteristics to the use in agricultural cultures in 91 days, expressed the viability of the treatment for co-composting of sludges of tanks septic multichamber of collective use for the cities of small and medium load.

  9. Production and remediation of low-sludge, simulated Purex waste glasses, 1: Effects of sludge oxide additions on melter operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but less durable than most simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Also, Purex 4 glass was considerably less durable than predicted by the algorithm which will be used to control production of DWPF glass. A melter run was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by Hydration Thermodynamics. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the composition, crystallinity, and durability was determined. This document details the melter operation and composition and crystallinity analyses

  10. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2005-01-01

    The fate and the mass balance of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The POPs of interest were 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system: the influent, the effluent of the primary sedimentation tank, the effluent of the secondary sedimentation tank, the primary sludge, the activated sludge from the recirculation stream, and the digested/dewatered sludge. The distribution of POPs between the dissolved and the adsorbed phases of wastewater and sludge was investigated. A good linear relationship between the distribution coefficients, K d , and the octanol-water partition coefficients, K ow , of the solutes was observed only in raw wastewater, suggesting that other factors affect the phase distribution of organic compounds in treated wastewater. For all POPs, a significant increase in partitioning with a decreasing solids concentration was observed, revealing an effect from non-settling microparticles remaining in the 'dissolved' phase during the separation procedure. A good linear relationship was also revealed between logK d and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of wastewater, suggesting that DOC favors the advective transport of POPs in the dissolved phase. Almost all POPs showed good mass balance agreements at both the primary and the secondary treatment. The losses observed for some species could be attributed to biodegradation/biotransformation rather than volatilization. The relative distribution between the treated effluent and the waste sludge streams varied largely among different compounds, with p-p'-DDE being highly accumulated in the waste sludge (98%) but almost 60% of α-HCH remaining in the treated effluent

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility's (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid

  12. Adsorption of mercury by activated carbon prepared from dried sewage sludge in simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Sang-Sup

    2018-04-25

    Conversion of sewage sludge to activated carbon is attractive as an alternative method to ocean dumping for the disposal of sewage sludge. Injection of activated carbon upstream of particulate matter control devices has been suggested as a method to remove elemental mercury from flue gas. Activated carbon was prepared using various activation temperatures and times and was tested for their mercury adsorption efficiency using lab-scale systems. To understand the effect of the physical property of the activated carbon, its mercury adsorption efficiency was investigated as a function of their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. Two simulated flue gas conditions: (1) without hydrogen chloride (HCl) and (2) with 20 ppm HCl, were used to investigate the effect of flue gas composition on the mercury adsorption capacity of activated carbon. Despite very low BET surface area of the prepared sewage sludge activated carbons, their mercury adsorption efficiencies were comparable under both simulated flue gas conditions to those of pinewood and coal activated carbons. After injecting HCl into the simulated flue gas, all sewage sludge activated carbons demonstrated high adsorption efficiencies, i.e., more than 87%, regardless of their BET surface area. IMPLICATIONS We tested activated carbons prepared from dried sewage sludge to investigate the effect of their physical properties on their mercury adsorption efficiency. Using two simulated flue gas conditions, we conducted mercury speciation for the outlet gas. We found that the sewage sludge activated carbon had comparable mercury adsorption efficiency to pinewood and coal activated carbons, and the presence of HCl minimized the effect of physical property of the activated carbon on its mercury adsorption efficiency.

  13. Design and simulation of an activated sludge unit associated to a continuous reactor to remove heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Avila, J.S.; Nascimento, R.R. [Ambientec Consultoria Ltda., Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A software was developed to design and simulate an activated sludge unit associated to a new technology to remove heavy metals from wastewater. In this process, a continuous high efficiency biphasic reactor operates by using particles of activated peat in conjugation with the sludge unit. The results obtained may be useful to increase the efficiency or to reduce the design and operational costs involved in a activated sludge unit. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Design and simulation of an activated sludge unit associated to a continuous reactor to remove heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D` Avila, J S; Nascimento, R R [Ambientec Consultoria Ltda., Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    A software was developed to design and simulate an activated sludge unit associated to a new technology to remove heavy metals from wastewater. In this process, a continuous high efficiency biphasic reactor operates by using particles of activated peat in conjugation with the sludge unit. The results obtained may be useful to increase the efficiency or to reduce the design and operational costs involved in a activated sludge unit. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  16. The processing of simulated high-level radioactive waste sludges containing nitrites and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Hutson, N.D.; Ritter, J.A.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of formic acid with simulated alkaline sludge containing mercury and nitrite was studied in an engineering-scale facility. Quantification of offgas production was performed, with the major offgases being CO 2 and NO x . A small amount of CO was also found. The NO x was scrubbed in the offgas condenser and formed very acidic solutions of nitrous and nitric acids. These acids dissolved mercury that was stripped from the sludge. However, the overall efficiency of mercury stripping was greater than expected, and the final mercury concentration in the sludge was lower than expected. The NO x in the offgas also caused large temperature rises in the offgas system due to the exothermic reaction of NO with O 2 . This temperature rise had a detrimental effect on the performance of the Formic Acid Vent Condenser, such that redesign is being contemplated. 6 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  18. Evaluation of the energetic potential of sewage sludge by characterization of its organic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C; Lensch, D; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    The composition of sewage sludge and, thus, its energetic potential is influenced by wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Higher or lower heating values (HHV or LHV) are decisive factors for the incineration/gasification/pyrolysis of sewage sludge. The HHV is analyzed with a bomb calorimeter and converted to the LHV. It is also possible to calculate the heating value via chemical oxygen demand (COD), total volatile solids (TVS), and elemental composition. Calculating the LHV via the COD provides a suitable method. In contrast, the correlation of the HHV or LHV with the TVS is limited. One prerequisite here is a constant specific energy density; this was given with the types of sewage sludge (primary, surplus/excess, and digested sludge) investigated. If the energy density is not comparable with sewage sludge, for instance with the co-substrate (bio-waste, grease, etc.), the estimation of the heating value using TVS will fail. When calculating the HHV or LHV via the elemental composition, one has to consider the validity of the coefficients of the calculation equation. Depending on the organic composition, it might be necessary to adjust the coefficients, e.g. when adding co-substrates.

  19. Emerging organic contaminants in sludges. Analysis, fate and biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicent, Teresa [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Eljarrat, Ethel [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Caminal, Gloria [IQAC-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Grupo de biocatalisis Aplicada y biodegradacion; Barcelo, Damia (eds.) [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (Spain). Catalan Inst. for Water Research

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive review. Written by experts. Richly illustrated. There are a growing number of new chemicals in the environment that represent an ascertained or potential risk. Many of them can be found in sewage sludge and are the subject of this volume. Experts in the field highlight their occurrence and fate, risks of biosolid use, advanced chemical analysis methods, and degradation techniques with a special focus on biodegradation using fungi. In the final chapter conclusions and trends are offered as a point of departure for future studies. The double-disciplinary approach combining environmental analysis and engineering makes the book a valuable and comprehensive source of information for a broad audience, such as environmental chemists and engineers, biotechnologists, ecotoxicologists and professionals responsible for waste and water management.

  20. Continuosly Stirred Tank Reactor Parameters That Affect Sludge Batch 6 Simulant Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks was produced over a period of over 60 years by neutralizing the acidic waste produced in the F and H Separations Canyons with sodium hydroxide. The HLW slurries have been stored at free hydroxide concentrations above 1 M to minimize the corrosion of the carbon steel waste tanks. Sodium nitrite is periodically added as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting waste has been subjected to supernate evaporation to minimize the volume of the stored waste. In addition, some of the waste tanks experienced high temperatures so some of the waste has been at elevated temperatures. Because the waste is radioactive, the waste is transforming through the decay of shorter lived radioactive species and the radiation damage that the decay releases. The goal of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) simulant development program is to develop a method to produce a sludge simulant that matches both the chemical and physical characteristics of the HLW without the time, temperature profile, chemical or radiation exposure of that of the real waste. Several different approaches have been taken historically toward preparing simulated waste slurries. All of the approaches used in the past dozen years involve some precipitation of the species using similar chemistry to that which formed the radioactive waste solids in the tank farm. All of the approaches add certain chemical species as commercially available insoluble solid compounds. The number of species introduced in this manner, however, has varied widely. All of the simulant preparation approaches make the simulated aqueous phase by adding the appropriate ratios of various sodium salts. The simulant preparation sequence generally starts with an acidic pH and ends up with a caustic pH (typically in the 10-12 range). The current method for making sludge simulant involves the use of a temperature controlled continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  2. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  3. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tara E.; Newell, J. David; Woodham, Wesley H.

    2016-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  4. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  5. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  6. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  7. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  8. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W; Herold, R [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  9. pH-dependent biotransformation of ionizable organic micropollutants in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, Rebekka; Helbling, Damian E; Scheidegger, Andreas; Fenner, Kathrin

    2014-12-02

    Removal of micropollutants (MPs) during activated sludge treatment can mainly be attributed to biotransformation and sorption to sludge flocs, whereby the latter process is known to be of minor importance for polar organic micropollutants. In this work, we investigated the influence of pH on the biotransformation of MPs with cationic-neutral speciation in an activated sludge microbial community. We performed batch biotransformation, sorption control, and abiotic control experiments for 15 MPs with cationic-neutral speciation, one control MP with neutral-anionic speciation, and two neutral MPs at pHs 6, 7, and 8. Biotransformation rate constants corrected for sorption and abiotic processes were estimated from measured concentration time series with Bayesian inference. We found that biotransformation is pH-dependent and correlates qualitatively with the neutral fraction of the ionizable MPs. However, a simple speciation model based on the assumption that only the neutral species is efficiently taken up and biotransformed by the cells tends to overpredict the effect of speciation. Therefore, additional mechanisms such as uptake of the ionic species and other more complex attenutation mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we observed that the sorption coefficients derived from our control experiments were small and showed no notable pH-dependence. From this we conclude that pH-dependent removal of polar, ionizable organic MPs in activated sludge systems is less likely an effect of pH-dependent sorption but rather of pH-dependent biotransformation. The latter has the potential to cause marked differences in the removal of polar, ionizable MPs at different operational pHs during activated sludge treatment.

  10. Adsorption of organic stormwater pollutants onto activated carbon from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Li, Loretta Y

    2017-07-15

    Adsorption filters have the potential to retain suspended pollutants physically, as well as attracting and chemically attaching dissolved compounds onto the adsorbent. This study investigated the adsorption of eight hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) frequently detected in stormwater - including four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two phthalates and two alkylphenols - onto activated carbon produced from domestic sewage sludge. Adsorption was studied using batch tests. Kinetic studies indicated that bulk adsorption of HOCs occurred within 10 min. Sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) was as efficient as tested commercial carbons for adsorbing HOCs; adsorption capacities ranged from 70 to 2800 μg/g (C initial  = 10-300 μg/L; 15 mg SBAC in 150 mL solution; 24 h contact time) for each HOC. In the batch tests, the adsorption capacity was generally negatively correlated to the compounds' hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and positively associated with decreasing molecule size, suggesting that molecular sieving limited adsorption. However, in repeated adsorption tests, where competition between HOCs was more likely to occur, adsorbed pollutant loads exhibited strong positive correlation with log K ow . Sewage sludge as a carbon source for activated carbon has great potential as a sustainable alternative for sludge waste management practices and production of a high-capacity adsorption material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of organic matter transformations on the bioavailability of heavy metals in a sludge base compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, M. J.; Ingelmo, F.; Soriano, M. D.; Gallardo, A.; Lapena, L.

    2009-01-01

    The agricultural use of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS) as stable, mature compost implies knowing its total content in heavy metals and their bioavailability. since the chemical form of the metal in the sewage sludge-based compost depends on the effect of stabilization and maturation of the organic material during composting, the objective of this work was to examine the relationships between the changes in the organic matter content and humus fractions, and the bioavailability of heavy metals in a mixture of ADSS and wood chips (70:30 on wet basis) with an initial C/N ratio of 30.4, during its aerobic batch composting at 30 degree centigrade of external temperature in an open type lab-scale reactor with-out lixiviation. (Author)

  12. Influence of organic matter transformations on the bioavailability of heavy metals in a sludge base compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, M. J.; Ingelmo, F.; Soriano, M. D.; Gallardo, A.; Lapena, L.

    2009-07-01

    The agricultural use of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS) as stable, mature compost implies knowing its total content in heavy metals and their bioavailability. since the chemical form of the metal in the sewage sludge-based compost depends on the effect of stabilization and maturation of the organic material during composting, the objective of this work was to examine the relationships between the changes in the organic matter content and humus fractions, and the bioavailability of heavy metals in a mixture of ADSS and wood chips (70:30 on wet basis) with an initial C/N ratio of 30.4, during its aerobic batch composting at 30 degree centigrade of external temperature in an open type lab-scale reactor with-out lixiviation. (Author)

  13. [Effect of simulated heavy metal leaching solution of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin-Yuan; Sun, Pei-De; Lou, Ju-Qing; Guo, Mao-Xin; Ma, Wang-Gang

    2013-01-01

    An Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain WZ-1 was isolated from the tannery sludge in Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province in China. The cell of WZ-1 strain is Gram negative and rod-shaped, its 16S rDNA sequence is closely related to that of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC23270 with 99% similarity. These results reveal that WZ-1 is a strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effects of Ni2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and 5 kinds of simulated leaching solutions of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Fe2+ oxidation and apparent respiratory rate of WZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that Ni2+ and Cr3+ did not have any influence on the bioactivity of WZ-1 at concentrations of 5.0 g x L(-1) and 0.1 g x L(-1), respectively. WZ-1 showed tolerance to high levels of Ni2+, Zn2+ (about 30.0 g x L(-1)), but it had lower tolerance to Cr3+ and Cu2+ (0.1 g x L(-1) Cr3+ and 2.5 g x L(-1) Cu2+). Different kinds of simulated leaching solution of electroplating sludge had significant differences in terms of their effects on the bioactivity of WZ-1 with a sequence of Cu/Ni/Cr/Zn > Cu/Ni/Zn > Cu/Cr/Zn > Cu/Ni/Cr > Ni/Cr/Zn.

  14. Influence of natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Li, Kun; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Qi, Lu; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-01-01

    Sludge composting is one of the most widely used treatments for sewage sludge resource utilization. Natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitor (NI) are widely used during composting and land application for nitrogen conservation, respectively. Three composting reactors (A--the control, B--natural zeolite addition, and C--3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) addition) were established to investigate the influence of NI and natural zeolite addition on organics degradation and nitrogen transformation during sludge composting conducted at the lab scale. The results showed that, in comparison with the control, natural zeolite addition accelerated organics degradation and the maturity of sludge compost was higher, while the DMPP addition slowed down the degradation of organic matters. Meanwhile, the nitrogen transformation functional genes including those responses for nitrification (amoA and nxrA) and denitrification (narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) were quantified through quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the effects of natural zeolites and DMPP addition on nitrogen transformation. Although no significant difference in the abundance of nitrogen transformation functional genes was observed between treatments, addition of both natural zeolite and DMPP increases the final total nitrogen content by 48.6% and 23.1%, respectively. The ability of natural zeolite for nitrogen conservation was due to the absorption of NH3 by compost, and nitrogen conservation by DMPP was achieved by the source reduction of denitrification. Besides, it was assumed that the addition of natural zeolite and DMPP may affect the activity of these genes instead of the abundance.

  15. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  16. Stabilization of industry sludge by composting for use as an organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia Ruda, Ester; Mercedes Ocampo, Ester; Acosta, Adriana; Mongiello, Adriana; Olmos, Graciela

    2013-04-01

    The effluent treatment plant having PBLEINER SA food industry produces sludge coming from aerobic treatment reactors. The research team FIQ-UNL evaluated the feasibility of their use for the production of organic fertilizers as part of an environmental management problem to reduce the volume of sludge to be moved to land farming located more than 300 km of the plant. The mean values of the variables analyzed in the sludge were the following: carbon: 23.7 %, nitrogen: 7.83 %, pH: 7.36, bulk density: 0.722 g.cm-3, actual density: 1.76 g.cm-3, porosity: 50.7 %, potassium: 0.242 %, phosphorus: 1.29 %, calcium: 1.84 %, magnesium: 0.364 % and electrical conductivity: 3.51 dS.m-1 (25 °C). The content of heavy metals in sludge is much lower than the limits set by the European Union, USEPA and SENASA for use in agriculture. The mean values of the metals analyzed in the sludge were the following: cadmium: no detected, lead: 18.7 mg.kg-1, zinc 213 mg.kg-1, copper: 40.7 mg.kg-1, nickel: 110 mg.kg-1, chrome: 406 mg.kg-1, mercury: 1.53 mg.kg-1. In this framework it was proposed stabilization of sludge by composting, using sawdust or chips as stabilizing material, with aeration technique in rows with frequent turning and recycling leachate, so as to degrade organic solids humic material for application as a soil conditioner, this is for transformation into a new product to be used as fertilizer. The company provided the physical space and technical staff to assist the research team. This process design is a proposal to improve the waste treatment of an industrial plant, reducing its environmental impact and enabling the use of the resulting product for soil enhancement in the region. Optimizing operating parameters such as kinetics, moisture, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, nutrient availability, alternative sources of carbon and processing steps, will allow obtaining technical data for the modelling process.

  17. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  18. The Effect of paper mill waste and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Barriga, Sandra; Guerrero, Francisca; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    In general, Mediterranean soils have low organic matter content, due to the climate characteristics of this region and inadequate land management. Traditionally, organic wastes such as manure are used as amendment in order to improve the soil quality, increasing soil fertility by the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other plant nutrients in the soil. In the last decade, other anthropogenic organic wastes such as sewage sludge or paper waste materials have been studied as soil amendments to improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. The objective of the present work was to study the influence of waste from a paper mill and sewage sludge amendments on soil organic matter. For this reason, soil organic matter evolution was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the derivative (dTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal analytical techniques have the advantage of using full samples without pre-treatments and have been extensively used to study the evolution of organic matter in soils, to evaluate composting process or to study the evolution of organic matter of growing media.

  19. High Sodium Simulant Testing To Support SB8 Sludge Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    Scoping studies were completed for high sodium simulant SRAT/SME cycles to determine any impact to CPC processing. Two SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having sodium supernate concentration of 1.9M at 130% and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Both of these failed to meet DWPF processing objectives related to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Another set of SRAT/SME cycles were performed with simulant having a sodium supernate concentration of 1.6M at 130%, 125%, 110%, and 100% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Only the run at 110% met DWPF processing objectives. Neither simulant had a stoichiometric factor window of 30% between nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation. Based on the 2M-110 results it was anticipated that the 2.5M stoichiometric window for processing would likely be smaller than from 110-130%, since it appeared that it would be necessary to increase the KMA factor by at least 10% above the minimum calculated requirement to achieve nitrite destruction due to the high oxalate content. The 2.5M-130 run exceeded the DWPF hydrogen limits in both the SRAT and SME cycle. Therefore, testing of this wash endpoint was halted. This wash endpoint with this minimum acid requirement and mercury-noble metal concentration profile appears to be something DWPF should not process due to an overly narrow window of stoichiometry. The 2M case was potentially processable in DWPF, but modifications would likely be needed in DWPF such as occasionally accepting SRAT batches with undestroyed nitrite for further acid addition and reprocessing, running near the bottom of the as yet ill-defined window of allowable stoichiometric factors, potentially extending the SRAT cycle to burn off unreacted formic acid before transferring to the SME cycle, and eliminating formic acid additions in the frit slurry

  20. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of mixing ratio variation of sludge and organic solid waste on biodrying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, A. C.; Kristanto, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, organic waste was co-biodried with sludge cake to determine which mixing ratio gave the best result. The organic waste was consisted of dried leaves and green leaves, while the sludge cake was obtained from a waste water treatment plant in Bekasi. The experiment was performed on 3 lab-scale reactors with same specifications. After 21 days of experiment, it was found that the reactor with the lowest mixing fraction of sludge (5:1) has the best temperature profile and highest moisture content depletion compared with others. Initial moisture content and initial volatile solid content of this reactor’s feedstock was 52.25% and 82.4% respectively. The airflow rate was 10 lpm. After biodrying was done, the final moisture content of the feedstock from Reactor C was 22.0% and the final volatile solid content was 75.9%.The final calorific value after biodrying process was 3179,28kcal/kg.

  2. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organic micropollutants in seapage and groundwater after agricultural use of sewage sludge; Organische Spurenstoffe im Sicker- und Grundwasser bei landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liesegang, W.; Zullei-Seibert, N.; Lenze, C.; Kaczmarczyk, B.; Otto, S.; Lemm, E.

    1996-07-01

    Influences on groundwater quality due to agricultural use of sewage sludge have been estimated with special focus to organic micropollutants. Pilot plants filled with sand and arable soil were used for the simulation of sludge application, ploughing and parching of soil surface. The investigated parameters included PAH, phenols, phthalates, heavy metals, anions, cations, and other. All of the three simulation types resulted in a parameter specific variation of the groundwater quality. Transportation of most of the organic substances took place immediately after fertilization in a water soluted or particular bound manner. PAH in contrary adsorbed on the filter material. Furthermore microbial degradation products could be observed. Copper, ammonia and nitrate reproduceable exceeded the given drinking water standards. No significant increase in heavy metal or organic load could be detected in the soil or sand. Analytical pilot investigations indicated the occurrence of organic pollutants solved in the sludge water fraction, bound on small particles and adsorbed on the solid sludge phase. Particulary bounded concentrations sometimes increased the adsorbed ones. In total, approximately 55 single organic compounds could be identified within sewage sludge of different origin. Their further environmental behaviour depends on the distribution between the three sludge fractions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens war es, eine potentielle Beeintraechtigung der Grundwasserqualitaet durch die landwirtschaftliche Klaerschlammduengung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung organischer Spurenstoffe abzuschaetzen. Hierzu kamen mit Sand und Ackerboden befuellte Versuchssysteme zum Einsatz, an denen die Klaerschlammduengung, das Unterpfluegen des Schlamms sowie das Austrocknen der Bodenoberflaeche simuliert wurde. Zu den untersuchten chemischen Kontrollgroessen zaehlten u.a. PAK, Phenole, Phthalate, Schwermetalle, Anionen, Kationen und Summenparameter. Alle drei Typsituationen

  4. EXPECTED IMPACT OF HANFORD PROCESSING ORGANICS OF PLUTONIUM DURING TANK WASTE SLUDGE RETRIEVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.; WINTERS, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    This document evaluates the potential for extracting plutonium from Hanford waste tanks into residual organic solvents and how this process may have an impact on criticality specifications during the retrieval of wastes. The two controlling factors for concentrating plutonium are the solubility of the plutonium in the wastes and the extraction efficiency of the potential organic extractants that may be found in these wastes. Residual Hanford tank sludges contain plutonium in solid forms that are expected to be primarily insoluble Pu(IV) hydroxides. Evaluation of thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams, documentation on solubility studies of various components in waste tank matrices, and actual analysis of plutonium in tank supernates all indicate that the solubility of Pu in the alkaline waste is on the order of 10 -6 M. Based on an upper limit plutonium solubility of 10 -5 M in high pH and a conservative distribution coefficient for organic extractants of a 0 for plutonium in 30% TBP at 0.07 M HNO 3 ), the estimated concentration for plutonium in the organic phase would be -7 M. This is well below the process control criteria. A significant increase in plutonium solubility or the E a o would have to occur to raise this concentration to the 0.01 M concern level for organics. Measured tank chemical component values, expected operating conditions, and the characteristics of the expected chemistry and extraction mechanisms indicate that concentration of plutonium from Hanford tank residual sludges to associated process organic extractants is significantly below levels of concern

  5. Spinel formation for stabilizing simulated nickel-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O

    2006-08-15

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge from commonly available Al-rich ceramic precursors was investigated and accomplished with high nickel incorporation efficiency. To simulate the process, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, corundum, kaolinite, and mullite and was sintered from 800 to 1480 degrees C. The nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O4) was confirmed as the stabilization phase for nickel and crystallized with efficiencies greater than 90% for all precursors above 1250 degrees C and 3-h sintering. The nickel-incorporation reaction pathways with these precursors were identified, and the microstructure and spinel yield were investigated as a function of sintering temperature with fixed sintering time. This study has demonstrated a promising process for forming nickel spinel to stabilize nickel-laden sludge from a wide range of inexpensive ceramic precursors, which may provide an avenue for economically blending waste metal sludges via the building industry processes to reduce the environmental hazards of toxic metals. The correlation of product textures and nickel incorporation efficiencies through selection of different precursors also provides the option of tailoring property-specific products.

  6. Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirey, D.A.; Striebich, R.C.; Dellinger, B.; Bostian, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing in both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The time/temperature conditions of the laboratory testing were established to simulate as closely as possible full-scale incineration conditions so that a direct comparison of results could be made. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of thermal degradation. Comparison of the results from this study with those obtained in field tests was complicated by an apparent loss of volatile chlorocarbons from the sludge samples received for laboratory testing. However, qualitative comparison of emission factors derived from lab and field results for those compounds observed in both studies, showed reasonably good correlation for the pyrolysis testing. Results suggested that the upper stages of multiple-hearth units may vaporize many volatile components of the sludge before they enter the combustion stages of the incinerator and thus represent a direct source of introduction of pollutants into the atmosphere

  7. Removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge by extraction with organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Waste water treatment in activated sludge plants results in the production of large amounts of surplus sludge. After composting the sludge can be reused as fertiliser and soil conditioner in agriculture. Compared to landfilling and incineration, utilisation of sludge-compost is a more sustainable

  8. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  9. Effects of mechanical disintegration of activated sludge on the activity of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria and phosphorus accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrowska-Sudol, Monika; Walczak, Justyna

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the impact of hydrodynamic disintegration of thickened excess activated sludge, performed at different levels of energy density (70, 140 and 210 kJ/L), on the activity of microorganisms involved in nutrient removal from wastewater, i.e. nitrifiers, denitrifiers and phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). Ammonium and nitrogen utilisation rates and phosphorus release rates for raw and disintegrated sludge were determined using batch tests. The experiment also included: 1) analysis of organic and nutrient compound release from activated sludge flocs, 2) determination of the sludge disintegration degree (DD), and 3) evaluation of respiratory activity of the biomass by using the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) batch test. It was shown that the activity degree of the examined groups of microorganisms depended on energy density and related sludge disintegration degree, and that inactivation of individual groups of microorganisms occurred at different values of DD. Least resistant to the destruction of activated sludge flocs turned out to be phosphorus accumulating organisms, while the most resistant were denitrifiers. A decrease of 20-40% in PAO activity was noted already at DD equal to 3-5%. The threshold values of DD, after crossing which the inactivation of nitrifiers and denitrifiers occurred, were equal to 8% and 10%, respectively. At lesser DD values an increase in the activity of these groups of microorganisms was observed, averaging 20.2-41.7% for nitrifiers and 9.98-36.3% for denitrifiers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest and Shear Modulus Measurements on Hanford Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bauman, Nathan N.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Arduino, P.; Keller, P. J.

    2010-09-30

    This report describes the equipment, techniques, and results of lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus measurements on kaolin clay as well as two chemical sludge simulants. The testing was performed in support of the problem of hydrogen gas retention and release encountered in the double- shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) are being transferred to double-shell tanks (DSTs) for safety reasons (some SSTs are leaking or are in danger of leaking), but the available DST space is limited.

  11. Organics removal from landfill leachate and activated sludge production in SBR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiuk, Ewa; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at estimating organic compounds removal and sludge production in SBR during treatment of landfill leachate. Four series were performed. At each series, experiments were carried out at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12, 6, 3 and 2 d. The series varied in SBR filling strategies, duration of the mixing and aeration phases, and the sludge age. In series 1 and 2 (a short filling period, mixing and aeration phases in the operating cycle), the relationship between organics concentration (COD) in the leachate treated and HRT was pseudo-first-order kinetics. In series 3 (with mixing and aeration phases) and series 4 (only aeration phase) with leachate supplied by means of a peristaltic pump for 4 h of the cycle (filling during reaction period) - this relationship was zero-order kinetics. Activated sludge production expressed as the observed coefficient of biomass production (Y obs ) decreased correspondingly with increasing HRT. The smallest differences between reactors were observed in series 3 in which Y obs was almost stable (0.55-0.6 mg VSS/mg COD). The elimination of the mixing phase in the cycle (series 4) caused the Y obs to decrease significantly from 0.32 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 2 d to 0.04 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 12 d. The theoretical yield coefficient Y accounted for 0.534 mg VSS/mg COD (series 1) and 0.583 mg VSS/mg COD (series 2). In series 3 and 4, it was almost stable (0.628 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.616 mg VSS/mg COD, respectively). After the elimination of the mixing phase in the operating cycle, the specific biomass decay rate increased from 0.006 d -1 (series 3) to 0.032 d -1 (series 4). The operating conditions employing mixing/aeration or only aeration phases enable regulation of the sludge production. The SBRs operated under aerobic conditions are more favourable at a short hydraulic retention time. At long hydraulic retention time, it can lead to a decrease in biomass concentration in the SBR as a result of cell decay. On the contrary

  12. Phytoremediation of sewage sludge contaminated by trace elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi Nissim, Werther; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Alvisi, Laura; Palm, Emily; Mancuso, Stefano; Azzarello, Elisa

    2018-07-01

    Phytoremediation is a green technique being increasingly used worldwide for various purposes including the treatment of municipal sewage sludge (MSS). Most plants proposed for this technique have high nutrient demands, and fertilization is often required to maintain soil fertility and nutrient balance while remediating the substrate. In this context, MSS could be a valuable source of nutrients (especially N and P) and water for plant growth. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity willow (Salix matsudana, cv Levante), poplar (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra, cv Orion), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) to clean MSS, which is slightly contaminated by trace elements (TEs) and organic pollutants, and to assess their physiological response to this medium. In particular, we aimed to evaluate the TE accumulation by different species as well as the decrease of TEs and organic pollutants in the sludge after one cropping cycle and the effect of MSS on plant growth and physiology. Since MSS did not show any detrimental effect on the biomass yield of any of the species tested, it was found to be a suitable growing medium for these species. TE phytoextraction rates depended on the species, with eucalyptus showing the highest accumulation for Cr, whereas sunflower exhibited the best performance for As, Cu and Zn. At the end of the trial, some TEs (i.e. Cr, Pb and Zn), n-alkanes and PCBs showed a significant concentration decrease in the sludge for all tested species. The highest Cr decrease was observed in pots with eucalyptus (57.4%) and sunflower (53.4%), whereas sunflower showed the highest Cu decrease (44.2%), followed by eucalyptus (41.2%), poplar (16.2%) and willow (14%). A significant decrease (41.1%) of Pb in the eucalyptus was observed. Zn showed a high decrease rate with sunflower (59.5%) and poplar (52%) and to a lesser degree with willow (35.3%) and eucalyptus (25.4%). The highest decrease in n

  13. Effect of thermal treatment of anaerobic sludge on the bioavailability and biodegradability characteristics of the organic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. M. Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most works reported in the literature focus on thermal treatment of waste activated sludge at temperatures in the range of 160 to 180ºC. This research aimed at evaluating the thermal treatment of excess anaerobic sludge at much lower temperatures, using biogas generated in the wastewater treatment process as the energy source for heating a simplified thermal reactor. Direct burning of the biogas allowed an increase in the sludge temperature up to values close to 75ºC, for a 7-hour heating period. Sludge samples taken at different heating times showed that the thermal disintegration of the organic fraction allowed increases in the concentration of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and COD parameters by 30 to 35 times, as well as a 50% increase in the biogas production. Moreover, the simplified thermal treatment system proved to be an effective alternative for recovering energy from biogas and for controlling methane emissions to the atmosphere.

  14. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  15. Relating desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from harbour sludges to type of organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, K.; Pols, S.; Loch, J. P. G.; Bosma, T.

    2009-04-01

    For decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) cause great concern as environmental pollutants. Especially river and marine harbour sediments are frequently polluted with PAH derived from surface runoff, fuel and oil spills due to shipping and industrial activities, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. Harbour sediments contain large amounts of organic carbon and clay minerals and are therefore not easy to remediate and have to be stored in sludge depositories after dredging to maintain sufficient water depth for shipping. The organic contaminants will be adsorbed to particles, leached in association with dissolved organic material or microbially degraded. However, compounds of high molecular weight are very persistent, particularly under anaerobic conditions, thus giving rise to the potential to become desorbed again. PAH adsorb mainly to organic material. It has been shown that components of the organic material with a low polarity and a high hydrophobicity like aliphatic and aromatic components exhibit a high sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic contaminants like PAH. Accordingly, not only the amount but also the type of organic material needs to be determined in order to be able to predict contaminant behaviour. In this study, desorption behaviour of the 16 EPA-PAH in two different harbour sludges from the port of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has been investigated. The Beerkanaal (BK) site is located relatively close to the North Sea and represents a brackish environment; the Beneden Merwede River (BMR) site originates from a fresh water environment and is close to industrial sites. The samples were placed in dialysis membranes and brought into contact with water for a period of 130 days. At several time intervals, water samples were retrieved for analysis of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, electrical conductivity and PAH concentrations. The experiment was conducted at 4 and at 20°C. Although the samples were initially treated with

  16. Modeling the pH-mediated Extraction of Ionizable Organic Contaminants to Improve the Quality of Municipal Sewage Sludge Destined for Land Application

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-01-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and...

  17. [Effect of simulated inorganic anion leaching solution of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Fang; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    An Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain WZ-1 (GenBank sequence number: JQ968461) was used as the research object. The effects of Cl-, NO3-, F- and 4 kinds of simulated inorganic anions leaching solutions of electroplating sludge on the bioactivity of Fe2+ oxidation and apparent respiratory rate of WZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that Cl-, NO3(-)- didn't have any influence on the bioactivity of WZ-1 at concentrations of 5.0 g x L(-1), 1.0 g x L(-1), respectively. WZ-1 showed tolerance to high levels of Cl- and NO3- (about 10.0 g x L(-1), 5.0 g x L(-1), respectively), but it had lower tolerance to F- (25 mg x L(-1)). Different kinds of simulated inorganic anions leaching solutions of electroplating sludge had significant differences in terms of their effects on bioactivity of WZ-1 with a sequence of Cl-/NO3(-)/F(-) > or = NO3(-)/F(-) > Cl-/F(-) > Cl(-)/NO3(-).

  18. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Xinchen; Jia, Yanming; Rees, Frederic; Tsang, Daniel C W; Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Pyrolyzing sludge into biochar is a potentially promising recycling/disposal solution for municipal wastewater sludge, and the sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) presents an excellent sorbent for metal immobilization. As SDBC is composed of both mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment, this study therefore compared the sorption behaviour of Pb and Zn on SDBC to those of individual and mixture of activated carbon (AC) and amorphous aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 and 45 °C, and the metal-loaded sorbents were artificially aged in the atmosphere for 1-60 days followed by additional sorption experiments. The Pb sorption was generally higher than Zn sorption, and the co-presence of Pb reduced Zn sorption on each studied sorbent. Higher sorption capacities were observed at 45 °C than 25 °C for SDBC and AC, while the opposite was shown for Al 2 O 3 , indicating the significance of temperature-dependent diffusion processes in SDBC and AC. Nevertheless, metal sorption was more selective on Al 2 O 3 that showed a greater affinity towards Pb over Zn under competition, correlating with the reducible fraction of sequential extraction. Furthermore, significant amounts of Pb and Zn were additionally sorbed on SDBC following 30-day ageing. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of metal-phosphate precipitates, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a larger quantity of metal-oxygen bonding after 30-day ageing of metal-loaded SDBC. The results may imply favourable long-term transformation and additional sorption capacity of SDBC. In conclusion, SDBC resembles the sorption characteristics of both organic and mineral sorbents in different aspects, presenting an appropriate material for metal immobilization during soil amendment.

  19. SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAMON, CLICK

    2005-01-01

    A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The

  20. AQUAPONIC SLUDGE DIGESTION FOR ORGANIC REDUCTION AND NUTRIENT REMINERALIZATION IN UASB REACTOR.

    OpenAIRE

    Delaide, Boris

    2017-01-01

    These first results on aquaponic sludge digestion are promising and highlight the interest to treat sludge directly onsite in order to reduce aquaponic system wastes and thus its impact on the environment and at the same time increase plant yield.

  1. Degradation of organic pollutants in sewage sludge by aerobic-thermophilic sludge treatment. Final report; Abbau organischer Schadstoffe im Klaerschlamm durch aerob-thermophile Schlammbehandlung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.

    1999-07-01

    A process for reduction of organic polllutants in sewage sludge was to be developed and optimized. The organic fraction of the solid matter in sewage sludge containes more than 300 different pollutant. Apart from the substances classified in the Sewage Sludge Ordinance (dioxins/furans, PCB), there are others that have been considered relevant as well but for which no sufficient data base is available. The research project investigated whether aerobic-thermophilic treatment (AT) would improve the sewage sludge quality with regard to phthalates (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, DEHP), PAH and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a degradation product of nonionic tensides). Pollutants were analzyed by HPLC and GC/MS. The concentration of DEHP and 4-NP was reduced by 70% resp. 50% in laboratory experiments with doped sludges and by 61% resp. 53% in undoped sludges. In semi-industrial tests, a 14% reduction was achieved for DEHP and a 68% reduction for 4-NP. In the case of pyrene, the degradation was up to 57% in the laboratory experiments and 22% in semi-industrial tests. A combined process of short-term anaerobic digestion and AT resulted in a 60% reduction in the case of DEHP. Up to anthracene, PAH were reduced as well. In the case of higher-condensed PAH (basic load in the ppb range) there was no clear result. In the case of 4-NP, the degradation effect was counterbalanced by the formation of new 4-NP from alkylphenol ethoxylates in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The results prove the correlation between sewage sludge hygienisation and the time of residue in the reactor system. No enterobacteriaceae were found after a treatment of 96 h, both in the semi-industrial and the laboratory reactors. In activated sludge, a phenol-degrading mixed bacteria culture could be isolated which was also capable of degrading 4-NP in thermophilic conditions. [German] Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Entwicklung/Optimierung eines Verfahrens zur Reduktion organischer Schadstoffe im

  2. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  3. Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given.

  4. Degradation kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-F.; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, J.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The potential degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge by composting was investigated using laboratory reactor at different operating conditions (E-1, E-2 and E-3). In all conditions, single stage thermophilic phase was observed within 2 days and almost, 60% of DEHP was degraded under this phase. At the end of composting, total DEHP degradation of more than 85% was observed in all conditions and total carbon reduction was 11.8% in E-1, 7.6% in E-2 and 10.8% in E-3. Similar trend was observed in the degradation of total nitrogen. The reduction of volatile solids (VS) in the composting reactors was 5.4% in E-1 (18 days), 5.5% in E-2 (12 days) and 4.3% in E-3 (18 days). The degradation kinetics of DEHP in thermophilic phase (including initial mesophilic phase) and the phase there after were determined by first order and fractional power kinetics, respectively. The significance of experimental parameters in DEHP degradation was assessed by Pearson correlation approach. Elevated temperature produced during composting was effective for the rapid degradation of DEHP from sewage sludge compared to mesophilic treatment

  5. Effect of Antifoam Agent on Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Jones, Susan A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative leaching of simulant tank waste containing an antifoam agent (AFA) to reduce the chromium content of the sludge was tested using permanganate as the oxidant in 0.25 M NaOH solutions. AFA is added to the waste treatment process to prevent foaming. The AFA, Dow Corning Q2-3183A, is a surface-active polymer that consists of polypropylene glycol, polydimethylsiloxane, octylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol, treated silica, and polyether polyol. Some of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste slurries contain high concentrations of undissolved solids that would exhibit undesirable behavior without AFA addition. These tests were conducted to determine the effect of the AFA on oxidative leaching of Cr(III) in waste by permanganate. It has not previously been determined what effect AFA has on the permanganate reaction. This study was conducted to determine the effect AFA has on the oxidation of the chromium, plus plutonium and other criticality-related elements, specifically Fe, Ni and Mn. During the oxidative leaching process, Mn is added as liquid permanganate solution and is converted to an insoluble solid that precipitates as MnO2 and becomes part of the solid waste. Caustic leaching was performed followed by an oxidative leach at either 25 C or 45 C. Samples of the leachate and solids were collected at each step of the process. Initially, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted by Bechtel National, Inc. to perform these further scoping studies on oxidative alkaline leaching. The data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to develop procedures for permanganate dosing of Hanford tank sludge solids during oxidative leaching. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. In summary, this report describes work focused on determining

  6. Effect of Antifoam Agent on Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Jones, Susan A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-02-26

    Oxidative leaching of simulant tank waste containing an antifoam agent (AFA) to reduce the chromium content of the sludge was tested using permanganate as the oxidant in 0.25 M NaOH solutions. AFA is added to the waste treatment process to prevent foaming. The AFA, Dow Corning Q2-3183A, is a surface-active polymer that consists of polypropylene glycol, polydimethylsiloxane, octylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol, treated silica, and polyether polyol. Some of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste slurries contain high concentrations of undissolved solids that would exhibit undesirable behavior without AFA addition. These tests were conducted to determine the effect of the AFA on oxidative leaching of Cr(III) in waste by permanganate. It has not previously been determined what effect AFA has on the permanganate reaction. This study was conducted to determine the effect AFA has on the oxidation of the chromium, plus plutonium and other criticality-related elements, specifically Fe, Ni and Mn. During the oxidative leaching process, Mn is added as liquid permanganate solution and is converted to an insoluble solid that precipitates as MnO2 and becomes part of the solid waste. Caustic leaching was performed followed by an oxidative leach at either 25°C or 45°C. Samples of the leachate and solids were collected at each step of the process. Initially, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted by Bechtel National, Inc. to perform these further scoping studies on oxidative alkaline leaching. The data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to develop procedures for permanganate dosing of Hanford tank sludge solids during oxidative leaching. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. In summary, this report describes work focused on

  7. Total organic carbon in a soil recovered with sewage sludge and native species of the Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara Lima Goulart, Lívia; Amaral Guerrini, Iraê; Fidalgo de Faria, Marianne; Spada, Grasiela; Proença Nalesso, Pedro Henrique; Willian Carlos, Guilherme

    2017-04-01

    The use of organic waste such as sewage sludge, in the recovery of degraded áreas have shown very satisfactory results, because they are constituted by high contentes of organic matter and nutrients, essential to improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the total organic carbon (TOC) of a degraded soil, up to a metre deep, after 10 years of application of sewage sludge and planting native species of the Atlantic forest. The experiment was conducted at Fazenda Entre-Rios, owned by Suzano Papel e Celulose, in Itatinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The experiment was designed as randomized block with four replications, six doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1), conventional chemical fertilizer and only with potassium application, totaling eight treatments. Samples were collected every 20 cm (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm) until reaching a metre deep. Ten years after trial deployment, the sewage sludge application in degraded soil was significantly influenced the TOC at all depths sampled. The highest values of the COT were observed in plots that received 15 and 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge, in all depths sampled, except for the layer of 80-100 cm, which presented the highest average COT in the treatment with 10 t ha-1 of residue. As observed for all treatments, the highest TOC averages were observed in the superficial layers of the soil (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The sewage sludge application is useful to recover degraded soils, as it improving their chemical characteristics and showing to be a good alternative to the final destination of this residue.

  8. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...... are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...

  9. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  10. The effect of using irradiated sludge as an organic fertilizer on the soil characteristics and productivity of yellow corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Khalifa, K.

    2003-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Deir- El-Hajar research station near Damascus, to study the effect of using irradiated sludge (5 KGy) and unirradiated sludge (0 KGy) as an organic fertilizer on productivity of corn and some soil characteristics. The results showed that increment of grain yield of corn by 20% when applying 1kg/m 2 from unirradiated sludge and 37% when applying irradiated sludge. Also it was found increment in productivity of the other parts of corn (cobs, stems and leaves) compared with control plots. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr) in corn were low and less than critical limits for all treatment. The accumulation for these metals in corn plants was not clear at end of the experiment. The highest accumulation for Cu was in grain, Cr and Zn in cobs, and Fe was in stems and leaves. Addition of sludge at different rates had no negative effect on the accumulation of the studied heavy metals in the soil. (author)

  11. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Changxiu [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Jianguo, E-mail: jianguoj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety, Ministry of Education of China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, De' an [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton.

  12. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Changxiu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an

    2015-01-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO 4 3− concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton

  13. Dissolved organic carbon from sewage sludge and manure can affect estrogen sorption and mineralization in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpe, Britta, E-mail: britta.stumpe@rub.d [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Geography, Department Soil Science/Soil Ecology, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Marschner, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.marschner@rub.d [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute of Geography, Department Soil Science/Soil Ecology, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, effects of sewage sludge and manure borne dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) sorption and mineralization processes were investigated in three agricultural soils. Batch equilibrium techniques and equilibrium dialysis methods were used to determine sorption mechanisms between DOC, estrogens and the soil solid phase. It was found that that the presence of organic waste borne DOC decreased estrogen sorption in soils which seems to be controlled by DOC/estrogen complexes in solution and by exchange processes between organic waste derived and soil borne DOC. Incubation studies performed with {sup 14}C-estrogens showed that DOC addition decreased estrogen mineralization, probably due to reduced bioavailability of estrogens associated with DOC. This increased persistence combined with higher mobility could increase the risk of estrogen transport to ground and surface waters. - The effect of DOC on estrogen sorption and mineralization is influenced by exchange processes between organic waste borne and soil derived DOC.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon from sewage sludge and manure can affect estrogen sorption and mineralization in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpe, Britta; Marschner, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this study, effects of sewage sludge and manure borne dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) sorption and mineralization processes were investigated in three agricultural soils. Batch equilibrium techniques and equilibrium dialysis methods were used to determine sorption mechanisms between DOC, estrogens and the soil solid phase. It was found that that the presence of organic waste borne DOC decreased estrogen sorption in soils which seems to be controlled by DOC/estrogen complexes in solution and by exchange processes between organic waste derived and soil borne DOC. Incubation studies performed with 14 C-estrogens showed that DOC addition decreased estrogen mineralization, probably due to reduced bioavailability of estrogens associated with DOC. This increased persistence combined with higher mobility could increase the risk of estrogen transport to ground and surface waters. - The effect of DOC on estrogen sorption and mineralization is influenced by exchange processes between organic waste borne and soil derived DOC.

  15. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Degradation of organic pollutants and characteristics of activated sludge in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic reactor treating chemical industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic system operated at the hydraulic retention times (HRT of 20, 40, and 60 h with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS concentrations of 3 g/L and 6 g/L was considered for treating chemical industrial wastewater rich in complex organic compounds and total dissolved solids. Extending the HRT and increasing the MLSS concentration resulted in higher removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand at 72%. Organic compounds in wastewater could be classified into easily-removed and refractory compounds during treatment. The easily-removed compounds consisted primarily of ethers, alcohols, and aldehydes, whereas the refractory compounds included mainly oxygen-containing heterocyclic and benzene-containing compounds. Results from energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that several metal ions accumulated in activated sludge, particularly Fe(III. Fe accumulated mainly on the surface of sludge floc pellets and resulted in the compactness of activated sludge, which caused the values of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids /MLSS and sludge volume index to decrease.

  17. Effect of sludge behavior on performance of centrifugal contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, A.; Sano, Y.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu Tokai-mura Naka-gun Ibaraki-pref. 319-1194 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing an annular centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction in spent fuel reprocessing, which allows the mixing of aqueous and organic phases in the annular area and their separation from the mixed phase in the rotor. The effects of sludge behavior on the performance of a centrifugal contactor were investigated. Sludge accumulation during the operation of the centrifugal contactor was observed only in the rotor. Based on the sludge accumulation behavior, the effects of rotor sludge accumulation on the performance of phase separation and extraction were investigated using several types of rotors, which simulated different sludge accumulation levels in the separation area. It was confirmed that rotor sludge accumulation would affect the phase separation performance but not the extraction performance. This can be explained by the structure of the centrifugal contactor, wherein the extraction reaction and phase separation mainly proceed in the housing and rotor, respectively.

  18. CFD simulation of fluid dynamic and biokinetic processes within activated sludge reactors under intermittent aeration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Rey, H; Viedma, A; Nicolás-Pérez, F; Kaiser, A S; Martínez, M

    2018-08-01

    Due to the aeration system, biological reactors are the most energy-consuming facilities of convectional WWTPs. Many biological reactors work under intermittent aeration regime; the optimization of the aeration process (air diffuser layout, air flow rate per diffuser, aeration length …) is necessary to ensure an efficient performance; satisfying the effluent requirements with the minimum energy consumption. This work develops a CFD modelling of an activated sludge reactor (ASR) which works under intermittent aeration regime. The model considers the fluid dynamic and biological processes within the ASR. The biological simulation, which is transient, takes into account the intermittent aeration regime. The CFD modelling is employed for the selection of the aeration system of an ASR. Two different aeration configurations are simulated. The model evaluates the aeration power consumption necessary to satisfy the effluent requirements. An improvement of 2.8% in terms of energy consumption is achieved by modifying the air diffuser layout. An analysis of the influence of the air flow rate per diffuser on the ASR performance is carried out. The results show a reduction of 14.5% in the energy consumption of the aeration system when the air flow rate per diffuser is reduced. The model provides an insight into the aeration inefficiencies produced within ASRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Peter; Wadhawan, Tanush; Kuprian, Martin; Higgins, Matthew; Ebner, Christian; Fimml, Christian; Murthy, Sudhir; Wett, Bernhard

    2015-12-15

    Making good use of existing water infrastructure by adding organic wastes to anaerobic digesters improves the energy balance of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) substantially. This paper explores co-digestion load limits targeting a good trade-off for boosting methane production, and limiting process-drawbacks on nitrogen-return loads, cake-production, solids-viscosity and polymer demand. Bio-methane potential tests using whey as a model co-substrate showed diversification and intensification of the anaerobic digestion process resulting in a synergistical enhancement in sewage sludge methanization. Full-scale case-studies demonstrate organic co-substrate addition of up to 94% of the organic sludge load resulted in tripling of the biogas production. At organic co-substrate addition of up to 25% no significant increase in cake production and only a minor increase in ammonia release of ca. 20% have been observed. Similar impacts were measured at a high-solids digester pilot with up-stream thermal hydrolyses where the organic loading rate was increased by 25% using co-substrate. Dynamic simulations were used to validate the synergistic impact of co-substrate addition on sludge methanization, and an increase in hydrolysis rate from 1.5 d(-1) to 2.5 d(-1) was identified for simulating measured gas production rate. This study demonstrates co-digestion for maximizing synergy as a step towards energy efficiency and ultimately towards carbon neutrality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of organic contaminant and toxicity testing analytical procedures for estimating the characteristics and environmental significance of natural gas processing plant waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, N.

    1990-10-01

    The Gas Plant Sludge Characterization Phase IIB program is a continuation of the Canadian Petroleum Association's (CPA) initiatives to characterize sludge generated at gas processing plants. The objectives of the Phase IIB project were to develop an effective procedure for screening waste sludges or centrifuge/leachate generated from sludge samples for volatile, solvent-soluble and water-soluble organics; verify the reproducibility of the three aquatic toxicity tests recommended as the battery of tests for determining the environmental significance of sludge centrifugates or leachates; assess the performance of two terrestrial toxicity tests in determining the environmental significance of whole sludge samples applied to soil; and to assess and discuss the reproducibility and cost-effectiveness of the sampling and analytical techniques proposed for the overall sludge characterization procedure. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for sludge collection, preparation and distribution, organic analyses, toxicity testing, project management, and procedure standardization. The three aquatic and two terrestrial toxicity tests proved effective in indicating the toxicity of complex mixtures. 27 refs., 3 figs., 59 tabs

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  2. Acceleration of organic removal and electricity generation from dewatered oily sludge in a bioelectrochemical system by rhamnolipid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshu; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiang, Junqiu; Wang, Kun; Wei, Liangliang; Ding, Jing; Yu, Hang

    2017-11-01

    Conversion of biomass energy of dewatered oily sludge to electricity is the rate-limiting process in bioelectrochemical system (BES). In this study, 2mgg -1 rhamnolipids were added to dewatered oily sludge, resulting in a significant enhancement in maximum power density from 3.84±0.37 to 8.63±0.81Wm -3 , together with an increase in total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from 24.52±4.30 to 36.15±2.79mgg -1 and 29.51±3.30 to 39.80±2.47mgg -1 , respectively. Rhamnolipids can also enhance the solubilization and promote the hydrolysis of dewatered oily sludge with increases in SOCD from 14.93±2.44 to 18.40±0.08mgg -1 and VFAs from 1.02±0.07 to 1.39±0.12mgg -1 . Furthermore, bacteria related to substrate degradation were predominant in dewatered oily sludge, and bacteria related to the sulfate/sulfide cycle were significantly enriched by rhamnolipid addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of organic calcium compounds on combustion characteristics of rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal: thermogravimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Duan, Feng; Huang, Yaji

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer to assess the enhancement of combustion characteristics of different solid fuels blended with organic calcium compounds (OCCs). Rice husk, sewage sludge, and bituminous coal, and two OCC were used in this study. Effect of different mole ratios of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S ratio) on the combustion characteristics were also investigated. Results indicated that combustion performance indexes for bituminous coal impregnated by OCC were improved, however, an inverse trend was found for sewage sludge because sewage sludge has lower ignition temperature and higher volatile matter content compared to those of OCC. For rice husk, effect of added OCC on the combustion characteristics is not obvious. Different solid fuels show different combustion characteristics with increases of Ca/S ratio. The maximum combustion performance indexes appear at Ca/S ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 for OCC blended with Shenhua coal, rice husk, and sewage sludge, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Algal sludge from Taihu Lake can be utilized to create novel PGPR-containing bio-organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Li, Rong; Cao, Liangliang; Shi, Juanjuan; Liu, Hongjun; Huang, Yan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of refloated algal sludge from Taihu Lake result in secondary environmental pollution due to annual refloatation. This study investigated the possibility to produce bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) using algal sludge as a solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium. Results showed that addition of algal sludge contributed to efficient SFF by a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strain SQR9 and improved the nutrient contents in the novel BIO. The optimum water content and initial inoculation size were 45% and 5%, respectively. After 6 days of SSF, the biomass of strain SQR9 was increased to a cell density of more than 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1). Microcystins were rapidly degraded, and a high germination index value was observed. Plant growth experiments showed that the produced BIO efficiently promoted plant growth. Additional testing showed that the novel SSF process was also suitable for other PGPR strains. This study provides a novel way of high-value utilization of algal sludge from Taihu Lake by producing low-cost but high-quality BIOs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  6. Kinetics of concentration decay of specific organic matter in UASB reactors operating with and without return of aerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, P P; Chernicharo, C A L; Von Sperling, M

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of the return of excess aerobic sludge from a trickling filter (TF) upon the anaerobic digestion process in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, by evaluating its effect on the kinetics of the decay of specific organic matter (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids), as well as on the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the UASB reactor. A pilot-scale UASB/TF system was used to perform the experiments, operating with (phase 2) and without (phase 1) excess sludge return from the TF to the UASB reactor. Sampling was carried out at different heights of the UASB reactor (0, 25, 125 and 225-cm height), and profile concentrations were determined for the following parameters: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and volatile fatty acids. First-order kinetics showed the best fit to the decay of concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor. The parameters showing the best fit to the first-order kinetics were proteins and COD, during the sludge return phase. The occurrence of higher apparent reaction constants was further observed during the sludge return phase. For an influent COD concentration of 600 mg L-1 and hydraulic retention times of 2.1, 2.6 and 3.0 h in phase 1, the effluent COD concentrations were 125.3, 88.4 and 62.4 mg L-1, respectively, whereas in phase 2, the effluent COD concentrations were 75.5, 47.6 and 30.1 mg L-1, respectively.

  7. Biotransformation of trace organic compounds by activated sludge from a biological nutrient removal treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Flowers, Riley; McAvoy, Drew; Dickenson, Eric

    2016-09-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) and their biotransformation rates, kb (LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) was investigated across different redox zones in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system using an OECD batch test. Biodegradation kinetics of fourteen TOrCs with initial concentration of 1-36μgL(-)(1) in activated sludge were monitored over the course of 24h. Degradation kinetic behavior for the TOrCs fell into four groupings: Group 1 (atenolol) was biotransformed (0.018-0.22LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions. Group 2 (meprobamate and trimethoprim) biotransformed (0.01-0.21LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under anoxic and aerobic conditions, Group 3 (DEET, gemfibrozil and triclosan) only biotransformed (0.034-0.26LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under aerobic conditions, and Group 4 (carbamazepine, primidone, sucralose and TCEP) exhibited little to no biotransformation (<0.001LgSS(-)(1)h(-)(1)) under any redox conditions. BNR treatment did not provide a barrier against Group 4 compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge process as an effective nutrient removal process utilizing denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Naohiro; Kim, Juhyun; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sudo, Ryuichi

    2006-07-01

    In a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process, the utilization of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) has many advantages such as effective use of organic carbon substrates and low sludge production. As a suitable process for the utilization of DNPAOs in BNR, an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic granular sludge (AOAGS) process was proposed in this study. In spite of performing aeration for nitrifying bacteria, the AOAGS process can create anaerobic/anoxic conditions suitable for the cultivation of DNPAOs because anoxic zones exist inside the granular sludge in the oxic phase. Thus, DNPAOs can coexist with nitrifying bacteria in a single reactor. In addition, the usability of DNPAOs in the reactor can be improved by adding the anoxic phase after the oxic phase. These characteristics enable the AOAGS process to attain effective removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When acetate-based synthetic wastewater (COD: 600 mg/L, NH4-N: 60 mg/L, PO(4)-P: 10 mg/L) was supplied to a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor under the operation of anaerobic/oxic/anoxic cycles, granular sludge with a diameter of 500 microm was successfully formed within 1 month. Although the removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus was almost complete at the end of the oxic phase, a short anoxic period subsequent to the oxic phase was necessary for further removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. As a result, effluent concentrations of NH(4)-N, NO(x)-N and PO(4)-P were always lower than 1 mg/L. It was found that penetration depth of oxygen inside the granular sludge was approximately 100 microm by microsensor measurements. In addition, from the microbiological analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization, existence depth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms was further than the maximum oxygen penetration depth. The water quality data, oxygen profiles and microbial community structure demonstrated that DNPAOs inside the granular sludge may be responsible for denitrification in the

  9. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (biogas. While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.

  10. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3--N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2--N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy.

  11. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  12. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-02-25

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes.

  13. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMA, J.W.; BOWERMAN, B.S.; KALB, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently seeking to validate technologies that can directly treat radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes without removing the mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needs additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 30 wt% dry sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  14. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF SIMULATED MIXED-WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J. W.; Bowerman, B. S.; Kalb, P. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently evaluating alternative treatment standards for radioactively contaminated high mercury (Hg) subcategory wastes, which do not require the removal of mercury from the waste. The Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is one of several candidate technologies capable of successfully treating various Hg waste streams. To supplement previously supplied data on treatment of soils, EPA needed additional data concerning stabilization of high Hg subcategory waste sludges. To this end, a 5000 ppm sludge surrogate, containing approximately 50 wt% water, was successfully treated by pilot-scale SPSS processing. In two process runs, 85 and 95 wt% of water was recovered from the sludge during processing. At waste loadings of 46 wt% (30 wt% dry) sludge, the treated waste form had no detectable mercury (<10 ppb) in TCLP leachates. Data gathered from the demonstration of treatment of this sludge will provide the EPA with information to support revisions to current treatment requirements for high Hg subcategory wastes

  15. Effect of SBR feeding strategy and feed composition on the stability of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of a simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, R D G; Ortigueira, J; Pinheiro, H M; Lourenço, N D

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of the highly polluting and variable textile industry wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) has been recently suggested. Aiming to develop this technology application, two feeding strategies were compared regarding the capacity of anaerobic-aerobic SBRs to deal with disturbances in the composition of the simulated textile wastewater feed. Both a statically fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR and an anaerobic plug-flow fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR could cope with shocks of high azo dye concentration and organic load, the overall chemical oxygen demand and color removal yields being rapidly restored to 80%. Yet, subsequent azo dye metabolite bioconversion was not observed, along the 315-day run. Moreover, switching from a starch-based substrate to acetate in the feed composition deteriorated AGS stability. Overall, the plug-flow fed SBR recovered more rapidly from the imposed disturbances. Further research is needed towards guaranteeing long-term AGS stability during the treatment of textile wastewater.

  16. Examination of sewage sludge for specific organic pollutants and their effect on the agriculture usage of sewage sludge; Untersuchung von Klaerschlamm auf ausgewaehlte Schadstoffe und ihr Verhalten bei der landwirtschaftlichen Klaerschlammverwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, E.; Bischoff, W.A.; Kaupenjohann, M.; Bundschuh, R.; Koehler, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kleiner, M.; Schraitle, T.

    2001-12-01

    In this research report, 50 different kinds of sewage sludges appropriate for the utilization in agriculture were tested for the organic pollutants that are not regulated in the official sewage sludge directive: organo tin compounds, mineral oil hydrocarbons, the tensides LAS and nonylphenol, as well as chlorinated paraffins. The analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons was performed using the gaschromatografic method, which is based on DIN-proposal H 53. The analysis data was evaluated according to the size of the waste water treatment plant, its degree of usage to full capacity, the employed cleaning and sewage treatment methods and the industrial discharges. Investigations of sewer slime were conducted in the duct systems of two selected waste water treatment plants and tested for organo tin compounds. The dependence from domestic as well as from certain industrial and commercial sources was examined. In the second part of this research project, organo tin compounds and mineral oil hydrocarbons were tested in field trials and laboratory column experiments for the effects of the distribution of sewage sludge into agriculture. For the column experiments, ground soil samples were taken from two selected areas with muddy and sandy ground. The samples were then compounded with wet sludge and exposed to rain under strictly defined conditions. At the same time, the selected areas were exposed to the maximum amount of sewage sludge permitted and then planted with carrots. After a vegetation period, the carrots were harvested, adsorption bodies (SIA-system-method) were brought into the soil before the sewage sludge fertilization was examined, and several soil samples were taken and analysed for the selected parameters. In these examinations, a minor shift of organo tin compounds from the sewage sludge deeper into the ground can be detected and a shift of mineral oil hydrocarbons cannot be detected. (orig.)

  17. Co-composting as an oxygen stabilization of an organic fraction of municipal solid waste and industrial sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, M; Neczaj, E; Parkitna, K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the characteristics of the co-composting of municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, grass and sawdust. Differing proportions of biodegradable waste were investigated through changes of temperature, oxygen consumption, organic matters, moisture content, carbon, nitrogen, C/N ratio as well as heavy metals and pathogen microorganisms content. The present study has shown that addition of MSW above 10% had a negative impact on the composting process. The initial C/N of the mixtures with a higher MSW content was below 18. Lower losses of organic matter occurred during composting for the mixture with the highest addition of MSW. Although studies have shown that composting is a good method for the disposal of organic waste additional research is required in order to optimize the organic and nitrogen compounds degradation during the co-composting process. In conclusion, a 1:4:4:1 mixture of MSW:sewage sludge:grass:sawdust is recommended because it can achieve high temperature as well as the highest organic matter degradation and highest N content in the final composting product. The concentration of heavy and light metals in all composts was within the limits of regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  18. Enhancement of organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge by degasification of dissolved hydrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hisashi; Bandara, Wasala M K R T W; Sasakawa, Manabu; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    A hollow fiber degassing membrane (DM) was applied to enhance organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge process by reducing the dissolved hydrogen gas (D-H 2 ) concentration in the liquid phase. DM was installed in the bench-scale anaerobic granular sludge reactors and D-H 2 was removed through DM using a vacuum pump. Degasification improved the organic matter degradation efficiency to 79% while the efficiency was 62% without degasification at 12,000mgL -1 of the influent T-COD concentration. Measurement of D-H 2 concentrations in the liquid phase confirmed that D-H 2 was removed by degasification. Furthermore, the effect of acetate concentrations on the organic matter degradation efficiency was investigated. At acetate concentrations above 3gL -1 , organic matter degradation deteriorated. Degasification enhanced the propionate and acetate degradation. These results suggest that degasification reduced D-H 2 concentration and volatile fatty acids concentrations, prevented pH drop, and subsequent enhanced organic matter degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Titan's organic chemistry: Results of simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Khare, Bishun N.

    1992-01-01

    Recent low pressure continuous low plasma discharge simulations of the auroral electron driven organic chemistry in Titan's mesosphere are reviewed. These simulations yielded results in good accord with Voyager observations of gas phase organic species. Optical constants of the brownish solid tholins produced in similar experiments are in good accord with Voyager observations of the Titan haze. Titan tholins are rich in prebiotic organic constituents; the Huygens entry probe may shed light on some of the processes that led to the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Activated sludge process simulator ASP-Sim, Part-1: Bod and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater is the Activated Sludge Process. The design of activated process is usually done manually; this is ... is a useful tool for predicting the effect of temperature on design and operation of completely mixed activated plant design and operation.

  1. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2016-01-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  2. Modeling the pH-mediated extraction of ionizable organic contaminants to improve the quality of municipal sewage sludge destined for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu

    2016-04-15

    A model was developed to assess the impact of adding acids and bases to processed municipal sewage sludge (MSS) to mobilize contaminants, facilitating their removal from sludge by flushing prior to land application. Among 312 organic contaminants documented to occur in U.S. MSS, 71 or 23% were identified as ionizable organic contaminants (IOCs), contributing a disproportionately large fraction of 82% of the total mass of sludge-borne contaminants. Detected IOCs included 57 pharmaceuticals and personal care products, 12 perfluorinated compounds, one surfactant and one pesticide. Annually, about 2000 t of IOCs were estimated to be released to U.S. soils via land-application of MSS. A partitioning model developed to assess the impact of pH on hydrophobic sorption revealed that between 36 and 85% of the mass of individual classes of IOCs potentially could be desorbed from MSS via pH adjustment and flushing. Thus, modeling results suggest that a sequential pH treatment [acidic (~ pH 2) followed by basic (~ pH 12) treatment] has the potential to reduce the burden of harmful IOCs in MSS applied on U.S. land by up to 40 ± 16 t annually. This approach may serve as a cost-effective treatment process that can be implemented easily in existing sludge treatment infrastructure in the U.S. and worldwide, serving to significantly improve the quality of MSS destined for land application. - Highlights: • Sorption model predicts the leachability of ionizable organics from sludge. • Ionic organics make up 82% of total contaminant mass in U.S. sludge. • 36–85% of ionic organic pollutants are removable by pH treatment. • Proposed sludge treatment promises cost-effective risk reduction.

  3. Influence of sludge retention time on tolerance of copper toxicity for polyphosphate accumulating organisms linked to polyhydroxyalkanoates metabolism and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Pin; Chen, Hsiu-Ting

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the influence of sludge retention time (SRT) on tolerance of copper invasion for polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The experimental data showed the anaerobic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage for the sludge at 10d SRT was less influenced by copper invasion than those at 5d and 15d SRTs. The reaction of PAOs aerobically taking up phosphate for the sludge at 5d or 15d SRT almost ceased at 2 mg Cu L(-1), whereas PAOs in the sludge at 10d SRT retained half of the ability to take up phosphate. Both the PHAs degradation and synthesis rates decreased with increasing copper concentration, regardless of the SRTs. However, the copper inhibition of the former was greater than that of the later. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term simulation of the activated sludge process at the Hanover-Gümmerwald pilot WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinia, Jacek; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Spering, Volker

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a validated model, consisting of the Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) and the EAWAG bio-P module, which could be used as a decision tool for estimating the maximum allowable peak flow to wastewater treatment plants during stormwater conditions. The databases used for simulations originated from the Hanover-Gummerwald pilot plant subjected to a series of controlled, short-term hydraulic shock loading experiments. The continuous influent wastewater composition was generated using on-line measurements of only three parameters (COD, N-NH4+, P-PO4 3-). Model predictions were compared with on-line data from different locations in the activated sludge system including the aerobic zone (concentrations of N-NH4+, N-NO3-) and secondary effluent (concentrations of P-PO4 3-). The simulations confirmed experimental results concerning the capabilities of the system for handling increased flows during stormwater events. No (or minor) peaks of N-NH4+ were predicted for the line with the double dry weather flowrate, whereas peaks of N-NH4+ at the line with the quadruple dry weather flowrate were normally exceeding 8 g Nm(-3) (similar to the observations).

  5. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  6. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  7. Simulation of sludge deposit onto a 900 MW steam generator tubesheet with the 3D code GENEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal-Ribot, S.; Debec-Mathet, E.; Soussan, D.; Grandotto, M.

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer processes use fluids which are generally not pure and can react with transfer surfaces. These surfaces are subject to deposits which can be sediments harmful to heat transfer and to integrity of materials. For nuclear plant steam generators, sludge build-up accelerates secondary side corrosion by concentrating chemical species. A major safety problem involved with such a corrosion is the growing of circumferential cracks which are very difficult to detect and size with eddy current probes. With a view to understand and control this problem, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model for the prediction of sludge behavior in PWR steam generators. Based on fundamental principles, this work intends to use different models available in literature for the prediction of the phenomenon leading to the accumulation of sludge particles at the bottom (the tubesheet) of a PWR. For that, a three-dimensional simulation of magnetite particulate fouling with the finite elements code GENEPI is performed on a 900 MWe steam generator. The use of GENEPI code, originally designed and qualified for the analysis of steam generators thermalhydraulics is done in two steps. First, the local thermalhydraulic conditions of the carrier phase are calculated with the classical conservation equations of mass, momentum and enthalpy for the steam/water mixture (homogeneous model). Then, they are used for the solving of a particle transport equation. The mass transfer processes, which have been taken into account, are gravitational settling, sticking probability and reentrainment describing respectively the transport of sludge particles to the tubesheet, the particle attachment to this surface and the re-suspension of deposited particles from the tubesheet. A sink term characterizing the blowdown effect is also considered in the calculations. Deposition on the tube bundle surface area is not modelled. For this first approach, the simulation is made with a single particle size and

  8. Effect of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on the solubilization of organic matter, pathogen inactivation and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinoza, Juan E; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Martínez-Delgadillo, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of poultry industry effluents produces wastewater sludge with high levels of organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, the thermal pre-treatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge (PSS) was evaluated for low temperatures in combination with different exposure times as a pre-hydrolysis strategy to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Organic compounds solubilization and inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were evaluated after treatment at 70, 80 or 90°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. The results showed that 90°C and 90 min were the most efficient conditions for solubilization of the organic compounds (10%). In addition, the bacteria populations and the more resistant structures, such as helminth eggs (HE), were completely inactivated. Finally, the thermal pre-treatment applied to the sludge increased methane yield by 52% and reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) by 52%.

  9. Simulation of DEHP biodegradation and sorption during the anaerobic digestion of secondary sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Stamatelatou, K.; Batstone, Damien J.

    2006-01-01

    -limiting for the compound biodegradation. In this study, the anaerobic biodegradation of DEHP was investigated through batch kinetic experiments and dynamic transitions of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with secondary sludge contaminated with DEHP. A widely accepted model (ADM1) was used to fit the anaerobic......" against biodegradation. The model, fitted to the batch experimental data, was able to predict DEHP removal in the CSTR operated at various HRTs....

  10. Factors impacting biotransformation kinetics of trace organic compounds in lab-scale activated sludge systems performing nitrification and denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lijuan; Aga, Diana; Chandran, Kartik; Khunjar, Wendell O.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined TOrC biotransformation kinetics in nitrifying and denitrifying reators. • TOrC biotransformation was linked to heterotrophic and autotrophic activity. • TOrC biotransformation rates were not sensitive to the initial TOrC concentration. • Readily biodegradable organic matter suppressed TOrC biotransformation rates. - Abstract: To predict TOrC fate in biological activated sludge systems, there is a need to accurately determine TOrC biodegradation kinetics in mixed microbial cultures. Short-term batch tests with salicylic acid, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol, trimethoprim and carbamazepine were conducted with lab-scale activated sludge cultures in which the initial TOrC concentration (1 mg/L and 0.0005 mg/L) and readily biodegradable substrate concentrations were varied. The results indicate that pseudo-first order kinetic estimates of TOrC are not sensitive (p > 0.05) to the initial TOrC concentration as long as the initial TOrC concentration (S 0 ) to biomass (X 0 ) ratio (on COD basis) is below 2 × 10 −3 . The presence of readily biodegradable organic matter suppresses TOrC biotransformation rates under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions, and this impact can be adequately described using a reversible non-competitive inhibition equation. These results demonstrate the importance of closely mimicking parent reactor conditions in batch testing because biotransformation parameters are impacted by in-situ carbon loading and redox conditions

  11. Factors impacting biotransformation kinetics of trace organic compounds in lab-scale activated sludge systems performing nitrification and denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lijuan; Aga, Diana [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chandran, Kartik [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Khunjar, Wendell O., E-mail: wkhunjar@hazenandsawyer.com [Hazen and Sawyer P.C., Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We examined TOrC biotransformation kinetics in nitrifying and denitrifying reators. • TOrC biotransformation was linked to heterotrophic and autotrophic activity. • TOrC biotransformation rates were not sensitive to the initial TOrC concentration. • Readily biodegradable organic matter suppressed TOrC biotransformation rates. - Abstract: To predict TOrC fate in biological activated sludge systems, there is a need to accurately determine TOrC biodegradation kinetics in mixed microbial cultures. Short-term batch tests with salicylic acid, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol, trimethoprim and carbamazepine were conducted with lab-scale activated sludge cultures in which the initial TOrC concentration (1 mg/L and 0.0005 mg/L) and readily biodegradable substrate concentrations were varied. The results indicate that pseudo-first order kinetic estimates of TOrC are not sensitive (p > 0.05) to the initial TOrC concentration as long as the initial TOrC concentration (S{sub 0}) to biomass (X{sub 0}) ratio (on COD basis) is below 2 × 10{sup −3}. The presence of readily biodegradable organic matter suppresses TOrC biotransformation rates under nitrifying and denitrifying conditions, and this impact can be adequately described using a reversible non-competitive inhibition equation. These results demonstrate the importance of closely mimicking parent reactor conditions in batch testing because biotransformation parameters are impacted by in-situ carbon loading and redox conditions.

  12. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-02-29

    The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10(3) and 10(6) Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on The Use of Sludge From Yogyakarta Waste Water Processing Plant as Environmental Friendly Organic Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M-Yazid; Mintargo-K; M-E-Supriyatni; Budiono

    2005-01-01

    Study on feasibility of the use of sludge from Yogjakarta Waste Water Processing Plant (JWWPP) as organic fertilizer with several aspects to be considered, such as plant nutrient content, heavy metal content and its pathogenic microbial. From the observation result is expected can be used as an input data for analyzing the use of sludge impact as fertilizer. Sludge sample was taken from JWWPP that located at Bantul. Sludge sample was dried at the room temperature, ground and weighed to be appropriate to the analysis type. The macro element content was analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), then counted using Ge(Li) Gamma Spectrometer. The heavy metal content, such as Pb, Cd and Hg was analyzed using AAS, while for Sm, Th, Sb, Cr and Co contents were analyzed using NAA. Sample was irradiated in order to kill pathogenic microbial, using varied doses which are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. Microbial observation was carried out at Microbiological Laboratory of Biological Faculty-Gadjah Mada University that include of total bacteria, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus and Salmonella. The average macro element content was determined from the analysis result, N is 4.10 ± 0.007 ppm, P is 640.51 ± 14.34, K is 3.04 ± 0.06 ppm, while micro element content consist of Mg is 79.31 ± 6.48 ppm, Zn is 599.8 ± 42.2 ppm, Cu is 16.13 ± 0.4 ppm, Ca is 117.6 ± 9.20 ppm and Fe is 4.35 ± 0.18 ppm. The range of heavy metal content consist of Pb is 73.27 - 125.65 ppm, Cd is 1.44 - 2.59 ppm, while Hg is undetected. Another that Sm is 0.04 - 18.68 ppm, Th is 2.20 - 6.37 ppm; Sb is 1.06 - 76.37 ppm, Cr is 1.94 - 51.40 ppm and Co is 0.57 - 84.03 ppm. The greatest bacteria population is Salmonella sp, then Streptococcus and the latest is Escherichia coli. The analysis result can be deduced that sludge from JWWPP can be used as organic fertilizer with specific treatment to decrease Cu, Fe and Zn content to be less then the critical value to hinder the growth of a plant. While the

  14. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADATION OF COMPOSTED SLUDGE AND SLUDGE LANDFILLED / ETUDE COMPARATIVE DE LA DEGRADATION DE LA MATIERE ORGANIQUE DES BOUES COMPOSTEES ET BOUES MISES EN DECHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLIMANE LAHSAINI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the biotransformation of organic matter for three trials A (500 kg sludge + 400 kg turf + 100 kg of straw, B (1000 kg sludge composted alone, and C (1000 kg sludge landfilled after six months show a good degradation rate for trial A, compared to B, and C. C/N ratio decrease from 30 to 12 for mixture A, from 32 to 19 for B, and from 32 to 24 for C. An important decomposition rate, about 74 %, for mixture A has been reached after six months. The final compost for mixture A exhibited a high concentration (151.7 g·kg-1 of humic substance and a low concentration of heavy metal contents, compared to the AFNOR standard (NF U 44-041. The efficiency of the composting is confirmed by the germination index (GI, which exceeds 90 % for the trial A. However, phytotoxicity for trials B and C remains less important (GI does not exceed 40 %. The results of trial A will open the way for the agricultural use of sludge.

  16. The influence of the anaerobic digestion process on the sewage sludges rheological behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P.S. [Porto Univ. (Portugal). Facultade de Engenharia. Inst. de Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos

    1998-12-31

    During the anaerobic digestion process, a significant part of the organic matter is sewage sludge is decomposed to form other organic and inorganic compounds in dissolved form. The biological transformation of a substantial part of the organic solids has, certainly, a strong influence on the rheological characteristics of the sludges. In this paper a test facility was set up to simulate sewage sludge digestion and periodic observations on the evolution of the sludge characteristics were carried out. Results of this study show that important changes on the sludge rheological behaviour occur during anaerobic digestion and that the evolution of those changes is related with the degree of digestion. Moreover, it is shown that the verified high degree of physical changes can not be demonstrated only by the total solids concentration variation and two hypothesis are proposed to explain those changes.

  17. Influence of organic loading rate on methane production in a CSTR from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Corte-Cano, Grisel; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated. Total solid (TS) to obtain OLR of 1, 5, 10 and 15 g VS L(-1) day(-1), with hydraulic retention times of 29, 6, 6 and 4, respectively, were conditioned. The results showed a decrease in pH levels and an increase in the theoretical volatile fatty acids (VFA). While the yield of methane production decreased from 0.48 to 0.10 LCH4/g VSremoved, respectively, the OLR-10 managed on average 38% removal of volatile solids (VS) and a yield biogas production of 0.81 Lbiogas g(-1) VSremoved and 1.35 L day(-1). This suggests that the OLR increases in an anaerobic system from physicochemical sludge only inhibits the methanogenic metabolism, because there is still substrate consumption and biogas production.

  18. Relationships between stability, maturity, water-extractable organic matter of municipal sewage sludge composts and soil functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Luigi; Cavani, Luciano; Grigatti, Marco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Marzadori, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Compost capability of restoring or enhancing soil quality depends on several parameters, such as soil characteristics, compost carbon, nitrogen and other nutrient content, heavy metal occurrence, stability and maturity. This study investigated the possibility of relating compost stability and maturity to water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) properties and amendment effect on soil quality. Three composts from municipal sewage sludge and rice husk (AN, from anaerobic wastewater treatment plants; AE, from aerobic ones; MIX, from both anaerobic and aerobic ones) have been analysed and compared to a traditional green waste compost (GM, from green manure, solid waste and urban sewage sludge). To this aim, WEOMs were characterized through chemical analysis; furthermore, compost stability was evaluated through oxygen uptake rate calculation and maturity was estimated through germination index determination, whereas compost impact on soil fertility was studied, in a lab-scale experiment, through indicators as inorganic nitrogen release, soil microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis. The obtained results indicated that WEOM characterization could be useful to investigate compost stability (which is related to protein and phenol concentrations) and maturity (related to nitrate/ammonium ratio and degree of aromaticity) and then compost impact on soil functionality. Indeed, compost stability resulted inversely related to soil microbial biomass, basal respiration rate and fluorescein di-acetate hydrolysis when the products were applied to the soil.

  19. Clinical Macrosystem Simulation Translates Between Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, G Jesse; Maryman, James A

    2018-04-01

    Simulation has become an integral tool in healthcare facility redesign. Immersing clinical experts into their future environment has demonstrated benefits for transition planning. This study evaluates translation of a proven macrosystems testing protocol, TESTPILOT, to an organization with limited simulation experience. An experienced TESTPILOT team guided Woman's Hospital Baton Rouge's simulation preparation for their new neonatal intensive care unit. Metrics included participant evaluations, latent safety threats (LST), and clinician surveys. Latent safety threats recorded during debriefings were addressed by workflow committees. Clinicians were surveyed at four time points for readiness and preparedness on 24 key processes. The local team invested nearly 750 hours into learning and implementing seven simulations that participants rated positively. Most of the 305 LST were minor issues. Surveys at baseline (42% of staff), postsim (18%), pretransition (26%), and postmove (29%) demonstrated strong internal consistency. System readiness lagged behind staff preparedness (P structure, team coverage, and feedback were still evolving as of move day (P organizations with limited prior exposure. Woman's Hospital Baton Rouge accrued essential skills to model and orchestrate an immersive neonatal intensive care unit and then drive effective multidisciplinary debriefings. Staff immersed in the new environment began to articulate their jobs before moving in. The trajectory of system readiness improvement corroborated LST correction. Future research is needed to determine the extent of simulation required for different organizational structures.

  20. An investigation of magnox sludge and alumino-ferric floc waste simulate, immobilised by a cementitious matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halley, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    Magnox sludge and alumino ferric floc simulates, prepared using non-radioactive tracers were immobilised by a cementitious system. Formulation design aimed at optimising pollutant leaching with permeability and compressive strength as secondary considerations. The behaviour of the products under accelerated weathering conditions was investigated. The study was divided into two parts: Formulation design in Phase I and the systematic testing of the optimum formulations under freeze-thaw, and hydration -dehydration conditions in Phase 2. Analytical method development for leachate analysis continued through both Phases. The Barnwood method of leach testing was used. The immobilised waste had good physical properties (i.e. high strength and low permeability) and a significant improvement was achieved during the course of the work in the leach rates of the tracers, particularly of caesium and strontium. (author)

  1. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  2. Rheological online determination of the organic dry substance concentration of sewage sludge; Rheologische online Bestimmung des oTS-Gehalts von Klaerschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, P.; Boehm, A.; Fessler, J.; Liebelt, U. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany); Traegner, U. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik, Mannheim (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    In order to adjust the filter cake to a certain calorific value and to enhance the dehydratability of sludge, ash, carbon and flocculation agents are added to the latter prior to filtration. Dosage of the additives depends on the sludge's content of organic solids, determined in the form of the so-called organic dry substance concentration. In bench-scale and technical-scale experiments on the rheological properties of sewage sludge, a correlation between organic dry substance concentration and rheological properties, especially the liquid limit of sewage sludge, was established. This knowledge was used to develop a measuring technique for online determination of organic dry substance concentration by means of rheology. (orig.) [German] Zur Einstellung eines bestimmten Heizwertes des Filterkuchens und zur Verbesserung der Entwaesserbarkeit werden dem Schlamm vor der Filtration Asche, Kohle und Flockungsmittel zugegeben. Die Dosierung der Zuschlagsstoffe erfolgt in Abhaengigkeit vom Gehalt des Schlamms an organischem Feststoff, bestimmt in Form der sog. oTS-Konzentration. In Labor- und Betriebsversuchen zum rheologischen Verhalten von Klaerschlamm konnte eine Korrelation zwischen der oTS-Konzentration und den Fliesseigenschaften, insbesondere der Fliessgrenze von Klaerschlamm ermittelt werden. Diese Erkenntnis wurde in ein Messverfahren zur online-Bestimmung der oTS-Konzentration mittels Rheologie umgesetzt. (orig.)

  3. Two Cases of Tsunami Dust Pneumonia: Organizing Pneumonia Caused by the Inhalation of Dried Tsunami Sludge after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanda, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Sato, Hikari; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Toru; Yanai, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of organizing pneumonia (OP) secondary to the inhalation of the dried tsunami sludge which formed during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent tsunami. After the disaster, both of these patients had been engaged in the restoration work. About half a month later, they developed shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. These patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Their biopsy specimens revealed multifocal peribronchiolitis and OP. An electron probe microanalysis of these specimens demonstrated the presence of elements from the earth's crust in the inflammatory lesions. These two cases indicate that exposure to dried tsunami sludge can cause OP. PMID:27980267

  4. Changes in soil organisms by the application of sludge composits, and their effects. Odei taihirui no shiyo ni tomonau dojo seibutsu no henka to sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijima, K.; Fujita, K.; Ogawa, M. (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-08-31

    With an objective to utilize sewage sludge more effectively, composted sewage sludge has been applied to seed beds to investigate its effect on soil macrofauna and higher fungi, and its relativity with change in soil organisms, growth of young trees, and soil science. Forty-eight seedling sections, each 5 m [times] 5 m, were made on a seed bed which was applied with Tenryu sludge composts (polymer-based coagulant), several other kinds of sludge composts, fallen leaf composts, and cattle excrement composts at predetermined rates from zero to 20 kg. Each section was planted with 25 three-year-old nursery trees of a kind of oak, black pine, and cypress. As a result, the following findings were obtained: wet weight of larvae of Japanese gold beetles that attack tree roots has increased during the first and second years in the Tenryu sludge applied section, but no longer increased in the third year; the relationship between the other composts and soil macrofauna was not made clear; Scleroderma Cepa PERS, a mycorrhiza bacteria, has been generated in the oak planted section in the second, third and fourth years, with the second year particularly having generated it in a greater amount in proportion with the fertilizer application amount, but the fertilizer effect thereafter is not clear. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem

  6. The determination of PCBs in Rocky Flats Type IV waste sludge by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Postlethwait, P.D.; Boparai, A.S.; Reedy, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E reg-sign and Oil Dri reg-sign to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a nonradioactive simulated Type 17V RFP sludge was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E). This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. In an earlier effort, a simplified method was developed for extraction, cleanup of extract, and determination of PCBs in samples of simulated sludge spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. The simplified method has now been used to determine the presence and quantities of other Aroclors in the simulated sludge, namely, Aroclors 10 1 6, 1221, 1232, 1242, and 1248. The accuracy and precision of the data for these Aroclors were found to be similar to the data for sludges spiked with Aroclors 1254 and 1260. Since actual sludges may vary in composition, the method was also verified by analyzing another source of Type IV simulated sludge, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W)

  7. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: xingmeiyan@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00-3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00-4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and

  8. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extracted organic matter from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cow dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Jian; Huang, Zhidong; Lu, Yongsen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vermicomposting causes an increase in the aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates. ► Vermicomposting homogenizes the molecular weight of WEOM from the substrates. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost is characterized by high O-containing groups. ► The WEOM from the vermicompost includes small aliphatic and protein-like groups. ► The WEOM test is a good way to evaluate the biological maturity of vermicompost. - Abstract: The chemical changes of water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from five different substrates of sewage sludge enriched with different proportions of cow dung after vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida were investigated using various analytical approaches. Results showed that dissolved organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and C/N ratio of the substrates decreased significantly after vermicomposting process. The aromaticity of WEOM from the substrates enhanced considerably, and the amount of volatile fatty acids declined markedly, especially for the cow dung substrate. Gel filtration chromatography analysis showed that the molecular weight fraction between 10 3 and 10 6 Da became the main part of WEOM in the final product. 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed that the proportion of H moieties in the area of 0.00–3.00 ppm decreased, while increasing at 3.00–4.25 ppm after vermicomposting. Fluorescence spectra indicated that vermicomposting caused the degradation of protein-like groups, and the formation of fulvic and humic acid-like compounds in the WEOM of the substrates. Overall results indicate clearly that vermicomposting promoted the degradation and transformation of liable WEOM into biological stable substances in sewage sludge and cow dung alone, as well as in mixtures of both materials, and testing the WEOM might be an effective way to evaluate the biological maturity and chemical stability of vermicompost.

  9. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plant modelling and simulation: state of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Henze, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    This review paper focuses on modelling of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). White-box modelling is widely applied in this field, with learning, design and process optimisation as the main applications. The introduction of the ASM model family by the IWA task group was of great importance......, providing researchers and practitioners with a standardised. set of basis models. This paper introduces the nowadays most frequently used white-box models for description of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal activated sludge processes. These models are mainly applicable to municipal wastewater...... systems, but can be adapted easily to specific situations such as the presence of industrial wastewater. Some of the main model assumptions are highlighted, and their implications for practical model application are discussed. A step-wise procedure leads from the model purpose definition to a calibrated...

  10. Simulation of co-incineration of sewage sludge with municipal solid waste in a grate furnace incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2012-03-01

    Incineration is one of the most important methods in the resource recovery disposal of sewage sludge. The combustion characteristics of sewage sludge and an increasing number of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants provide the possibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to verify the feasibility of co-incineration of sludge with MSW, and predict the effect of co-incineration. In this study, wet sludge and semi-dried sludge were separately blended with MSW as mixed fuels, which were at a co-incineration ratios of 5 wt.% (wet basis, the same below), 10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, 20 wt.% and 25 wt.%. The result indicates that co-incineration of 10 wt.% wet sludge with MSW can ensure the furnace temperature, the residence time and other vital items in allowable level, while 20 wt.% of semi-dried sludge can reach the same standards. With lower moisture content and higher low heating value (LHV), semi-dried sludge can be more appropriate in co-incineration with MSW in a grate furnace incinerator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  12. Sewage sludges compost and organic fraction urban solid waste from selective collection; Compostaje de lodos de depuradora y FORSU procedente de recogida selectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, A.; Diaz, M. M.; Mohedo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The organic fraction of urban solid waste (FORSU) from selective collection has been analysed to make a good quality compost for soils an agricultural use. Different mixtures of FORSU, sludge from the municipal water treatment plant, and pruning garden has been composted in turned windrow. The composting process and the obtained refined compost were characterised. The results on evolution of pH, conductivity, C/N relation, P, metals,-organic matter and recovery yield were related. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. New process controls in the co-fermentation of organic waste and municipal sewage sludge; Neue Verfahrensfuehrungen bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und kommunalen Klaerschlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaepers, D.; Schierholt, M.; Buer, T.; Risse, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    For the co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge in digester towers at municipal sewage treatment plant, mainly single-stage processes have so far been studied or are in use in part. Within the framework of a project sponsored by the foundation Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung, the use of a two-stage mode of operation (thermophilic/mesophilic) for co-fermenting organic waste and sewage sludge was investigated. By adding organic waste to the digester content, biogas production per reactor volume was more than doubled in comparison with exclusive sewage sludge fermentation. Because of the thermophilic stage for the conditioning of organic waste, specific biogas yield for an organic load of 1.5 kg organic dry residue TR/m{sup 3*}d was slightly enhanced in comparison with single-stage co-fermentation. (orig.) [German] Zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm in Faultuermen kommunaler Klaeranlagen werden bislang hauptsaechlich einstufige Verfahren untersucht und teilweise eingesetzt. Im Rahmen eines von der Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung gefoerderten Projektes wurde der Einsatz einer 2-stufigen Betriebsweise (thermophil/mesophil) bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm untersucht. Die Biogasproduktion pro Reaktorvolumen konnte durch die Zugabe von Bioabfall in die Faulbehaelter gegenueber der reinen Klaerschlammfaulung mehr als verdoppelt werden. Durch die thermophile Stufe zur Vorbehandlung der Bioabfaelle konnte die spezifische Biogasausbeute bei einer organischen Raumbelastung von 1,5 kg o TR/m{sup 3*}d gegenueber der 1-stufigen Co-Vergaerung leicht erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  14. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-15

    Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg(-1)) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L(-1) DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (NNH(4)) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  16. Composting of gamma-radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge has been studied since 1978, aiming to present a new process of sludge composting for agricultural uses. This process is composed of two steps: irradiation step to disinfect sludge, and composting step to remove odor and easily decomposable organics in sludge. In this paper, the gamma-irradiation effect on sludge cake and composting condition of irradiated sludge are discussed. (author)

  17. Organic Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Deamer, David W.; Elsila, Jamie; Zare, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    Comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been significant sources of organic compounds on the early Earth. Ices on grains in interstellar dense molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules as well as aromatic molecules of various sizes. While in these clouds the icy grains are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic radiation which produces more complex organic molecules. We have run laboratory simulations to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated photolytically in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming various realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ices with and without polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at approx. 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with UV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp. The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by laser desorption mass spectrometry. The residue contains several classes of compounds which may be of prebiotic significance.

  18. Kinetic models for pyrolysis and combustion of sewage sludge[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Udaquiola, S. [Univ. Nacional de San Juan, San Juan (Argentina). Lab. Tec. Amb., Inst. de Ing. Qca; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G. [PROMES-CNRS, Font-Romeu Odeillo (France); Mazza, G. [Univ. Nacional Del Comahue, Neuquen (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Martinez, O. [Univ. Nacional de la Plata, La Plata (Argentina). CINDECA-CONICET

    2007-07-01

    In thermochemical conversion processes that produce energy, the kinetics of waste decomposition must be considered. The rate of mass loss due to thermal decomposition determines the available fuel on the fire triangle of heat, fuel and oxygen. Heating rates in thermobalance experiments are low, and are often used to study the primary reactions in the decomposition of solids since their cracking is negligible. Thermogravimetry is an option for determining the decomposition profile of a solid in terms of its temperature versus the kinetics of its decomposition. This paper presented the thermal analysis and results of a study that used thermogravimetric analyses on dry samples of sewage sludge from San Juan, Argentina in an inert and oxidative atmosphere. Three peaks were observed in all differential thermogravimetric curves during the organic matter decomposition. In order to explain the experimental data, various reaction schemes were set up. The first two schemes considered 3 fractions decomposing in parallel during pyrolysis, with oxidative pyrolysis of all fractions during combustion or only two. The third scheme considered the decomposition of 2 fractions only but with dissymmetrical behavior during the whole pyrolysis and combustion phenomenon. It was concluded that the simulations were a good agreement with the experimental data for the first 2 schemes only, and overall, the fit was better with the second scheme. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Computer simulation of laboratory leaching and washing of tank waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.D.; MacLean, G.T.; Landeene, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The process simulator ESP (Environmental Simulation Program) was used to simulate laboratory caustic leaching and washing of core samples from Tanks B-110, C-109, and C-112. The results of the laboratory tests and the computer simulations are compared. The results from both, agreed reasonably well for elements contained in solid phases included in the ESP Public data bank. The use of the GEOCHEM data bank and/or a custom Hanford Data bank should improve the agreement, making ESP a useful process simulator for aqueous based processing

  20. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  1. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity

  2. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A., E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  3. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A.; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha −1 sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha −1 triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg −1 PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms

  4. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  5. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri, E-mail: swije2001@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Li Xiufen [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China); Jian Chen, E-mail: jchen@sytu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Southern Yangtze University, 170 Huihe Road, Wuxi 214036 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ({approx}1000 mg/L, {approx}2000 mg/L, {approx}3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  6. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li Xiufen; Jian Chen

    2010-01-01

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels (∼1000 mg/L, ∼2000 mg/L, ∼3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater.

  7. Analytical methods for the determintion of some elements and Fe+2 to Fe+3 ratio in simulated sludges and Synroc formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, R.

    1981-10-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, Ni, Na, Sr, Cs, Ti, and Ba in simulated sludges and Synroc formulations are discussed. These are the elements that may be completed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, AAS. AAS methods are complicated by the dissolution methods used. These problems are discussed. In addition, the method used for the determination of Fe +2 to Fe +3 ratio is presented

  8. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Guan-Bu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2 , and Mg(OH) 2 to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg −1 ) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L −1 DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH 4 ) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively

  9. Influence of nutrients on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor degrading sulfate-laden organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, S K; Tare, Vinod

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of the nutrients iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), and molybdenum (Mo) on biomass evolution in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor metabolizing synthetic sulfate-laden organics at varying operating conditions during a period of 540 days. A bench-scale model of a UASB reactor was operated at a temperature of 35 degrees C for a chemical oxygen demand-to-sulfate (COD/SO4(2-)) ratio of 8.59 to 2.0, a sulfate loading rate of 0.54 to 1.88 kg SO4(2-)/m3 x d, and an organic loading rate of 1.9 to 5.75 kg COD/m3 x d. Biomass was characterized in terms of total methanogenic activity, acetate-utilizing methanogenic activity, total sulfidogenic activity, acetate-utilizing sulfidogenic activity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nickel and cobalt limitation appears to affect the activity of hydrogen-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (HMPB) significantly without having an appreciable effect on the activity of acetate-utilizing methane-producing bacteria (AMPB). Nickel and cobalt supplementation resulted in increased availability and, consequently, restoration of biomass activity and process performance. Iron limitation and sulfidogenic conditions resulted in the growth of low-density, hollow, fragile granules that washed out, causing process instability and performance deterioration. Iron and cobalt supplementation indicated significant stimulation of AMPB with slight inhibition of HMPB. Examination of biomass through SEM indicated a population shift with dominance of sarcina-type organisms and the formation of hollow granules. Granule disintegration was observed toward the end of the study.

  10. Assessing the risk associated with the presence of emerging organic contaminants in sludge-amended soil: A country-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-04-01

    Greece was used as case study and the environmental risk associated with the existence of 99 emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in sludge-amended soil was estimated using risk quotient (RQ) approach. Data on the concentration levels of EOCs in sewage sludge was collected after literature review. Chemical analyses were also conducted for 50 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in sludge samples from Athens Sewage Treatment Plant. Risk assessment was based on both terrestrial and aquatic acute toxicity data, using both the maximum and the average measured concentrations of the target compounds. EC50/LC50 values were collected through literature review or using the ECOSAR program in cases that experimental values were not available. Triclosan seems to pose an environmental risk on the soil environment, as its RQ values exceeded 1, both in terrestrial and aquatic toxicity data based risk assessment. Calculations based on aquatic toxicity data showed that another eleven compounds had RQs higher than 1, most of them belonging to the classes of synthetic phenolic compounds and siloxanes. Tetradecamethylhexasiloxane presented the highest RQ, while high RQs were also calculated for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane and caffeine. No environmental risk for the terrestrial environment is expected due to the individual action of illicit drugs, perfluorinated compounds and benzotriazoles. The sludge source and the day of sampling affected the estimated threat due to nonylphenolic compounds; however these factors did not affect the estimated risk for siloxanes, caffeine and ofloxacin. Calculation of RQ values for the mixture of EOCs, using either the maximum or the average concentrations, far exceeded 1 (253 and 209, respectively), indicating a presumable threat for the terrestrial environment due to the baseline toxicity of these compounds. Countries that reuse sludge for agricultural purposes should include specific EOCs in national monitoring campaigns and study more thoroughly on

  11. New sorbent in the dispersive solid phase extraction step of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe for the extraction of organic contaminants in drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Maristela B R; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G

    2014-04-04

    Recent studies have shown a decrease in the concentration of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) in water after treatment. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that these compounds may adhere to the sludge; however, investigation of these compounds in drinking water treatment sludge has been scarce. The sludge generated by drinking water treatment plants during flocculation and decantation steps should get some special attention not only because it has been classified as non-inert waste but also because it is a very complex matrix, consisting essentially of inorganic (sand, argil and silt) and organic (humic substances) compounds. In the first step of this study, three QuEChERS methods were used, and then compared, for the extraction of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, clomazone and tebuconazole), pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, caffeine, diclofenac and ibuprofen) and PCPs (methylparaben, propylparaben, triclocarban and bisphenol A) from drinking water treatment sludge. Afterwards, the study of different sorbents in the dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) step was evaluated. Finally, a new QuEChERS method employing chitin, obtained from shrimp shell waste, was performed in the d-SPE step. After having been optimized, the method showed limits of quantification (LOQ) between 1 and 50 μg kg(-1) and the analytical curves showed r values higher than 0.98, when liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed. Recoveries ranged between 50 and 120% with RSD≤15%. The matrix effect was evaluated and compensated with matrix-matched calibration. The method was applied to drinking water treatment sludge samples and methylparaben and tebuconazole were found in concentration

  12. Biochemical stability of sewage sludge chars and their impact on soil organic matter of a Mediterranean Cambisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Marina; María De la Rosa, José; Aragón, Carlos; Kern, Jürgen; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of sewage sludge (SS) into char achieves sludge hygienisation, which is necessary prior its application into agricultural soils. The pyrolysis of SS increases its stability in a degree which depends on the thermal treatment used. Thus, chars produced by using hydrothermal carbonization are typically more stable than normal soil organic matter (SOM), but less stable than chars from dry pyrolysis (Libra et al., 2011). Addition of highly-recalcitrant SS-chars to soil will likely increase its carbon sequestration potential; however the fertilizing properties of SS may be compromised due to its alteration during the pyrolysis. The main goal of this work was to investigate the biochemical recalcitrance of two 13C-enriched SS-chars once applied in a Mediterranean Cambisol as well as to evaluate their impact on the SOM quality and carbon stability. Thus, we studied the distribution of 13C between plants and soil after the addition of the 13C-enriched chars (2 atm%) to the soil. Therefore, we performed a greenhouse incubation experiment, using a Mediterranean Cambisol as matrix and tested the following treatments: control (soil alone), raw SS, SS-hydrochar, SS-pyrochar. The SS was produced in a pilot-scale waste-water plant and enriched with 13C by the addition of 13C-glucose during the treatment. The amendment was only applied to the upper 2 cm of the soil matrix where it accounted for 5% of its dry weight. Per pot, 25 seeds of Lolium perenne were sowed and incubated under controlled conditions. The biomass production as well as the concentration of 13C in leaves and roots was determined after 1, 2 and 5 months. The partitioning of the 13C between soil and plant and its transformation into bioavailable forms were monitored by stable isotopic mass spectrometry. The 13C-enrichment of the chars allowed the use of solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy as a means for the detection of chemical alterations of the chars during their aging. Libra J., Ro K., Kammann C

  13. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  14. Activated sludge process simulator ASP-Sim, Part-2: Bod removal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The software was validated by comparing its output with design problems in literature. The memory space requirement for the simulator is 392kb with an average execution time per option of about 1.0s. Results obtained proves Visual Basic 6.0 program (ASP-SIM) a useful tool for wastewater treatment plant design and ...

  15. Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk

    2012-07-06

    In this thesis we have extended the methods for microscopic charge-transport simulations for organic semiconductors, where weak intermolecular interactions lead to spatially localized charge carriers, and the charge transport occurs as an activated hopping process between diabatic states. In addition to weak electronic couplings between these states, different electrostatic environments in the organic material lead to a broadening of the density of states for the charge energies which limits carrier mobilities. The contributions to the method development include (i) the derivation of a bimolecular charge-transfer rate, (ii) the efficient evaluation of intermolecular (outer-sphere) reorganization energies, (iii) the investigation of effects of conformational disorder on intramolecular reorganization energies or internal site energies and (iv) the inclusion of self-consistent polarization interactions for calculation of charge energies. These methods were applied to study charge transport in amorphous phases of small molecules used in the emission layer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). When bulky substituents are attached to an aromatic core in order to adjust energy levels or prevent crystallization, a small amount of delocalization of the frontier orbital to the substituents can increase electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. This leads to improved charge-transfer rates and, hence, larger charge-mobility. We therefore suggest using the mesomeric effect (as opposed to the inductive effect) when attaching substituents to aromatic cores, which is necessary for example in deep blue OLEDs, where the energy levels of a host molecule have to be adjusted to those of the emitter. Furthermore, the energy landscape for charges in an amorphous phase cannot be predicted by mesoscopic models because they approximate the realistic morphology by a lattice and represent molecular charge distributions in a multipole expansion. The microscopic approach shows that

  16. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  17. Comparison of two treatments for the removal of selected organic micropollutants and bulk organic matter: conventional activated sludge followed by ultrafiltration versus membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, E; Ernst, M; Godehardt, M; Hein, A; Herr, J; Kazner, C; Melin, T; Cikurel, H; Aharoni, A; Messalem, R; Brenner, A; Jekel, M

    2011-01-01

    The potential of membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems to remove organic micropollutants was investigated at different scales, operational conditions, and locations. The effluent quality of the MBR system was compared with that of a plant combining conventional activated sludge (CAS) followed by ultrafiltration (UF). The MBR and CAS-UF systems were operated and tested in parallel. An MBR pilot plant in Israel was operated for over a year at a mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) range of 2.8-10.6 g/L. The MBR achieved removal rates comparable to those of a CAS-UF plant at the Tel-Aviv wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for macrolide antibiotics such as roxythromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin and slightly higher removal rates than the CAS-UF for sulfonamides. A laboratory scale MBR unit in Berlin - at an MLSS of 6-9 g/L - showed better removal rates for macrolide antibiotics, trimethoprim, and 5-tolyltriazole compared to the CAS process of the Ruhleben sewage treatment plant (STP) in Berlin when both were fed with identical quality raw wastewater. The Berlin CAS exhibited significantly better benzotriazole removal and slightly better sulfamethoxazole and 4-tolyltriazole removal than its MBR counterpart. Pilot MBR tests (MLSS of 12 g/L) in Aachen, Germany, showed that operating flux significantly affected the resulting membrane fouling rate, but the removal rates of dissolved organic matter and of bisphenol A were not affected.

  18. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  19. [Using Excess Activated Sludge Treated 4-Chlorophenol Contained Waste Water to Cultivate Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiu-rong; Yan, Long; He, Yi-xuan; Shi, Zhen-dong

    2015-04-01

    Using different rations of sludge extracts and supernate from 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) simulated wastewater's excess sludge after centrifugation to cultivate the Chlorella vulgaris to achieve the goal of excess sludge utilization together with chlorella cultivating. The experiments were performed in 500 mL flasks with different rations of sludge extracts & BG-11 and supernate & BG-11 in a light growth chamber respectively. Number of algal cells, Chlorophyll, enzyme activity, oil and water total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), toxicity index were investigated. Result showed that the nutrition supplies and toxicity in the excess sludge were removed efficiently via Chlorella vulgaris, the removal rates of TN and TP were at least 40% and 90% respectively; After 10 days cultivation, the density growth of 50% sludge extracts was 20 times higher of the beginning while its chlorophyll content was lower than that of the blank group. Sludge extracts could promote the proliferation of algae, but were not conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll. The quantity of SOD in per cell showed Chlorella vulgaris gave a positive response via stimulation from toxicant in sludge extracts and supernate. The best time for collecting chlorella vulgaris was the fifth day of cultivation, taking neutral oil accumulation as the evaluating indicator for its utilization combined with the removal of supplies and toxicity.

  20. Microbial Communities and Their Performances in Anaerobic Hybrid Sludge Bed-Fixed Film Reactor for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent under Various Organic Pollutant Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanlayanee Meesap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic hybrid reactor consisting of sludge and packed zones was operated with organic pollutant loading rates from 6.2 to 8.2 g COD/L day, composed mainly of suspended solids (SS and oil and grease (O&G concentrations between 5.2 to 10.2 and 0.9 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. The overall process performance in terms of chemical oxygen demands (COD, SS, and O&G removals was 73, 63, and 56%, respectively. When the organic pollutant concentrations were increased, the resultant methane potentials were higher, and the methane yield increased to 0.30 L CH4/g CODremoved. It was observed these effects on the microbial population and activity in the sludge and packed zones. The eubacterial population and activity in the sludge zone increased to 6.4 × 109 copies rDNA/g VSS and 1.65 g COD/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the packed zone were lower. The predominant hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria were Pseudomonas, Clostridium, and Bacteroidetes. In addition, the archaeal population and activity in the packed zone were increased from to 9.1 × 107 copies rDNA/g VSS and 0.34 g COD-CH4/g VSS day, respectively, whereas those in the sludge zone were not much changed. The most represented species of methanogens were the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium sp., and the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiaceae.

  1. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  2. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  3. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  4. Reclamation of cadmium-contaminated soil using dissolved organic matter solution originating from wine-processing waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Chung, E-mail: ccliu@niu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China); Chen, Guan-Bu [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, Ilan, 260, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Increases in acidity, washing frequency, and operational temperature enhance the Cd removal. ► Approximately 80% of Cd can be removed from the soil by dissolved organic matter (DOM) washing. ► The DOM washing can moderate the loss of soil fertility. ► The DOM washing will have a great improvement if we employ NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and Mg(OH){sub 2} to prepare the DOM solution together. -- Abstract: Soil washing using an acid solution is a common practice for removing heavy metals from contaminated soil in Taiwan. However, serious loss of nutrients from soil is a major drawback of the washing. Distillery sludge can be used to prepare a dissolved organic matter (DOM) solution by extracting its organic constituents with alkaline solutions. This study employed DOM solutions to remediate Cd-contaminated soil (with concentrations up to 21.5 mg kg{sup −1}) and determine the factors affecting removal of Cd, such as pH, initial concentration of DOM solution, temperature, and washing frequency. When washing with pH 3.0 and 1250 mg L{sup −1} DOM solution, about 80% and 81% of Cd were removed from the topsoil at 27 °C and subsoil at 40 °C, respectively. To summarize the changes in fertility during DOM washing with various pH solutions: the increase in organic matter content ranged from 7.7% to 23.7%; cation exchange capacity (CEC) ranged from 4.6% to 13.9%; available ammonium (N-NH{sub 4}) content ranged from 39.4% to 2175%; and available phosphorus content ranged from 34.5% to 182%. Exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg remained in the topsoil after DOM washing, with concentrations of 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 times higher than those treated with HCl solution at the same pH, respectively.

  5. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  6. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  7. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  8. Distribuição ambiental de poluentes orgânicos encontrados em lodos de esgoto Environmental distribution of the organic contaminants found in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Costa Paraíba

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma modelagem da distribuição ambiental de vinte e nove poluentes orgânicos encontrados em amostras de lodos de esgoto das estações de tratamento de esgoto de Barueri e Suzano, SP. Lodos de esgoto são misturas de produtos orgânicos e inorgânicos gerados nos processos primários e secundários de tratamento que, mediante adequado controle de qualidade, podem ser reutilizados como fertilizantes agrícolas. O modelo de fugacidade nível I foi aplicado a um sistema compartimental hipotético constituído de ar, água, solo, sedimento, biota aquática e plantas. Foi utilizada a massa molecular, a pressão de vapor, a solubilidade em água, a constante de Henry, o coeficiente de partição octanol-água e a meia-vida no solo de cada um dos poluentes. O coeficiente de sorção no solo, os fatores de bioconcentração em organismos aquáticos, raízes e na seiva do xilema de plantas foram calculados por meio de expressões que correlacionam cada um desses parâmetros com o coeficiente de partição octanol-água do poluente. Foram estimados e usados os coeficientes de partição folha-ar e ar-água e o índice GUS de cada poluente. A modelagem e os cálculos dos fatores de bioconcentração e dos coeficientes de partição revelam os compartimentos preferenciais dos poluentes.The objective of this work was to present a model of environmental distribution of twenty-nine organic contaminants found in samples of sewage sludge of the sewage treatment plant of Barueri and Suzano SP, Brazil. Sewage sludge is a mixture of organic and inorganic products generated in primary and secondary processes of treatment that can be reused as fertilizer by the agriculture. The modeling of the contaminants distribution was accomplished by means of the level I fugacity model applied to a hypothetical compartmental system constituted by air, water, soil, sediment, aquatic biota and plants. The molecular weight, vapor pressure

  9. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikö Szabó

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the factors influencing community assembly in granular sludge, such as the effects of reactor operation strategies and influent wastewater composition. Here, we analyze the development of the microbiomes in parallel laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactors operated at low (0.9 kg m-3d-1, moderate (1.9 kg m-3d-1 and high (3.7 kg m-3d-1 organic loading rates (OLRs and the same ammonium loading rate (0.2 kg NH4-N m-3d-1 for 84 days. Complete removal of organic carbon and ammonium was achieved in all three reactors after start-up, while the nitrogen removal (denitrification efficiency increased with the OLR: 0% at low, 38% at moderate, and 66% at high loading rate. The bacterial communities at different loading rates diverged rapidly after start-up and showed less than 50% similarity after 6 days, and below 40% similarity after 84 days. The three reactor microbiomes were dominated by different genera (mainly Meganema, Thauera, Paracoccus, and Zoogloea, but these genera have similar ecosystem functions of EPS production, denitrification and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA storage. Many less abundant but persistent taxa were also detected within these functional groups. The bacterial communities were functionally redundant irrespective of the loading rate applied. At steady-state reactor operation, the identity of the core community members was rather stable, but their relative abundances changed considerably over time. Furthermore, nitrifying bacteria were low in relative abundance and diversity in all reactors, despite their large contribution to nitrogen turnover. The results suggest that the OLR has

  10. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  11. Cost estimation and economical evaluation of three configurations of activated sludge process for a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarinejad, Shahryar

    2017-09-01

    The activated sludge (AS) process is a type of suspended growth biological wastewater treatment that is used for treating both municipal sewage and a variety of industrial wastewaters. Economical modeling and cost estimation of activated sludge processes are crucial for designing, construction, and forecasting future economical requirements of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, three configurations containing conventional activated sludge (CAS), extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS), and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes for a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran city were proposed and the total project construction, operation labor, maintenance, material, chemical, energy and amortization costs of these WWTPs were calculated and compared. Besides, effect of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) amounts on costs of WWTPs was investigated. Results demonstrated that increase of MLSS decreases the total project construction, material and amortization costs of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS. In addition, increase of this value increases the total operation, maintenance and energy costs, but does not affect chemical cost of WWTPs containing EAAS and CAS.

  12. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Mª Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of phytoproductivity data in the choice of native plant species to restore a degraded coal mining site amended with a stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Toumi, Hela; Böhm, Renata F S; Engel, Fernanda; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Rörig, Leonardo R; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-11-01

    Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

  15. Generation of dissolved organic matter and byproducts from activated sludge during contact with sodium hypochlorite and its implications to on-line chemical cleaning in MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiwei; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Ng, Wun Jern; Liu, Yu

    2016-11-01

    On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploiting the energy potential of waste activated sludge with MicroSludge[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.; Laliberte, S. [Paradigm Environmental Technologies, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Nemeth, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    When waste activated sludge (WAS) is efficiently converted to biogas through anaerobic digestion, the energy potential and economic value of WAS can be exploited. This paper discussed the chemical and pressure pre-treatment process using MicroSludge. MicroSludge uses alkaline pre-treatment to weaken cell membranes and a high-pressure homogenizer to liquefy the cells, enabling the anaerobic digester to work at a higher rate and more efficiently, destroying pathogens and generating less biosolids for disposal, with corresponding higher volumes of methane from which to generate added electrical power and/or produce added heat. MicroSludge was demonstrated at the Chilliwack waste water treatment plant (WWTP), located 115 km east of Vancouver. The paper provided a description of the Chilliwack WWTP and discussed the application of MicroSludge at a full-scale prototype plant. The MicroSludge plant was capable of pre-treating all of the waste secondary sludge generated at the Chilliwack WWTP prior to anaerobic digestion. The paper also discussed digester hydraulic retention time; scanning electron microscope images; temperature; pH; mass loading of primary sludge and waste activated sludge; total volatile solids concentrations; and digester gas composition. Operating and maintenance costs were also outlined along with electrical power costs, maintenance costs and chemical costs. Last, the paper presented the energy benefits for WWTPs when using MicroSludge. It was concluded that the economic benefits of MicroSludge are greater for plants with higher biosolids disposal costs and higher electrical utility costs. 6 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  18. Research Regarding the Accumulation in Soybeans of Heavy Metals from Anaerobic Composted Sewage Sludge Used as Organic Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment stations can often be find high levels of Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn andCd. Aerobic or anaerobic composting of this sewage sludge does not eliminate the possibility of bioaccumulation ofthese metals in plants through metabolic processes of phytoextraction type. Researches regarding the accumulationdegree of heavy metals through phytoextraction processes were performed on soybean plants (Glycine max, Condorvariety. Plants were fertilized with anaerobic composted sludge in amounts of 25 t of / ha, 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha.The chemical analysis was done on an average sample of three repetitions. Metal concentration in soybeans wasanalyzed by reporting to the maximum allowance level for sheep, considered one of the most sensitive farm speciesto heavy metal toxicity. Our results showed a higher level than normal with 5.8 mg / kg only in the case of copperions. Zn, Pb, Mn and Cd concentration in soybeans was below the maximum allowance limits set by the rules offeeding farm animals. Also, heavy metal content of soybeans was not affected by the amount of composted sludgeused as fertilizer.

  19. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  20. Comment on "Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction" [Water Research 87, 416-423].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Heribert; Markt, Rudolf

    2016-05-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste and sewage sludge enhances biogas production and reduces the mass of remaining solids. This phenomenon of enhanced organic matter decomposition by adding labile substrate is known from other habitats like soils and sediments where it is called priming effect. It is thus suggested to adopt the term priming effect also in environmental biotechnology, and in particular for biomethanisation of wastewater sludges by the addition of energy-rich co-substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  2. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn 4 (OH) 2 Si 2 O 7 .H 2 O, and willemite - Zn 2 SiO 4 ). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f r = 2.082 days; f r = 0.09 days; f r = 0.37 days; f r = 0.332 days ad f r = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f r = 146.95 days; f r = 63 days; f r = 86.64 days; f r = 79.66 days and f r = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in the human body and, therefore, a better evaluation of the worker’s risk to

  4. The visual simulators for architecture and computer organization learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Boško; Grbanović Nenad; Đorđević Jovan

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a method of an effective distance learning of architecture and computer organization. The proposed method is based on a software system that is possible to be applied in any course in this field. Within this system students are enabled to observe simulation of already created computer systems. The system provides creation and simulation of switch systems, too.

  5. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  6. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  7. Multi-agent simulation of purchasing activities in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; de Boer, L.; Sitar-Pop, C.E.; Yucesan, E.; Chen, C.H.; Snowdon, J.L.; Charnes, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-agent simulation model to investigate purchasing activities in an organizational environment. The starting point is the observation that the majority of purchasing activities in organizations are usually performed without any involvement of the organization's

  8. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic polymer to evaluate the effect of pre-chlorination on motile Ceratium hirundinella cells during ... When organic material is released from algal cells as a result of physical-chemical impacts on the cells, it may result in tasteand odour-related problems or the ...

  9. Sewage sludge as a biomass resource for the production of energy: Overview and assessment of the various options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of municipal wastewater results worldwide in the production of large amounts of sewage sludge. The major part of the dry matter content of this sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary (microbiological) sludge. The sludge also

  10. Sewage sludge used as organic manure in Moroccan sunflower culture: Effects on certain soil properties, growth and yield components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Bourioug; Mounia, Krouna; Aziz, Abouabdillah; Ahmed, Harraq; Rachid, Bouabid; Lotfi, Aleya

    2018-06-15

    The wastewater treatment and sludge production sectors in Morocco are recent. Considered as waste, no management strategy for sewage sludge (SS) has been implemented. Thus, its disposal definitely represents a major environmental problem since sludge is either incinerated, used as landfill or simply deposited near wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dehydrated SS on certain soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Mineral nitrogen, available phosphate P 2 O 5 , and soluble potassium K 2 O), and also on growth and yield components of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). An experiment was conducted using six treatment rates (0; 0 + NPK; 15; 30; 60 and 120 t ha -1 ). The results showed that soil pH was significantly affected by SS, becoming less alkaline compared to the control, while electrical conductivity increased significantly when the applied doses were above 30 t ha -1 . Also, a significant enrichment in mineral N and available phosphorus was detected in amended soil. However, no differences were found between pots having received the mineral fertilization and the SS at 15 t ha -1 . Stem height growth of the sunflower seedlings receiving SS increased significantly compared to the two controls. For both the aerial and root parts, significant increases in dry biomass accumulation were observed compared to the unamended plants. Net CO 2 assimilation (A n ) increased, while stomatal conductance (g sw ) and transpiration rates (T r ) decreased with increasing SS rates. SS application at 15 t ha -1 presented similar values of the yield components compared to plants fertilized chemically. However, grain yield (in quintals ha -1 ) was noted to be 2.4, 5 and 8 times higher in treatments receiving SS respectively at the rate of 30, 60 and 120 t ha -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  12. Hydrothermal processing of inorganic components of Hanford tank sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborg, R.; Buelow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Anderson, G.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.; Wilmanns, E.; Knutsen, K.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrothermal Processing (HTP) is an attractive approach for the treatment of Hanford tank sludge. Hydrothermal Processing refers to a waste treatment technique in which an aqueous waste stream is fed through a chemical reactor at elevated temperatures and pressures to effect desired chemical transformations and separations. Transformations such as organic and nitrate destruction and sludge reformulation have been demonstrated at pilot scale using simulants of Hanford tank wastes. At sufficiently high temperatures and pressures organics and nitrates are destroyed in seconds, producing primarily simple products such as CO 3 2- , H 2 O, N 2 , N 2 O and OH - , and sludges are reduced in volume and reformulated as rapid settling oxides amenable to downstream separation, or in some cases reformulated as soluble products. This report describes the hydrothermal dissolution of chromium and chromium oxide; the hydrothermal oxidation of chromium with nitrate; hydrothermal dissolution of aluminum-bearing sludges; the solubility of aluminum compounds in caustic hydrothermal media; experimental techniques for the study of solubility and phase behavior; optical cell studies of basic aluminate solution solubilities; and high temperature, low density salt solubility in the packed-bed flow apparatus

  13. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated

  14. Improve biogas production from low-organic-content sludge through high-solids anaerobic co-digestion with food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanyang; Li, Huan; Zhang, Yuyao; Liu, Can

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste was tested at two different total solid (TS) concentrations. In the low-solids group with TS 4.8%, the biogas production increased linearly as the ratio of food waste in substrate increased from 0 to 100%, but no synergetic effect was found between the two substrates. Moreover, the additive food waste resulted in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and decelerated biogas production. Thus, the blend ratio of food waste should be lower than 50%. While in the high-solids group with TS 14%, the weak alkaline environment with pH 7.5-8.5 avoided excessive acidification but high concentration of free ammonia was a potential risk. However, good synergetic effect was found between the two substrates because the added food waste improved mass transfer in sludge cake. Thus, 50% was recommended as the optimum ratio of food waste in substrate because of the best synergetic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  16. Effects of combustion temperature on air emissions and support fuel consumption in full scale fluidized bed sludge incineration: with particular focus on nitrogen oxides and total organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit

    2018-04-01

    This article describes a pilot test at a sewage sludge incineration plant and shows its results considering the impacts of reducing the minimum combustion temperature from 850°C to 800°C. The lowering leads to an actual reduction of the average combustion temperature by 25 K and a significant reduction in the fuel oil consumption for support firing. The test shall be used for providing evidence that the changed combustion conditions do not result in higher air pollutant emissions. The analysis focusses on the effects of the combustion temperature on nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and total organic carbon emissions. The evaluation of all continuously monitored emissions shows reduced emission levels compared to the previous years, especially for NO x .

  17. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    reprocessing plants in Europe, Japan, and the USA. Ash and sludge containing uranium compounds also have been dissolved in reprocessing or plutonium scrap recovery plants, but only a limited amount of information is available on how the ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum compounds and silicates in the sand will behave during nitric acid dissolution. Laboratory work with simulants and hot cell work with actual K Basin sludge is in progress to obtain data in these areas

  18. Removal of the Inert Organic Fraction of Municipal Wastewater Using the Integrated Activated Sludge/Trickling Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehraban sadeghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of phenol and chlorinated compounds, fatty acids, tannin, lignin, and their by-products into receptive waters poses serious hazards for the aquatic life. In this study, the efficiency of a tow-step process of activated sludge-trickling filter (AS/TF in the removal of inert chemical materials that defy conventional treatment processes was investigated. For this purpose, an integrated activated sludge process (industrial scale was used sequentially with a trickling filter (pilot scale. Inside a tank with an effective volume of 6.87 m3 was installed 5.78 m3 of polypropylene 2HX media with a specific area of 240 m2/m3. The hydraulic loading rate (HLR of the trickling filter during the startup period (90 days was 3.6 m3/h which was raised to 3.6-6 m3/h in the operation period (120 days, with the best effluent quality achieved at HLR=5.4 m3/h. For the purposes of the experiments in this study, four reactors, each 1256 cm3 in volume, were fed the WWTP effluent and concurrently a glucose substrate containing a COD content equal to that fed to the four reactors was fed into two identical reactors; all the reactors were subsequently run for 480 h in aerobic conditions. Nutrients, pH, and DO (as environmental control indicators as well as soluble and total COD were measured twice daily. The effluent values of soluble inert materials (SI, total soluble COD (STO, degradable suspended materials (XSO, degradable COD (CSO, refractory suspended materials (XI, and degradable soluble materials (SSO for AS were calculated as 40, 227, 94, 281, 251, and 187, respectively, while the same parameters for the AS/TF were 20, 227, 104, 311, 241, and 207 mg/l, respectively. The results showed that the activated sludge process when combined with the trickling filter has a twofold capability, compared to when used alone, in removing inert COD. It was also shown that treatment levels in conventional WWTPs can be improved by integrating conventional treatment

  19. Teaching Computer Organization and Architecture Using Simulation and FPGA Applications

    OpenAIRE

    D. K.M. Al-Aubidy

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design concepts and realization of incorporating micro-operation simulation and FPGA implementation into a teaching tool for computer organization and architecture. This teaching tool helps computer engineering and computer science students to be familiarized practically with computer organization and architecture through the development of their own instruction set, computer programming and interfacing experiments. A two-pass assembler has been designed and implemente...

  20. Effect of biodegradation on the consolidation properties of a dewatered municipal sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2008-01-01

    The effect of biodegradation on the consolidation characteristics of an anaerobically digested, dewatered municipal sewage sludge was studied. Maintained-load oedometer consolidation tests that included measurement of the pore fluid pressure response were conducted on moderately degraded sludge material and saturated bulk samples that had been stored under static conditions and allowed to anaerobically biodegrade further (simulating what would happen in an actual sewage sludge monofill or lagoon condition). Strongly degraded sludge material was produced after a storage period of 13 years at ambient temperatures of 5-15 degrees C, with the total volatile solids reducing from initially 70% to 55%. The sludge materials were highly compressible, although impermeable for practical purposes. Primary consolidation generally occurred very slowly, which was attributed to the microstructure of the solid phase, the composition and viscosity of the pore fluid, ongoing biodegradation and the high organic contents. The coefficient of primary consolidation values decreased from initially about 0.35m2/yr to 0.003-0.03m2/yr with increasing effective stress (sigmav'=3-100kPa). Initially, the strongly degraded sludge material was slightly more permeable, although both the moderately and strongly degraded materials became impermeable for practical purposes (k=10(-9)-10(-12)m/s) below about 650% and 450% water contents, respectively. Secondary compression became more dominant with increasing effective stress with a mean secondary compression index (Calphae) value of 0.9 measured for both the moderately and strongly degraded materials.

  1. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  3. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  4. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  5. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon [HaJI Co., Ltd., Radiation Eng. Center, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock [KORAD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  6. Beyond "The Total Organization": A Graduate-Level Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kathleen R.; Goldgehn, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This simulation is designed to help students understand the complexity of organizational life and learn how to navigate a work world of chaos, conflict, and uncertainty. This adaptation and update of an exercise by Cohen, Fink, Gadon, and Willits has been a successful addition to MBA and EMBA courses. The participants must self-organize, choose…

  7. Adsorption-desorption of dimethenamid and fenarimol onto three agricultural soils as affected by treated wastewater and fresh sewage sludge-derived dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liébana, José Antonio; Peña, Aránzazu

    2018-07-01

    The use of treated wastewaters (TWW) in agriculture is widening in areas suffering drought, such as southern Europe, to preserve freshwater supply for human consumption. The composition of TWW, especially concerning their organic carbon (OC) content, has been demonstrated to influence the processes governing the behavior of non-ionic pesticides in soils. Three OC-poor agricultural soils (SV, RM1 and RM3) from the province of Granada (Spain) were chosen for the assessment of the adsorption and desorption of the herbicide dimethenamid (DIM) and the fungicide fenarimol (FEN). TWW and sewage sludge extracts at different dissolved OC (DOC) concentrations (30, 90 and 300 mg L -1 ) were considered to evaluate their effect on pesticide adsorption-desorption. As expected by their properties, DIM and FEN were weakly and moderately adsorbed to the soils, respectively. Soil OC seemed to be the major factor controlling FEN adsorption, whereas the mineral fraction played a key role in DIM adsorption, especially in RM1 with high clay:OC ratio. Although TWW did not significantly modify the adsorption of pesticides, it enhanced DIM desorption from the three soils. Adsorption of FEN to SV and RM3 was directly related to the concentration of DOC, possibly due to co-sorption phenomena. Hysteretic desorption was found in all cases, indicating partially reversible adsorption. While FEN desorption was not altered by the solutions, the use of sludge extracts at the highest DOC concentration (300 mg L -1 ) enhanced DIM desorption as occurred with TWW. Interactions with DOC in solution seemed to predominate for this less hydrophobic compound, thus increasing the risk of natural waters contamination if TWW will be used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular dynamic simulations of the sputtering of multilayer organic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Postawa, Z; Piaskowy, J; Krantzman, K; Winograd, N; Garrison, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sputtering of organic overlayers has been modeled using molecular dynamics computer simulations. The investigated systems are composed of benzene molecules condensed into one, two and three layers on an Ag left brace 1 1 1 right brace surface. The formed organic overlayers were bombarded with 4 keV Ar projectiles at normal incidence. The development of the collision cascade in the organic overlayer was investigated. The sputtering yield, mass, internal and kinetic energy distributions of ejected particles have been analyzed as a function of the thickness of the organic layer. The results show that all emission characteristics are sensitive to the variation of layer thickness. Although most of the ejected intact benzene molecules originate from the topmost layer, the emission of particles located initially in second and third layers is significant. The analysis indicates that the metallic substrate plays a dominant role in the ejection of intact organic molecules.

  9. Using EDUCache Simulator for the Computer Architecture and Organization Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasko Ristov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The computer architecture and organization course is essential in all computer science and engineering programs, and the most selected and liked elective course for related engineering disciplines. However, the attractiveness brings a new challenge, it requires a lot of effort by the instructor, to explain rather complicated concepts to beginners or to those who study related disciplines. The usage of visual simulators can improve both the teaching and learning processes. The overall goal is twofold: 1~to enable a visual environment to explain the basic concepts and 2~to increase the student's willingness and ability to learn the material.A lot of visual simulators have been used for the computer architecture and organization course. However, due to the lack of visual simulators for simulation of the cache memory concepts, we have developed a new visual simulator EDUCache simulator. In this paper we present that it can be effectively and efficiently used as a supporting tool in the learning process of modern multi-layer, multi-cache and multi-core multi-processors.EDUCache's features enable an environment for performance evaluation and engineering of software systems, i.e. the students will also understand the importance of computer architecture building parts and hopefully, will increase their curiosity for hardware courses in general.

  10. Characterization of sludge properties for sewage treatment in a practical-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor: oxygen consumption and removal of organic matter, ammonium, and sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Naoki; Hatamoto, Masashi; Ali, Muntjeer; Jayaswal, Komal; Iguchi, Akinori; Okubo, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Kubota, Kengo; Tagawa, Tadashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of sludge retained in a down-flow hanging sponge reactor were investigated to provide a better understanding of the sewage treatment process in the reactor. The organic removal and sulfur oxidation conditions were found to differ between the first layer and the following three layers. It was found that 63% and 59% of the organic matter was removed in the first layer, even though the hydraulic retention time was only 0.2 h. It is thought that the organic removal resulted from aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation on the sponge medium. The sulfate concentration increased 1.5-1.9-fold in the first layer, with almost no subsequent change in the second to fourth layers. It was shown that oxidation of sulfide in the influent was completed in the first layer. The result of the oxygen uptake rate test with an ammonium nitrogen substrate suggested that the ammonium oxidation rate was affected by the condition of dissolved oxygen (DO) or oxidation-reduction potential (ORP).

  11. Effect of VS organic loads and buckwheat husk on methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Mahmoud; Andres, Yaves; Blel, Walid; Gad, Ali; Ahmed, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion of PS, WS, and BH was conducted to evaluate different VS organic loads for an optimal methane production. • Co-digestion of PS and WS was optimized using buckwheat husk as a new waste material. • Combination of PS, WS, and BH produced higher methane yields than the individual digestion of PS, WS, and BH. • The highest CMYs and VS removal rate were achieved at C/N ratios of 10 and 7.50 gVS/L, respectively. • The purification process increased the methane content from 58.91–63.05% to 92.46–95.30%. - Abstract: An environmentally acceptable disposal of sewage sludge and agro-wastes presents an urgent problem facing many countries. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a robust and suitable technique for producing renewable energy from wastes. This study aims to improve methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge (PS) and wheat straw (WS) depending on their volatile solids (VS) organic load and by adding a proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) based on their carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Mesophilic anaerobic batch tests were carried out in 500-mL digesters. Individual and six mixtures of PS and WS at different VS organic loads were anaerobically digested to optimize VS load for the greatest gas production. The highest cumulative methane yield (CMYs) occurred with combined substrates at a VS load of 7.50 gVS/L. In general, the optimized organic loads that gave the highest cumulative biogas yield (CBYs) and CMYs were in the range of 6–8 gVS/L. In addition, AD of individual substrates of PS, WS, and BH and of their mixture at different C/N ratios was investigated regarding to the methane yields. Multi-component substrates produced the greatest CMY at a C/N ratio of 10.07. The CMYs was increased by 39.26% when the proposed waste material of buckwheat husk (BH) was added to the different mixtures of PS and WS compared to the co-digestion of PS and WS. Experimental results were approved using statistical

  12. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  13. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  14. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  15. CFD analysis of sludge accumulation and hydraulic performance of a waste stabilization pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Andres; Sanchez, Esteban; Durazno, Galo; Vesvikar, Mehul; Nopens, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Sludge management in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) is essential for safeguarding the system performance. Sludge accumulation patterns in WSPs are strongly influenced by the pond hydrodynamics. CFD modeling was applied to study the relation between velocity profiles and sludge deposition during 10 years of operation of the Ucubamba WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). One tracer experiment was performed and three sludge accumulation scenarios based on bathymetric surveys were simulated. A residence time distribution (RTD) analysis illustrated the decrease of residence times due to sludge deposition. Sludge accumulation rates were calculated. The influence of flow pattern on the sludge deposition was studied, enabling better planning of future pond operation and desludging.

  16. Organic analyses of an actual and simulated mixed waste. Hanford's organic complexant waste revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Osborn, B.C.; Polach, K.J.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalysis of the organics in a mixed waste, an organic complexant waste, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, has yielded an 80.4% accounting of the waste's total organic content. In addition to several complexing and chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), 38 chelator/complexor fragments have been identified, compared to only 11 in the original analysis, all presumably formed via organic degradation. Moreover, a mis identification, methanetricarboxylic acid, has been re-identified as the chelator fragment N-(methylamine)imino-diacetic acid (MAIDA). A nonradioactive simulant of the actual waste, containing the parent organics (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), was formulated and stored in the dark at ambient temperature for 90 days. Twenty chelator and complexor fragments were identified in the simulant, along with several carboxylic acids, confirming that myriad chelator and complexor fragments are formed via degradation of the parent organics. Moreover, their abundance in the simulant (60.9% of the organics identified) argues that the harsh chemistries of mixed wastes like Hanford's organic degradation, even in the absence of radiation. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evren Ersahin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE⋅day; XSS-OFMSW=50 g TS/PE⋅day.

  18. Time-dependent simulation of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, M J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods to simulate the behavior of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed in the past. In this paper, we develop a previous method, based on the master equation, in order to allow the simulation of time-dependent behavior and transient states. The calculation algorithm of the program that we have written is described. The time-dependent behaviors of two simple monolayer devices and of a more complicated three-layer device were simulated by means of this program, and the results are discussed. The results show that the turn-off speed of an OLED might be very slow, especially in the case of a multilayer device. This behavior is related to the low mobility of the organic material in weak electric fields. An interesting feature of the time behavior is pointed out, whereby the recombination rate may become considerably larger after the falling edge of an applied voltage pulse. Moreover, the validity of the transient electro-luminescent method for measuring carrier mobility in organic material has been examined by means of simulation. The results show that there is some inconsistency especially in high electric fields

  19. Structured model of bacterial growth and tests with activated sludge in a one-stage and two-stage chemostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, A.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic model for a growing culture of micro-organisms was developed that correlated the biochemical structure of cells with quantitative physiological behaviour. The three-compartment model was adequate for simulation of continuous, batch and transient experiments with activated sludge fed on

  20. Modification of the RothC model to simulate soil C mineralization of exogenous organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondini, Claudio; Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sinicco, Tania; Fornasier, Flavio; Galvez, Antonia; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel

    2017-07-01

    The development of soil organic C (SOC) models capable of producing accurate predictions for the long-term decomposition of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in soils is important for the effective management of organic amendments. However, reliable C modeling in amended soils requires specific optimization of current C models to take into account the high variability in EOM origin and properties. The aim of this work was to improve the prediction of C mineralization rates in amended soils by modifying the RothC model to encompass a better description of EOM quality. The standard RothC model, involving C input to the soil only as decomposable (DPM) or resistant (RPM) organic material, was modified by introducing additional pools of decomposable (DEOM), resistant (REOM) and humified (HEOM) EOM. The partitioning factors and decomposition rates of the additional EOM pools were estimated by model fitting to the respiratory curves of amended soils. For this task, 30 EOMs from 8 contrasting groups (compost, anaerobic digestates, sewage sludge, agro-industrial waste, crop residues, bioenergy by-products, animal residues and meat and bone meals) were added to 10 soils and incubated under different conditions. The modified RothC model was fitted to C mineralization curves in amended soils with great accuracy (mean correlation coefficient 0.995). In contrast to the standard model, the EOM-optimized RothC was able to better accommodate the large variability in EOM source and composition, as indicated by the decrease in the root mean square error of the simulations for different EOMs (from 29.9 to 3.7 % and 20.0 to 2.5 % for soils amended with bioethanol residue and household waste compost, respectively). The average decomposition rates for DEOM and REOM pools were 89 and 0.4 yr-1, higher than the standard model coefficients for DPM (10 yr-1) and RPM (0.3 yr-1). The results indicate that the explicit treatment of EOM heterogeneity enhances the model ability to describe amendment

  1. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar; Zainus Salimin; Sugeng Purnomo; Ratiko

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10 -1 Ci/m 3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  2. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  3. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  4. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  5. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  6. Distributions of 14 elements on 63 absorbers from three simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge, acidified supernate, and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 63 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste (HLW). These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with three solutions prepared to simulate acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6), acidified supernate (pH 3.5), and alkaline supernate (pH 13.9) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. To these simulants we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of more than 2500 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate those elements most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of greater interest. On the basis of nearly 7500 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of these absorbers appear suitable for processing HLW. This study supersedes the previous version of LA-12654, in which results attributed to a solution identified as an alkaline supernate simulant were misleading because that solution contained insufficient hydroxide

  7. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Wiedenman, B. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Papathanassiu, A. E. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Kot, W. K. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Pegg, I. L. [Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  8. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. L.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Lambert, D. P.; Crump, S. L.; Fondeur, F. F.; Papathanassiu, A. E.; Kot, W. K.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  9. Planning organization and productivity simulation tool for maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beškovnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a proposed planning organization and productivity simulation tool, with a special emphasis on orientations to the optimization of operations in a maritime container terminal. With the application of an adequate model frame for traffic and technical-technologic forecasting, infrastructure and manpower planning and productivity simulation are possible to measure and increase the productivity in the whole subsystem of the maritime container terminal. The emphasis is mainly put on setting up planning organization in order to collect important information and consequently to raise productivity. This is the main task and goal of terminal management that must develop elements and strategies for optimal operational and financial production. An adequate planning structure must use simplified but efficient simulation tools enabling owners and management to take a vast number of adequate financial and operational decisions. Considering all important and very dynamic facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation tool gives a helpful instrument for checking productivity and its time variation and monitoring a competitive position of a certain maritime terminal with the terminals from the same group. Therefore, the management of every maritime container terminal must establish an appropriate internal planning system as a mechanism for strategic decision support relating basically to the assessment of the best development and optimization solutions for the infrastructure and suprastructure of the entire system.

  10. Sludge granulation in an UASB-moving bed biofilm hybrid reactor for efficient organic matter removal and nitrogen removal in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-moving bed biofilm (MBB) and rope bed biofilm (RBB) reactor was designed for treatment of sewage. Possibility of enhancing granulation in an UASB reactor using moving media to improve sludge retention was explored while treating low-strength wastewater. The presence of moving media in the top portion of the UASB reactor allowed a high solid retention time even at very short hydraulic retention times and helped in maintaining selection pressure in the sludge bed to promote formation of different sized sludge granules with an average settling velocity of 67 m/h. These granules were also found to contain plenty of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) such as 58 mg of polysaccharides (PS) per gram of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and protein (PN) content of 37 mg/g VSS. Enriched sludge of nitrogen-removing bacteria forming a porous biofilm on the media in RBB was also observed in a concentration of around 894 g/m 2 . The nitrogen removing sludge also had a high EPS content of around 22 mg PS/g VSS and 28 mg PN/g VSS. This hybrid UASB-MBB-RBB reactor with enhanced anaerobic granular sludge treating both carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be a sustainable solution for decentralized sewage treatment.

  11. Process for treating waters and sludges and device for developing this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating waters and sludge by means of a ionizing radiation beam, featuring the following stages: settlement of primary waters and sludge, centrifugation of the settled waters and sludge in order to separate the waste waters, the sludge formed of organic compounds charged with heavy metals and the sludge formed of mineral compounds, irradiation, by ionizing radiation beam, of the sludge formed of organic compounds, containing heavy metals, and which are transformed into less toxic and denser recoverable mineral compounds, centrifugation of the irradiated sludge making it possible to obtain clarified waters treated by irradiation, sludge composed of organic compounds freed of their heavy metals and sludge formed of mineral compounds containing heavy metals and which will be easily separated owing to their high density [fr

  12. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian

    and operation of reed beds and the efficiencies are often lower than predicted. One reason is that the sludge quality varies from plant to plant and even within plants from time to time. No good method exists for measuring the sludge quality with respect to drainage characteristics. A new experimental method...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...

  13. Organics on Mars : Laboratory studies of organic material under simulated martian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, Inge Loes ten

    2006-01-01

    The search for organic molecules and traces of life on Mars has been a major topic in planetary science for several decades, and is the future perspective of several missions to Mars. In order to determine where and what those missions should be looking for, laboratory experiments under simulated

  14. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  15. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m 3 d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m 3 d) and 32kgCOD/(m 3 d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rubia, M A; Villamil, J A; Rodriguez, J J; Borja, R; Mohedano, A F

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, the influence of substrate pre-treatment (grinding and sieving) on batch anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was first assessed, then followed by co-digestion experiments with the liquid fraction from hydrothermal carbonization (LFHTC) of dewatered sewage sludge (DSS). The methane yield of batch anaerobic digestion after grinding and sieving (20 mm diameter) the OFMSW was considerably higher (453 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ) than that of untreated OFMSW (285 mL CH 4 STP g -1 VS added ). The modified Gompertz model adequately predicted process performance. The maximum methane production rate, R m , for ground and sieved OFMSW was 2.4 times higher than that of untreated OFMSW. The anaerobic co-digestion of different mixtures of OFMSW and LFHTC of DSS did not increase the methane yield above that of the anaerobic digestion of OFMSW alone, and no synergistic effects were observed. However, the co-digestion of both wastes at a ratio of 75% OFMSW-25% LFHTC provides a practical waste management option. The experimental results were adequately fitted to a first-order kinetic model showing a kinetic constant virtually independent of the percentage of LFHTC (0.52-0.56 d -1 ) and decreasing slightly for 100% LFHTC (0.44 d -1 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of the temperature and of the organic load in two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors treating of swine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichuette, Alexandre Abud; Duda, Rose Maria; Oliveira, Roberto Alves de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: oliveira@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work the acting of two-stage up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB) was evaluated, installed in series, in pilot scale (volumes of 908 L and 350 L, respectively) in the treatment swine wastewater, with concentrations of total solids suspended (TSS) around 10000 mg L{sup -1}. The organic loading rates (OLR) applied in first UASB were of 5,2 and of 8,6 g total COD (Ld){sup -1}. The medium efficiencies of removal of the chemical demand of total oxygen (total COD), TSS and TKN were higher than 89; 80 and 55%, respectively, for the system of anaerobic treatment composed by the reactors UASB in two apprenticeships. The rate of volumetric methane production in the system of anaerobic treatment with the reactors UASB were 0,08 and 0,16 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} (m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} reactor d){sup -1}. The number of total coliforms was reduced to 2,6x10{sup 4} NMP/100 mL. (author)

  19. Hydrothermal carbonization of organic industrial waste and sewage sludge in semi-industrial scale; Hydrothermale Carbonisierung von organischen Industrieabfaellen und Klaerschlaemmen im halbtechnischen Massstab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloehse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Guenter [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Hoexter (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft und Deponietechnik; Lehmann, Hans-Joachim

    2012-12-15

    The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a chemicalphysical process wherein the biomass of vegetal origin is converted into a lignite-like material. Only a few hours in an aqueous suspension at temperatures of 180-250 C and under pressure are needed for the transformation. Because of these reaction conditions highly aqueous wastes and residues are well suited materials for the HTC-process. The high calorific values of HTC Biochar enable efficient energy use of primary materials. A basic advantage is seen in the excellent dewatering properties of these biocoals. As part of an ongoing project by the BMBF a semi-industrial scale system was developed (200 liters) by the authors. There the HTC process is examined in a continuous process. After a description of the basic process concept first results of the continuous process are presented. These are compared with previous laboratory results on the example of organic industrial wastes. Further detailed results of continuous carbonization of sewage sludge and flanking batch studies are presented. The final issues to be worked on in the technical implementation are the specific energy consumption of the conversion and its potential for optimization. (orig.)

  20. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  1. Experimental and CFD Simulation Studies of Wall Shear Stress for Different Impeller Configurations and MBR Activated Sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Chan, C.C.V.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2012-01-01

    in an MBR. Nevertheless, proper experimental validation is required to validate CFD simulation. In this work experimental measurements of shear stress induced by impellers at a membrane surface were made with an electrochemical approach and the results were used to validate CFD simulations. As good results...... appealing for full-scale applications. It has been widely demonstrated that the filtration performances in MBRs can be improved by understanding the shear stress over the membrane surface. Modern tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to diagnose and understand the shear stress...

  2. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  3. A review on sludge dewatering indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Vu Hien Phuong; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Dewatering of sludge from sewage treatment plants is proving to be a significant challenge due to the large amounts of residual sludges generated annually. In recent years, research and development have focused on improving the dewatering process in order to reduce subsequent costs of sludge management and transport. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to establish reliable indices that reflect the efficiency of sludge dewatering. However, the evaluation of sludge dewaterability is not an easy task due to the highly complex nature of sewage sludge and variations in solid-liquid separation methods. Most traditional dewatering indices fail to predict the maximum cake solids content achievable during full-scale dewatering. This paper reviews the difficulties in assessing sludge dewatering performance, and the main techniques used to evaluate dewatering performance are compared and discussed in detail. Finally, the paper suggests a new dewatering index, namely the modified centrifugal index, which is demonstrated to be an appropriate indicator for estimating the final cake solids content as well as simulating the prototype dewatering process.

  4. Toxicity formation and distribution in activated sludge during treatment of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Na; Chen, Xiurong, E-mail: xrchen@ecust.edu.cn; Lin, Fengkai; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Jianguo; Chen, Shanjia

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We studied mechanism of sludge organic toxicity formation in wastewater treatment. • The organic toxicity distributed mainly in the inner section of sludge flocs. • The organic toxicity of sludge increased with DMF initial concentrations increments. • The property of bacteria community correlates significantly with sludge toxicity. -- Abstract: The organic toxicity of sludge in land applications is a critical issue; however, minimal attention has been given to the mechanism of toxicity formation during high-strength wastewater treatment. To investigate the relevant factors that contribute to sludge toxicity, synthetic wastewater with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) was treated in a sequential aerobic activated sludge reactor. The acute toxicity of sludge, which is characterised by the inhibition rate of luminous bacteria T3, is the focus of this study. Using an operational time of 28 days and a hydraulic retention time of 12 h, the study demonstrated a positive relationship between the acute toxicity of sludge and the influent DMF concentration; the toxicity centralised in the intracellular and inner sections of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge flocs. Due to increased concentrations of DMF, which ranged from 40 to 200 mg L{sup −1}, the sludge toxicity increased from 25 to 45%. The organic toxicity in sludge flocs was primarily contributed by the biodegradation of DMF rather than adsorption of DMF. Additional investigation revealed a significant correlation between the properties of the bacterial community and sludge toxicity.

  5. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged ae...

  6. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  7. Effects of Perchlorate on Organic Molecules under Simulated Mars Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) was discovered in the northern polar region of Mars by the Mars Phoenix Lander in 2008 and has also been recently detected by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater [1,2]. Perchlorate has also been shown to be formed under current Mars conditions via the oxidation of mineral chlorides, further supporting the theory that perchlorate is present globally on Mars [3]. The discovery of perchlorate on Mars has raised important questions about the effects of perchlorate on the survival and detection of organic molecules. Although it has been shown that pyrolysis in the presence of perchlorate results in the alteration or destruction of organic molecules [4], few studies have been conducted on the potential effects of perchlorate on organic molecules under martian surface conditions. Although perchlorate is typically inert under Mars-typical temperatures [5], perchlorate does absorb high energy UV radiation, and has been shown to decompose to form reactive oxychlorine species such as chlorite (ClO2-) when exposed to martian conditions including UV or ionizing radiation [6,7]. Here we investigate the effects of perchlorate on the organic molecules tryptophan, benzoic acid and mellitic acid in order to determine how perchlorate may alter these compounds under Mars conditions. Experiments are performed in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) capable of reproducing the temperature, pressure, atmospheric composition and UV flux found on Mars. Soil simulants are prepared consisting of SiO2 and each organic, as well as varying concentrations of perchlorate salts, and exposed in the MSC. Subsequent to exposure in the MSC samples are leached and the leachate analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS to determine the degree of degradation of the original organic and the identity of any potential decomposition products formed by oxidation or chlorination. References: [1] Kounaves et al., J. Geophys. Res. Planets, Vol. 115, p. E00E10, 2010 [2] Glavin et al., J. Geophys. Res. Planets, Vol

  8. Fabrication and simulation of organic transistors and functional circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. Martin, E-mail: d.m.taylor@bangor.ac.uk [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Patchett, Eifion R.; Williams, Aled [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Dean Street, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Ding, Ziqian; Assender, Hazel E. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Morrison, John J.; Yeates, Stephen G. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Development of roll-to-roll fabrication protocol for organic TFTs and circuits. • Bottom-gate polystyrene/DNTT TFTs much better than top-gate TFTs. • High-yield and high mobility with polystyrene-buffered TPGDA. • Fabrication of functional circuits – ring oscillators and logic gates. • New baseline process allows TFT parameter extraction and circuit simulation. - Abstract: We report the development of a vacuum-evaporation route for the roll-to-roll fabrication of functioning organic circuits. A number of key findings and observations are highlighted which influenced the eventual fabrication protocol adopted. Initially, the role of interface roughness in determining carrier mobility in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. Then it is shown that TFT yield is higher for devices fabricated on a flash-evaporated-plasma-polymerised tri(propyleneglycol) diacrylate (TPGDA) gate dielectric than for TFTs based on a spin-coated polystyrene (PS) dielectric. However, a degradation in mobility is observed which is attributed to the highly polar TPGDA surface. It is shown that high mobility, low gate-leakage currents and excellent stability are restored when the surface of TPGDA was buffered with a thin, spin-coated PS film. The resulting baseline process allowed arrays of functional circuits such as ring oscillators, NOR/NAND logic gates and S–R latches to be fabricated with high yield and their performance to be simulated.

  9. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuqun

    2011-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  10. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent

  11. Enhancement of biogas production from sewage sludge by addition of grease trap sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, A.; Neczaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of grease trap sludge is interesting option for sewage sludge digestion. • Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge improved efficiency of process. • The anaerobic digestion can be carried out at short hydraulic retention time. • Long chain fatty acids concentration was below the ranges for inhibition of anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Despite having many benefits, a low degree of volatile solids removal as well as long retention time are the main factors limiting the performance of the anaerobic digestion. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with other organic waste (for example fat rich materials) is one of the few potential ways to enhance the performance of the anaerobic digestion. In this article, the effects of adding fatty rich materials on the performance and stability of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated on a 6 l laboratory-scale reactor (working volume equal to 5.5 l). The reactor was operated in a semi-continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. The data presented in this paper relate to the period in which the grease trap sludge accounted for 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% of the mixture on the volatile solids basis. The results clearly indicate that the addition of fat rich materials like grease trap sludge can lead to a satisfactory increase in biogas yield in digester treating sewage sludge. The results showed that co-digestion can enhance the biogas yield by 28–82% compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge alone (control sample). Moreover, the addition of grease trap sludge to digesters resulted in increased volatile solids removal from 44.38% (control sample) to 57.77% (feedstock with 14% addition of grease trap sludge). It was found that the increase of grease trap sludge in the feedstock had a direct impact on the biogas production and methane yield. This proposal has also been confirmed by statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation coefficients and

  12. Important operational parameters of membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system for zero excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    In order to prevent excess sludge production during wastewater treatment, a membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system has been introduced, where the disintegrated sludge is recycled to the bioreactor as a feed solution. In this study, a mathematical model was developed by incorporating a sludge disintegration term into the conventional activated sludge model and the relationships among the operational parameters were investigated. A new definition of F/M ratio for the MBR-SD system was suggested to evaluate the actual organic loading rate. The actual F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M ratio in MBR-SD. The kinetic parameters concerning the biodegradability of organics hardly affect the system performance. Instead, sludge solubilization ratio (alpha) in the SD process and particulate hydrolysis rate constant (k(h)) in biological reaction determine the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is related with the overall economics of the MBR-SD system. Under reasonable alpha and k(h) values, SDN would range between 3 and 5 which means the amount of sludge required to be disintegrated would be 3-5 times higher for preventing a particular amount of sludge production. Finally, normalized sludge disintegration rate (q/V) which is needed to maintain a certain level of MLSS in the MBR-SD system was calculated as a function of F/V ratio.

  13. Modelagem do processo de desidratação de lodo anaeróbio em leitos de secagem simulados Anaerobic sludge dewatering process modeling in simulated drying beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. A. Soares

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de leitos de secagem para a desidratação de lodo de descarte de reatores UASB, constitui excelente alternativa, face a sua simplicidade operacional e aos reduzidos custos de implantação. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise dos fenômenos que influenciam o processo de desidratação de lodo anaeróbio, a partir de simulação de leitos de secagem. Neste sentido, são feitas considerações sobre as características e o comportamento do lodo durante cada fase da secagem. Sugere-se também, um modelo matemático para representar o processo de secagem, obtido a partir dos dados experimentais.The employment of drying beds is an excellent option for dewatering of UASB reactor discarded sludge, because of their simple operation and low construction costs. This paper presents an anaerobic sludge dewatering process analysis of the most influential phenomenon based on drying beds simulation. Therefore, some considerations were made about sludge characteristics and behavior during each dewatering stage. A mathematical model for dewatering process representation obtained from experimental data is also suggested.

  14. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S; Schulten, Hans-Rolf

    2005-08-01

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na+ or Ca2+ were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal-humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na+, Ca2+ was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca2+. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  15. Examination into the gamma irradiation of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, S.; Forster, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    This study has shown that the treatment of activated sludge by gamma irradiation resulted in a deterioration in the filterability, a decrease in the size of the floc particles and an increase in the organic matter present in the sludge supernatant. A significant difference was found between the results obtained for filamentous and non-filamentous sludges in relation to the amount of soluble polysaccharide produced. (author)

  16. Biological activity during co-composting of sludge issued from the OMW evaporation ponds with poultry manure-Physico-chemical characterization of the processed organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Salma; Sellami, Fatma; Cegarra, Juan; Hachicha, Ridha; Drira, Noureddine; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2009-02-15

    Olive mill sludge (OMS), a by-product resulting from natural evaporation of olive oil processing effluent, poses a major environmental threat. A current cost-effective practice of OMS management is composting. A mixture of OMS (60%) with poultry manure (PM) was successfully composted for 210 days. During the process, effluents of olive oil mill and confectionary were used to keep moisture at optimal level (40-60%). Biological indicators reflecting stability of the compost (microbial biota respiration and enumeration, and germination index) were analysed for the assessment of the product quality. The composted mixture showed a high microbial activity with a succession of microbial populations depending on the temperature reached during the biodegradation. The pathogen content from PM decreased with composting as did phytotoxic compounds. Phenols and lipids were reduced, respectively, by 40% and 84% while germination index increased with composting progress. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the final compost improved the aromatic content compared to the starting materials, with a decrease in aliphatic groups and a reduction in the easily assimilated components by the microflora acting during the biological process. The final compost was characterized by relatively high organic matter content (26.21%), a low C/N ratio (16.21), an alkaline pH (8.32), a relatively high electrical conductivity (9.21mS/cm) and a high level of nutrients. The germination index for Lepidium sativum L. was 87.71% after 210 days of composting, showing that the final compost was not phytotoxic.

  17. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  18. Disinfection and physical and chemical changes in waste waters, sludge and agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.; Oosterheert, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    It is of interest for agriculture to consider recycling scenarios that use undigested sludges as they contain higher concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter than digested sludges. Also from the point of view of waste water management, this approach is of interest because it reduces the time and number of treatments of sludges, thus resulting in technological and economic advantages. However, the utilization of this type of sludge in agriculture is restricted by the presence of human pathogens. Therefore studies concerning the disinfection efficiency of gamma irradiation in undigested sludge at pilot plant level were performed and results compared with the disinfection efficiency of this radiation treatment in digested sludge. (Auth.)

  19. Simulations of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Simon James

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, two approaches to the modelling of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are presented. The first is a drift-diffusion model, normally used when considering conventional crystalline inorganic semiconductors (e.g. Si or lll-V's) which have well defined energy bands. In this model, electron and hole transport is described using the current continuity equations and the drift-diffusion current equations, and coupled to Poisson's equation. These equations are solved with the appropriate boundary conditions, which for OLEDs are Schottky contacts; carriers are injected by thermionic emission and tunnelling. The disordered nature of the organic semiconductors is accounted for by the inclusion of field-dependent carrier mobilities and Langevin optical recombination. The second approach treats the transport of carriers in disordered organic semi-conductors as a hopping process between spatially and energetically disordered sites. This method has been used previously to account for the observed temperature and electric field dependence of carrier mobilities in disordered organic semiconductors. A hopping transport model has been developed which accounts explicitly for the structure in highly ordered films of rigid rod liquid-crystalline conjugated polymers. Chapter 2 discusses the formation of metal-semiconductor contacts, and current injection processes in OLEDs. If the barrier to carrier injection at a metal-semiconductor contact is small, or the contact is Ohmic, then the current may be space charge limited; this second limiting regime of current flow for OLEDs is also described. The remainder of Chapter 2 describes the drift-diffusion model used in this work in some detail. Chapter 3 contains results obtained from modelling the J-V characteristics of single-layer OLEDs, which are compared to experimental data in order to validate the drift-diffusion model. Chapter 4 contains results of simulating bi-layer OLEDs; rather than examining J

  20. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  1. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  3. Mineralização de compostos nitrogenados de lodos de esgoto na quinta aplicação em Latossolo Organic nitrogen mineralization rate following the fifth sewage sludge application in an Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carla Boeira

    2009-06-01

    284 mg kg-1 de N. Não houve efeito das quantidades de resíduos previamente aplicadas ao Latossolo sobre a fração de mineralização do N orgânico recentemente aplicado via lodo de esgoto, com confiabilidade de 95 %. Os resultados mostraram que, em reaplicações na mesma área, as doses de lodo de esgoto devem ser menores do que as doses calculadas para aplicação única, devido ao N residual acumulado no solo, tanto na forma orgânica quanto inorgânica.In agricultural systems treated with sewage sludge, the management ought to seek an adequate N supply to plants, while avoiding nitrate enrichment because of its potential to pollute subsurface water bodies. Thus, when determining the maximum amounts to be applied to a specific crop, some sewage sludge and soil properties should be known. One is the fraction of organic N of the waste that will be mineralized (NMF during the crop cycle. This quantity, combined with mineral N in the sludge, determines the amount of N in sewage sludge that will be available during the growing season. This study aimed to determine whether previous applications of sewage sludge affect the NMF of the residue recently applied to a Dark Red Dystroferric Latosol (Oxisol. The soil had been previously treated in four successive maize crops, with four rates and two types of sewage sludge, one of urban origin (Franca, SP and the other from urban-industrial sources (Barueri, SP. The study of N mineralization was installed in laboratory in a randomized blocks design with three replications and lasted 15 weeks. In the fifth application, sewage sludge doses of equivalent to 160, 320, 640, and 1,280 mg kg-1organic N were studied. On seven dates, the pH and the ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentration were determined. The NMF was calculated with data obtained for the net mineralization measured 105 days after the start of incubation. The performance of the two sludge types was similar, with a high initial mineralization rate. The ammonium levels

  4. Study on improvement of sludge dewaterability with H2O2 cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qiongfang; Yi, Hao; Zhang, Zhengke; Wang, Ji; Feng, Lishi; Xu, Zhencheng; Guo, Qingwei; Jin, Zhong; Lan, Yongzhe

    2017-12-01

    Excess sludge is the product of sewage treatment plants. With continuous perfection of municipal sewage treatment facilities in China, sludge output increases as a result of the growth of sewage treatment plants. Excess sludge has complicated compositions, including heavy metals, PPCPs, persistent organic pollutants. It owns high contents of organic matters and water. High-efficiency and low-cost dehydration of sludge is the key of sludge disposal. How to improve sludge dehydration efficiency is the research hotspot in the world. In this study, effects of hydrogen peroxide content and pH on sludge dehydration were discussed by chemical disintegration technique. The optimal hydrogen peroxide content and pH were discussed, aiming to search a high-efficiency sludge conditioner.

  5. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODEL ASDM PARAMETERS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATING IN THE SEQUENTIAL–FLOW TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Zdebik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calibration of activated sludge model with the use of computer program BioWin. Computer scheme has been developed on the basis of waste water treatment plant operating in the sequential – flow technology. For calibration of the activated sludge model data of influent and treated effluent from the existing object were used. As a result of conducted analysis was a change in biokinetic model and kinetic parameters parameters of wastewater treatment facilities. The presented method of study of the selected parameters impact on the activated sludge biokinetic model (including autotrophs maximum growth rate, the share of organic slurry in suspension general operational, efficiency secondary settling tanks can be used for conducting simulation studies of other treatment plants.

  6. Extraction of certain heavy metals from sewage sludge using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of heavy metal from sludge before disposal or application to farmland is a necessary step to achieve a more safe sludge usage or disposal. Chemical extraction using inorganic acids (nitric, hydrochloric) and organic acids (citric, oxalic) were tested for extraction of chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc from ...

  7. Method for the treatment of waste water with sludge granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.; De Kreuk, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the treatment of waste water comprising an organic nutrient. According to the invention, the waste water is in a first step fed to sludge granules, after the supply of the waste water to be treated the sludge granules are fluidised in the presence of an

  8. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  9. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  10. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  11. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  12. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  14. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  15. Modeling the Structure and Effectiveness of Intelligence Organizations: Dynamic Information Flow Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behrman, Robert; Carley, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Dynamic Information Flow Simulation (DIFS), an abstract model for analyzing the structure and function of intelligence support organizations and the activities of entities within...

  16. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  17. Dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guilong; He, Qiang; Mmereki, Daniel; Lu, Ying; Zhong, Zhihui; Liu, Hanyang; Pan, Weiliang; Zhou, Guangming; Chen, Junhua

    2016-04-01

    A novel dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet was developed for the determination of eight benzoylurea insecticides in soil and sewage sludge samples before high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The analytes were first extracted from the soil and sludge samples into acetone under optimized pretreatment conditions. Clean-up of the extract was conducted by dispersive solid-phase extraction using activated carbon as the sorbent. The vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet procedure was performed by using 1-undecanol with lower density than water as the extraction solvent, and the acetone contained in the solution also acted as dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was in the range 2-500 ng/g with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9993-0.9999. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.08-0.56 ng/g. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.16 to 6.26% (n = 5). The enrichment factors ranged from 104 to 118. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81.05 to 97.82% for all of the analytes. The good performance has demonstrated that the proposed methodology has a strong potential for application in the multiresidue analysis of complex matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  19. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  20. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  1. Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, C.A.; Larsen, I.L.; Boston, H.L.; Bradburn, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Van Miegroet, H. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Morris, J.L. [Jaycor, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Walzer, A.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Environmental Compliance; Adler, T.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huq, M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the Oak Ridge Reservation since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under Tennessee permits issued to the city of Oak Ridge for land disposal of sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE reservations and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed or injected on pasture sites or surface applied in forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Anaerobically digested liquid sludge (2% to 4% solids) from the city of Oak Ridge had a relatively high nitrogen content (8% dry weight) and average to low concentrations of potentially problematic metals, compared with typical municipal sludges. Few potentially hazardous organic chemicals were detected in the sludge, and when found, these were at very low concentrations. Oak Ridge sludge is somewhat unique in that it contains radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, uranium isotopes, {sup 90}Sr, and occasionally {sup 99}Tc) at concentrations much higher than typical municipal sludges. Land application of sewage sludge can dilute or destroy problematic sludge constituents while improving soil fertility. Correct management has made these sludge applications a model of environmentally responsible waste management.

  2. Characterization program in the framework of the national sewage sludge plan in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lopez, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Sewage Sludge is the waste originated from the process of treatment of waste water. Due to the physical-chemical processes involved in the treatment, the sludge tends to concentrate heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.). However, sludge is rich in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and contains valuable organic matter that is useful when soils are depleted or subject to erosion. (Author)

  3. Sewage sludge solubilization by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Guo, Jianbin; Ma, Weifang; Fang, Wei; Ma, Boqiang; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of sludge solubilization using high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was examined by investigating the sludge solid reduction and organics solubilization. The sludge volatile suspended solids (VSS) decreased from 10.58 to 6.67 g/L for the sludge sample with a total solids content (TS) of 1.49% after HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles; total suspended solids (TSS) correspondingly decreased from 14.26 to 9.91 g/L. About 86.15% of the TSS reduction was attributed to the VSS reduction. The increase of homogenization pressure from 20 to 80 MPa or homogenization cycle number from 1 to 4 was favorable to the sludge organics solubilization, and the protein and polysaccharide solubilization linearly increased with the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) solubilization. More proteins were solubilized than polysaccharides. The linear relationship between SCOD solubilization and VSS reduction had no significant change under different homogenization pressures, homogenization cycles and sludge solid contents. The SCOD of 1.65 g/L was solubilized for the VSS reduction of 1.00 g/L for the three experimental sludge samples with a TS of 1.00, 1.49 and 2.48% under all HPH operating conditions. The energy efficiency results showed that the HPH treatment at a homogenization pressure of 30 MPa with a single homogenization cycle for the sludge sample with a TS of 2.48% was the most energy efficient.

  4. Plant available nitrogen from anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge applied to crops grown in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripanomtanakorn, S; Polprasert, C

    2002-04-01

    Agricultural land is an attractive alternative for the disposal of biosolids since it utilises the recyclable nutrients in the production of crops. In Thailand and other tropical regions, limited field-study information exists on the effect of biosolids management strategies on crop N utilisation and plant available N (PAN) of biosolids. A field study was conducted to quantify the PAN of the applied biosolids, and to evaluate the N uptake rates of some tropical crops. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were chosen in this study. Two types of biosolids used were: anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge. The soil is acid sulfate and is classified as Sulfic Tropaquepts with heavy clay in texture. The anaerobically digested sludge applied rates were: 0, 156 and 312 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 586, and 1172 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots. The septic tank sludge applied rates were: 0, 95 and 190 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 354 and 708 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots, respectively. The results indicated the feasibility of applying biosolids to grow tropical crops. The applications of the anaerobically digested sludge and the septic tank sludge resulted in the yields of sunflower seeds and tomato fruits and the plant N uptakes comparable or better than that applied with only the chemical fertiliser. The estimated PAN of the anaerobically digested sludge was about 27-42% of the sludge organic N during the growing season. For the septic tank sludge, the PAN was about 15-58% of the sludge organic N. It is interesting to observe that an increase of the rate of septic tank sludge incorporated into this heavy clay soil under the cropping system resulted in the decrease of N mineralisation rate. This situation could cause the reduction of yield and N uptake of crops.

  5. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  6. Evaluation of solubility in simulated lung fluid of metals present in the sludge from a metallurgical industry to produce metallic zinc; Avaliacao da solubilidade em liquido pulmonar simulado dos metais presentes no rejeito gerado por uma industria metalurgica de zinco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Rosilda Maria Gomes de

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the solubility parameters (rapid and slow dissolution rates, rapid and slow dissolution fractions) metal particles present in a pile of sludge accumulated under exposure to weathering from the Cia Mercantil Inga, located at the Ilha da Madeira, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro. Plant samples collected in the neighboring of the pile and bioindicators placed in the region and collected after some months indicated that the inhabitants of Ilha da Madeira have been exposed to trace elements such zinc, cadmium, mercury and lead, produced during the processing of zinc minerals (hemimorphite - Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}.H{sub 2}O, and willemite - Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}). A static dissolution test in vitro was used to determine the solubility parameters using a simulated lung fluid (SLF), on a time basis ranging from 10 min to 1 year. The metal concentrations in the sludge samples and in the SLF were determined using Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE). In conclusion, this study confirms the harmful effects on the neighboring population of the airborne particles containing these metals that came from the sludge. The solubility parameters obtained for Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni and Mn present in the rapid dissolution fraction in SLF were 0.945; 0.473; 0.226; 0.300 and 0.497, respectively, and the corresponding times for half life of dissolution of the rapid fraction were f{sub r} = 2.082 days; f{sub r} = 0.09 days; f{sub r} = 0.37 days; f{sub r} = 0.332 days ad f{sub r} = 0.99 days; for the slow dissolution fraction times were f{sub r} = 146.95 days; f{sub r} = 63 days; f{sub r} = 86.64 days; f{sub r} = 79.66 days and f{sub r} = 59.84 days. These values indicate that these metals present a moderate absorption level in SLF, and may be classified as M type, according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The use of solubility parameters allowed a better description of the kinetic behaviour of the sludge in

  7. Soil cadmium mobility as a consequence of sewage sludge disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, I. [Station de Science du Sol, Versailles (France); Bourgeois, S.; Bermond, A. [Institut National Agronomique, Paris (France)

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobically digested liquid sewage sludge was applied as a single treatment to a loamy hydromorphic drained soil, characteristic of agricultural soils in the North of France, at a rate of 11 Mg of dry solids ha{sup -1}. Total Cd concentrations of drainage waters for both amended and unamended plots were monitored at selected times to follow the mobility of Cd after sludge disposal. The drained ground-water of the plot that exhibited the highest discharge of sludge soluble organic matter (SSOM) exhibited about twice the Cd levels of the control plot during the first few weeks following sludge disposal (average of 3 and 1.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} respectively). Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide estimates of the relative binding strength of Cd-soil interactions as well as Cd-SSOM interactions. The behavior of Cd in a mixed sludge-soil system showed that the addition of sludge soluble organic matter to the soil led to a decrease in the sorption of this cation across the pH range between 5 and 7. The laboratory studies highlighted the role of soluble organic matter in soil Cd speciation, and can be used to speculate on the perturbations induced by high levels of sludge soluble organic matter introduced into a soil.

  8. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  9. Mineralização do carbono orgânico em solos tratados com lodo de curtume Mineralization of the organic carbon in soils treated with tannery sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martin Martines

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mineralização do carbono orgânico do lodo de curtume, aplicado em solos com diferentes classes texturais, de modo a caracterizar a cinética do processo de mineralização e auxiliar na elaboração de normas técnicas sobre o uso agrícola desse material. Foram conduzidos experimentos de incubação por 105 dias, em laboratório, utilizando-se três solos: Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico típico (NVef, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico (LVAd e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico típico (RQo. O lodo de curtume utilizado nos experimentos foi composto de uma mistura, na proporção de 1:1, do lodo do caleiro e do lodo primário da estação de tratamento de efluentes, resultante da precipitação dos efluentes gerados no processo, com exceção dos efluentes que contêm cromo. As doses aplicadas (base seca no NVef e LVAd foram equivalentes a 0, 6, 12, 24 e 36 Mg ha-1 e a 0, 3, 6, 12 e 24 Mg ha-1 no RQo. Não se observa prejuízo à atividade microbiana dos solos, avaliada por meio da respiração basal, e a mineralização do carbono adicionado por meio do lodo de curtume é intensa nos primeiros 15 a 20 dias de incubação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the mineralization of the organic carbon derived from the tannery sludge applied in increasing doses on soils with different textures, to evaluate the decomposition kinetics, as well as to learn about the impact of this residue on the soil microbial community. This knowledge will be helpful for the establishment of technical rules about the agricultural use of the tannery sludges. Incubation experiments were carried out in the laboratory for 105 days, using three soils: a Kandiudalfic Eutrudox (NVef, a Typic Hapludox (LVAd and a Typic Quartzipsamment (RQo. Tannery sludge used in these experiments was composed of a mixture of liming sludge and the primary sludge from the wastewater treatment station, in the proportion 1:1, with the

  10. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  11. Sludge irradiation disinfection for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Papers given at the symposium are included in this volume. The symposium was organized to facilitate the transfer of information on the use of sludge irradiation as a process to further reduce pathogens. State-of-the-art gamma radiation of dried sewage solids is reviewed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  13. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  14. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  15. Fiscal year 1993 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hymas, C.R.; McKay, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Sixteen 1/25-scale sludge mobilization experiments were conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1993. The results of this testing are presented in this document. The ability of a single, centrally-located, scale model mixer pump to resuspend a layer of simulated tank sludge was evaluated for five different simulant types. The resistance of these simulants to the mobilizing action of the mixer pump jets was not found to adequately correlate with simulant vane shear strength. The data indicate that the simulant cohesion, as quantified by tensile strength, may provide a good measure of mobilization resistance. A single test was done to evaluate whether indexed mixer pump rotation is significantly more effective than the planned continuous oscillation. No significant difference was found in the sludge mobilization caused by these two modes of operation. Two tests were conducted using a clay-based sludge simulant that contained approximately 5 wt% soluble solids. The distance to which the mixer pump jets were effective for this simulant was approximately 50% greater than on similar simulants that did not contain soluble solids. The implication is that sludge dissolution effects may significantly enhance the performance of mixer pumps in some tanks. The development of a means to correlate the magnitude of this effect with waste properties is a direction for future work. Two tests were performed with the goal of determining whether the 1/25-scale sludge mobilization data can be scaled linearly to 1/12-scale. The two 1/25-scale tests were conducted using the same simulant recipe as had been used in previous 1/12-scale tests. The difficulty of matching the 1/25-scale simulants, with those used previously is thought to have adversely affected the results. Further tests are needed to determine whether the data from sludge mobilization tests can be linearly scaled

  16. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  17. Gravity settling of Hanford single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Rector, D.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to use gravity settling in million-gallon storage tanks while pretreating sludge on the Hanford site. To be considered viable in these large tanks, the supernatant must become clear, and the sludge must be concentrated in an acceptable time. These separations must occur over the wide range of conditions associated with sludge pretreatment. In the work reported here, gravity settling was studied with liter quantities of actual single-shell tank sludge from hanford Tank 241-C-107. Because of limited sludge availability, an approach was developed using the results of these liter-scale tests to predict full-scale operation. Samples were centrifuged at various g-forces to simulate compaction with higher layers of sludge. A semi-empirical settling model was then developed incorporating both the liter-scale settling data and the centrifuge compression results to describe the sludge behavior in a million-gallon tank. The settling model predicted that the compacted sludge solids would exceed 20 wt% in less than 30 days of settling in a 10-m-tall tank for all pretreatment steps

  18. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  19. Intensification of anaerobic digestion efficiency with use of mechanical excess sludge disintegration in the context of increased energy production in wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Żubrowska-Sudoł Monika; Podedworna Jolanta; Bisak Agnieszka; Sytek-Szmeichel Katarzyna; Krawczyk Piotr; Garlicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to evaluate the effects of mechanical sludge disintegration for enhancing full scale anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge. Batch disintegration tests and lab dewatering tests were also performed aiming at determining the release of organic compounds and assessing the impact of disintegration of excess sludge before the fermentation process of mixed sludge on the dewaterability of post-fermented sludge, respectively. In the study a disc disintegrator driven by...

  20. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  1. Simulation Techniques and Prosthetic Approach Towards Biologically Efficient Artificial Sense Organs- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Neogi, Biswarup; Ghosal, Soumya; Mukherjee, Soumyajit; Das, Achintya; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the applications of control theory to prosthetic sense organs including the senses of vision, taste and odor is being presented in this paper. Simulation aspect nowadays has been the centre of research in the field of prosthesis. There have been various successful applications of prosthetic organs, in case of natural biological organs dis-functioning patients. Simulation aspects and control modeling are indispensible for knowing system performance, and to generate an original a...

  2. Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Ordaz, Alberto; García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Bastida-González, Fernando; Zárate-Segura, Paola Berenice

    2015-01-01

    The importance of microbial sulfate reduction relies on the various applications that it offers in environmental biotechnology. Engineered sulfate reduction is used in industrial wastewater treatment to remove large concentrations of sulfate along with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The most common approach to the process is with anaerobic bioreactors in which sulfidogenic sludge is obtained through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. This process may take a long time and does not always eliminate the competition for substrate due to the presence of methanogens in the sludge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to obtain sulfidogenic sludge in which hydrothermal vents sediments are the original source of microorganisms. The microbial community developed in the presence of sulfate and volatile fatty acids is wide enough to sustain sulfate reduction over a long period of time without exhibiting inhibition due to sulfide. This protocol describes the procedure to generate the sludge from the sediments in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type of reactor. Furthermore, the protocol presents the procedure to demonstrate the capability of the sludge to remove by reductive dechlorination a model of a highly toxic organic pollutant such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The protocol is divided in three stages: (1) the formation of the sludge and the determination of its sulfate reducing activity in the UASB, (2) the experiment to remove the TCE by the sludge, and (3) the identification of microorganisms in the sludge after the TCE reduction. Although in this case the sediments were taken from a site located in Mexico, the generation of a sulfidogenic sludge by using this procedure may work if a different source of sediments is taken since marine sediments are a natural pool of microorganisms that may be enriched in sulfate reducing bacteria. PMID:26555802

  3. Development of Sulfidogenic Sludge from Marine Sediments and Trichloroethylene Reduction in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Ordaz, Alberto; García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; Bastida-González, Fernando; Zárate-Segura, Paola Berenice

    2015-10-15

    The importance of microbial sulfate reduction relies on the various applications that it offers in environmental biotechnology. Engineered sulfate reduction is used in industrial wastewater treatment to remove large concentrations of sulfate along with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals. The most common approach to the process is with anaerobic bioreactors in which sulfidogenic sludge is obtained through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. This process may take a long time and does not always eliminate the competition for substrate due to the presence of methanogens in the sludge. In this work, we propose a novel approach to obtain sulfidogenic sludge in which hydrothermal vents sediments are the original source of microorganisms. The microbial community developed in the presence of sulfate and volatile fatty acids is wide enough to sustain sulfate reduction over a long period of time without exhibiting inhibition due to sulfide. This protocol describes the procedure to generate the sludge from the sediments in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) type of reactor. Furthermore, the protocol presents the procedure to demonstrate the capability of the sludge to remove by reductive dechlorination a model of a highly toxic organic pollutant such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The protocol is divided in three stages: (1) the formation of the sludge and the determination of its sulfate reducing activity in the UASB, (2) the experiment to remove the TCE by the sludge, and (3) the identification of microorganisms in the sludge after the TCE reduction. Although in this case the sediments were taken from a site located in Mexico, the generation of a sulfidogenic sludge by using this procedure may work if a different source of sediments is taken since marine sediments are a natural pool of microorganisms that may be enriched in sulfate reducing bacteria.

  4. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  5. Magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors : theory and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials, offering several advantages over inorganic semiconductors. They are light, flexible, easy and cheap to produce, and easily chemically tunable. Organic semiconductors are currently used for lighting applications and in the displays of some

  6. Theory and simulation of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, P.A.; Kondov, I.; Sutman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Charge transport in polymeric or small-molecule organic semiconductors used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) occurs by hopping of charges between sites at which the charges are localized. The energetic disorder in these semiconductors has a profound influence on the charge transport: charges

  7. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  8. Time-dependent evolution of olive mill wastewater sludge organic and inorganic components and resident microbiota in multi-pond evaporation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Chtourou, Mohamed; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2010-08-01

    The physico-chemical and microbiological characterizations of olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) were investigated in five OMW evaporation ponds of the open-pond system in Sfax (Tunisia), during the olive oil production period in 2004. Time-dependent changes in both physico-chemical parameters and the microbiota were investigated. Mathematical models and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to establish the correlations between the studied parameters. During the effluent time-dependent changes in the ponds, the result of OMWS analysis showed an increase of sludge index (SI), ash content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), ethyl acetate extractive (EAE) and total phosphorus (Total P), as well as microbial flora especially the yeasts and moulds. The SI, TS, VS and Total P changes with time fit a simple linear equation, while EAE, phenols and NH(4)(+) fit a second-degree polynomial model. The PCA analysis exhibited three correlated groups. The first group included temperature, ash content, evaporation, SI, TS, VS, Total P, EAE, yeasts and moulds. The second group was made by bacteria and moisture; and the third group by NH(4)(+), oil and phenol. Such modelling might be of help in the prediction of OMW changes in natural evaporation ponds. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of mercury from sludge using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch tests and fluidized bed column tests show that ES-465 cation exchange resin removes >90% of the mercury from formated simulated sludge and formated high-level radioactive sludge. Similar experiments using formated simulated sludge which has been steam stripped indicated that the resin is capable of removing about 75% of the mercury from that system in the same time 90% could be removed from sludge which has not been steam stripped. The percent removed can be improved by operating at higher temperatures. Early batch experiments showed that abrasion from vigorous stirring of the sludge/ES-465 mixture caused the resin to degrade into particles too small to separate from the slurry after reaction. To protect the resin from abrasion, a resin-in-sludge mode of operation was designed wherein the sludge slurry contacts the resin by flowing through a bed retained between two screens in a column. The process has been demonstrated using both a 0.5 in. internal 0.5 in. diameter upflow column containing two milliliters of resin and a 6.4 in. internal diameter stirred bed downflow column containing one liter of resin

  10. Organic solar cells theory, experiment, and device simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tress, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author's dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on

  11. Analysis of petroleum oily sludge producing in petroleum field of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de Souza; Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Chiavone Filho, Osvaldo; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In exploration and production of petroleum is generated solid waste different and components other. The petroleum oily sludge is a complex mix of components different (water, oil and solid). The petroleum oily sludge generally has other residues and is formed during production and operations, transport, storage and petroleum refining (atmospheric residue, vacuum residue and catalytic cracking residue). However, according to its origin, the compositions can be found quite varied for sludge. Observing the process steps production and refining is possible to locate its main sources and percentage contributions in terms of waste generation. The elemental analysis was performed with oily sludge from region and it showed different composition. For carbon element and hydrogen, small differences was observed, but for was observed greater differences for Oxygen element. The sludge has different inorganic and organic composition. The sludge from oil water separator (OWS) 2 showed a greater amount of oil (94.88%), this may indicate a residue of aggregate high for petroleum industry. In analysis of Saturates, Aromatics, Resins and Asphaltenes (SARA), the sludge from unloading showed amount high of saturates. The inorganic material separated from sludge was characterized and sludge from OWS 2 had high amount sulfur (41.57%). The sludge analyzed showed organic components high values, so it can be treated and reprocessed in process units petroleum industry. The analysis thermal degradation had a better setting for treated oily sludge. (author)

  12. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL's program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge

  13. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  14. Vitrification Studies with DOE Low-Level Mixed Waste Wastewater Treatment Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Hewlett, K.J.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vitrification studies with simulated Low Level Mixed Waste (LLMW) sludges were performed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). These studies focused on finding the optimum glass compositions for four simulated LLMW wastewater treatment sludges and were based on both crucible-scale and pilot-scale studies. Optimum compositions were determined based on the maximum waste loading achievable without sacrificing glass integrity

  15. Sludge reduction by predatory activity of aquatic oligochaetes in wastewater treatment plants: Science or fiction? A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak, C.H.; Verkuijlen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biological aerobic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce a lot of excess sludge. The costs for handling this residual product are increasing, so the search for alternative techniques to reduce the amount of sludge has to be continued. Activated sludge consists of inorganic and organic

  16. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  17. Sludge application and monitoring program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1986 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, C.A.; Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H., Morris, J.L.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E.; Adler, T.C.; Bradburn, D.M.; Huq, M.

    1995-08-01

    Municipal sewage sludge has been applied to forests and pastures on the DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983 as a method of both disposal and beneficial reuse. Application was carried out under State of Tennessee permits issued to the City of Oak Ridge for land disposal of. sewage sludge. In conjunction with these applications, information has been collected concerning sludge quantity and characteristics, soil parameters, soil water constituents, groundwater quality, surface runoff water quality, and various chemical constituents in vegetation on application sites. This information provides (1) a record of sludge application on the DOE ORR, and (2) documentation of changes in soil parameters following sludge application. The information also provides a basis for evaluating the implications of the land application of municipal sewage sludge for soil and water quality and for evaluating the fate of sludge constituents when sludge is either sprayed onto or injected into pasture sites or applied to the surface of forested sites. This report covers in detail sludge applications conducted from 1986 through 1993, with some data from the period between 1983 and 1986. Land application has been recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a desirable alternative for disposal of ORR waste. Municipal sewage sludge is in many ways similar to dilute animal manure fertilizer, but it also contains metals, organic chemicals, human pathogens, and other constituents reflective of inputs into the municipal sewage treatment plant. When applied to land, nutrients in the sludge improve soil fertility, and minerals and organic matter in the sludge improve soil structure. Under optimal conditions, metals are immobilized, and organic chemicals and pathogens are immobilized or destroyed. If the sludge is not managed effectively, however, sludge constituents have the potential to affect human health and the environment.

  18. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  19. TBT and TPhT persistence in a sludged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcic, Christophe; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Denaix, Laurence; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2006-12-01

    The persistence of tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) in soils was studied, taking into consideration the quantity of sewage sludge, TBT and TPhT concentrations in soil as well as the soil pH. The organotin compounds (OTC) were introduced into the soil via a spiked urban sludge, simulating agricultural practise. OTC speciation was achieved after acidic extraction of soil samples followed by gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric analysis (GC-PFPD). Leaching tests conducted on a spiked sludge showed that more than 98% of TBT are sorbed on the sludge. TBT persistence in soil appeared to depend on its initial concentration in sludge. Thus, it was more important when concentration is over 1000 microg(Sn) kg(-1) of sludge. More than 50% of the initial TBT added into the soil were still present after 2 months, whatever the experimental conditions. The main degradation product appeared to be dibutyltin. About 90% of TPhT were initially sorbed on sludge, whatever the spiking concentration in sludge was. However, TPhT seemed to be quantitatively exchangeable at the solid/liquid interface, according to the leaching tests. It was also significantly degraded in sludged soil as only about 20% of TPhT remain present after 2 months, the monophenyltin being the main degradation product. pH had a significant positive effect on TBT and particularly TPhT persistence, according to the initial amounts introduced into the soil. Thus, at pH over 7 and triorganotin concentration over 100 microg(Sn) kg(-1), less than 10% of TBT but about 60% of TPhT were degraded. When the sludge was moderately contaminated by triorganotins (typically 50 microg(Sn) kg(-1) in our conditions) the pH had no effect on TBT and TPhT persistence.

  20. Simulation of Neutron Backscattering applied to organic material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N. C.; Cruz, A. H.; Cristancho, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Neutron Backscattering technique is tested when performing the task of localizing hydrogenated explosives hidden in soil. Detector system, landmine, soil and neutron source are simulated with Geant4 in order to obtain the number of neutrons detected when several parameters like mine composition, relative position mine-source and soil moisture are varied

  1. Wireless simulation and self-organizing spectrum management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Grandhi, S.A.; Kahn, C.L.; Kumaran, K.; Lubachevsky, B.D.; Sand, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Wireless service providers are continually looking for new features and products to improve quality of service, increase system capacity, and reduce administrative overhead. The simulation tool W provides a flexible platform for the exploration of a broad range of system-level design and performance

  2. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  3. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  4. Effects of additives on solidification of API separator sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschan, A; Tittlebaum, M; Cartledge, F; Eaton, H

    1991-08-01

    API separator sludge was solidified with various combinations of binders and absorbent soil additives. The binders utilized were Type I Portland Cement, Type C Flyash, and a 1:1 combination of the two. The soil additives used were bentonite, diatomite, Fuller's earth, and two brands of chemically altered bentonites, or organoclays. The effectiveness of the solidification materials was based on their effect on the physical and leaching characteristics of the sludge.It was determined the Portland cement and combination binders provided the sludge with adequate physical and strength characteristics. It was also determined the affinity of each additive for water had an important influence on the physical characteristics of the solidified sludge. The results of the leaching procedure indicated the binders alone reduced the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge by 1/5 to 1/10. It appeared the use of the additives with the binders may have further reduced the leachability of constituents from sludge, with the incorporation of the organoclay additives further reducing leachability by up to 1/2. Also, it appeared the absorbing capacity of the additives was directly related to their ability to reduce the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge.

  5. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  6. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  7. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Characterization of oily sludge from a Tehran oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Nima; Gitipour, Saeid; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali

    2010-10-01

    In this study, oily sludge samples generated from a Tehran oil refinery (Pond I) were evaluated for their contamination levels and to propose an adequate remediation technique for the wastes. A simple, random, sampling method was used to collect the samples. The samples were analyzed to measure Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal concentrations in the sludge. Statistical analysis showed that seven samples were adequate to assess the sludge with respect to TPH analyses. The mean concentration of TPHs in the samples was 265,600 mg kg⁻¹. A composite sample prepared from a mix of the seven samples was used to determine the sludge's additional characteristics. Composite sample analysis showed that there were no detectable amounts of PAHs in the sludge. In addition, mean concentrations of the selected heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cd and Zn were 2700, 850, 100, 6100 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. To assess the sludge contamination level, the results from the analysis above were compared with soil clean-up levels. Due to a lack of national standards for soil clean-up levels in Iran, sludge pollutant concentrations were compared with standards set in developed countries. According to these standards, the sludge was highly polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicated that incineration, biological treatment and solidification/stabilization treatments would be the most appropriate methods for treatment of the sludges. In the case of solidification/stabilization, due to the high organic content of the sludge, it is recommended to use organophilic clays prior to treatment of the wastes.

  9. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  10. Investigation of Catalytic effect sewage sludge combustion ash in the formation of HAPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullana, A.; Sidhu, S.; Font, R.; Conesa, A.

    2002-07-01

    Incineration is a very important technique in the treatment of sewage sludge. In 1998 approximately 1,5 million and 2,5 million dry tons of sewage sludge were incinerated in the United States and European Union (EU), respectively. In 1985, only 10% of EU sludge was incinerated, but by 2005 approximately 40% of EU sludge is expected to be incinerated. Use of sewage sludge as agricultural fertilizer was considered the best application for sludge until it was discovered that the presence of heavy metals in sludge could contaminate farmland. The limitations facing landfills and recycling plants and the planned ban on sea disposal has led to the expectation that the role of incineration will increase in the future. The expected increase in sludge incineration has also led to increased scrutiny of the main drawback to the incineration of sewage sludge: the formation of hazard air pollutants (HAP). Sewage sludge incineration has been identified as a very important source of HAPs such as chloro benzenes, chloro phenols, and PCDD/Fs. One of the more important characteristics of sewage sludge incineration is the formation of large amounts of ash, which is rich in known HAP formation catalysts such as Cu and Fe. Thus, the sludge incineration ash is expected to play an important role in the formation of HAPs in the post-combustion zone of a sludge incinerator. in this paper, we present results of our investigation of the catalytic effect of sewage sludge ash on the formation of chloro benzenes and chloro phenols. In this study, pyrolytic gas from sewage sludge was used as reaction gas instead of the synthetic organic mix that has been used in most previous HAPs formation studies. (Author) 4 refs.

  11. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  12. Pathogens in Sludge: A Case of Sufficient Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesilind, R. Aarne

    2003-07-01

    There is increasing pressure in many countries to strengthen the regulations controlling the land disposal of wastewater sludges. In this paper I argue that although there is little doubt that sludges from wastewater treatment contain pathogenic organisms, not only are there no data to show that such disposal is a public health problem, but I want to suggest that small doses of pathogens in the environment provide a ''sufficient challenge'' that actually enhances public health. There therefore seems little reason, from a public health standpoint, to pass stricter sludge disposal regulations. (author)

  13. From municipal/industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: A proposal for economic sustainable sludge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratina, Božidar; Šorgo, Andrej; Kramberger, Janez; Ajdnik, Urban; Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Ekart, Janez; Šafarič, Riko

    2016-12-01

    After a ban on the depositing of untreated sludge in landfills, the sludge from municipal and industrial water-treatment plants can be regarded as a problem. Waste products of the water treatment process can be a problem or an opportunity - a source for obtaining raw materials. In the European Union, raw sludge and fats, oil and grease (FOG) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) cannot be deposited in any natural or controlled environment. For this reason, it must be processed (stabilized, dried) to be used later as a fertilizer, building material, or alternative fuel source suitable for co-incineration in high temperature furnaces (power plants or concrete plants). The processes of drying sludge, where heat and electricity are used, are energy consuming and economically unattractive. Beside energy efficiency, the main problem of sludge drying is in its variability of quality as a raw material. In addition to this, sludge can be contaminated by a number of organic and inorganic pollutants and organisms. Due to the presence or absence of pollutants, different end products can be economically interesting. For example, if the dried sludge contains coliform bacteria, viruses, helminths eggs or smaller quantities of heavy metals, it cannot be used as a fertilizer but can still be used as a fuel. The objectives of the current article is to present a batch-processing pilot device of sludge or digestate that allows the following: (1) low pressure and low temperature energy effective drying of from 10 to 40% remaining water content, (2) disinfection of pathogen (micro)organisms, (3) heavy metal reduction, (4) production of products of predetermined quality (e.g. containing different quantities of water; it can be used as a fertilizer, or if the percentage of water in the dry sludge is decreased to 10%, then the dried sludge can be used as a fuel with a calorific value similar to coal). An important feature is also the utilization of low

  14. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +27 (18) 299-2508; e-mail: sandra.barnard@nwu.ac.za .... After 5 min exposure, an inverted light microscope was used to ..... Light microscopy images of C. hirundinella cells in source water (a) and the effects of chlorine concentrations after exposure to chlorine .... trations of organic carbon compounds measured during dif-.

  15. Environmentally compatible sewage sludge disposal; Umweltgerechte Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water is done by means of biological processes: micro-organisms degrade pollutants. The resulting products are, besides cleaned waste water, sewage sludge and surplus sludge. Their disposal involves ecological and economic problems. One approach to their partial disposal is their degradation in a digester. Approximately one half of the organic substance is converted by anaerobic bacteria into energy-rich biogas. Optimization of this digestion process accelerates the anaerobic degradation process, increases the accruing amount of digester gas and reduces the volume of digested sludge to be disposed of. With these objectives, the Institute fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik is conducting research into the mechanical treatment of micro-organisms remaining in surplus sludge by means of different treatment devices. The project is sponsored under the programme of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG ``Biological processes with dispersive solids``. Mechanical treatment renders the cell constituents exploitable to anaerobic bacteria; the resulting sludge degradation is more rapid and more complete. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Zur Reinigung haeuslicher und industrieller Abwaesser werden biologische Prozesse eingesetzt. Dabei sorgen Mikroorganismen fuer den Abbau der Verunreinigungen. Neben dem gereinigten Abwasser fallen Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm an, deren Entsorgung oekologische und oekonomische Probleme verursacht. Ein Weg zur partiellen Beseitigung dieser Klaerschlaemme ist ihr Abbau in einem Faulbehaelter. Dabei wird etwa die Haelfe der organischen Substanz durch anaerobe Bakterien zu einem energiereichen Biogas umgewandelt. Eine Optimierung dieses Faulprozesses beinhaltet: 1. Beschleunigung des anaeroben Abbauprozesses, 2. Erhoehung der anfallenden Faulgasmenge und 3. Reduzierung der zu entsorgenden Faulschlammenge. Mit diesen Zielsetzungen wird am Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik im Rahmen der DFG

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  17. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to develop and provide slurry pump operational guidance for sludge heel removal in Tank 5. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation under steady-state indexed and transient oscillation modes. A model used for previous analyses has been updated to add the valve housing distribution piping and pipe clusters of the cooling coil supply system near pump no. 8 to the previous tank Type-I model. In addition, the updated model included twelve concrete support columns. This model would provide a more accurate assessment of sludge removal capabilities. The model focused on removal of the sludge heel located near the wall of Tank 5 using the two new slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 5 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT (trademark) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, modeling calculations were performed with indexed pump orientations until an optimum flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge heel was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 3801 gpm flowrate per nozzle could remove the sludge from the tank with a 101 in liquid level, based on a historical minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. The only exception is the region within maximum 4.5 ft distance from the tank wall boundary at the

  18. Heavy metals speciation in soils treated with sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Hernandez, Adriana; Ballesteros Gonzalez, Maria Ines

    2004-01-01

    The chemical speciation in soils that had been treated with sewage sludge was determined to find out what had occurred to the heavy metals present. This was done nine weeks after sludge application. An incubation assay was realized using 2.5 % w/w sludge level; this is equivalent to 81.5 ton of sludge per hectare. Pots filled with sludge-soil mixture were placed in a greenhouse at temperature between 17 and 25 Celsius degrade, humidity at field capacity distributed in accordance with a random experimental design with four replicates and seven treatments. It was found that the concentration of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn was lower than the limits established by the environmental protection agency (EPA) for soil usage. Also, the organic carbon content, the available nitrogen and phosphorus were in the normal concentration range reported for organic fertilizers. The sludge addition to the soil gave significant increase of the fraction of Cd bounded to organic material as compared with the exchangeable fraction and the fraction bounded to iron-manganese oxides. Cooper showed more affinity for the fraction of iron-manganese oxides. Lead gave a fraction bounded to organic material that was absent in the witness samples. Zinc had a bigger proportion in the fraction associated with iron manganese oxides. Manganese as compared with the other metals showed the biggest unchangeable fraction

  19. New technology for recyclingmaterials from oily cold rollingmill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shen-gen; Tian, Jian-jun; Pan, De-an; Meng, Ling; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Oily cold rolling mill (CRM) sludge is one of metallurgical industry solid wastes. The recycle of these wastes can not only protect the environment but also permit their reutilization. In this research, a new process of "hydrometallurgical treatment + hydrothermal synthesis" was investigated for the combined recovery of iron and organic materials from oily CRM sludge. Hydrometallurgical treatment, mainly including acid leaching, centrifugal separation, neutralization reaction, oxidizing, and preparation of hydrothermal reaction precursor, was first utilized for processing the sludge. Then, micaceous iron oxide (MIO) pigment powders were prepared through hydrothermal reaction of the obtained precursor in alkaline media. The separated organic materials can be used for fuel or chemical feedstock. The quality of the prepared MIO pigments is in accordance with the standards of MIO pigments for paints (ISO 10601-2007). This clean, effective, and economical technology offers a new way to recycle oily CRM sludge.

  20. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  1. First-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of digested sludge compared with raw sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, A; Imteaz, M

    2008-09-01

    This article presents an assessment of the first-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of a selected digested sludge at subcritical ( 374 degrees C) temperatures in the range of 250-460 degrees C. Furthermore, the results were compared with reported oxidation kinetics of raw sludge treated under identical experimental conditions. In the assessment, oxidation was considered to proceed in two steps: (1) decomposition of the particulate, or non-filterable, chemical oxygen demand (PCOD); followed by (2) ultimate oxidation and removal of the total, particulate and soluble, COD. The accumulation and removal of soluble COD (SCOD) was determined from the difference between the rates of sludge decomposition and ultimate oxidation. Using results from batch and continuous-flow hydrothermal treatment experiments, the reacting organic ingredients were separated into groups according to the ease or difficulty at which they were decomposed or removed, with Arrhenius-type activation energy levels assigned to the different groups. The analysis confirmed that within the treatment range of 75% to more than 97% COD removal, the oxidation kinetics of the digested and raw sludges were nearly identical despite differences in the proportions of their original organic ingredients. The original organic ingredients were mostly removed above 75% COD removal, and the oxidation kinetics appeared to be dominated by the removal of acetic acid, an intermediate by-product which constituted 50% to more than 80% of the remaining COD. Furthermore, the oxidation kinetics of both sludge types were consistent with reported first-order oxidation kinetics of pure acetic acid solutions. The resulting kinetic models adequately represented hydrothermal oxidation of digested sludge, in terms of COD and PCOD removals, as well as accumulation and removal of the soluble SCOD.

  2. Using microbiological leaching method to remove heavy metals from sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuyu Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial leaching is one of the most effective methods to remove heavy metals from sludge. In the conducted researches, the sludge samples were processed with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans obtained via cultivation, extraction and purification processes. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were leached from sludge by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans within different substrate concentration and pH value conditions. It is defined that from the point of view of economy and efficiency the optimal concentration of FeSO4.7H2O and sulfur for bio-leaching process was 0.2 g. The leaching rates of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni of the same concentration were 74.72%, 81.54%, 70.46% and 77.35% respectively. However, no significant differences depending on the pH value among the leaching rates were defined, even for the pH value of 1.5. Along with the removal of heavy metals from sludge, the organic matter, N, P, K were also leached to some extent. The losing rate of phosphorus was the highest and reached 38.44%. However, the content of organic matter, N, P, K in the processed sludge were higher in comparison with level I of the National Soil Quality Standards of China. Ecological risk of heavy metals in sludge before and after leaching was assessed by Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and comprehensive potential risk (RI. The results of research defined that the content of heavy metals in sludge meets the level of low ecological risk after leaching and their contents is lower in comparison with the National Agricultural Sludge Standard of China. Sludge leached by biological methods is possible to use for treatment for increasing soil fertility.

  3. Influence analysis of sewage sludge methane fermentation parameters on process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Борисівна Сорокіна

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency dependence of sewage sludge organic matter decomposition from organization and conditions of the process is analyzed. Support of the optimal values of several parameters ensures to provide completeness of the sludge fermentation process and obtain biogas in calculated amount. Biogas utilization reduces costs for reactor heating and provides additional obtaining of other types of energy

  4. Influence analysis of sewage sludge methane fermentation parameters on process efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Катерина Борисівна Сорокіна

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency dependence of sewage sludge organic matter decomposition from organization and conditions of the process is analyzed. Support of the optimal values of several parameters ensures to provide completeness of the sludge fermentation process and obtain biogas in calculated amount. Biogas utilization reduces costs for reactor heating and provides additional obtaining of other types of energy

  5. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, Jr., Clell Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Accurate detector modeling is a requirement to design systems in many non-proliferation scenarios; by determining a Detector’s Response Function (DRF) to incident radiation, it is possible characterize measurements of unknown sources. DRiFT is intended to post-process MCNP® output and create realistic detector spectra. Capabilities currently under development include the simulation of semiconductor, gas, and (as is discussed in this work) scintillator detector physics. Energy spectra and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) trends for incident photon and neutron radiation have been reproduced by DRiFT.

  6. Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 x10 -7 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 x10 -4 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges

  7. Activated sludge model No. 2d, ASM2d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) presents a model for biological phosphorus removal with simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in activated sludge systems. ASM2d is based on ASM2 and is expanded to include the denitrifying activity of the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs......). This extension of ASM2 allows for improved modeling of the processes, especially with respect to the dynamics of nitrate and phosphate. (C) 1999 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Sludge granulation during anaerobic treatment of pre-hydrolysed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 26.7 h to 2.2 h, while the organic load rate (OLR) ranged from 0.9 to 7.3 kgCOD/m3·d. Sludge granulation was observed after day 150 of operation, at an HRT of 3.4 h, when small granules of less than 2 ...

  9. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  10. Consequences of sludge composition on combustion performance derived from thermogravimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meiyan; Xiao, Benyi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatiles, particularly proteins, play a key role in sludge combustion. • Sludge combustion performance varies with different sludge organic concentrations. • Carbohydrates significantly affect the combustion rate in the second stage. • Combustion performance of digested sludge is more negative compared with others. - Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants produce millions of tons of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge is recognized as a promising feedstock for power generation via combustion and can be used for energy crisis adaption. We aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of various sludge characteristics on the overall sludge combustion process performance. Different types of sewage sludge were derived from numerous wastewater treatment plants in Beijing for further thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric–differential thermogravimetric curves were used to compare the performance of the studied samples. Proximate analytical data, organic compositions, elementary composition, and calorific value of the samples were determined. The relationship between combustion performance and sludge composition was also investigated. Results showed that the performance of sludge combustion was significantly affected by the concentration of protein, which is the main component of volatiles. Carbohydrates and lipids were not correlated with combustion performance, unlike protein. Overall, combustion performance varied with different sludge organic composition. The combustion rate of carbohydrates was higher than those of protein and lipid, and carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175–300 °C). Carbohydrates have a substantial effect on the rate of system combustion during the second stage considering the specific combustion feature. Additionally, the combustion performance of digested sewage sludge is more negative than the others

  11. Consequences of sludge composition on combustion performance derived from thermogravimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meiyan; Xiao, Benyi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin, E-mail: jxliu@rcees.ac.cn

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Volatiles, particularly proteins, play a key role in sludge combustion. • Sludge combustion performance varies with different sludge organic concentrations. • Carbohydrates significantly affect the combustion rate in the second stage. • Combustion performance of digested sludge is more negative compared with others. - Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants produce millions of tons of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge is recognized as a promising feedstock for power generation via combustion and can be used for energy crisis adaption. We aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of various sludge characteristics on the overall sludge combustion process performance. Different types of sewage sludge were derived from numerous wastewater treatment plants in Beijing for further thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric–differential thermogravimetric curves were used to compare the performance of the studied samples. Proximate analytical data, organic compositions, elementary composition, and calorific value of the samples were determined. The relationship between combustion performance and sludge composition was also investigated. Results showed that the performance of sludge combustion was significantly affected by the concentration of protein, which is the main component of volatiles. Carbohydrates and lipids were not correlated with combustion performance, unlike protein. Overall, combustion performance varied with different sludge organic composition. The combustion rate of carbohydrates was higher than those of protein and lipid, and carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175–300 °C). Carbohydrates have a substantial effect on the rate of system combustion during the second stage considering the specific combustion feature. Additionally, the combustion performance of digested sewage sludge is more negative than the others.

  12. Evaluation of the nutritional value of Irradiated sewage sludges reuse in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; El-Ammari, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Four different sludges were collected from wastewater treatment plants and a farm in greater Cairo area. These sludges represent three different treatments: secondary (Helwan), primary (Abou Rawash), digested (El-Gabal El-Asfar) and raw (El-Gabal El-Asfar farm). Half of the collected sludge was exposed to 6 KGy of gamma radiation and the other half was kept non-irradiated. The different parameters measured for this evaluation were ph, EC, total and available nitrogen, total and available phosphorus, total potassium, organic matter, C/N ratio, micro nutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) and heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni). The data showed that irradiated sewage sludges contain high organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and micro nutrients content. Heavy metals concentrations in the different sludges were less than the international permissible levels for sludge utilization in agriculture. Thus, Egyptian irradiated sewage sludge can be reused for agriculture. Irradiated sewage sludge if applied at 20 t/ha rate can provide plants with their need of macro nutrients (NPK) and micro nutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu). In the meantime, Cd concentration that can be added to the soil at the same application rate is very small; 0.042-0.108 kg/ha for primary and secondary treated sludge, respectively. Sludge that was treated by digestion showed the highest concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus. Non-significant differences were observed between the ph, EC, OM%, C% and C/N values of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludges. In general, no consistent effect of gamma radiation on heavy metals content was recorded. Gamma radiation can impose positive effect on sewage sludge without a reduction of its nutritional value and it is recommended method for sewage sludge treatment

  13. Change in the fouling propensity of sludge in membrane bioreactors (MBR) in relation to the accumulation of biopolymer clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei-yun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Li, Xiao-yan

    2011-04-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an activated sludge process (ASP) were operated side by side to evaluate the change of sludge supernatant characteristics and the evolution of the sludge fouling propensity. The MBR sludge had a higher organic concentration and more biopolymer clusters (BPC) in the supernatant compared with ASP. BPC increased in both concentration and size in the MBR. The results show that the change in the liquid-phase property had a profound effect on the sludge fouling propensity. MBR operation transformed typical activated sludge to MBR sludge with a higher fouling propensity. Distinct from the ASP, membrane filtration retained soluble microbial products (SMP) within the MBR, and the vast membrane surface provided a unique environment for the transformation of SMP to large size BPC, leading to further sludge deposition on the membrane surface. Thus, membrane filtration is the crucial cause of the inevitable fouling problem in submerged MBRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating Simulated Primary Anthropogenic and Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols during MILAGRO: Implications for Assessing Treatments of Secondary Organic Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Aiken, Allison; Allan, James D.; Alexander, M. L.; Campos, Teresa; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Chapman, Elaine G.; DeCarlo, Peter; de Foy, B.; Gaffney, Jeffrey; de Gouw, Joost A.; Doran, J. C.; Emmons, L.; Hodzic, Alma; Herndon, Scott C.; Huey, L. G.; Jayne, John T.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Kuster, W. C.; Marley, Nancy A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Ochoa, Carlos; Onasch, Timothy B.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Song, Chen; Ulbrich, Ingrid M.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2009-08-31

    Simulated primary organic aerosols (POA), as well as other particulates and trace gases, in the vicinity of Mexico City are evaluated using measurements collected during the 2006 Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaigns. Since the emission inventories and dilution will affect predictions of total organic matter and consequently total particulate matter, our objective is to assess the uncertainties in predicted POA before testing and evaluating the performance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) treatments. Carbon monoxide (CO) is well simulated on most days both over the city and downwind, indicating that transport and mixing processes were usually consistent with the meteorological conditions observed during MILAGRO. Predicted and observed elemental carbon (EC) in the city was similar, but larger errors occurred at remote locations since the CO/EC emission ratios in the national emission inventory were lower than in the metropolitan emission inventory. Components of organic aerosols derived from Positive Matrix Factorization and data from several Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer instruments deployed both at ground sites and on research aircraft are used to evaluate the model. Predicted POA was consistently lower than the measured organic matter at the ground sites, which is consistent with the expectation that SOA should be a large fraction of the total organic matter mass. A much better agreement was found when predicted POA was compared with the sum of "primary anthropogenic" and "primary biomass burning" components on days with relatively low biomass burning, suggesting that the overall magnitude of primary organic particulates released was reasonable. The predicted POA was greater than the total observed organic matter when the aircraft flew directly downwind of large fires, suggesting that biomass burning emission estimates from some large fires may be too high. Predicted total observed organic carbon (TOOC) was

  15. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  16. Full-scale effects of addition of sludge from water treatment stations into processes of sewage treatment by conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Marguti André; Sidney Seckler, Ferreira Filho; Passos, Piveli Roque

    2018-06-01

    An emerging practice for water treatment plant (WTP) sludge is its disposal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), an alternative that does not require the installation of sludge treatment facilities in the WTP. This practice can cause both positive and negative impacts in the WWTP processes since the WTP sludge does not have the same characteristics as domestic wastewater. This issue gives plenty of information in laboratory and pilot scales, but lacks data from full-scale studies. The main purpose of this paper is to study the impact of disposing sludge from the Rio Grande conventional WTP into the ABC WWTP, an activated sludge process facility. Both plants are located in São Paulo, Brazil, and are full-scale facilities. The WTP volumetric flow rate (4.5 m³/s) is almost three times that of WWTP (1.6 m³/s). The data used in this study came from monitoring the processes at both plants. The WWTP liquid phase treatment analysis included the variables BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, ammonia, total nitrogen, phosphorus and iron, measured at the inlet, primary effluent, mixed liquor, and effluent. For the WWTP solids treatment, the parameters tested were total and volatile solids. The performance of the WWTP process was analyzed with and without sludge addition: 'without sludge' in years 2005 and 2006 and 'with sludge' from January 2007 to March 2008. During the second period, the WTP sludge addition increased the WWTP removal efficiencies for solids (93%-96%), organic matter (92%-94% for BOD) and phosphorus (52%-88%), when compared to the period 'without sludge'. These improvements can be explained by higher feed concentrations combined to same or lower effluent concentrations in the 'with sludge' period. No critical negative impacts occurred in the sludge treatment facilities, since the treatment units absorbed the extra solids load from the WTP sludge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessments of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during sludge application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Due to increasingly less space in municipal environment, waste management has become an urgent issue worldwide. As one of common municipal waste, sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains abundant nutrients, some of which can be quite essential for plant growth. In consideration of nutrient recycling and energy saving, sludge application has been frequently promoted in many countries across the world. However, even after several sludge stabilization procedures, sewage sludge may still contain a large variety of toxic pollutants, especially some emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). Applied in various household products and plastic industries as additives, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been constantly detected in sewage sludge samples from several cities in China since 2005, as well as some biosolid samples after sludge stabilization processes, suggesting their strong persistence and wide occurrence. During sludge application onto farmland soils, PBDEs may desorb from sludge particles and get attached by soil organic matter (SOM), followed by plant root uptake and translocation to aboveground tissues. In this study, data about current pollution of PBDEs in sewage sludge samples from China was reviewed, and the potential risks during sludge application was comprehensively assessed.

  18. The presence of contaminations in sewage sludge - The current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, Krzysztof; Rorat, Agnieszka; Grobelak, Anna; Kacprzak, Malgorzata J

    2017-12-01

    Sewage sludge/biosolids are by-wastes of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. As sources of nutrients (C, N, P) they are widely used in intensive farming where large supplementation of organic matter to maintain fertility and enhance crop yields is needed. However, according to the report of European Commission published in 2010, only 39% of produced sewage sludge is recycled into agriculture in the European Union. This situation occurs mainly due to the fact, that the sewage sludge may contain a dangerous volume of different contaminants. For over decades, a great deal of attention has been focused on total concentration of few heavy metals and pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The Sewage Sludge Directive (86/278/EEC) regulates the allowable limits of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg and pathogens and allows for recovery of sludge on land under defined sanitary and environmentally sound conditions. In this paper, a review on quality of sewage sludge based on the publications after 2010 has been presented. Nowadays there are several papers focusing on new serious threats to human health and ecosystem occurring in sewage sludge - both chemicals (such as toxic trace elements - Se, Ag, Ti; nanoparticles; polyaromatic hydrocarbons; polychlorinated biphenyl; perfluorinated surfactants, polycyclic musks, siloxanes, pesticides, phenols, sweeteners, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles) and biological traits (Legionella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157:H7). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Destroying lignocellulosic matters for enhancing methane production from excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodi; Hu, Yuansheng; Cao, Daqi

    2016-01-01

    A lot of lignocellulosic matters are usually present in excess sludge, which are hardly degraded in anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus remains mostly in digested sludge. This is a reason why the conversion rate of sludge organics into energy (CH4) is often low. Obviously, the hydrolysis of AD cannot destruct the structure of lignocellulosic matters. Structural destruction of lignocellulosic matters has to be performed in AD. In this study, pretreatments with the same principles as cell disintegration of sludge were applied to destruct lignocellulosic matters so that these materials could be converted to CH4 via AD. Acid, alkali, thermal treatment and ultrasonic were used in the experiments to observe the destructed/degraded efficiency of lignocellulosic matters. Thermal treatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment. Under optimized conditions (T = 150 °C and t = 30  min), pretreated sludge had a degraded rate of 52.6% in AD, due to easy destruction and/or degradation of hemicelluloses and celluloses in pretreatment. The sludge pretreated by thermal treatment could enhance the CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VSS) by 53.6% compared to raw sludge. Economically, the thermal treatment can balance the input energy with the produced energy (steam and electricity).

  1. Metal fractionation in sludge from sewage UASB treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A F M; Zaiat, M; Silva, G H R; Fermoso, F G

    2017-05-15

    This study evaluates the trace metal composition and fractionation in sludge samples from anaerobic sewage treatment plants from six cities in Brazil. Ten metals were evaluated: Ni, Mn, Se, Co, Fe, Zn, K, Cu, Pb and Cr. Specific methanogenic activity of the sludge was also evaluated using acetic acid as the substrate. Among the essential trace metals for anaerobic digestion, Se, Zn, Ni and Fe were found at a high percentage in the organic matter/sulfide fraction in all sludge samples analyzed. These metals are less available for microorganisms than other metals, i.e., Co and K, which were present in significant amounts in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. Cu is not typically reported as an essential metal but as a possible inhibitor. One of the samples showed a total Cu concentration close to the maximal amount allowed for reuse as fertilizer. Among the non-essential trace metals, Pb was present in all sludge samples at similar low concentrations and was primarily present in the residual fraction, demonstrating very low availability. Cr was found at low concentrations in all sludge samples, except for the sludge from STP5; interestingly, this sludge presented the lowest specific methanogenic activity, indicating possible Cr toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Possibility of radiation application to sludge treatment in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehisa, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1980-01-01

    Interest in the effective use of sludge, which is generated increasingly with the propagation of sewage, is being enhanced in Japan. On the other hand, attention is given to the return of sludge to soil in agriculture for the purpose of putting organic material into agricultural land. For this purpose, of course, heavy metals and toxic chemicals must not be contained in sludge, but further inactivation of the pathogens, parasite ova and seeds in sludge is considered to be required. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the radiation disinfection of dehydrated cake forming 80% of the sludge taken out of treatment plants in Japan. As a result of the examination of the change in the number of bacteria by ..gamma.. irradiation, 0.5 Mrad was decided to be the suitable dose for sanitating sludge regardless of season, at which dose the coliform group decreased greatly. It seems that sludges are required to be composted in Japan. Radiation disinfection has the advantage of composting under the optimum temperature condition for fermentation, because it does not require high temperature during fermentation aiming at the sterilization of pathogens. However, it is desirable to use large output accelerators combining with the radiation process for the purpose of reusing treated water in order to reduce the process cost.

  3. Experimental study on combustion and slagging characteristics of tannery sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunyu; Jiang, Xuguang; Fei, Zhenwei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Incineration is the most reasonable technique for tannery sludge disposal. The combustion and gaseous products emission characteristics of tannery sludge were investigated in this study. Tendency of slagging for combustion residue was also investigated based on the composition and microscopic scanning analysis. The high content of volatile matters and ash in tannery sludge was discovered. It was shown that the thermal decomposition and combustion of tannery sludge mainly occurs in a temperature frame between 150 degree Celsius and 780 degree Celsius. Organic acid was determined as the most important gaseous pollutant at low temperature combustion. The combustion residue from a specially designed furnace was analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) microprobe coupled in a scanning electron micro-scope (SEM). There is large amount of Ca in the combustion residue, and CaO was the main inorganic composition in these residues. The tannery sludge studied in this paper has a strong tendency of slagging, and the fusion of the residue began at 900 degree Celsius in combustion. It was further discovered that almost all the zinc (Zn) in tannery sludge is volatilized at 900 degree Celsius. The degree of volatilization for heavy metals at 900 degree Celsius followed the order of Zn > Cd >Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr. Most of Cr in tannery sludge is enriched in the residue during combustion. The present study reveals that it is critical to control the combustion temperature for optimal combustion efficiency and minimization of pollutants emission. (author)

  4. Possibility of radiation application to sludge treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    Interest in the effective use of sludge, which is generated increasingly with the propagation of sewerage, is being enhanced in Japan. On the other hand, attention is given to the return of sludge to soil in agriculture for the purpose of putting organic material into agricultural land. For this purpose, of course heavy metals and toxic chemicals must not be contained in sludge, but further inactivation of the pathogens, parasite ova and seeds in sludge is considered to be required. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the radiation disinfection of dehydrated cake forming 80% of the sludge taken out of treatment plants in Japan. As a result of the examination of the change in the number of bacteria by γ irradiation, 0.5 Mrad was decided to be the suitable dose for sanitating sludge regardless of season, at which coliform group decreased greatly. It seems that sludges are required to be composted in Japan. Radiation disinfection has the advantage of composting under the optimum temperature condition for fermentation, because it is not required to keep high temperature during fermentation aiming at the sterilization of pathogens. However, it is desirable to use large output accelerators combining with the radiation process for the purpose of reusing treated water in order to reduce the process cost. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  6. Review on innovative techniques in oil sludge bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Abdullah M. El; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Eqab, Eqab Sanoosi

    2017-10-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon waste is produced in worldwide refineries in significant amount. In Libya, approximately 10,000 tons of oil sludge is generated in oil refineries (hydrocarbon waste mixtures) annually. Insufficient treatment of those wastes can threaten the human health and safety as well as our environment. One of the major challenges faced by petroleum refineries is the safe disposal of oil sludge generated during the cleaning and refining process stages of crude storage facilities. This paper reviews the hydrocarbon sludge characteristics and conventional methods for remediation of oil hydrocarbon from sludge. This study intensively focuses on earlier literature to describe the recently selected innovation technology in oily hydrocarbon sludge bioremediation process. Conventional characterization parameters or measurable factors can be gathered in chemical, physical, and biological parameters: (1) Chemical parameters are consequently necessary in the case of utilization of topsoil environment when they become relevant to the presence of nutrients and toxic compounds; (2) Physical parameters provide general data on sludge process and hand ability; (3) Biological parameters provide data on microbial activity and organic matter presence, which will be used to evaluate the safety of the facilities. The objective of this research is to promote the bioremediating oil sludge feasibility from Marsa El Hariga Terminal and Refinery (Tobruk).

  7. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  8. Study of charge-carrier relaxation in a disordered organic semiconductor by simulating impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesta, M.; Cottaar, J.; Coehoorn, R.; Bobbert, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a very sensitive probe of nonstationary charge transport governed by charge-carrier relaxation in devices of disordered organic semiconductors. We simulate impedance spectroscopy measurements of hole-only devices of a polyfluorene-based disordered organic semiconductor by

  9. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  10. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate's beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ∼60 C, 80 C, and 95 C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal

  11. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  12. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M.

    1998-01-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge [it

  13. Designing a Distributed Space Systems Simulation in Accordance with the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are essential for engineering design. These virtual realities provide characteristic data to scientists and engineers in order to understand the details and complications of the desired mission. A standard development simulation package known as Trick is used in developing a source code to model a component (federate in HLA terms). The runtime executive is integrated into an HLA based distributed simulation. TrickHLA is used to extend a Trick simulation for a federation execution, develop a source code for communication between federates, as well as foster data input and output. The project incorporates international cooperation along with team collaboration. Interactions among federates occur throughout the simulation, thereby relying on simulation interoperability. Communication through the semester went on between participants to figure out how to create this data exchange. The NASA intern team is designing a Lunar Rover federate and a Lunar Shuttle federate. The Lunar Rover federate supports transportation across the lunar surface and is essential for fostering interactions with other federates on the lunar surface (Lunar Shuttle, Lunar Base Supply Depot and Mobile ISRU Plant) as well as transporting materials to the desired locations. The Lunar Shuttle federate transports materials to and from lunar orbit. Materials that it takes to the supply depot include fuel and cargo necessary to continue moon-base operations. This project analyzes modeling and simulation technologies as well as simulation interoperability. Each team from participating universities will work on and engineer their own federate(s) to participate in the SISO Spring 2011 Workshop SIW Smackdown in Boston, Massachusetts. This paper will focus on the Lunar Rover federate.

  14. Modification of SWAT model for simulation of organic matter in Korean watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Wook; Gyeong Yoon, Chun

    2012-01-01

    The focus of water quality modeling of Korean streams needs to be shifted from dissolved oxygen to algae or organic matter. In particular, the structure of water quality models should be modified to simulate the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which is a key factor in calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in Korea, using 5-day BOD determined in the laboratory (Bottle BOD(5)). Considering the limitations in simulating organic matter under domestic conditions, we attempted to model total organic carbon (TOC) as well as BOD by using a watershed model. For this purpose, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified and extended to achieve better correspondence between the measured and simulated BOD and TOC concentrations. For simulated BOD in the period 2004-2008, the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient increased from a value of -2.54 to 0.61. Another indicator of organic matter, namely, the simulated TOC concentration showed that the modified SWAT adequately reflected the observed values. The improved model can be used to predict organic matter and hence, may be a potential decision-making tool for TMDLs. However, it needs further testing for longer simulation periods and other catchments.

  15. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... ha organic farm with ethanol or biogas, respectively. This calculation was based on the assumption that the electrical efficiency of CHP (combined heat and power) unit was 38%. A variety of different scenarios can be simulated to mirror the farmer's needs....

  16. Two strategies for phosphorus removal from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant using alum sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of the well recognized need of reject water treatment in MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant), this paper outlines two strategies for P removal from reject water using alum sludge, which is produced as by-product in drinking water treatment plant when aluminium sulphate is used for flocculating raw waters. One strategy is the use of the alum sludge in liquid form for co-conditioning and dewatering with the anaerobically digested activated sludge in MWWTP. The other strategy involves the use of the dewatered alum sludge cakes in a fixed bed for P immobilization from the reject water that refers to the mixture of the supernatant of the sludge thickening process and the supernatant of the anaerobically digested sludge. Experimental trials have demonstrated that the alum sludge can efficiently reduce P level in reject water. The co-conditioning strategy could reduce P from 597-675 mg P/L to 0.14-3.20 mg P/L in the supernatant of the sewage sludge while the organic polymer dosage for the conditioning of the mixed sludges would also be significantly reduced. The second strategy of reject water filtration with alum sludge bed has shown a good performance of P reduction. The alum sludge has P-adsorption capacity of 31 mg-P/g-sludge, which was tested under filtration velocity of 1.0 m/h. The two strategies highlight the beneficial utilization of alum sludge in wastewater treatment process in MWWTP, thus converting the alum sludge as a useful material, rather than a waste for landfill.

  17. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m 3 m 2 h −1 the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds

  18. Can those organic micro-pollutants that are recalcitrant in activated sludge treatment be removed from wastewater by biofilm reactors (slow sand filters)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escolà Casas, Mònica; Bester, Kai, E-mail: kb@dmu.dk

    2015-02-15

    The degradation of seven compounds which are usually recalcitrant in classical activated sludge treatment (e.g., diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol tebuconazole and propiconazole) was studied in a biofilm reactor (slow sand filtration). This reactor was used to treat real effluent-wastewater at different flow rates (hydraulic loadings) under aerobic conditions so removal and degradation kinetics of these recalcitrant compounds were calculated. With the hydraulic loading rate of 0.012 m{sup 3} m{sup 2} h{sup −1} the reactor removed 41, 94, 58, 57 and 85% of diclofenac, propranolol, iopromide, iohexol and iomeprol respectively. For these compounds the removal efficiency was dependent on hydraulic residence-times. Only 59 and 21% of the incoming tebuconazole and propiconazole respectively were removed but their removal did not depend on hydraulic residence time. Biofilm reactors are thus efficient in removing micro-pollutants and could be considered as an option for advanced treatment in small wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • A biofilm reactor (biofilter) can remove micro-pollutants from WWTP effluent. • Sorption could be excluded as the dominant removal mechanism. • Biodegradation was responsible for removing seven compounds. • The removal efficiency was usually proportional to the hydraulic residence-time. • Single first-order removal rates apply for most compounds.

  19. Comparison of biomass from integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating recalcitrant organics: Importance of attached biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Xue, Jinkai; Zhang, Yanyan; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-15

    This study compared microbial characteristics and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment performance of five types of microbial biomass (MBBR-biofilm, IFAS-biofilm, IFAS-floc, MBR-aerobic-floc, and MBR-anoxic-floc) cultivated from three types of bioreactors (MBBR, IFAS, and MBR) in batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, acid extractable fraction (AEF), and naphthenic acids (NAs) removals efficiencies were distinctly different between suspended and attached bacterial aggregates and between aerobic and anoxic suspended flocs. MBR-aerobic-floc and MBR-anoxic-floc demonstrated COD removal efficiencies higher than microbial aggregates obtained from MBBR and IFAS, MBBR and IFAS biofilm had higher AEF removal efficiencies than those obtained using flocs. MBBR-biofilm demonstrated the most efficient NAs removal from OSPW. NAs degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the carbon number and NA cyclization number according to UPLC/HRMS analysis. Mono- and di-oxidized NAs were the dominant oxy-NA species in OSPW samples. Microbial analysis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) indicated that the bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was significantly higher in the batch bioreactors with suspended flocs than in those with biofilm, the NSR gene abundance in the MBR-anoxic bioreactor was significantly lower than that in aerobic batch bioreactors, and denitrifiers were more abundant in the suspended phase of the activated sludge flocs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  1. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this.......Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling......, leading to varying results and conclusions. In this paper, a vast amount of papers are critically reviewed with respect to this and important flaws are highlighted with respect to rheometer choice, rheometer settings and measurement protocol. The obtained rheograms from experimental efforts have...

  2. Use of hydrodynamic disintegration to accelerate anaerobic digestion of surplus activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Machnicka, Alicja

    2009-12-01

    Hydrodynamic disintegration of activated sludge resulted in organic matter and polymers transfer from the solid phase into the liquid phase. Disintegration by hydrodynamic cavitation had a positive effect on the degree and rate of excess sludge anaerobic digestion. Also, addition of a part of anaerobic digested sludge containing adapted microorganisms resulted in acceleration of the process. The disruption of cells of foam microorganisms and addition to the digestion process led to an increase of biogas production.

  3. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  4. MOLED: Simulation of multilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Lütjens, H.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2003-12-01

    MOLED solves the dynamics of electrons and holes in multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). The carriers are injected on the positive and negative electrodes of the device by tunneling through a potential barrier. Thermal excitation processes across the barrier are also included. In the interior of the device the electron-hole recombination occurs when the two carriers are close enough, according to a model inspired from the one of Langevin. A fraction of these recombined pairs gives photons. The charge transport inside the organic material occurs through hopping. Several choices of mobility formulae are available in the code. MOLED can be used for OLEDs with an arbitrary number of layers. The output consists of numerous fields that describe the device performance. For example, there are the current, the recombination and the charge density distributions, the electric field distribution, the current-voltage characteristics and the device internal quantum efficiency. Program summaryTitle of program: MOLED Catalogue identifier: ADSG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Unix, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 2 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: 26 942 No. of bits in a word: 64 Peripherals used: permanent disk storage No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3695 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of the physical problem: Injection of electrons and holes into an organic electroluminescent material occurs through tunneling from metal electrodes. The transport of carriers inside the molecular medium proceeds by hopping from one molecule to another. The emission of light is a result of their radiative Langevin recombination (for a review see [Scott et al., Synthetic Metals 111-112 (2000) 289; Friend et al

  5. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  6. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, G

    2013-01-01

    Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability.

  8. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  9. Response of rice to nitrogenous fertilizer and irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, F.; Lodhi, A.; Sajjad, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of Gamma-irradiated sewage sludge, applied alone or along with /sup 15/N-labelled ammonium sulphate (1.0 atom % /sup 15/N excess), on rice yield and N uptake. Six-kg portions of a clay loam were amended wit sewage sludge to obtain N addition rates of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg kg/sub -1/ soil. In other treatments nitrogen was applied at 120 mg kg/sup -1/ as /sup 15/N-labelled ammonium sulphate or 120 mg kg/sub -1/ as /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N + sludge-N in the ratios of 1:3, 1:1, or 3:1. All the treatments were given before transplanting rice. Three healthy seedlings (4-week old) of rice (Oryza sativa L., var. Bas-Pak) were transplanted pot/sup -1/ and the plants harvested at maturity. Application of sewage sludge caused a significant improvement in rice yield. Grain yield increased by 188% at sludge-N of 120 mg N kg/sup -1/. The yield benefit at similar rate of fertilizer N was 304%, the increase being more at higher rates of application. The increase in rice yield was dependent on uptake of N and sewage sludge significantly improved the availability of N to the plants. The additional plant N in sludge treated soil was partially attributable to enhanced mineralization of soil N and N/sub 2/ fixation by free living microorganisms. Application of inorganic N led to a significant increase in the availability of N to plants from soil organic matter and sewage sludge. Results of combined application suggested that substantial savings of fertilizer N can be made by using sewage sludge on rice-fields. (author)

  10. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  11. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  12. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  13. Impact of accelerated electrons on activating process and foaming potential of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba, V.; Pospisil, M.; Mucka, V.; Silber, R.; Jenicek, P.; Dohanyos, M.; Zabranska, J.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Presently, anaerobic and/or aerobic biological treatment is the cheapest and the most effective method of wastewater and sludge processing. However, due to some non-biodegradable substances present in wastewater and also due to limited capacity of wastewater treatment plants, it is necessary to find effective processes, that would be complementary to existing sludge treatment methods. Beside chemical and physical processes, radiation technology seems to offer improvement of effectivity of biological treatment. The paper describes possibilities of irradiation in activating process. Activated sludge can be affected in all its parameters, including physico chemical properties, such as sedimentation rate, or resulting volume of sludge. For the purpose of this research, laboratory experimental reactors simulating activating process were operated. According to previous results, accelerated electrons were used for irradiation, for e-beam seems to be more expedient than gamma irradiation. Reactor with irradiated sludge has been compared with the one without irradiation. It is shown, that pre-irradiation of sludge can positively affect following process of activation. Beside the activating process, another goal has been pursued. Radiation can strongly affect sludge foaming potential. Biological foaming caused by surfactant microorganisms, represents quite serious problem in many wastewater treatment plants, especially in digesters. It was proved that after irradiation foaming potential of sludge decreases. Pre-irradiation of activated sludge with relatively low doses also results in reduction of number of pathogenic microorganisms, presented in sludge

  14. Enhancing sewage sludge dewaterability by bioleaching approach with comparison to other physical and chemical conditioning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Dianzhan; Zhou, Lixiang

    2012-01-01

    The sewage sludge conditioning process is critical to improve the sludge dewaterability prior to mechanical dewatering. Traditionally, sludge is conditioned by physical or chemical approaches, mostly with the addition of inorganic or organic chemicals. Here we report that bioleaching, an efficient and economical microbial method for the removal of sludge-borne heavy metals, also plays a significant role in enhancing sludge dewaterability. The effects of bioleaching and physical or chemical approaches on sludge dewaterability were compared. The conditioning result of bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans on sludge dewatering was investigated and compared with the effects of hydrothermal (121 degrees C for 2 hr), microwave (1050 W for 50 sec), ultrasonic (250 W for 2 min), and chemical conditioning (24% ferric chloride and 68% calcium oxide; dry basis). The results show that the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) or capillary suction time (CST) of sludge is decreased by 93.1% or 74.1%, respectively, after fresh sludge is conditioned by bioleaching, which is similar to chemical conditioning treatment with ferric chloride and calcium oxide but much more effective than other conditioning approaches including hydrothermal, microwave, and ultrasonic conditioning. Furthermore, after sludge dewatering, bioleached sludge filtrate contains the lowest concentrations of chroma (18 times), COD (542 mg/L), total N (TN, 300 mg/L), NH4(+)-N (208 mg/L), and total P (TP, 2 mg/L) while the hydrothermal process resulted in the highest concentration of chroma (660 times), COD (18,155 mg/L), TN (472 mg/L), NH4(+)-N (381 mg/L), and TP (191 mg/L) among these selected conditioning methods. Moreover, unlike chemical conditioning, sludge bioleaching does not result in a significant reduction of organic matter, TN, and TP in the resulting dewatered sludge cake. Therefore, considering sludge dewaterability and the chemical properties of sludge

  15. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  16. Feasibility Study on Manufacturing Lightweight Aggregates from Water Purification Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Fang; Chen, How-Ji

    2018-02-01

    This study mainly discussed the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight aggregates from water purification sludge in Taiwan. They were analysed for the physical and chemical composition before the sintering test for lightweight aggregates in a laboratory. Then the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized aggregates were assessed. The result showed that the chemical composition of sludge in the water purification plants was within the appropriate range for manufacturing lightweight aggregate as proposed in the literature. The sintering test demonstrated that the particle density of aggregates from the ten types of water purification sludge were mostly less than 1.8 g/cm3. In addition, the dry unit weight, the organic impurity, the ignition loss, and other characteristics of synthesized aggregates met the requirement of CNS standards, while its water absorption and crushing strength also fulfilled the general commercial specifications. Therefore, reclamation of water purification sludge for production of lightweight aggregate is indeed feasible.

  17. Closed substance cycle and substance cycling management: Compilation and evaluation of data for the assessment of priority organic contaminants in secondary raw-material fertilisers (slightly polluted sewage sludge from rural areas and compost) and organic farm fertilisers (liquid manure and slurry) for a risk assessment; Kreislaufwirtschaft - Stoffstrommanagement: Ermittlung und Auswertung von Daten zur Beurteilung prioritaerer organischer Schadstoffe in Abfallduengern (niedrig belastete Klaerschlaemme aus laendlichen Regionen und Kompost) sowie in organischen Wirtschaftsduengern (Guelle und Jauche) fuer eine Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A.; Klein, M.

    2003-07-31

    In the scope of the presently discussed closed substance cycle management and the resulting substance cycling management the agricultural use of animal wastes, sewage sludges and composts as fertilisers and soil improvers, respectively, plays an important role. The aim of the present project was the scientific preparation of deliberations aiming to find out which concentrations of selected contaminants occurring in secondary raw-material fertilisers (sewage sludge and compost) and farm fertilisers can still be tolerated, which do not have harmful effects on the environment. Information on the occurrence in sewage sludges and soils and their effects on soil organisms were compiled and evaluated for the following substances: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), tributyltin (TBT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEPH) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition, respective data were searched for polyacrylamide (PAM), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic musk compounds. The impact of composts by organic contaminants was described giving examples for diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concerning the farm fertiliser slurry, information about organic pollutants stemming from cleaning agents or disinfectants, NP, LAS and quartenary ammonium compounds were collected. LAS, NP, TBT and DEHP were detected in most of the sewage sludge samples. DBP occurred less frequently and in lower concentrations than DEHP. Single exceedings of the respective limit-values of the 3{sup rd} Draft of the EU-Sewage Sludge Directive (LAS, NP, DEHP) or other expert groups (BaP) were observed. In compliance with the respective regulations, there seems to be no risk potential for terrestrial organisms. To derive reliable environmental standards for TBT, there is a need for more data. In compost, content of organic contaminants is generally dependent on impurities. Compost made of &apos

  18. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples.

  19. Electroplating sludge derived zinc-ferrite catalyst for the efficient photo-Fenton degradation of dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenbang; Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Jizhi; Ruan, Xiuxiu; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianyong; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2017-05-15

    A zinc-dominant ferrite catalyst for efficient degradation of organic dye was prepared by the calcination of electroplating sludge (ES). Characterizations indicated that zinc ferrite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) coexisted with Fe 2 O 3 structure was the predominant phase in the calcined electroplating sludge (CES). CES displayed a high decolorization ratio (88.3%) of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of H 2 O 2 combined with UV irradiation. The high efficiency could be ascribed to the photocatalytic process induced by ZnFe 2 O 4 and the photo-Fenton dye degradation by ferrous content, and a small amount of Al and Mg in the sludge might also contribute to the catalysis. Moreover, the degradation capability of dye by CES was supported by the synthetic ZnFe 2 O 4 with different Zn to Fe molar ratio (n(Zn): n(Fe)), as 84.81%-86.83% of dye was removed with n(Zn): n(Fe) ranged from 1:0.5 to 1:3. All synthetic ferrite samples in the simulation achieved adjacent equilibrium decolorization ratio, the flexible proportioning of divalent metal ions (M 2+ ) to trivalent metal ions (M 3+ ) applied in the synthesis indicated that the catalyst has a high availability. Therefore, an efficacious catalyst for the degradation of dye can potentially be derived from heavy metal-containing ES, it's a novel approach for the reutilization of ES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  1. Evaluation of sludge pile formation in a U-tube steam generator using a scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, M.; LeClair, M.L.; Chandra, S.; Grondahl, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate sludge deposition in steam generators using a semicircular model to a geometric scale of 1:3 simulating the bottom region of a U-Tube steam generator. The vertical and horizontal velocity distributions and turbulence intensities at different elevations in the bottom region were measured using a Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system. The sludge deposition tests were conducted using a sludge material selected after several trial tests with different materials. The deposition patterns showed good agreement with prototype sludge patterns, available from field data. A good correlation of the sludge deposition patterns with the measured flow patterns was established. Deposition of sludge was found to be initiated within the wakes behind the tubes. (orig./DG)

  2. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate. The ....... The settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably.......The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate...

  3. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  4. Measurement of faecal sludge in-situ shear strength and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mechanised technologies have been developed to facilitate pit emptying, which are currently either tested on faecal sludge or an 'ad-hoc' simulant that (in the opinion of the tester) approximately replicates the behaviour of faecal sludge. This ranges from a watery consistency in some pour-flush latrines to the strong ...

  5. Overall effect of carbon production and nutrient release in sludge holding tank on mainstream biological nutrient removal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Pouria; Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2017-09-11

    The potential of hydrolysis/fermentation of activated sludge in sludge holding tank (SHT) to produce additional carbon for the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process was investigated. The study was conducted in anaerobic batch tests using the BNR sludge (from a full-scale Westside process) and the mixture of BNR sludge with conventional non-BNR activated sludge (to have higher biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (bpCOD) in sludge). The BioWin 4.1 was used to simulate the anaerobic batch test of the BNR sludge. Also, the overall effect of FCOD production and nutrient release on BNR efficiency of the Westside process was estimated. The experimental results showed that the phosphorous uptake of sludge increased during hydrolysis/ fermentation condition up to the point when poly-P was completely utilized; afterwards, it decreased significantly. The BioWin simulation could not predict the loss of aerobic phosphorous uptake after poly-P was depleted. The results showed that in the case of activated sludge with relatively higher bpCOD (originating from plants with short sludge retention time or without primary sedimentation), beneficial effect of SHT on BNR performance is feasible. In order to increase the potential of SHT to enhance BNR efficiency, a relatively low retention time and high sludge load is recommended.

  6. Recycling of Treated Sewage Sludge in Sustainable Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural utilization of organic wastes amendments has been shown to be a sound alternative for both waste recycling and soil fertility improvement. Also, attention had been paid to use the biological agents that most cheap and safe for agricultural application in poor sandy soils. In this respect, irradiated sewage sludge and individual and dual inoculants of Azospirillum, Rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi were applied for reclamation and development of low fertile sandy soil. The fertilizer value of sewage sludge has been known for a long time, but the concomitant problems of heavy metals in soil, as a result of its continuous applications, have only been recognized recently. Most of the studies were devoted to follow up the effect of high concentrations of metals when sewage sludge was applied, but no attention has been accelerated about its effect on soil microorganisms. Adverse effects of sewage sludge on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria, Rhizobium, Mycorrhizae and total microbial biomass have been detected in some cases of Europe. For example, N 2 fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr, and 71 Pb. Impact of bio fertilizers combined with irradiated sewage sludge on micro nutrients, e.g. Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb availability to clover and wheat plants, and productivity of both crops was the main objective of this study. In this connection, nuclear technology may offer a safety method against pathogenic effects of sewage sludge applied into agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, irradiated sludge is considered as safely source of organic wastes as well as the benefits on enrichment the low fertile soil with available nutrients, which act as a limiting factor for crop production. The N, P and K nutrients uptake by either shoots or grains of tested crops were positively and significantly affected by application of sewage sludge as well as bio

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF AGRICULTURAL USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN OLECKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Filkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Waste Management Plan 2014 (NWMP 2014 recommended method of utilization of sewage sludge is using it for agricultural purposes or for land reclamation. The sludge is characterized by a high content of organic substances, microelements and biogenic compounds, through which sewage sludge possess high soil formation and fertilization properties. It is assumed that in 2020 approximately 30% of the sludge production will be used for agricultural purposes, while 15% will be used for land reclamation. We have to remember that prior to the introduction of sludge into the ground, security, health and chemical requirements should be met. In order to use the sludge for agricultural purposes, the process of their disposal should be previously carried out e.g. Autoheated Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD. It allows for hygienisation of sewage sludge and reducing the heavy metal content. As a result, processed sewage sludge is characterized by the presence of heavy metals in amounts which do not exceed the standards. It is also deprived of microorganisms. The stabilized sludge is characterized by high phosphorus and calcium content. Therefore there is possibility to use the examined sludge in agriculture.

  8. Facile synthesis of porous TiO_2 photocatalysts using waste sludge as the template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Shouqiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalyst with porous structure, which possesses better photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO_2. - Highlights: • Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the TiO_2 photocatalyst. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample possesses porous structure. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample exhibits high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A resource utilization method of waste sludge is present by the synthesis of waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalysts. The organic materials in waste sludge are used as the pore-forming agents, and the transition metals included in the remaining waste sludge through calcination (WSC) can serve as the dopants for the WSC-TiO_2 (WSCT) photocatalyst. The visible and UV–visible light driven photocatalytic activities of WSCT are much better compared to those of pure TiO_2 and WSC, and it is originated from the higher light absorption property and the efficient electron–hole pair separation provided by waste sludge.

  9. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10% sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6%. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of graphoepitaxy of organic semiconductors, sexithiophene, and pentacene: Molecular-scale mechanisms of organic graphoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the organic semiconductors α-sexithiophene (6T) and pentacene were carried out to clarify the mechanism of organic graphoepitaxy at the molecular level. First, the models of the grooved substrates were made and the surfaces of the inside of the grooves were modified with -OH or -OSi(CH3)3, making the surfaces hydrophilic or hydrophobic. By the MD simulations of 6T, it was found that three stable azimuthal directions exist (0, ˜45, and 90° the angle that the c-axis makes with the groove), being consistent with experimental results. MD simulations of deposition processes of 6T and pentacene were also carried out, and pentacene molecules showed the spontaneous formation of herringbone packing during deposition. Some pentacene molecules stood on the surface and formed a cluster whose a-axis was parallel to the groove. It is expected that a deep understanding of the molecular-scale mechanisms will lead graphoepitaxy to practical applications, improving the performance of organic devices.

  11. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  12. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de; Filho, Guimes Rodrigues; Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Júlia Graciele; Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene; Alves Cerqueira, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. ► The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg −1 . ► The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. ► The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlândia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg −1 was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  13. Thermal analysis and FTIR studies of sewage sludge produced in treatment plants. The case of sludge in the city of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Silva, Jader de [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Departamento Municipal de Agua e Esgoto de Uberlandia (DMAE) (Brazil); Filho, Guimes Rodrigues, E-mail: guimes@ufu.br [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva Meireles, Carla da; Dias Ribeiro, Sabrina; Vieira, Julia Graciele [Instituto de Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902, Cx. Postal 593, Uberlandia - Minas Gerais (Brazil); Vieira da Silva, Cleuzilene [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica da Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (Brazil); Alves Cerqueira, Daniel [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel da Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study, the sludge was characterized by thermal analyses and FTIR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior calorific value of the sludge was 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sludge showed a significant biodegradable portion of 65%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The UASB sludge can be used for energy source. - Abstract: The operation of anaerobic reactors in Brazil creates a by-product, sewage sludge, for which adequate treatment is necessary to obtain a solid and stable material. The burning of sewage sludge may be an effective alternative for its management, and looking to enhance its energy potential, an environmentally friendly method of disposal is necessary. As the quantity of sludge generated has increased over the past few years, the physical chemical characterization of this waste is the first stage for its utilization as raw material. The material was characterized by thermal analyses (Thermogravimetry (TG)/Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)) and Infrared Analysis (FTIR) in order to determine the main organic groups present in sludge. The calorific power of the anaerobically digested sludge of Uberlandia-MG, Brazil was measured, and an energy content equal to 16.2 MJ kg{sup -1} was found, which is within the range of values reported in the literature.

  14. 76 FR 2328 - National Organic Program: Notice of Draft Guidance Concerning “Made With Organic (Specified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... methods (i.e., genetically modified organisms), sewage sludge or ionizing radiation. Multi-ingredient... ingredients must not have been produced using excluded methods (genetically modified organisms), sewage sludge...

  15. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  16. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume

  17. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ∼10 to 18 C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50 C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO 2 ) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO 2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO 3 · 2H 2 O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the

  18. Use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for increasing soil fertility and crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.

    1997-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic-matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amendment for farmers. In this study at four locations in Bavaria, the application of sewage sludge produced com yields that were similar to or better than those produced by an equal application (in terms of N) of chemical fertilizer. High rates of sludge (800 m 3 /ha) further improved crop yields, although such are impractical for farmers' fields. Residual beneficial effects of sewage-sludge application were seen also in terms of subsequent yields of barley. Application of sludge also improved biological and physical properties of the soils. More long-term studies are needed to better understand how sewage sludge contributes to the improvement of soil fertility and crop yields. (author)

  19. Sulfur transformations related to revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlas, S.A.; Artiola, J.F.; Salo, L.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated factors controlling redox conditions in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge and identified ways to minimize the production of phytotoxic reduced sulfur species at FGD sludge disposal sites. The oxidation of reduced FGD sludge (Eh-385 mV) appears to be a two-step process mostly controlled by water content. Eighty percent of total sulfide in reduced sludge was oxidized within 20 h of exposure to air with constant water evaporation. When organic carbon (OC) was added to saturated oxidized sludge, the Eh dropped exponentially. Sulfate reduction began at an Eh of about -75 mV and reached a maximum at -265 to -320 mV. Water content, degree of mixing, concentration of OC, and temperature control the rate and extent of reduction of FGD sludge. This suggests that water saturation and OC inputs to revegetated disposal sites should be controlled, especially during warm temperatures, to prevent production of phytotoxic levels of sulfides.

  20. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  1. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  2. Types and treatment of sewage sludges: Practice in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The sludge that is formed by the various processes in the sewage treatment plant consists mainly of water with a small amount of organic and inorganic suspended solids. It contains pathogenic agents and biological inhibitors, and must be prepared and brought into a form where it is less dangerous to the environment. The de-watering of the sludge is the first step in sludge handling. The solids content of the raw sludge, which is usually between 5 and 10%, can be increased by gravity thickening to 15%, by centrifuging or straining-band-pressing up to 30%, and by pressure-filtration up to 40%. The process of drying enables a substance with almost no moisture to be obtained. Generally the sludge will be either mixed before de-watering with coagulation agencies, or preheated, or its colloidal components biochemically oxidized in order to accelerate the withdrawal of the water. One of the most common methods of disposal is the transport of sludge to a land filling, usually together with the solid refuse of the community. For this purpose the moisture content of the sludge should not be more than 60 to 70 percent. The disposal of sludge into the sea can be practised in coastal towns, but the ecological effects of this kind of sludge removal are still disputed. More expedient is the agricultural utilization of sludge, particularly if the sludge is composted together with a carbon carrier such as city refuse which would make it a very suitable soil improver. In the Federal Republic of Germany the wet oxidation of sludge is applied in a few cases. The most common process is anaerobic alkaline digestion. The incineration of sludge is more economical than drying, but still too, expensive in comparison with other approved processes. (author)

  3. Highly efficient secondary dewatering of dewatered sewage sludge using low boiling point solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Chena, Chia-Lung; Xu, Zhirong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge is imperative to make conventional drying and incineration of sludge more economically feasible. In this study, a secondary dewatering of dewatered sludge with selected solvents (i.e. acetone and ethanol) followed by vacuum filtration and nature drying was investigated to achieve in-depth dewatering. After the entire secondary dewatering process, the sludge was shown to be odourless and the organic matter content was greatly retained. Increased mean particle size of sludge after solvent contact improved solid-liquid separation. With an acetone/sludge ratio of 3:1 (mL:g) in solvent contact and subsequent nature drying at ambient temperature after 24 h, the moisture content of sludge can be reduced to a level less than 20%. It is found that the polysaccharides were mainly precipitated by acetone, whereas the release ratios of protein and DNA were increased significantly as the added acetone volumes were elevated. During nature drying, accumulated evaporation rates of the sludge after solvent contact were 5-6 times higher than original dewatered sludge. Furthermore, sludge after acetone contact had better nature drying performance than ethanol. The two-stage dewatering involves solvent contact dewatering and solvent enhanced evaporation dewatering. Through selecting an appropriate solvent/sludge ratio as well as economical solvents and minimizing the solvent loss in a closed-pilot system, this dewatering process can be competitive in industrial applications. Therefore, this solvent-aided secondary dewatering is an energy-saving technology for effective in-depth dewatering of dewatered sludge and subsequent sludge utilization.

  4. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used