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Sample records for simplified analytical method

  1. Simplified Analytical Method for Optimized Initial Shape Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges and Its Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Rag Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analytical method providing accurate unstrained lengths of all structural elements is proposed to find the optimized initial state of self-anchored suspension bridges under dead loads. For this, equilibrium equations of the main girder and the main cable system are derived and solved by evaluating the self-weights of cable members using unstrained cable lengths and iteratively updating both the horizontal tension component and the vertical profile of the main cable. Furthermore, to demonstrate the validity of the simplified analytical method, the unstrained element length method (ULM is applied to suspension bridge models based on the unstressed lengths of both cable and frame members calculated from the analytical method. Through numerical examples, it is demonstrated that the proposed analytical method can indeed provide an optimized initial solution by showing that both the simplified method and the nonlinear FE procedure lead to practically identical initial configurations with only localized small bending moment distributions.

  2. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  3. A simplified presentation of the multigroup analytic nodal method in 2-D Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The nodal diffusion algorithms used in many production reactor simulation codes are originating from a common ancestry developed in the 1970s, the analytic nodal method (ANM) of the QUANDRY code. However, this original presentation of the ANM is complex and makes difficult the calculation of the nodal coupling matrices. Moreover, QUANDRY is limited to two-energy groups and its generalization to more groups appears laborious. We are presenting a simplified implementation of the ANM requiring only limited programming work. This formulation is consistent with the initial QUANDRY implementation and is easily generalizable to arbitrary G-group problems. A Matlab script is provided to highlight the simplicity of our presentation. For the sake of clarity, our implementation is limited to G-group, 2-D Cartesian geometry

  4. Simple design of slanted grating with simplified modal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubin; Zhou, Changhe; Cao, Hongchao; Wu, Jun

    2014-02-15

    A simplified modal method (SMM) is presented that offers a clear physical image for subwavelength slanted grating. The diffraction characteristic of the slanted grating under Littrow configuration is revealed by the SMM as an equivalent rectangular grating, which is in good agreement with rigorous coupled-wave analysis. Based on the equivalence, we obtained an effective analytic solution for simplifying the design and optimization of a slanted grating. It offers a new approach for design of the slanted grating, e.g., a 1×2 beam splitter can be easily designed. This method should be helpful for designing various new slanted grating devices.

  5. Seismic analysis of long tunnels: A review of simplified and unified methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seismic analysis of long tunnels is important for safety evaluation of the tunnel structure during earthquakes. Simplified models of long tunnels are commonly adopted in seismic design by practitioners, in which the tunnel is usually assumed as a beam supported by the ground. These models can be conveniently used to obtain the overall response of the tunnel structure subjected to seismic loading. However, simplified methods are limited due to the assumptions that need to be made to reach the solution, e.g. shield tunnels are assembled with segments and bolts to form a lining ring and such structural details may not be included in the simplified model. In most cases, the design will require a numerical method that does not have the shortcomings of the analytical solutions, as it can consider the structural details, non-linear behavior, etc. Furthermore, long tunnels have significant length and pass through different strata. All of these would require large-scale seismic analysis of long tunnels with three-dimensional models, which is difficult due to the lack of available computing power. This paper introduces two types of methods for seismic analysis of long tunnels, namely simplified and unified methods. Several models, including the mass-spring-beam model, and the beam-spring model and its analytical solution are presented as examples of the simplified method. The unified method is based on a multiscale framework for long tunnels, with coarse and refined finite element meshes, or with the discrete element method and the finite difference method to compute the overall seismic response of the tunnel while including detailed dynamic response at positions of potential damage or of interest. A bridging scale term is introduced in the framework so that compatibility of dynamic behavior between the macro- and meso-scale subdomains is enforced. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the simplified and the unified methods.

  6. Simplified analytical methods and experimental correlations of damping in piping during dynamic high-level inelastic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    Simplified methods for predicting equivalent viscous damping are used to assess damping contributions due to piping inelastic plastic hinge action and support snubbers. These increments are compared to experimental findings from shake and snap-back tests of several pipe systems. Good correlations were found confirming the usefulness of the simplified methods

  7. 3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for predicting the dynamic responses of a ship in a collision scenario features speed and accuracy,and the external dynamics constitute an important part. A 3D simplified analytical method is implemented by MATLAB and used to calculate the energy dissipation of ship-ship collisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are then compared with those of a 2D simplified analytical method. The total dissipated energy can be obtained through the proposed analytical method, and the influence of the collision heights,angles and locations on the dissipated energy is discussed on that basis. Furthermore,the effects of restitution on the conservative coefficients and the effects of conservative coefficients on energy dissipation are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed 3D analysis yields a lesser energy dissipation than that of the 2D analysis,and the collision height has a significant influence on the dissipated energy. In using the proposed simplified method,it is not safe to simplify the conservative coefficient as zero when the collision angle is greater than 90 degrees. In the future research, to get more accurate energy dissipation, it is a good way to adopt the 3D simplified analytical method instead of the 2D method.

  8. Analytical methods for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This book describes useful analytical methods by applying them to real-world problems rather than solving the usual over-simplified classroom problems. The book demonstrates the applicability of analytical methods even for complex problems and guides the reader to a more intuitive understanding of approaches and solutions. Although the solution of Partial Differential Equations by numerical methods is the standard practice in industries, analytical methods are still important for the critical assessment of results derived from advanced computer simulations and the improvement of the underlying numerical techniques. Literature devoted to analytical methods, however, often focuses on theoretical and mathematical aspects and is therefore useless to most engineers. Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems addresses engineers and engineering students. The second edition has been updated, the chapters on non-linear problems and on axial heat conduction problems were extended. And worked out exam...

  9. Simplified Model for the Hybrid Method to Design Stabilising Piles Placed at the Toe of Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilizing precarious slopes by installing piles has become a widespread technique for landslides prevention. The design of slope-stabilizing piles by the finite element method is more accurate comparing to the conventional methods. This accuracy is because of the ability of this method to simulate complex configurations, and to analyze the soil-pile interaction effect. However, engineers prefer to use the simplified analytical techniques to design slope stabilizing piles, this is due to the high computational resources required by the finite element method. Aiming to combine the accuracy of the finite element method with simplicity of the analytical approaches, a hybrid methodology to design slope stabilizing piles was proposed in 2012. It consists of two steps; (1: an analytical estimation of the resisting force needed to stabilize the precarious slope, and (2: a numerical analysis to define the adequate pile configuration that offers the required resisting force. The hybrid method is applicable only for the analysis and the design of stabilizing piles placed in the middle of the slope, however, in certain cases like road constructions, piles are needed to be placed at the toe of the slope. Therefore, in this paper a simplified model for the hybrid method is dimensioned to analyze and design stabilizing piles placed at the toe of a precarious slope. The validation of the simplified model is presented by a comparative analysis with the full coupled finite element model.

  10. Simplified discrete ordinates method in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsawi, M.A.; Abdurrahman, N.M.; Yavuz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors extend the method of simplified discrete ordinates (SS N ) to spherical geometry. The motivation for such an extension is that the appearance of the angular derivative (redistribution) term in the spherical geometry transport equation makes it difficult to decide which differencing scheme best approximates this term. In the present method, the angular derivative term is treated implicitly and thus avoids the need for the approximation of such term. This method can be considered to be analytic in nature with the advantage of being free from spatial truncation errors from which most of the existing transport codes suffer. In addition, it treats the angular redistribution term implicitly with the advantage of avoiding approximations to that term. The method also can handle scattering in a very general manner with the advantage of spending almost the same computational effort for all scattering modes. Moreover, the methods can easily be applied to higher-order S N calculations

  11. 3.6 simplified methods for design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Yahr, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simplified design analysis methods for elevated temperature construction are classified and reviewed. Because the major impetus for developing elevated temperature design methodology during the past ten years has been the LMFBR program, considerable emphasis is placed upon results from this source. The operating characteristics of the LMFBR are such that cycles of severe transient thermal stresses can be interspersed with normal elevated temperature operational periods of significant duration, leading to a combination of plastic and creep deformation. The various simplified methods are organized into two general categories, depending upon whether it is the material, or constitutive, model that is reduced, or the geometric modeling that is simplified. Because the elastic representation of material behavior is so prevalent, an entire section is devoted to elastic analysis methods. Finally, the validation of the simplified procedures is discussed

  12. A simplified generator coordinate treatment with analytical projected-BCS solutions for isovector pairing collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Chen, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the projected-BCS energies and reaction transition rates among the isovector pairing collective states are obtained by the recognition of symmetry properties in a class of BCS wave functions. As a consequence, a simplified generator coordinate treatment is suggested [pt

  13. Simplified method evaluation for piping elastic follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1983-05-01

    A proposed simplified method for evaluating elastic follow-up effects in high temperature pipelines is presented. The method was evaluated by comparing the simplified analysis results with those obtained from detailed inelastic solutions. Nine different pipelines typical of a nuclear breeder reactor power plant were analyzed; the simplified method is attractive because it appears to give fairly accurate and conservative results. It is easy to apply and inexpensive since it employs iterative elastic solutions for the pipeline coupled with the readily available isochronous stress-strain data provided in the ASME Code

  14. Discretization of convection-diffusion equations with finite-difference scheme derived from simplified analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriventsev, Vladimir

    2000-09-01

    Most of thermal hydraulic processes in nuclear engineering can be described by general convection-diffusion equations that are often can be simulated numerically with finite-difference method (FDM). An effective scheme for finite-difference discretization of such equations is presented in this report. The derivation of this scheme is based on analytical solutions of a simplified one-dimensional equation written for every control volume of the finite-difference mesh. These analytical solutions are constructed using linearized representations of both diffusion coefficient and source term. As a result, the Efficient Finite-Differencing (EFD) scheme makes it possible to significantly improve the accuracy of numerical method even using mesh systems with fewer grid nodes that, in turn, allows to speed-up numerical simulation. EFD has been carefully verified on the series of sample problems for which either analytical or very precise numerical solutions can be found. EFD has been compared with other popular FDM schemes including novel, accurate (as well as sophisticated) methods. Among the methods compared were well-known central difference scheme, upwind scheme, exponential differencing and hybrid schemes of Spalding. Also, newly developed finite-difference schemes, such as the the quadratic upstream (QUICK) scheme of Leonard, the locally analytic differencing (LOAD) scheme of Wong and Raithby, the flux-spline scheme proposed by Varejago and Patankar as well as the latest LENS discretization of Sakai have been compared. Detailed results of this comparison are given in this report. These tests have shown a high efficiency of the EFD scheme. For most of sample problems considered EFD has demonstrated the numerical error that appeared to be in orders of magnitude lower than that of other discretization methods. Or, in other words, EFD has predicted numerical solution with the same given numerical error but using much fewer grid nodes. In this report, the detailed

  15. Simplified analytical solutions for free drops during NCT for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    To ensure structural integrity during normal conditions of transport (NCT), Federal regulations in 10CFR71.71 require that the nuclear material package designs be evaluated for the effects of free drops. The vessel stress acceptance criteria for these drops are given in Regulatory Guide 7.6 and ASME Section III Code. During initial phases of the package design, the effects of the NCT free drops can be evaluated by simplified analytical solutions which will ensure that the safety margins specified in R. G. 7.6 are met. These safety margins can be verified during the final stages of the package design with dynamic analyses using finite element methods. This paper calculates the maximum impact open-quotes gclose quotes loading on the vessels using single degree of freedom models for different drop orientations. Only end, bottom, and corner drops are analyzed for cylindrical packages or packages with cylindrical ends

  16. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.

    2010-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified......, and this process produces noise in the obtained answers. This paper deals with the solution of second order of differential equation governing beam deformation using four analytical approximate methods, namely the Perturbation, Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and Variational...... Iteration Method (VIM). The comparisons of the results reveal that these methods are very effective, convenient and quite accurate for systems of non-linear differential equation....

  17. Statistical Mechanics of a Simplified Bipartite Matching Problem: An Analytical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Erba, Matías Germán

    2012-03-01

    We perform an analytical study of a simplified bipartite matching problem in which there exists a constant matching energy, and both heterosexual and homosexual pairings are allowed. We obtain the partition function in a closed analytical form and we calculate the corresponding thermodynamic functions of this model. We conclude that the model is favored at high temperatures, for which the probabilities of heterosexual and homosexual pairs tend to become equal. In the limits of low and high temperatures, the system is extensive, however this property is lost in the general case. There exists a relation between the matching energies for which the system becomes more stable under external (thermal) perturbations. As the difference of energies between the two possible matches increases the system becomes more ordered, while the maximum of entropy is achieved when these energies are equal. In this limit, there is a first order phase transition between two phases with constant entropy.

  18. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1965-07-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for stumethods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations.

  19. An analytical method for neutron thermalization calculations in heterogenous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1965-01-01

    It is well known that the use of the diffusion approximation for studying neutron thermalization in heterogeneous reactors may result in considerable errors. On the other hand, more exact numerical methods are rather laborious and require the use of large digital computers. In this paper, the use of the diffusion approximation in absorbing media has been avoided, but the treatment remained analytical, thus simplifying practical calculations

  20. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whan, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements

  1. 20 CFR 404.241 - 1977 simplified old-start method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1977 simplified old-start method. 404.241... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Old-Start Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.241 1977 simplified old-start method. (a) Who is qualified. To qualify for the old...

  2. Two-dimensional analytical solutions for chemical transport in aquifers. Part 1. Simplified solutions for sources with constant concentration. Part 2. Exact solutions for sources with constant flux rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, C.; Javandel, I.

    1996-05-01

    Analytical solutions are developed for modeling solute transport in a vertical section of a homogeneous aquifer. Part 1 of the series presents a simplified analytical solution for cases in which a constant-concentration source is located at the top (or the bottom) of the aquifer. The following transport mechanisms have been considered: advection (in the horizontal direction), transverse dispersion (in the vertical direction), adsorption, and biodegradation. In the simplified solution, however, longitudinal dispersion is assumed to be relatively insignificant with respect to advection, and has been neglected. Example calculations are given to show the movement of the contamination front, the development of concentration profiles, the mass transfer rate, and an application to determine the vertical dispersivity. The analytical solution developed in this study can be a useful tool in designing an appropriate monitoring system and an effective groundwater remediation method

  3. Simplified method for the transverse bending analysis of twin celled concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, J.; Nagarajan, Praveen; S, Sajith A.

    2018-03-01

    Box girder bridges are one of the best options for bridges with span more than 25 m. For the study of these bridges, three-dimensional finite element analysis is the best suited method. However, performing three-dimensional analysis for routine design is difficult as well as time consuming. Also, software used for the three-dimensional analysis are very expensive. Hence designers resort to simplified analysis for predicting longitudinal and transverse bending moments. Among the many analytical methods used to find the transverse bending moments, SFA is the simplest and widely used in design offices. Results from simplified frame analysis can be used for the preliminary analysis of the concrete box girder bridges.From the review of literatures, it is found that majority of the work done using SFA is restricted to the analysis of single cell box girder bridges. Not much work has been done on the analysis multi-cell concrete box girder bridges. In this present study, a double cell concrete box girder bridge is chosen. The bridge is modelled using three- dimensional finite element software and the results are then compared with the simplified frame analysis. The study mainly focuses on establishing correction factors for transverse bending moment values obtained from SFA.

  4. A Simplified Analytical Technique for High Frequency Characterization of Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESSOUKI, A. A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available his paper proposes a simplified analytical technique for high frequency characterization of the resonant tunneling diode (RTD. An equivalent circuit of the RTD that consists of a parallel combination of conductance, G (V, f, and capacitance, C (V, f is formulated. The proposed approach uses the measured DC current versus voltage characteristic of the RTD to extract the equivalent circuit elements parameters in the entire bias range. Using the proposed analytical technique, the frequency response - including the high frequency range - of many characteristic aspects of the RTD is investigated. Also, the maximum oscillation frequency of the RTD is calculated. The results obtained have been compared with those concluded and reported in the literature. The reported results in literature were obtained through simulation of the RTD at high frequency using either a computationally complicated quantum simulator or through difficult RF measurements. A similar pattern of results and highly concordant conclusion are obtained. The proposed analytical technique is simple, correct, and appropriate to investigate the behavior of the RTD at high frequency. In addition, the proposed technique can be easily incorporated into SPICE program to simulate circuits containing RTD.

  5. Simplified method of ''push-pull'' test data analysis for determining in situ reaction rate coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, R.; Schroth, M.H.; Istok, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The single-well, ''''push-pull'''' test method is useful for obtaining information on a wide variety of aquifer physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. A push-pull test consists of the pulse-type injection of a prepared test solution into a single monitoring well followed by the extraction of the test solution/ground water mixture from the same well. The test solution contains a conservative tracer and one or more reactants selected to investigate a particular process. During the extraction phase, the concentrations of tracer, reactants, and possible reaction products are measured to obtain breakthrough curves for all solutes. This paper presents a simplified method of data analysis that can be used to estimate a first-order reaction rate coefficient from these breakthrough curves. Rate coefficients are obtained by fitting a regression line to a plot of normalized concentrations versus elapsed time, requiring no knowledge of aquifer porosity, dispersivity, or hydraulic conductivity. A semi-analytical solution to the advective-dispersion equation is derived and used in a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a homogeneous, confined aquifer with a fully-penetrating injection/extraction well and varying porosity, dispersivity, test duration, and reaction rate. A numerical flow and transport code (SUTRA) is used to evaluate the ability of the simplified method to estimate reaction rate coefficients in simulated push-pull tests in a heterogeneous, unconfined aquifer with a partially penetrating well. In all cases the simplified method provides accurate estimates of reaction rate coefficients; estimation errors ranged from 0.1 to 8.9% with most errors less than 5%

  6. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Juan-Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

  7. GenoSets: visual analytic methods for comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora A Cain

    Full Text Available Many important questions in biology are, fundamentally, comparative, and this extends to our analysis of a growing number of sequenced genomes. Existing genomic analysis tools are often organized around literal views of genomes as linear strings. Even when information is highly condensed, these views grow cumbersome as larger numbers of genomes are added. Data aggregation and summarization methods from the field of visual analytics can provide abstracted comparative views, suitable for sifting large multi-genome datasets to identify critical similarities and differences. We introduce a software system for visual analysis of comparative genomics data. The system automates the process of data integration, and provides the analysis platform to identify and explore features of interest within these large datasets. GenoSets borrows techniques from business intelligence and visual analytics to provide a rich interface of interactive visualizations supported by a multi-dimensional data warehouse. In GenoSets, visual analytic approaches are used to enable querying based on orthology, functional assignment, and taxonomic or user-defined groupings of genomes. GenoSets links this information together with coordinated, interactive visualizations for both detailed and high-level categorical analysis of summarized data. GenoSets has been designed to simplify the exploration of multiple genome datasets and to facilitate reasoning about genomic comparisons. Case examples are included showing the use of this system in the analysis of 12 Brucella genomes. GenoSets software and the case study dataset are freely available at http://genosets.uncc.edu. We demonstrate that the integration of genomic data using a coordinated multiple view approach can simplify the exploration of large comparative genomic data sets, and facilitate reasoning about comparisons and features of interest.

  8. A simplified dynamic method for field capacity estimation and its parameter analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-tao CONG; Hua-fang LÜ; Guang-heng NI

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified dynamic method based on the definition of field capacity. Two soil hydraulic characteristics models, the Brooks-Corey (BC) model and the van Genuchten (vG) model, and four soil data groups were used in this study. The relative drainage rate, which is a unique parameter and independent of the soil type in the simplified dynamic method, was analyzed using the pressure-based method with a matric potential of−1/3 bar and the flux-based method with a drainage flux of 0.005 cm/d. As a result, the relative drainage rate of the simplified dynamic method was determined to be 3% per day. This was verified by the similar field capacity results estimated with the three methods for most soils suitable for cultivating plants. In addition, the drainage time calculated with the simplified dynamic method was two to three days, which agrees with the classical definition of field capacity. We recommend the simplified dynamic method with a relative drainage rate of 3% per day due to its simple application and clearly physically-based concept.

  9. Gradient retention prediction of acid-base analytes in reversed phase liquid chromatography: a simplified approach for acetonitrile-water mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Axel; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2014-11-28

    In previous work, a two-parameter model to predict chromatographic retention of ionizable analytes in gradient mode was proposed. However, the procedure required some previous experimental work to get a suitable description of the pKa change with the mobile phase composition. In the present study this previous experimental work has been simplified. The analyte pKa values have been calculated through equations whose coefficients vary depending on their functional group. Forced by this new approach, other simplifications regarding the retention of the totally neutral and totally ionized species also had to be performed. After the simplifications were applied, new prediction values were obtained and compared with the previously acquired experimental data. The simplified model gave pretty good predictions while saving a significant amount of time and resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simplified method for the determination of N-nitrosamines in rubber vulcanizates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incavo, Joseph A [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, OH (United States); Schafer, Melvin A [oodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, OH (United States)

    2006-01-31

    A simplified method for the trace determination of N-nitrosamines in carbon black-loaded rubber compounds is described. The extraction of volatile nitrosamines is accomplished by thermal desorption rather than the traditional solvent extraction procedure. The analytes are trapped on Thermosorb/N sorbent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with thermal energy analyzer detection (GC/TEA). Conditions that provide full extraction of nitrosamines from actual rubber compounds were determined to be 30 min at 150 deg. C in vessels dynamically purged with N{sub 2}. Method precision was found to be 10% for NDMA at 71 ng/g and 7.3% for NMOR at 248 ng/g. Recoveries for the seven common N-nitrosamines ranged from 94 to 117%. Limits of detection in the rubber matrix are 6.3-13 ng/g. The technique is found to offer improved recovery of lower molecular weight nitrosamines and it is shown to be simpler and faster than previous techniques.

  11. Simplified method for the determination of N-nitrosamines in rubber vulcanizates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incavo, Joseph A.; Schafer, Melvin A.

    2006-01-01

    A simplified method for the trace determination of N-nitrosamines in carbon black-loaded rubber compounds is described. The extraction of volatile nitrosamines is accomplished by thermal desorption rather than the traditional solvent extraction procedure. The analytes are trapped on Thermosorb/N sorbent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with thermal energy analyzer detection (GC/TEA). Conditions that provide full extraction of nitrosamines from actual rubber compounds were determined to be 30 min at 150 deg. C in vessels dynamically purged with N 2 . Method precision was found to be 10% for NDMA at 71 ng/g and 7.3% for NMOR at 248 ng/g. Recoveries for the seven common N-nitrosamines ranged from 94 to 117%. Limits of detection in the rubber matrix are 6.3-13 ng/g. The technique is found to offer improved recovery of lower molecular weight nitrosamines and it is shown to be simpler and faster than previous techniques

  12. The implementation of a simplified spherical harmonics semi-analytic nodal method in PANTHER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.K.; Eaton, M.D.; Knight, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An SP N nodal method is proposed. ► Consistent CMFD derived and tested. ► Mark vacuum boundary conditions applied. ► Benchmarked against other diffusions and transport codes. - Abstract: In this paper an SP N nodal method is proposed which can utilise existing multi-group neutron diffusion solvers to obtain the solution. The semi-analytic nodal method is used in conjunction with a coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) scheme to solve the resulting set of equations. This is compared against various nuclear benchmarks to show that the method is capable of computing an accurate solution for practical cases. A few different CMFD formulations are implemented and their performance compared. It is found that the effective diffusion coefficent (EDC) can provide additional stability and require less power iterations on a coarse mesh. A re-arrangement of the EDC is proposed that allows the iteration matrix to be computed at the beginning of a calculation. Successive nodal updates only modify the source term unlike existing CMFD methods which update the iteration matrix. A set of Mark vacuum boundary conditions are also derived which can be applied to the SP N nodal method extending its validity. This is possible due to a similarity transformation of the angular coupling matrix, which is used when applying the nodal method. It is found that the Marshak vacuum condition can also be derived, but would require the significant modification of existing neutron diffusion codes to implement it

  13. A simplified multisupport response spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jihong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xianming

    2012-03-01

    A simplified multisupport response spectrum method is presented. The structural response is a sum of two components of a structure with a first natural period less than 2 s. The first component is the pseudostatic response caused by the inconsistent motions of the structural supports, and the second is the structural dynamic response to ground motion accelerations. This method is formally consistent with the classical response spectrum method, and the effects of multisupport excitation are considered for any modal response spectrum or modal superposition. If the seismic inputs at each support are the same, the support displacements caused by the pseudostatic response become rigid body displacements. The response spectrum in the case of multisupport excitations then reduces to that for uniform excitations. In other words, this multisupport response spectrum method is a modification and extension of the existing response spectrum method under uniform excitation. Moreover, most of the coherency coefficients in this formulation are simplified by approximating the ground motion excitation as white noise. The results indicate that this simplification can reduce the calculation time while maintaining accuracy. Furthermore, the internal forces obtained by the multisupport response spectrum method are compared with those produced by the traditional response spectrum method in two case studies of existing long-span structures. Because the effects of inconsistent support displacements are not considered in the traditional response spectrum method, the values of internal forces near the supports are underestimated. These regions are important potential failure points and deserve special attention in the seismic design of reticulated structures.

  14. Simplified dose calculation method for mantle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, L.A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified dose calculation method for mantle technique is described. In the routine treatment of lymphom as using this technique, the daily doses at the midpoints at five anatomical regions are different because the thicknesses are not equal. (Author) [pt

  15. An analytical method for optimal design of MR valve structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q H; Choi, S B; Lee, Y S; Han, M S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical methodology for the optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) valve structure. The MR valve structure is constrained in a specific volume and the optimization problem identifies geometric dimensions of the valve structure that maximize the yield stress pressure drop of a MR valve or the yield stress damping force of a MR damper. In this paper, the single-coil and two-coil annular MR valve structures are considered. After describing the schematic configuration and operating principle of a typical MR valve and damper, a quasi-static model is derived based on the Bingham model of a MR fluid. The magnetic circuit of the valve and damper is then analyzed by applying Kirchoff's law and the magnetic flux conservation rule. Based on quasi-static modeling and magnetic circuit analysis, the optimization problem of the MR valve and damper is built. In order to reduce the computation load, the optimization problem is simplified and a procedure to obtain the optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem is presented. The optimal solution of the simplified optimization problem of the MR valve structure constrained in a specific volume is then obtained and compared with the solution of the original optimization problem and the optimal solution obtained from the finite element method

  16. A simplified technique for shakedown limit load determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Hany F.; Megahed, Mohammad M.; Younan, Maher Y.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified technique is presented to determine the shakedown limit load of a structure using the finite element method. The simplified technique determines the shakedown limit load without performing lengthy time consuming full elastic-plastic cyclic loading simulations or conventional iterative elastic techniques. Instead, the shakedown limit load is determined by performing two analyses namely: an elastic analysis and an elastic-plastic analysis. By extracting the results of the two analyses, the shakedown limit load is determined through the calculation of the residual stresses developed within the structure. The simplified technique is applied and verified using two bench mark shakedown problems namely: the two-bar structure subjected to constant axial force and cyclic thermal loading, and the Bree cylinder subjected to constant internal pressure and cyclic high temperature variation across its wall. The results of the simplified technique showed very good correlation with the, analytically determined, Bree diagrams of both structures. In order to gain confidence in the simplified technique, the shakedown limit loads output by the simplified technique are used to perform full elastic-plastic cyclic loading simulations to check for shakedown behavior of both structures

  17. Rules of thumb and simplified methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    The author points out the value of a thorough grounding in fundamental physics combined with experience of applied practice when using simplified methods and rules of thumb in shield engineering. Present-day quality assurance procedures and good engineering practices require careful documentation of all calculations. The aforementioned knowledge of rules of thumb and back-of-the-envelope calculations can assure both the preparer and the reviewer that the results in the quality assurance documentation are the physically correct ones

  18. Improved Simplified Methods for Effective Seismic Analysis and Design of Isolated and Damped Bridges in Western and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Viacheslav

    The seismic design provisions of the CSA-S6 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code and the AASHTO LRFD Seismic Bridge Design Specifications have been developed primarily based on historical earthquake events that have occurred along the west coast of North America. For the design of seismic isolation systems, these codes include simplified analysis and design methods. The appropriateness and range of application of these methods are investigated through extensive parametric nonlinear time history analyses in this thesis. It was found that there is a need to adjust existing design guidelines to better capture the expected nonlinear response of isolated bridges. For isolated bridges located in eastern North America, new damping coefficients are proposed. The applicability limits of the code-based simplified methods have been redefined to ensure that the modified method will lead to conservative results and that a wider range of seismically isolated bridges can be covered by this method. The possibility of further improving current simplified code methods was also examined. By transforming the quantity of allocated energy into a displacement contribution, an idealized analytical solution is proposed as a new simplified design method. This method realistically reflects the effects of ground-motion and system design parameters, including the effects of a drifted oscillation center. The proposed method is therefore more appropriate than current existing simplified methods and can be applicable to isolation systems exhibiting a wider range of properties. A multi-level-hazard performance matrix has been adopted by different seismic provisions worldwide and will be incorporated into the new edition of the Canadian CSA-S6-14 Bridge Design code. However, the combined effect and optimal use of isolation and supplemental damping devices in bridges have not been fully exploited yet to achieve enhanced performance under different levels of seismic hazard. A novel Dual-Level Seismic

  19. Update and Improve Subsection NH - Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai

    2009-01-01

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  20. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors ( ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors ( ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  1. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. A simplified method of evaluating the stress wave environment of internal equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, J. D.; Desmond, T. P.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified method called the transfer function technique (TFT) was devised for evaluating the stress wave environment in a structure containing internal equipment. The TFT consists of following the initial in-plane stress wave that propagates through a structure subjected to a dynamic load and characterizing how the wave is altered as it is transmitted through intersections of structural members. As a basis for evaluating the TFT, impact experiments and detailed stress wave analyses were performed for structures with two or three, or more members. Transfer functions that relate the wave transmitted through an intersection to the incident wave were deduced from the predicted wave response. By sequentially applying these transfer functions to a structure with several intersections, it was found that the environment produced by the initial stress wave propagating through the structure can be approximated well. The TFT can be used as a design tool or as an analytical tool to determine whether a more detailed wave analysis is warranted.

  3. Immersed boundary-simplified lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Shu, C.; Tan, D.

    2018-05-01

    An immersed boundary-simplified lattice Boltzmann method is developed in this paper for simulations of two-dimensional incompressible viscous flows with immersed objects. Assisted by the fractional step technique, the problem is resolved in a predictor-corrector scheme. The predictor step solves the flow field without considering immersed objects, and the corrector step imposes the effect of immersed boundaries on the velocity field. Different from the previous immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method which adopts the standard lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) as the flow solver in the predictor step, a recently developed simplified lattice Boltzmann method (SLBM) is applied in the present method to evaluate intermediate flow variables. Compared to the standard LBM, SLBM requires lower virtual memories, facilitates the implementation of physical boundary conditions, and shows better numerical stability. The boundary condition-enforced immersed boundary method, which accurately ensures no-slip boundary conditions, is implemented as the boundary solver in the corrector step. Four typical numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the stability, the flexibility, and the accuracy of the present method.

  4. Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

  5. Simplified inelastic analysis methods applied to fast breeder reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-El-Ata, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper starts with a review of some currently available simplified inelastic analysis methods used in elevated temperature design for evaluating plastic and thermal creep strains. The primary purpose of the paper is to investigate how these simplified methods may be applied to fast breeder reactor core design where neutron irradiation effects are significant. One of the problems discussed is irradiation-induced creep and its effect on shakedown, ratcheting, and plastic cycling. Another problem is the development of swelling-induced stress which is an additional loading mechanism and must be taken into account. In this respect an expression for swelling-induced stress in the presence of irradiation creep is derived and a model for simplifying the stress analysis under these conditions is proposed. As an example, the effects of irradiation creep and swelling induced stress on the analysis of a thin walled tube under constant internal pressure and intermittent heat fluxes, simulating a fuel pin, is presented

  6. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical methods... latest edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC INTERNATIONAL, Suite 500, 481 North Frederick...

  7. A Novel Interference Detection Method of STAP Based on Simplified TT Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Training samples contaminated by target-like signals is one of the major reasons for inhomogeneous clutter environment. In such environment, clutter covariance matrix in STAP (space-time adaptive processing is estimated inaccurately, which finally leads to detection performance reduction. In terms of this problem, a STAP interference detection method based on simplified TT (time-time transform is proposed in this letter. Considering the sparse physical property of clutter in the space-time plane, data on each range cell is first converted into a discrete slow time series. Then, the expression of simplified TT transform about sample data is derived step by step. Thirdly, the energy of each training sample is focalized and extracted by simplified TT transform from energy-variant difference between the unpolluted and polluted stage, and the physical significance of discarding the contaminated samples is analyzed. Lastly, the contaminated samples are picked out in light of the simplified TT transform-spectrum difference. The result on Monte Carlo simulation indicates that when training samples are contaminated by large power target-like signals, the proposed method is more effective in getting rid of the contaminated samples, reduces the computational complexity significantly, and promotes the target detection performance compared with the method of GIP (generalized inner product.

  8. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform analyses of meat, meat food products and MRE's are listed as follows: (1) Official Methods of...

  9. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.4 Section 93.4 Agriculture... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC...

  10. Simplified methods to assess thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Timperi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal fatigue is a safety relevant damage mechanism in pipework of nuclear power plants. A well-known simplified method for the assessment of thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing is the so-called sinusoidal method. Temperature fluctuations in the fluid are described by a sinusoidally varying signal at the inner wall of the pipe. Because of limited information on the thermal loading conditions, this approach generally leads to overconservative results. In this paper, a new assessment method is presented, which has the potential of reducing the overconservatism of existing procedures. Artificial fluid temperature signals are generated by superposition of harmonic components with different amplitudes and frequencies. The amplitude-frequency spectrum of the components is modelled by a formula obtained from turbulence theory, whereas the phase differences are assumed to be randomly distributed. Lifetime predictions generated with the new simplified method are compared with lifetime predictions based on real fluid temperature signals, measured in an experimental setup of a mixing tee. Also, preliminary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations of the total power of the fluctuations are presented. The total power is needed as an input parameter for the spectrum formula in a real-life application. Solution of the transport equation for the total power was included in a CFD code and comparisons with experiments were made. The newly developed simplified method for generating the temperature signal is shown to be adequate for the investigated geometry and flow conditions, and demonstrates possibilities of reducing the conservatism of the sinusoidal method. CFD calculations of the total power show promising results, but further work is needed to develop the approach. (author)

  11. Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bouwmeester, Hans; Bolea, Eduardo; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, Calin A; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Jarman, John; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N; Undas, Anna K; van der Zande, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.

  12. Analytical Investigation of Beam Deformation Equation using Perturbation, Homotopy Perturbation, Variational Iteration and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Mowlaee, P.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified...... Method (OHAM). The comparisons of the results reveal that these methods are very effective, convenient and quite accurate to systems of non-linear differential equation......., and this process produces noise in the obtained answers. This paper deals with solution of second order of differential equation governing beam deformation using four analytical approximate methods, namely the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM), Variational Iteration Method (VIM) and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic...

  13. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The analytical methods used by the Science and Technology Division laboratories to perform voluntary analyses for egg...

  14. 7 CFR 94.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.4 Section 94.4 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Mandatory Analyses of Egg Products § 94.4 Analytical methods. The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform mandatory analyses for egg products are listed as...

  15. Simplified expressions of the T-matrix integrals for electromagnetic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Walter R C; Auguié, Baptiste; Le Ru, Eric C

    2011-09-01

    The extended boundary condition method, also called the null-field method, provides a semianalytic solution to the problem of electromagnetic scattering by a particle by constructing a transition matrix (T-matrix) that links the scattered field to the incident field. This approach requires the computation of specific integrals over the particle surface, which are typically evaluated numerically. We introduce here a new set of simplified expressions for these integrals in the commonly studied case of axisymmetric particles. Simplifications are obtained using the differentiation properties of the radial functions (spherical Bessel) and angular functions (associated Legendre functions) and integrations by parts. The resulting simplified expressions not only lead to faster computations, but also reduce the risks of loss of precision and provide a simpler framework for further analytical work.

  16. Calculation methods for single-sided natural ventilation - simplified or detailed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Plesner, Christoffer; Leprince, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    A great energy saving potential lies within increased use of natural ventilation, not only during summer and midseason periods, where it is mainly used today, but also during winter periods, where the outdoor air holds a great cooling potential for ventilative cooling if draft problems can...... be handled. This paper presents a newly developed simplified calculation method for single-sided natural ventilation, which is proposed for the revised standard FprEN 16798-7 (earlier EN 15242:2007) for design of ventilative cooling. The aim for predicting ventilative cooling is to find the most suitable......, while maintaining an acceptable correlation with measurements on average and the authors consider the simplified calculation method well suited for the use in standards such as FprEN 16798-7 for the ventilative cooling effects from single-sided natural ventilation The comparison of different design...

  17. A simplified method for processing dynamic images of gastric antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Graff, J; Fugisang, S

    2000-01-01

    versus geometric centre curve. In all subjects, our technique gave unequivocal frequencies of antral contractions at each time point. Statistical analysis did not reveal any intraindividual variation in this frequency during gastric emptying. We believe that the simplified scintigraphic method...

  18. A successive over-relaxation for slab geometry Simplified SN method with interface flux iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.

    1995-01-01

    A Successive Over-Relaxation scheme is proposed for speeding up the solution of one-group slab geometry transport problems using a Simplified S N method. The solution of the Simplified S N method that is completely free from all spatial truncation errors is based on the expansion of the angular flux in spherical-harmonics solutions. One way to obtain the (numerical) solution of the Simplified S N method is to use Interface Flux Iteration, which can be considered as the Gauss-Seidel relaxation scheme; the new information is immediately used in the calculations. To accelerate the convergence, an over relaxation parameter is employed in the solution algorithm. The over relaxation parameters for a number of cases depending on scattering ratios and mesh sizes are determined by Fourier analyzing infinite-medium Simplified S 2 equations. Using such over relaxation parameters in the iterative scheme, a significant increase in the convergence of transport problems can be achieved for coarse spatial cells whose spatial widths are greater than one mean-free-path

  19. Simplified methods and application to preliminary design of piping for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1975-01-01

    A number of simplified stress analysis methods and procedures that have been used on the FFTF project for preliminary design of piping operating at elevated temperatures are described. The rationale and considerations involved in developing the procedures and preliminary design guidelines are given. Applications of the simplified methods to a few FFTF pipelines are described and the success of these guidelines are measured by means of comparisons to pipeline designs that have had detailed Code type stress analyses. (U.S.)

  20. The Fast Simulation of Scattering Characteristics from a Simplified Time Varying Sea Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at applying a simplified sea surface model into the physical optics (PO method to accelerate the scattering calculation from 1D time varying sea surface. To reduce the number of the segments and make further improvement on the efficiency of PO method, a simplified sea surface is proposed. In this simplified sea surface, the geometry of long waves is locally approximated by tilted facets that are much longer than the electromagnetic wavelength. The capillary waves are considered to be sinusoidal line superimposing on the long waves. The wavenumber of the sinusoidal waves is supposed to satisfy the resonant condition of Bragg waves which is dominant in all the scattered short wave components. Since the capillary wave is periodical within one facet, an analytical integration of the PO term can be performed. The backscattering coefficient obtained from a simplified sea surface model agrees well with that obtained from a realistic sea surface. The Doppler shifts and width also agree well with the realistic model since the capillary waves are taken into consideration. The good agreements indicate that the simplified model is reasonable and valid in predicting both the scattering coefficients and the Doppler spectra.

  1. Systematization of simplified J-integral evaluation method for flaw evaluation at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naoki; Takahashi, Yukio; Nakayama, Yasunari; Shimakawa, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    J-integral is an effective inelastic fracture parameter for the flaw evaluation of cracked components at high temperature. The evaluation of J-integral for an arbitrary crack configuration and an arbitrary loading condition can be generally accomplished by detailed numerical analysis such as finite element analysis, however, it is time-consuming and requires a high degree of expertise for its implementation. Therefore, it is important to develop simplified J-integral estimation techniques from the viewpoint of industrial requirements. In this study, a simplified J-integral evaluation method is proposed to estimate two types of J-integral parameters. One is the fatigue J-integral range to describe fatigue crack propagation behavior, and the other is the creep J-integral to describe creep crack propagation behavior. This paper presents the systematization of the simplified J-integral evaluation method incorporated with the reference stress method and the concept of elastic follow-up, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation procedure. The verification of the proposed method is presented in Part II of this paper. (author)

  2. Comparison of nuclear analytical methods with competitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The use of nuclear analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis, already have a 50 year old history. Today several sensitive and accurate, non-nuclear trace element analytical techniques are available and new methods are continuously developed. The IAEA is supporting the development of nuclear analytical laboratories in its Member States. In order to be able to advise the developing countries which methods to use in different applications, it is important to know the present status and development trends of nuclear analytical methods, what are their benefits, drawbacks and recommended fields of application, compared with other, non-nuclear techniques. In order to get an answer to these questions the IAEA convened this Advisory Group Meeting. This volume is the outcome of the presentations and discussions of the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. An analytical method to assess the damage and predict the residual strength of a ship in a shoal grounding accident scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simplified analytical method used to predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship hull after a shoal grounding accident is proposed. Shoal grounding accidents always lead to severe denting, though not tearing, of the ship bottom structure, which may threaten the global hull girder resistance and result in even worse consequences, such as hull collapse. Here, the degree of damage of the bottom structure is predicted by a series of analytical methods based on the plastic-elastic deformation mechanism. The energy dissipation of a ship bottom structure is obtained from individual components to determine the sliding distance of the seabed obstruction. Then, a new approach to assess the residual strength of the damaged ship subjected to shoal grounding is proposed based on the improved Smith's method. This analytical method is verified by comparing the results of the proposed method and those generated by numerical simulation using the software ABAQUS. The proposed analytical method can be used to assess the safety of a ship with a double bottom during its design phase and predict the residual ultimate strength of a ship after a shoal grounding accident occurs.

  4. Analytical Energy Gradients for Excited-State Coupled-Cluster Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladyslawski, Mark; Nooijen, Marcel

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) and similarity transformed equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (STEOM-CC) methods have been firmly established as accurate and routinely applicable extensions of single-reference coupled-cluster theory to describe electronically excited states. An overview of these methods is provided, with emphasis on the many-body similarity transform concept that is the key to a rationalization of their accuracy. The main topic of the paper is the derivation of analytical energy gradients for such non-variational electronic structure approaches, with an ultimate focus on obtaining their detailed algebraic working equations. A general theoretical framework using Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers is presented, and the method is applied to formulate the EOM-CC and STEOM-CC gradients in abstract operator terms, following the previous work in [P.G. Szalay, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 55 (1995) 151] and [S.R. Gwaltney, R.J. Bartlett, M. Nooijen, J. Chem. Phys. 111 (1999) 58]. Moreover, the systematics of the Lagrange multiplier approach is suitable for automation by computer, enabling the derivation of the detailed derivative equations through a standardized and direct procedure. To this end, we have developed the SMART (Symbolic Manipulation and Regrouping of Tensors) package of automated symbolic algebra routines, written in the Mathematica programming language. The SMART toolkit provides the means to expand, differentiate, and simplify equations by manipulation of the detailed algebraic tensor expressions directly. The Lagrangian multiplier formulation establishes a uniform strategy to perform the automated derivation in a standardized manner: A Lagrange multiplier functional is constructed from the explicit algebraic equations that define the energy in the electronic method; the energy functional is then made fully variational with respect to all of its parameters, and the symbolic differentiations directly yield the explicit

  5. J evaluation by simplified method for cracked pipes under mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.; Gilles, P.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of structures behaviour is an important subject for the nuclear reactor safety. Most of assessment methods of cracked components are based on the evaluation of the parameter J. However to avoid complex elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J, a simplified method has been jointly developed by CEA, EDF and Framatome. This method, called Js, is based on the reference stress approach and a new KI handbook. To validate this method, a complete set of 2D and 3D elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J have been performed on pipes (more than 300 calculations are available) for different types of part through wall crack (circumferential or longitudinal); mechanical loading (pressure, bending moment, axial load, torsion moment, and combination of these loading); different kind of materials (austenitic or ferritic steel). This paper presents a comparison between the simplified assessment of J and finite element results on these configurations for mechanical loading. Then, validity of the method is discussed and an applicability domain is proposed. (author)

  6. Life cycle management of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Schmidt, Alexander H

    2018-01-05

    In modern process management, the life cycle concept gains more and more importance. It focusses on the total costs of the process from invest to operation and finally retirement. Also for analytical procedures an increasing interest for this concept exists in the recent years. The life cycle of an analytical method consists of design, development, validation (including instrumental qualification, continuous method performance verification and method transfer) and finally retirement of the method. It appears, that also regulatory bodies have increased their awareness on life cycle management for analytical methods. Thus, the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), as well as the United States Pharmacopeial Forum discuss the enrollment of new guidelines that include life cycle management of analytical methods. The US Pharmacopeia (USP) Validation and Verification expert panel already proposed a new General Chapter 〈1220〉 "The Analytical Procedure Lifecycle" for integration into USP. Furthermore, also in the non-regulated environment a growing interest on life cycle management is seen. Quality-by-design based method development results in increased method robustness. Thereby a decreased effort is needed for method performance verification, and post-approval changes as well as minimized risk of method related out-of-specification results. This strongly contributes to reduced costs of the method during its life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of simplified methods for predicting natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreti, C.P.; Boehm, P.D.; Gundlach, E.R.; Healy, E.A.; Rosenstein, A.B.; Tsomides, H.J.; Turton, D.J.; Webber, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    To reduce transaction costs and save time, the US Department of the Interior (DOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed simplified methods for assessing natural resource damages from oil and chemical spills. DOI has proposed the use of two computer models, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and a revised Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) for predicting monetary damages for spills of oils and chemicals into the Great Lakes and coastal and marine environments. NOAA has used versions of these models to create Compensation Formulas, which it has proposed for calculating natural resource damages for oil spills of up to 50,000 gallons anywhere in the US. Based on a review of the documentation supporting the methods, the results of hundreds of sample runs of DOI's models, and the outputs of the thousands of model runs used to create NOAA's Compensation Formulas, this presentation discusses the ability of these simplified assessment procedures to make realistic damage estimates. The limitations of these procedures are described, and the need for validating the assumptions used in predicting natural resource injuries is discussed

  8. 40 CFR 141.704 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.704 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.704 Analytical methods. (a) Cryptosporidium. Systems must analyze for Cryptosporidium using Method 1623: Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Water by Filtration/IMS/FA, 2005, United States...

  9. Analytical method for determining the channel-temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatov, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of the predicted temperature over the volume or cross section of the active zone is important for thermal calculations of reactors taking into account random deviations. This requires a laborious calculation which includes the following steps: separation of the nominal temperature field, within the temperature range, into intervals, in each of which the temperature is set equal to its average value in the interval; determination of the number of channels whose temperature falls within each interval; construction of the channel-temperature distribution in each interval in accordance with the weighted error function; and summation of the number of channels with the same temperature over all intervals. This procedure can be greatly simplified with the help of methods which eliminate numerous variant calculations when the nominal temperature field is open-quotes refinedclose quotes up to the optimal field according to different criteria. In the present paper a universal analytical method is proposed for determining, by changing the coefficients in the channel-temperature distribution function, the form of this function that reflects all conditions of operation of the elements in the active zone. The problem is solved for the temperature of the coolant at the outlet from the reactor channels

  10. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... cost of goods sold cash or trade discounts that taxpayers do not capitalize for book purposes (and... to adjust additional section 263A costs for cash or trade discounts described in Sec. 1.471-3(b... Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION...

  11. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.89 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods. (a... shall be conducted with the methods in § 141.23(k)(1). (1) Analyses for alkalinity, calcium...

  12. Nuclear analytical methods in the life sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey is given of various nuclear analytical methods. The type of analytical information obtainable and advantageous features for application in the life sciences are briefly indicated. These features are: physically different basis of the analytical method, isotopic rather than elemental

  13. Comments on Simplified Calculation Method for Fire Exposed Concrete Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The author has developed new simplified calculation methods for fire exposed columns. Methods, which are found In ENV 1992-1-2 chapter 4.3 and in proposal for Danish code of Practise DS411 chapter 9. In the present supporting document the methods are derived and 50 eccentrically loaded fire expos...... columns are calculated and compared to results of full-scale tests. Furthermore 500 columns are calculated in order to present each test result related to a variation of the calculation in time of fire resistance....

  14. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiro Gotanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  15. A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of unglazed transpired solar collectors under steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lei, Bo; Bi, Haiquan; Yu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of UTC is developed. • Experiments, numerical simulations, dimensional analysis and data fitting are used. • The correlation of absorber plate temperature for UTC is established. • The empirical correlation of heat exchange effectiveness for UTC is proposed. - Abstract: Due to the advantages of low investment and high energy efficiency, unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTC) have been widely used for heating in buildings. However, it is difficult for designers to quickly evaluate the thermal performance of UTC based on the conventional methods such as experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, a simple and fast method to determine the thermal performance of UTC is indispensable. The objective of this work is to provide a simplified calculation method to easily evaluate the thermal performance of UTC under steady state. Different parameters are considered in the simplified method, including pitch, perforation diameter, solar radiation, solar absorptivity, approach velocity, ambient air temperature, absorber plate temperature, and so on. Based on existing design parameters and operating conditions, correlations for the absorber plate temperature and the heat exchange effectiveness are developed using dimensional analysis and data fitting, respectively. Results show that the proposed simplified method has a high accuracy and can be employed to evaluate the collector efficiency, the heat exchange effectiveness and the air temperature rise. The proposed method in this paper is beneficial to directly determine design parameters and operating status for UTC.

  16. Nuclear analytical methods: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The development of nuclear analytical methods as an analytical tool began in 1936 with the publication of the first paper on neutron activation analysis (NAA). This year, 1996, marks the 60th anniversary of that event. This paper attempts to look back at the nuclear analytical methods of the past, to look around and to see where the technology is right now, and finally, to look ahead to try and see where nuclear methods as an analytical technique (or as a group of analytical techniques) will be going in the future. The general areas which the author focuses on are: neutron activation analysis; prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA); photon activation analysis (PAA); charged-particle activation analysis (CPAA)

  17. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  18. The Numerical Welding Simulation - Developments and Validation of Simplified and Bead Lumping Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baup, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the TIG multipass welding process on stainless steel, by means of numerical methods and then to work out simplified and bead lumping methods in order to reduce adjusting and realisation times of these calculations. A simulation was used as reference for the validation of these methods; after the presentation of the test series having led to the option choices of this calculation (2D generalised plane strains, elastoplastic model with an isotropic hardening, hardening restoration due to high temperatures), various simplifications were tried on a plate geometry. These simplifications related various modelling points with a correct plastic flow representation in the plate. The use of a reduced number of thermal fields characterising the bead deposit and a low number of tensile curves allow to obtain interesting results, decreasing significantly the Computing times. In addition various lumping bead methods have been studied and concerning both the shape and the thermic of the macro-deposits. The macro-deposit shapes studied are in 'L', or in layer or they represent two beads one on top of the other. Among these three methods, only those using a few number of lumping beads gave bad results since thermo-mechanical history was deeply modified near and inside the weld. Thereafter, simplified methods have been applied to a tubular geometry. On this new geometry, experimental measurements were made during welding, which allow a validation of the reference calculation. Simplified and reference calculations gave approximately the same stress fields as found on plate geometry. Finally, in the last part of this document a procedure for automatic data setting permitting to reduce significantly the calculation phase preparation is presented. It has been applied to the calculation of thick pipe welding in 90 beads; the results are compared with a simplified simulation realised by Framatome and with experimental measurements. A bead by

  19. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  20. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmai, Tamas; Apagyi, Barnabas; Horvath, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events

  1. Waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S. Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) will require a large number of waste characterizations over a multi-year period to accomplish the Department's goals in environmental restoration and waste management. Estimates vary, but two million analyses annually are expected. The waste generated by the analytical procedures used for characterizations is a significant source of new DOE waste. Success in reducing the volume of secondary waste and the costs of handling this waste would significantly decrease the overall cost of this DOE program. Selection of appropriate analytical methods depends on the intended use of the resultant data. It is not always necessary to use a high-powered analytical method, typically at higher cost, to obtain data needed to make decisions about waste management. Indeed, for samples taken from some heterogeneous systems, the meaning of high accuracy becomes clouded if the data generated are intended to measure a property of this system. Among the factors to be considered in selecting the analytical method are the lower limit of detection, accuracy, turnaround time, cost, reproducibility (precision), interferences, and simplicity. Occasionally, there must be tradeoffs among these factors to achieve the multiple goals of a characterization program. The purpose of the work described here is to add waste minimization to the list of characteristics to be considered. In this paper the authors present results of modifying analytical methods for waste characterization to reduce both the cost of analysis and volume of secondary wastes. Although tradeoffs may be required to minimize waste while still generating data of acceptable quality for the decision-making process, they have data demonstrating that wastes can be reduced in some cases without sacrificing accuracy or precision

  2. A Manual of Simplified Laboratory Methods for Operators of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Arnold F., Ed.; Bennett, Ernest C., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide the small wastewater treatment plant operator, as well as the new or inexperienced operator, with simplified methods for laboratory analysis of water and wastewater. It is emphasized that this manual is not a replacement for standard methods but a guide for plants with insufficient equipment to perform analyses…

  3. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction

  4. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  5. A Simplified Method for Tissue Engineering Skeletal Muscle Organoids in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph; Vandenburgh, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Tissue-engineered three dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures have been formed in vitro from primary myoblasts by several different techniques. This report describes a simplified method for generating large numbers of muscle organoids from either primary embryonic avian or neonatal rodent myoblasts, which avoids the requirements for stretching and other mechanical stimulation.

  6. Simplified computational methods for elastic and elastic-plastic fracture problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atluri, Satya N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given of some of the recent (1984-1991) developments in computational/analytical methods in the mechanics of fractures. Topics covered include analytical solutions for elliptical or circular cracks embedded in isotropic or transversely isotropic solids, with crack faces being subjected to arbitrary tractions; finite element or boundary element alternating methods for two or three dimensional crack problems; a 'direct stiffness' method for stiffened panels with flexible fasteners and with multiple cracks; multiple site damage near a row of fastener holes; an analysis of cracks with bonded repair patches; methods for the generation of weight functions for two and three dimensional crack problems; and domain-integral methods for elastic-plastic or inelastic crack mechanics.

  7. Fundamental characteristics and simplified evaluation method of dynamic earth pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukui, Y.; Inagaki, Y.; Ohmiya, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In Japan, a method is commonly used in the evaluation of dynamic earth pressure acting on the underground walls of a deeply embedded nuclear reactor building. However, since this method was developed on the basis of the limit state of soil supported by retaining walls, the behavior of dynamic earth pressure acting on the embedded part of a nuclear reactor building may differ from the estimated by this method. This paper examines the fundamental characteristics of dynamic earth pressure through dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. A simplified method to evaluate dynamic earth pressure for the design of underground walls of a nuclear reactor building is described. The dynamic earth pressure is fluctuating earth pressure during earthquake

  8. Evaluation of single-sided natural ventilation using a simplified and fair calculation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Christoffer; Larsen, Tine Steen; Leprince, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    the scope of standards and regulations in the best way. This has been done by comparing design expressions using parameter variations, comparison to wind-tunnel experiments and full-scale outdoor measurements. A modified De Gids & Phaff method showed to be a simplified and fair calculation method that would...

  9. Automated local line rolling forming and simplified deformation simulation method for complex curvature plate of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local line rolling forming is a common forming approach for the complex curvature plate of ships. However, the processing mode based on artificial experience is still applied at present, because it is difficult to integrally determine relational data for the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters used to drive automation equipment. Numerical simulation is currently the major approach for generating such complex relational data. Therefore, a highly precise and effective numerical computation method becomes crucial in the development of the automated local line rolling forming system for producing complex curvature plates used in ships. In this study, a three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method was first employed to perform numerical computations for local line rolling forming, and the corresponding deformation and strain distribution features were acquired. In addition, according to the characteristics of strain distributions, a simplified deformation simulation method, based on the deformation obtained by applying strain was presented. Compared to the results of the three-dimensional elastoplastic finite element method, this simplified deformation simulation method was verified to provide high computational accuracy, and this could result in a substantial reduction in calculation time. Thus, the application of the simplified deformation simulation method was further explored in the case of multiple rolling loading paths. Moreover, it was also utilized to calculate the local line rolling forming for the typical complex curvature plate of ships. Research findings indicated that the simplified deformation simulation method was an effective tool for rapidly obtaining relationships between the forming shape, processing path, and process parameters.

  10. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  11. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Xing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can’t be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  12. Analysis of lower head failure with simplified models and a finite element code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koundy, V. [CEA-IPSN-DPEA-SEAC, Service d' Etudes des Accidents, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Nicolas, L. [CEA-DEN-DM2S-SEMT, Service d' Etudes Mecaniques et Thermiques, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Combescure, A. [INSA-Lyon, Lab. Mecanique des Solides, Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the OLHF (OECD lower head failure) experiments is to characterize the timing, mode and size of lower head failure under high temperature loading and reactor coolant system pressure due to a postulated core melt scenario. Four tests have been performed at Sandia National Laboratories (USA), in the frame of an OECD project. The experimental results have been used to develop and validate predictive analysis models. Within the framework of this project, several finite element calculations were performed. In parallel, two simplified semi-analytical methods were developed in order to get a better understanding of the role of various parameters on the creep phenomenon, e.g. the behaviour of the lower head material and its geometrical characteristics on the timing, mode and location of failure. Three-dimensional modelling of crack opening and crack propagation has also been carried out using the finite element code Castem 2000. The aim of this paper is to present the two simplified semi-analytical approaches and to report the status of the 3D crack propagation calculations. (authors)

  13. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  14. Method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Егорова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Google Analytics tools have been investigated against effective attraction channels for users and bottlenecks detection. Conducted investigation allowed to suggest modern method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools. The method is based on main traffic indicators analysis, as well as deep analysis of goals and their consecutive tweaking. Method allows to increase website conversion and might be useful for SEO and Web analytics specialists

  15. Simplified theory of plastic zones based on Zarka's method

    CERN Document Server

    Hübel, Hartwig

    2017-01-01

    The present book provides a new method to estimate elastic-plastic strains via a series of linear elastic analyses. For a life prediction of structures subjected to variable loads, frequently encountered in mechanical and civil engineering, the cyclically accumulated deformation and the elastic plastic strain ranges are required. The Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones (STPZ) is a direct method which provides the estimates of these and all other mechanical quantities in the state of elastic and plastic shakedown. The STPZ is described in detail, with emphasis on the fact that not only scientists but engineers working in applied fields and advanced students are able to get an idea of the possibilities and limitations of the STPZ. Numerous illustrations and examples are provided to support the reader's understanding.

  16. Data analytics for simplifying thermal efficiency planning in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, Mohammad Javad; Noshadravan, Arash; Sobstyl, Jake M; Toole, Jameson; Ferreira, Joseph; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2016-04-01

    More than 44% of building energy consumption in the USA is used for space heating and cooling, and this accounts for 20% of national CO2emissions. This prompts the need to identify among the 130 million households in the USA those with the greatest energy-saving potential and the associated costs of the path to reach that goal. Whereas current solutions address this problem by analysing each building in detail, we herein reduce the dimensionality of the problem by simplifying the calculations of energy losses in buildings. We present a novel inference method that can be used via a ranking algorithm that allows us to estimate the potential energy saving for heating purposes. To that end, we only need consumption from records of gas bills integrated with a building's footprint. The method entails a statistical screening of the intricate interplay between weather, infrastructural and residents' choice variables to determine building gas consumption and potential savings at a city scale. We derive a general statistical pattern of consumption in an urban settlement, reducing it to a set of the most influential buildings' parameters that operate locally. By way of example, the implications are explored using records of a set of (N= 6200) buildings in Cambridge, MA, USA, which indicate that retrofitting only 16% of buildings entails a 40% reduction in gas consumption of the whole building stock. We find that the inferred heat loss rate of buildings exhibits a power-law data distribution akin to Zipf's law, which provides a means to map an optimum path for gas savings per retrofit at a city scale. These findings have implications for improving the thermal efficiency of cities' building stock, as outlined by current policy efforts seeking to reduce home heating and cooling energy consumption and lower associated greenhouse gas emissions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Application of system reliability analytical method, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1999-01-01

    The Ship Research Institute proceed a developmental study on GO-FLOW method with various advancing functionalities for the system reliability analysis method occupying main parts of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). Here was attempted to intend to upgrade functionality of the GO-FLOW method, to develop an analytical function integrated with dynamic behavior analytical function, physical behavior and probable subject transfer, and to prepare a main accident sequence picking-out function. In 1997 fiscal year, in dynamic event-tree analytical system, an analytical function was developed by adding dependency between headings. In simulation analytical function of the accident sequence, main accident sequence of MRX for improved ship propulsion reactor became possible to be covered perfectly. And, input data for analysis was prepared with a function capable easily to set by an analysis operator. (G.K.)

  18. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  19. Workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jurečková, Jana; Maciak, Matúš; Pešta, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects authoritative contributions on analytical methods and mathematical statistics. The methods presented include resampling techniques; the minimization of divergence; estimation theory and regression, eventually under shape or other constraints or long memory; and iterative approximations when the optimal solution is difficult to achieve. It also investigates probability distributions with respect to their stability, heavy-tailness, Fisher information and other aspects, both asymptotically and non-asymptotically. The book not only presents the latest mathematical and statistical methods and their extensions, but also offers solutions to real-world problems including option pricing. The selected, peer-reviewed contributions were originally presented at the workshop on Analytical Methods in Statistics, AMISTAT 2015, held in Prague, Czech Republic, November 10-13, 2015.

  20. 40 CFR 141.25 - Analytical methods for radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods for radioactivity... § 141.25 Analytical methods for radioactivity. (a) Analysis for the following contaminants shall be conducted to determine compliance with § 141.66 (radioactivity) in accordance with the methods in the...

  1. Simplified analytical modeling of the normal hole erosion test; Modelado analitico simplificado del ensayo normal de ersoion de tubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlichi, A.; Bezzazi, M.; El Bakkali, L.; Jabbouri, A.; Kissi, B.; Yakhlef, F.; Parron Vera, M. A.; Rubio Cintas, M. D.; Castillo Lopez, O.

    2009-07-01

    The role erosion test was developed in order to study erosion phenomenon which occurs in cracks appearing in hydraulic infrastructures such as dams. This test enables describing experimentally the erosive characteristics of soils by means of an index which is called erosion rate and a critical tension which indicates the threshold of surface erosion initiation. The objective of this work is to five modelling of this experiment by means of a simplified analytical approach. The erosion law is derived by taking into account the flow regime. This law shows that the erosion occurring in the tube is controlled by a first order dynamics where only two parameters are involved: the characteristic's time linked to the erosion rate and the stress shear threshold for which erosion begins to develop. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Analytical methods used at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    A description of analytical methods used at the model LEU Fuel Fabrication Facility is presented. The methods include gravimetric uranium analysis, isotopic analysis, fluorimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy

  3. Analytical mechanics for relativity and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Johns, Oliver Davis

    2011-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics for Relativity and Quantum Mechanics is an innovative and mathematically sound treatment of the foundations of analytical mechanics and the relation of classical mechanics to relativity and quantum theory. It is intended for use at the introductory graduate level. A distinguishing feature of the book is its integration of special relativity into teaching of classical mechanics. After a thorough review of the traditional theory, Part II of the book introduces extended Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods that treat time as a transformable coordinate rather than the fixed parameter of Newtonian physics. Advanced topics such as covariant Langrangians and Hamiltonians, canonical transformations, and Hamilton-Jacobi methods are simplified by the use of this extended theory. And the definition of canonical transformation no longer excludes the Lorenz transformation of special relativity. This is also a book for those who study analytical mechanics to prepare for a critical exploration of quantum...

  4. Evaluation of simplified dna extraction methods for EMM typing of group a streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose JJM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Simplified methods of DNA extraction for amplification and sequencing for emm typing of group A streptococci (GAS can save valuable time and cost in resource crunch situations. To evaluate this, we compared two methods of DNA extraction directly from colonies with the standard CDC cell lysate method for emm typing of 50 GAS strains isolated from children with pharyngitis and impetigo. For this, GAS colonies were transferred into two sets of PCR tubes. One set was preheated at 94oC for two minutes in the thermal cycler and cooled while the other set was frozen overnight at -20oC and then thawed before adding the PCR mix. For the cell lysate method, cells were treated with mutanolysin and hyaluronidase before heating at 100oC for 10 minutes and cooling immediately as recommended in the CDC method. All 50 strains could be typed by sequencing the hyper variable region of the emm gene after amplification. The quality of sequences and the emm types identified were also identical. Our study shows that the two simplified DNA extraction methods directly from colonies can conveniently be used for typing a large number of GAS strains easily in relatively short time.

  5. 3D Bearing Capacity of Structured Cells Supported on Cohesive Soil: Simplified Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Galván Sergio Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified analysis method to compute the bearing capacity of structured cell foundations subjected to vertical loading and supported in soft cohesive soil is proposed. A structured cell is comprised by a top concrete slab structurally connected to concrete external walls that enclose the natural soil. Contrary to a box foundation it does not include a bottom slab and hence, the soil within the walls becomes an important component of the structured cell. This simplified method considers the three-dimensional geometry of the cell, the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils and the existence of structural continuity between the top concrete slab and the surrounding walls, along the walls themselves and the walls structural joints. The method was developed from results of numerical-parametric analyses, from which it was found that structured cells fail according to a punching-type mechanism.

  6. Simplified MPN method for enumeration of soil naphthalene degraders using gaseous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Kaisa; Lappi, Kaisa; Mikkonen, Anu; Wickström, Annika; Vaalama, Anu; Lehtinen, Taru; Suominen, Leena

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simplified microplate most-probable-number (MPN) procedure to quantify the bacterial naphthalene degrader population in soil samples. In this method, the sole substrate naphthalene is dosed passively via gaseous phase to liquid medium and the detection of growth is based on the automated measurement of turbidity using an absorbance reader. The performance of the new method was evaluated by comparison with a recently introduced method in which the substrate is dissolved in inert silicone oil and added individually to each well, and the results are scored visually using a respiration indicator dye. Oil-contaminated industrial soil showed slightly but significantly higher MPN estimate with our method than with the reference method. This suggests that gaseous naphthalene was dissolved in an adequate concentration to support the growth of naphthalene degraders without being too toxic. The dosing of substrate via gaseous phase notably reduced the work load and risk of contamination. The result scoring by absorbance measurement was objective and more reliable than measurement with indicator dye, and it also enabled further analysis of cultures. Several bacterial genera were identified by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from the MPN wells incubated in the presence of gaseous naphthalene. In addition, the applicability of the simplified MPN method was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation between the level of oil contamination and the number of naphthalene degraders detected in soil.

  7. Integrability and solvability of the simplified two-qubit Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jie; Ren Zhongzhou; Guo Guangjie; Ju Guoxing

    2012-01-01

    The simplified two-qubit Rabi model is proposed and its analytical solution is presented. There are no level crossings in the spectral graph of the model, which indicates that it is not integrable. The criterion of integrability for the Rabi model proposed by Braak (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 100401) is also used for the simplified two-qubit Rabi model and the same conclusion, consistent with what the spectral graph shows, can be drawn, which indicates that the criterion remains valid when applied to the two-qubit case. The simplified two-qubit Rabi model is another example of a non-integrable but exactly solvable system except for the generalized Rabi model. (paper)

  8. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  9. Simplified hourly method to calculate summer temperatures in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Aggerholm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    with an ordinary distribution of windows and a “worst” case where the window area facing south and west was increased by more than 60%. The simplified method used Danish weather data and only needs information on transmission losses, thermal mass, surface contact, internal load, ventilation scheme and solar load...... program for thermal simulations of buildings. The results are based on one year simulations of two cases. The cases were based on a low energy dwelling of 196 m². The transmission loss for the building envelope was 3.3 W/m², not including windows and doors. The dwelling was tested in two cases, a case...

  10. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  11. Simplified probabilistic approach to determine safety factors in deterministic flaw acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Ardillon, E.

    1997-01-01

    The flaw acceptance rules in nuclear components rely on deterministic criteria supposed to ensure the safe operating of plants. The interest of having a reliable method of evaluating the safety margins and the integrity of components led Electricite de France to launch a study to link safety factors with requested reliability. A simplified analytical probabilistic approach is developed to analyse the failure risk in Fracture Mechanics. Assuming lognormal distributions of the main random variables, it is possible considering a simple Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model, to determine the failure probability as a function of mean values and logarithmic standard deviations. The 'design' failure point can be analytically calculated. Partial safety factors on the main variables (stress, crack size, material toughness) are obtained in relation with reliability target values. The approach is generalized to elastic plastic Fracture Mechanics (piping) by fitting J as a power law function of stress, crack size and yield strength. The simplified approach is validated by detailed probabilistic computations with PROBAN computer program. Assuming reasonable coefficients of variations (logarithmic standard deviations), the method helps to calibrate safety factors for different components taking into account reliability target values in normal, emergency and faulted conditions. Statistical data for the mechanical properties of the main basic materials complement the study. The work involves laboratory results and manufacture data. The results of this study are discussed within a working group of the French in service inspection code RSE-M. (authors)

  12. Appraisal of elastic follow-up for a generic mechanical structure through two simplified methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboni, S.; Ravera, C.; Stretti, G.; Rebora, A.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic follow-up (EFU) is a complex phenomenon which affects the behaviour of some structural components, especially in high temperature operations. One of the major problems encountered by the designer is the quantitative evaluation of the amount of elastic follow-up that must be taken into account for the structures under examination. In the present paper a review of the guidance furnished by the ASME Code regarding EFU is presented through an application concerning a structural problem in which EFU occurs. This has been carried out with the additional purpose of comparing the percentage EFU obtained by two simplified methods: an inelastic simplified method involving relaxation analysis; the reduced elastic modulus procedure generally used for EFU problems in piping systems. The results obtained demonstrate a substantial agreement between the two methodologies when applied to a general type structure. (author)

  13. Manual of selected physico-chemical analytical methods. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beran, M.; Klosova, E.; Krtil, J.; Sus, F.; Kuvik, V.; Vrbova, L.; Hamplova, M.; Lengyel, J.; Kelnar, L.; Zakouril, K.

    1990-11-01

    The Central Testing Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez has for a decade been participating in the development of analytical procedures and has been providing analyses of samples of different types and origin. The analytical procedures developed have been published in special journals and a number of them in the Manuals of analytical methods, in three parts. The 4th part of the Manual contains selected physico-chemical methods developed or modified by the Laboratory in the years 1986-1990 within the project ''Development of physico-chemical analytical methods''. In most cases, techniques are involved for non-nuclear applications. Some can find wider applications, especially in analyses of environmental samples. Others have been developed for specific cases of sample analyses or require special instrumentation (mass spectrometer), which partly restricts their applicability by other institutions. (author)

  14. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  15. The large break LOCA evaluation method with the simplified statistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Shinya; Kubo, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    USNRC published the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology to large break LOCA which supported the revised rule for Emergency Core Cooling System performance in 1989. In USNRC regulatory guide 1.157, it is required that the peak cladding temperature (PCT) cannot exceed 2200deg F with high probability 95th percentile. In recent years, overseas countries have developed statistical methodology and best estimate code with the model which can provide more realistic simulation for the phenomena based on the CSAU evaluation methodology. In order to calculate PCT probability distribution by Monte Carlo trials, there are approaches such as the response surface technique using polynomials, the order statistics method, etc. For the purpose of performing rational statistic analysis, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) tried to develop the statistic LOCA method using the best estimate LOCA code MCOBRA/TRAC and the simplified code HOTSPOT. HOTSPOT is a Monte Carlo heat conduction solver to evaluate the uncertainties of the significant fuel parameters at the PCT positions of the hot rod. The direct uncertainty sensitivity studies can be performed without the response surface because the Monte Carlo simulation for key parameters can be performed in short time using HOTSPOT. With regard to the parameter uncertainties, MHI established the treatment that the bounding conditions are given for LOCA boundary and plant initial conditions, the Monte Carlo simulation using HOTSPOT is applied to the significant fuel parameters. The paper describes the large break LOCA evaluation method with the simplified statistic approach and the results of the application of the method to the representative four-loop nuclear power plant. (author)

  16. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  17. Formative Research on the Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM) for Task Analysis and Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoungHwan; Reigluth, Charles M.

    The Simplifying Conditions Method (SCM) is a set of guidelines for task analysis and sequencing of instructional content under the Elaboration Theory (ET). This article introduces the fundamentals of SCM and presents the findings from a formative research study on SCM. It was conducted in two distinct phases: design and instruction. In the first…

  18. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  19. Temperature distribution of a simplified rotor due to a uniform heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, Sarah; Fischer, Tim; Meier, Felix; Werner, Ewald; kyzy, Sonun Ulan; Munz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    In gas turbines, high combustion efficiency as well as operational safety are required. Thus, labyrinth seal systems with honeycomb liners are commonly used. In the case of rubbing events in the seal system, the components can be damaged due to cyclic thermal and mechanical loads. Temperature differences occurring at labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events can be determined by considering a single heat source acting periodically on the surface of a rotating cylinder. Existing literature analysing the temperature distribution on rotating cylindrical bodies due to a stationary heat source is reviewed. The temperature distribution on the circumference of a simplified labyrinth seal fin is calculated using an available and easy to implement analytical approach. A finite element model of the simplified labyrinth seal fin is created and the numerical results are compared to the analytical results. The temperature distributions calculated by the analytical and the numerical approaches coincide for low sliding velocities, while there are discrepancies of the calculated maximum temperatures for higher sliding velocities. The use of the analytical approach allows the conservative estimation of the maximum temperatures arising in labyrinth seal fins during rubbing events. At the same time, high calculation costs can be avoided.

  20. Performance study of the simplified theory of plastic zones and the Twice-Yield method for the fatigue check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübel, Hartwig; Willuweit, Adrian; Rudolph, Jürgen; Ziegler, Rainer; Lang, Hermann; Rother, Klemens; Deller, Simon

    2014-01-01

    As elastic–plastic fatigue analyses are still time consuming the simplified elastic–plastic analysis (e.g. ASME Section III, NB 3228.5, the French RCC-M code, paragraphs B 3234.3, B 3234.5 and B3234.6 and the German KTA rule 3201.2, paragraph 7.8.4) is often applied. Besides linearly elastic analyses and factorial plasticity correction (K e factors) direct methods are an option. In fact, calculation effort and accuracy of results are growing in the following graded scheme: a) linearly elastic analysis along with K e correction, b) direct methods for the determination of stabilized elastic–plastic strain ranges and c) incremental elastic–plastic methods for the determination of stabilized elastic–plastic strain ranges. The paper concentrates on option b) by substantiating the practical applicability of the simplified theory of plastic zones STPZ (based on Zarka's method) and – for comparison – the established Twice-Yield method. The Twice-Yield method is explicitly addressed in ASME Code, Section VIII, Div. 2. Application relevant aspects are particularly addressed. Furthermore, the applicability of the STPZ for arbitrary load time histories in connection with an appropriate cycle counting method is discussed. Note, that the STPZ is applicable both for the determination of (fatigue relevant) elastic–plastic strain ranges and (ratcheting relevant) locally accumulated strains. This paper concentrates on the performance of the method in terms of the determination of elastic–plastic strain ranges and fatigue usage factors. The additional performance in terms of locally accumulated strains and ratcheting will be discussed in a future publication. - Highlights: • Simplified elastic–plastic fatigue analyses. • Simplified theory of plastic zones. • Thermal cyclic loading. • Twice-Yield method. • Practical application examples

  1. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  2. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  3. Detailed disc assembly temperature prediction: comparison between CFD and simplified engineering methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snedden, Glen C

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved. DETAILED DISC ASSEMBLY TEMPERATURE PREDICTION: COMPARISON BETWEEN CFD AND SIMPLIFIED ENGINEERING METHODS ISABE-2005-1130 Glen Snedden, Thomas Roos and Kavendra Naidoo CSIR, Defencetek... transfer and conduction code (Gaugler, 1978) Taw Adiabatic Wall Temperature y+ Near wall Reynolds number Introduction In order to calculate life degradation of gas turbine disc assemblies, it is necessary to model the transient thermal and mechanical...

  4. A simplified approach to the PROMETHEE method for priority setting in management of mine action projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Mladineo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, priority setting in mine actions, i.e. in humanitarian demining, has become an increasingly important topic. Given that mine action projects require management and decision-making based on a multi -criteria approach, multi-criteria decision-making methods like PROMETHEE and AHP have been used worldwide for priority setting. However, from the aspect of mine action, where stakeholders in the decision-making process for priority setting are project managers, local politicians, leaders of different humanitarian organizations, or similar, applying these methods can be difficult. Therefore, a specialized web-based decision support system (Web DSS for priority setting, developed as part of the FP7 project TIRAMISU, has been extended using a module for developing custom priority setting scenarios in line with an exceptionally easy, user-friendly approach. The idea behind this research is to simplify the multi-criteria analysis based on the PROMETHEE method. Therefore, a simplified PROMETHEE method based on statistical analysis for automated suggestions of parameters such as preference function thresholds, interactive selection of criteria weights, and easy input of criteria evaluations is presented in this paper. The result is web-based DSS that can be applied worldwide for priority setting in mine action. Additionally, the management of mine action projects is supported using modules for providing spatial data based on the geographic information system (GIS. In this paper, the benefits and limitations of a simplified PROMETHEE method are presented using a case study involving mine action projects, and subsequently, certain proposals are given for the further research.

  5. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTIC METHODS OF ESTIMATION BRIDGES’ CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the numerical and analytical methods of calculation of the stressed-and-strained state of bridge constructions are considered. The task on increasing of reliability and accuracy of the numerical method and its solution by means of calculations in two bases are formulated. The analytical solution of the differential equation of deformation of a ferro-concrete plate under the action of local loads is also obtained.

  6. The Greenhouse effect within an analytic model of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnen, Heinz [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2009-01-15

    Within a simplified atmospheric model the greenhouse effect is treated by analytical methods starting from physical first principles. The influence of solar radiation, absorption cross sections of the greenhouse molecules, and cloud formation on the earth's temperature is shown and discussed explicitly by mathematical formulae in contrast to the climate simulations. The application of our analytical results on the production of 20 .10{sup 9} t of CO{sub 2} per year yields an enlargement of the earth's surface temperature of 2.3 .10{sup -2} C per year in agreement with other estimations. (orig.)

  7. Analytics Platform for ATLAS Computing Services

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration; Bryant, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    Big Data technologies have proven to be very useful for storage, processing and visualization of derived metrics associated with ATLAS distributed computing (ADC) services. Log file data and database records, and metadata from a diversity of systems have been aggregated and indexed to create an analytics platform for ATLAS ADC operations analysis. Dashboards, wide area data access cost metrics, user analysis patterns, and resource utilization efficiency charts are produced flexibly through queries against a powerful analytics cluster. Here we explore whether these techniques and analytics ecosystem can be applied to add new modes of open, quick, and pervasive access to ATLAS event data so as to simplify access and broaden the reach of ATLAS public data to new communities of users. An ability to efficiently store, filter, search and deliver ATLAS data at the event and/or sub-event level in a widely supported format would enable or significantly simplify usage of machine learning tools like Spark, Jupyter, R, S...

  8. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  9. Simplified method for beatlength measurement in optical fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.; Town, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: A simplified technique for measuring beatlength in birefringent optical fibres using magnetic modulation was analysed, and tested experimentally. By avoiding the use of unnecessary optical components and splicing to the fibre under test, the beatlength was measured accurately with good signal-to-noise ratio

  10. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    OpenAIRE

    D.D. Ganji; M. Gorji; M. Hatami; A. Hasanpour; N. Khademzadeh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and least square method (LSM) were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a paramet...

  11. Simplified analysis method for vibration of fusion reactor components with magnetic damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes two simplified analysis methods for the magnetically damped vibration. One is the method modifying the result of finite element uncoupled analysis using the coupling intensity parameter, and the other is the method using the solution and coupled eigenvalues of the single-degree-of-freedom coupled model. To verify these methods, numerical analyses of a plate and a thin cylinder are performed. The comparison between the results of the former method and the finite element tightly coupled analysis show almost satisfactory agreement. The results of the latter method agree very well with the finite element tightly coupled results because of the coupled eigenvalues. Since the vibration with magnetic damping can be evaluated using these methods without finite element coupled analysis, these approximate methods will be practical and useful for the wide range of design analyses taking account of the magnetic damping effect

  12. Performance Analyses of Counter-Flow Closed Wet Cooling Towers Based on a Simplified Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely used units in water cooling systems, the closed wet cooling towers (CWCTs have two typical counter-flow constructions, in which the spray water flows from the top to the bottom, and the moist air and cooling water flow in the opposite direction vertically (parallel or horizontally (cross, respectively. This study aims to present a simplified calculation method for conveniently and accurately analyzing the thermal performance of the two types of counter-flow CWCTs, viz. the parallel counter-flow CWCT (PCFCWCT and the cross counter-flow CWCT (CCFCWCT. A simplified cooling capacity model that just includes two characteristic parameters is developed. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed to determine the model parameters by curve fitting of experimental data. Based on the proposed model, the predicted outlet temperatures of the process water are compared with the measurements of a PCFCWCT and a CCFCWCT, respectively, reported in the literature. The results indicate that the predicted values agree well with the experimental data in previous studies. The maximum absolute errors in predicting the process water outlet temperatures are 0.20 and 0.24 °C for the PCFCWCT and CCFCWCT, respectively. These results indicate that the simplified method is reliable for performance prediction of counter-flow CWCTs. Although the flow patterns of the two towers are different, the variation trends of thermal performance are similar to each other under various operating conditions. The inlet air wet-bulb temperature, inlet cooling water temperature, air flow rate, and cooling water flow rate are crucial for determining the cooling capacity of a counter-flow CWCT, while the cooling tower effectiveness is mainly determined by the flow rates of air and cooling water. Compared with the CCFCWCT, the PCFCWCT is much more applicable in a large-scale cooling water system, and the superiority would be amplified when the scale of water

  13. Nuclear analytical methods for platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) are of special interest for analytical research due to their economic importance like chemical peculiarities as catalysts, medical applications as anticancer drugs, and possible environmental detrimental impact as exhaust from automobile catalyzers. Natural levels of PGE are so low in concentration that most of the current analytical techniques approach their limit of detection capacity. In addition, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt analyses still constitute a challenge in accuracy and precision of quantification in natural matrices. Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, or proton-induced X ray emission (PIXE), which are generally considered as reference methods for many analytical problems, are useful as well. However, due to methodological restrictions, they can, in most cases, only be applied after pre-concentration and under special irradiation conditions. This report was prepared following a coordinated research project and a consultants meeting addressing the subject from different viewpoints. The experts involved suggested to discuss the issue according to the (1) application, hence, the concentration levels encountered, and (2) method applied for analysis. Each of the different fields of application needs special consideration for sample preparation, PGE pre-concentration, and determination. Additionally, each analytical method requires special attention regarding the sensitivity and sample type. Quality assurance/quality control aspects are considered towards the end of the report. It is intended to provide the reader of this publication with state-of-the-art information on the various aspects of PGE analysis and to advise which technique might be most suitable for a particular analytical problem related to platinum group elements. In particular, many case studies described in detail from the authors' laboratory experience might help to decide which way to go. As in many cases

  14. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  15. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by EPRI. (orig./HP)

  16. Analytical solutions to the electromagnetic field in a cylindrical shell excited by external axial current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Wu; Chun-Yan, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The solutions to the electromagnetic field excited by a long axial current outside a conductive and magnetic cylindrical shell of finite length are studied in this paper. The more accurate analytical solutions are obtained by solving the proper boundary value problems by the separation variable method. Then the solutions are simplified according to asymptotic formulas of Bessel functions. Compared with the accurate solutions, the simplified solutions do not contain the Bessel functions and the inverse operation of the singular matrix, and can be calculated out fast by computers. The simplified solutions are more suitable for the cylindrical shell of high permeability and conductivity excited by a high frequency source. Both of the numerical results and the physical experimental results validate the simplified solutions obtained. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  17. A correction scheme for a simplified analytical random walk model algorithm of proton dose calculation in distal Bragg peak regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiguang; Merchant, Thomas E.; Farr, Jonathan B.

    2016-10-01

    The lateral homogeneity assumption is used in most analytical algorithms for proton dose, such as the pencil-beam algorithms and our simplified analytical random walk model. To improve the dose calculation in the distal fall-off region in heterogeneous media, we analyzed primary proton fluence near heterogeneous media and propose to calculate the lateral fluence with voxel-specific Gaussian distributions. The lateral fluence from a beamlet is no longer expressed by a single Gaussian for all the lateral voxels, but by a specific Gaussian for each lateral voxel. The voxel-specific Gaussian for the beamlet of interest is calculated by re-initializing the fluence deviation on an effective surface where the proton energies of the beamlet of interest and the beamlet passing the voxel are the same. The dose improvement from the correction scheme was demonstrated by the dose distributions in two sets of heterogeneous phantoms consisting of cortical bone, lung, and water and by evaluating distributions in example patients with a head-and-neck tumor and metal spinal implants. The dose distributions from Monte Carlo simulations were used as the reference. The correction scheme effectively improved the dose calculation accuracy in the distal fall-off region and increased the gamma test pass rate. The extra computation for the correction was about 20% of that for the original algorithm but is dependent upon patient geometry.

  18. New Analytical Solution of the Equilibrium Ampere's Law Using the Walker's Method: a Didactic Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, A. N. Laurindo; Ojeda-González, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V.; Caritá, L. A.

    2018-02-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the analytical solution of the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation or generalized Ampere's law, which is important in the studies of self-consistent 2.5-D solution for current sheet structures. A detailed mathematical development is presented to obtain the generating function as shown by Walker (RSPSA 91, 410, 1915). Therefore, we study the general solution of the GS equation in terms of the Walker's generating function in details without omitting any step. The Walker's generating function g( ζ) is written in a new way as the tangent of an unspecified function K( ζ). In this trend, the general solution of the GS equation is expressed as exp(- 2Ψ) = 4| K '( ζ)|2/cos2[ K( ζ) - K( ζ ∗)]. In order to investigate whether our proposal would simplify the mathematical effort to find new generating functions, we use Harris's solution as a test, in this case K( ζ) = arctan(exp( i ζ)). In summary, one of the article purposes is to present a review of the Harris's solution. In an attempt to find a simplified solution, we propose a new way to write the GS solution using g( ζ) = tan( K( ζ)). We also present a new analytical solution to the equilibrium Ampere's law using g( ζ) = cosh( b ζ), which includes a generalization of the Harris model and presents isolated magnetic islands.

  19. Jet substructure with analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fregoso, Alessandro; Powling, Alexander [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Marzani, Simone [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    We consider the mass distribution of QCD jets after the application of jet-substructure methods, specifically the mass-drop tagger, pruning, trimming and their variants. In contrast to most current studies employing Monte Carlo methods, we carry out analytical calculations at the next-to-leading order level, which are sufficient to extract the dominant logarithmic behaviour for each technique, and compare our findings to exact fixed-order results. Our results should ultimately lead to a better understanding of these jet-substructure methods which in turn will influence the development of future substructure tools for LHC phenomenology. (orig.)

  20. Time-dependent simplified PN approximation to the equations of radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Martin; Klar, Axel; Larsen, Edward W.; Yasuda, Shugo

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state simplified P N approximation to the radiative transport equation has been successfully applied to many problems involving radiation. This paper presents the derivation of time-dependent simplified P N (SP N ) equations (up to N = 3) via two different approaches. First, we use an asymptotic analysis, similar to the asymptotic derivation of the steady-state SP N equations. Second, we use an approach similar to the original derivation of the steady-state SP N equations and we show that both approaches lead to similar results. Special focus is put on the well-posedness of the equations and the question whether it can be guaranteed that the solution satisfies the correct physical bounds. Several numerical test cases are shown, including an analytical benchmark due to Su and Olson [B. Su, G.L. Olson, An analytical benchmark for non-equilibrium radiative transfer in an isotropically scattering medium, Ann. Nucl. Energy 24 (1997) 1035-1055.

  1. Simplified DFT methods for consistent structures and energies of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeweyher, Eike; Gerit Brandenburg, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Kohn–Sham density functional theory (DFT) is routinely used for the fast electronic structure computation of large systems and will most likely continue to be the method of choice for the generation of reliable geometries in the foreseeable future. Here, we present a hierarchy of simplified DFT methods designed for consistent structures and non-covalent interactions of large systems with particular focus on molecular crystals. The covered methods are a minimal basis set Hartree–Fock (HF-3c), a small basis set screened exchange hybrid functional (HSE-3c), and a generalized gradient approximated functional evaluated in a medium-sized basis set (B97-3c), all augmented with semi-classical correction potentials. We give an overview on the methods design, a comprehensive evaluation on established benchmark sets for geometries and lattice energies of molecular crystals, and highlight some realistic applications on large organic crystals with several hundreds of atoms in the primitive unit cell.

  2. Simplified analytical model for thermal transfer in vertical hollow brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente, S [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France); Petit, M [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France); Javelas, R [Lab. d` Etudes Thermiques et Mecaniques, INSA, UPS, Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-01

    A modern building envelope has a lot of little cavities. Most of them are vertical with a high height to thickness ratio. We present here the conception of a software to determine heat transfer through terra-cotta bricks full of large vertical cavities. After a bibliographic study on convective heat transfer in such cavities, we made an analytical model based on Karman-Polhausen`s method for convection and on the radiosity method for radiative heat transfer. We used a test apparatus of a single cavity to determine the temperature field inside the cavity. Using these experimental results, we showed that the exchange was two-dimensional. We also realised heat flux measurements. Then we expose our theoretical study: We propose relations between central core temperatures and active face temperatures, then between outside and inside active face temperatures. We calculate convective superficial heat transfer because we noticed we have boundary layers along the active faces. We realise a heat flux balance between convective plus radiative heat transfer and conductive heat transfer, so we propose an algorithm to calculate global heat transfer through a single cavity. Finally, we extend our model to a whole hollow brick with lined-up cavities and propose an algorithm to calculate heat flux and thermal resistance with a good accuracy ({approx}7.5%) compared to previous experimental results. (orig.)

  3. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute

  4. How to simplify the analytics for input-output accountability measurements in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.; Matussek, P.; Michel-Piper, I.

    1986-02-01

    An analytical approach to high-performance uranium and plutonium accountancy measurements in reprocessing input and output solutions is presented, which provides larger operational simplicity than the conventionally applied chemical methods. The proposed alternative is based on energy-dispersive absorption edge and fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, using the proven and reliable K-edge densitometry technique as reference method. Two X-ray densitometers developed for accurate and reliable uranium and plutonium analysis in both the feed and product solutions are described. Practical experiences and results from their performance evaluation on actual process solutions from a reprocessing plant are presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Analytical investigation of the applicability of simplified ratchetting and creep-fatigue rules to a nozzle-to-sphere geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a nozzle-to-spherical-shell attachment and explores the applicability of simplified ratchetting and creep-fatigue rules to this attachment. A five-cycle inelastic analysis and creep-fatigue damage evaluation was carried out on this component. An elastic analysis also was done to provide input parameters required to apply the various rules and procedures of simplified analysis methods. Ten lines, or critical sections, were chosen for postprocessing to determine the ratchetting strain and creep-fatigue damage at both the inside and outside surfaces. At many of the 20 surface points analyzed, the inelastic analysis results did not develop a constant or decreasing pattern for the incremental strain or damage even after 5 cycles were analyzed. Failure to develop a constant or decreasing pattern was especially prevalent for creep damage. The results of the detailed inelastic analyses at the ten critical sections are compared with the results of elastic evaluations of ratchetting and creep-fatigue damage calculated according to American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-47-13

  6. Collection of analytes from microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, Andrey V; Zvezdin, Vasiliy N; Samant, Pradnya; Grenader, Mark I; Zemlyanova, Marina; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-11-04

    Clinical medicine and public health would benefit from simplified acquisition of biological samples from patients that can be easily obtained at point of care, in the field, and by patients themselves. Microneedle patches are designed to serve this need by collecting dermal interstitial fluid containing biomarkers without the dangers, pain, or expertise needed to collect blood. This study presents novel methods to collect biomarker analytes from microneedle patches for analysis by integration into conventional analytical laboratory microtubes and microplates. Microneedle patches were made out of cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by micromolding. Microneedle patches were shown to swell with water up to 50-fold in volume, depending on degree of polymer cross-linking, and to collect interstitial fluid from the skin of rats. To collect analytes from microneedle patches, the patches were mounted within the cap of microcentrifuge tubes or formed the top of V-bottom multiwell microplates, and fluid was collected in the bottom of the tubes under gentle centrifugation. In another method, microneedle patches were attached to form the bottom of multiwell microplates, thereby enabling in situ analysis. The simplicity of biological sample acquisition using microneedle patches coupled with the simplicity of analyte collection from microneedles patches integrated into conventional analytical equipment could broaden the reach of future screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of biomarkers in healthcare and environmental/workplace settings.

  7. A simplified model for computing equation of state of argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Caixia; Tian Yangmeng

    2006-01-01

    The paper present a simplified new model of computing equation of state and ionization degree of Argon plasma, which based on Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical model: the authors fitted the numerical results of the ionization potential calculated by Thomas-Fermi statistical model and gained the analytical function of the potential versus the degree of ionization, then calculated the ionization potential and the average degree of ionization for Argon versus temperature and density in local thermal equilibrium case at 10-1000 eV. The results calculated of this simplified model are basically in agreement with several sets of theory data and experimental data. This simplified model can be used to calculation of the equation of state of plasmas mixture and is expected to have a more wide use in the field of EML technology involving the strongly ionized plasmas. (authors)

  8. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wegscheider

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β^{*}-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β-function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs. A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  9. Analytical N beam position monitor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, A.; Langner, A.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Measurement and correction of focusing errors is of great importance for performance and machine protection of circular accelerators. Furthermore LHC needs to provide equal luminosities to the experiments ATLAS and CMS. High demands are also set on the speed of the optics commissioning, as the foreseen operation with β*-leveling on luminosity will require many operational optics. A fast measurement of the β -function around a storage ring is usually done by using the measured phase advance between three consecutive beam position monitors (BPMs). A recent extension of this established technique, called the N-BPM method, was successfully applied for optics measurements at CERN, ALBA, and ESRF. We present here an improved algorithm that uses analytical calculations for both random and systematic errors and takes into account the presence of quadrupole, sextupole, and BPM misalignments, in addition to quadrupolar field errors. This new scheme, called the analytical N-BPM method, is much faster, further improves the measurement accuracy, and is applicable to very pushed beam optics where the existing numerical N-BPM method tends to fail.

  10. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    simplistic module that performs a mathematical operation on two numbers. The most important method is the Execute() method. This will get called when it is...addition, an input control is also specified in the example below. In this example, the mathematical operator can only be chosen from a preconfigured...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  11. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach

  12. State-of-the-Art of (Bio)Chemical Sensor Developments in Analytical Spanish Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, María Reyes; Contento, Ana María; Ríos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    (Bio)chemical sensors are one of the most exciting fields in analytical chemistry today. The development of these analytical devices simplifies and miniaturizes the whole analytical process. Although the initial expectation of the massive incorporation of sensors in routine analytical work has been truncated to some extent, in many other cases analytical methods based on sensor technology have solved important analytical problems. Many research groups are working in this field world-wide, reporting interesting results so far. Modestly, Spanish researchers have contributed to these recent developments. In this review, we summarize the more representative achievements carried out for these groups. They cover a wide variety of sensors, including optical, electrochemical, piezoelectric or electro-mechanical devices, used for laboratory or field analyses. The capabilities to be used in different applied areas are also critically discussed. PMID:22319260

  13. 7 CFR 93.13 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... No. 1, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service, Science and Technology, 3521 South Agriculture Building... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.13 Section 93.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  14. Development and validation of a simplified titration method for monitoring volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Guo, Jianbin; Wu, Shubiao; Liu, Fang; Dong, Renjie

    2017-09-01

    The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration has been considered as one of the most sensitive process performance indicators in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. However, the accurate determination of VFAs concentration in AD processes normally requires advanced equipment and complex pretreatment procedures. A simplified method with fewer sample pretreatment procedures and improved accuracy is greatly needed, particularly for on-site application. This report outlines improvements to the Nordmann method, one of the most popular titrations used for VFA monitoring. The influence of ion and solid interfering subsystems in titrated samples on results accuracy was discussed. The total solid content in titrated samples was the main factor affecting accuracy in VFA monitoring. Moreover, a high linear correlation was established between the total solids contents and VFA measurement differences between the traditional Nordmann equation and gas chromatography (GC). Accordingly, a simplified titration method was developed and validated using a semi-continuous experiment of chicken manure anaerobic digestion with various organic loading rates. The good fitting of the results obtained by this method in comparison with GC results strongly supported the potential application of this method to VFA monitoring. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Secondary waste minimization in analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Smith, L.L.; Crain, J.S.; Boparai, A.S.; Kiely, J.T.; Yaeger, J.S.; Schilling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The characterization phase of site remediation is an important and costly part of the process. Because toxic solvents and other hazardous materials are used in common analytical methods, characterization is also a source of new waste, including mixed waste. Alternative analytical methods can reduce the volume or form of hazardous waste produced either in the sample preparation step or in the measurement step. The authors are examining alternative methods in the areas of inorganic, radiological, and organic analysis. For determining inorganic constituents, alternative methods were studied for sample introduction into inductively coupled plasma spectrometers. Figures of merit for the alternative methods, as well as their associated waste volumes, were compared with the conventional approaches. In the radiological area, the authors are comparing conventional methods for gross α/β measurements of soil samples to an alternative method that uses high-pressure microwave dissolution. For determination of organic constituents, microwave-assisted extraction was studied for RCRA regulated semivolatile organics in a variety of solid matrices, including spiked samples in blank soil; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soils, sludges, and sediments; and semivolatile organics in soil. Extraction efficiencies were determined under varying conditions of time, temperature, microwave power, moisture content, and extraction solvent. Solvent usage was cut from the 300 mL used in conventional extraction methods to about 30 mL. Extraction results varied from one matrix to another. In most cases, the microwave-assisted extraction technique was as efficient as the more common Soxhlet or sonication extraction techniques

  16. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vudakin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate

  17. Simplified methods to the complete thermal and mechanical behavior of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Schneiter, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones or from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, the authors can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behavior in the thickness of the vessel. These simplified methods are a cost effective alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come

  18. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  19. Identification of new biomarker of radiation exposure for establishing rapid, simplified biodosimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Kawai, Hidehiko; Kamiya, Kenji; Suzuki, Fumio; Izumi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Until now, counting chromosome aberration is the most accurate method for evaluating radiation doses. However, this method is time consuming and requires skills for evaluating chromosome aberrations. It could be difficult to apply this method to majority of people who are expected to be exposed to ionizing radiation. In this viewpoint, establishment of rapid, simplified biodosimetric methods for triage will be anticipated. Due to the development of mass spectrometry method and the identification of new molecules such as microRNA (miRNA), it is conceivable that new molecular biomarker of radiation exposure using some newly developed mass spectrometry. In this review article, the part of our results including the changes of protein (including the changes of glycosylation), peptide, metabolite, miRNA after radiation exposure will be shown. (author)

  20. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  1. Analytical Method and Semianalytical Method for Analysis of Scattering by Anisotropic Sphere: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of methods for the electromagnetic scattering by an anisotropic sphere has been reviewed. Two main methods, angular expansion method and T-matrix method, which are widely used for the anisotropic sphere, are expressed in Cartesian coordinate firstly. The comparison of those and the further exploration on the scattering field are illustrated afterwards. Based on the most general form concluded by variable separation method, the coupled electric field and magnetic field of radial anisotropic sphere can be derived. By simplifying the condition, simpler case of uniaxial anisotropic media is expressed with confirmed coefficients for the internal and external field. Details of significant phenomenon are presented.

  2. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  3. Simplified methods applied to the complete thermal and mechanical behaviour of a pressure vessel during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has developed a software package of simplified methods (proprietary ones from literature) in order to study the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a PWR pressure vessel during a severe accident involving a corium localization in the vessel lower head. Using a part of this package, we can evaluate for instance successively: the heat flux at the inner surface of the vessel (conductive or convective pool of corium); the thermal exchange coefficient between the vessel and the outside (dry pit or flooded pit, watertight thermal insulation or not); the complete thermal evolution of the vessel (temperature profile, melting); the possible global plastic failure of the vessel; the creep behaviour in the vessel. These simplified methods are low cost alternative to finite element calculations which are yet used to validate the previous methods, waiting for experimental results to come. (authors)

  4. Teaching Analytical Method Transfer through Developing and Validating Then Transferring Dissolution Testing Methods for Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaru, Irene; Koether, Marina; Chichester, Kimberly; Eaton, Lafayette

    2017-01-01

    Analytical method transfer (AMT) and dissolution testing are important topics required in industry that should be taught in analytical chemistry courses. Undergraduate students in senior level analytical chemistry laboratory courses at Kennesaw State University (KSU) and St. John Fisher College (SJFC) participated in development, validation, and…

  5. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  6. Analytical method comparisons for the accurate determination of PCBs in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M.; Yarita, T.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Takatsu, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has been developing several matrix reference materials, for example, sediments, water and biological tissues, for the determinations of heavy metals and organometallic compounds. The matrix compositions of those certified reference materials (CRMs) are similar to compositions of actual samples, and those are useful for validating analytical procedures. ''Primary methods of measurements'' are essential to obtain accurate and SI-traceable certified values in the reference materials, because the methods have the highest quality of measurement. However, inappropriate analytical operations, such as incomplete extraction of analytes or crosscontamination during analytical procedures, will cause error of analytical results, even if one of the primary methods, isotope-dilution, is utilized. To avoid possible procedural bias for the certification of reference materials, we employ more than two analytical methods which have been optimized beforehand. Because the accurate determination of trace POPs in the environment is important to evaluate their risk, reliable CRMs are required by environmental chemists. Therefore, we have also been preparing matrix CRMs for the determination of POPs. To establish accurate analytical procedures for the certification of POPs, extraction is one of the critical steps as described above. In general, conventional extraction techniques for the determination of POPs, such as Soxhlet extraction (SOX) and saponification (SAP), have been characterized well, and introduced as official methods for environmental analysis. On the other hand, emerging techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), give higher recovery yields of analytes with relatively short extraction time and small amount of solvent, by reasons of the high

  7. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  8. Description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2000-01-01

    The description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores includes: an outline of JNC's Analytical System Compared with ERANOS; a standard data base for FBR Nuclear Design in JNC; JUPITER Critical Experiment; details of Analytical Method and Its Effects on JUPITER; performance of JNC Analytical System (effective multiplication factor k eff , control rod worth, and sodium void reactivity); design accuracy of a 600 MWe-class FBR Core. JNC developed a consistent analytical system for FBR core evaluation, based on JENDL library, f-table method, and three dimensional diffusion/transport theory, which includes comprehensive sensitivity tools to improve the prediction accuracy of core parameters. JNC system was verified by analysis of JUPITER critical experiment, and other facilities. Its performance can be judged quite satisfactory for FBR-core design work, though there is room for further improvement, such as more detailed treatment of cross-section resonance regions

  9. Extension of the analytic nodal method to four energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, D.K.; Nigg, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Analytic Nodal Method is one of several recently-developed coarse mesh numerical methods for efficiently and accurately solving the multidimensional static and transient neutron diffusion equations. This summary describes a mathematically rigorous extension of the Analytic Nodal Method to the frequently more physically realistic four-group case. A few general theoretical considerations are discussed, followed by some calculated results for a typical steady-state two-dimensional PWR quarter core application. 8 refs

  10. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid

  11. Application of an analytical method for solution of thermal hydraulic conservation equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakory, M.R. [Simulation, Systems & Services Technologies Company (S3 Technologies), Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied for solution of two-phase flow conservation equations. The test results for application of the model for simulation of BWR transients are presented and compared with the results obtained from application of the explicit method for integration of conservation equations. The test results show that with application of the analytical method for integration of conservation equations, the Courant limitation associated with explicit Euler method of integration was eliminated. The results obtained from application of the analytical method (with large time steps) agreed well with the results obtained from application of explicit method of integration (with time steps smaller than the size imposed by Courant limitation). The results demonstrate that application of the analytical approach significantly improves the numerical stability and computational efficiency.

  12. Simplified method for elastic plastic analysis of material presenting bilinear kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified method for elastic plastic analysis is presented. Material behavior is assumed to be elastic plastic with bilinear kinematic hardening. The proposed method give a strain-stress field fullfilling material constitutive equations, equations of equilibrium and continuity conditions. This strain-stress is obtained through two linear computations. The first one is the conventional elastic analysis of the body submitted to the applied load. The second one use tangent matrix (tangent Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) for the determination of an additional stress due to imposed initial strain. Such a method suits finite elements computer codes, the most useful result being plastic strains resulting from the applied loading (load control or deformation control). Obviously, there is not unique solution, for stress-strain field is not depending only of the applied load, but of the load history. Therefore, less pessimistic solutions can be got by one or two additional linear computations [fr

  13. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan-Copper Complex Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with ...

  14. The Skinny on Big Data in Education: Learning Analytics Simplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jacqueleen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of learning analytics (LA), its stakeholders and the benefits and challenges these stakeholders face. LA is a field of research that involves the gathering, analyzing and reporting of data related to learners and their environments with the purpose of optimizing the learning experience. Stakeholders in LA are…

  15. Setting analytical performance specifications based on outcome studies - is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Andrea Rita; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Sandberg, Sverre; John, Andrew St; Monaghan, Phillip J.; Verhagen-Kamerbeek, Wilma D. J.; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Ebert, Christoph; Lord, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    The 1st Strategic Conference of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine proposed a simplified hierarchy for setting analytical performance specifications (APS). The top two levels of the 1999 Stockholm hierarchy, i.e., evaluation of the effect of analytical performance

  16. Analytical treatment of large leak pressure behavior in LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao; Miyake, Osamu

    1980-07-01

    Simplified analytical methods applicable to the estimation of initial pressure spike in case of a large leak accident in LMFBR steam generators were devised as follows; (i) Estimation of the initial water leak rate by the centered rarefaction wave method, (ii) Estimation of the initial pressure spike by the one-dimensional compressible method with either the columnar bubble growth model or the spherical bubble growth model. These methods were compared with relevant experimental data or other more elaborate analyses and validated to be usable in simple geometry and limited time span cases. Application of these methods to an actual steam generator case was explained and demonstrated. (author)

  17. Cosmological helium production simplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Brown, L.S.; Feinberg, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a simplified model of helium synthesis in the early universe. The purpose of the model is to explain clearly the physical ideas relevant to the cosmological helium synthesis, in a manner that does not overlay these ideas with complex computer calculations. The model closely follows the standard calculation, except that it neglects the small effect of Fermi-Dirac statistics for the leptons. We also neglect the temperature difference between photons and neutrinos during the period in which neutrons and protons interconvert. These approximations allow us to express the neutron-proton conversion rates in a closed form, which agrees to 10% accuracy or better with the exact rates. Using these analytic expressions for the rates, we reduce the calculation of the neutron-proton ratio as a function of temperature to a simple numerical integral. We also estimate the effect of neutron decay on the helium abundance. Our result for this quantity agrees well with precise computer calculations. We use our semi-analytic formulas to determine how the predicted helium abundance varies with such parameters as the neutron life-time, the baryon to photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and a possible electron-neutrino chemical potential. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  19. Analytical Methods for Biomass Characterization during Pretreatment and Bioconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Yunqiao [ORNL; Meng, Xianzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Yoo, Chang Geun; Li, Mi; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been introduced as a promising resource for alternative fuels and chemicals because of its abundance and complement for petroleum resources. Biomass is a complex biopolymer and its compositional and structural characteristics largely vary depending on its species as well as growth environments. Because of complexity and variety of biomass, understanding its physicochemical characteristics is a key for effective biomass utilization. Characterization of biomass does not only provide critical information of biomass during pretreatment and bioconversion, but also give valuable insights on how to utilize the biomass. For better understanding biomass characteristics, good grasp and proper selection of analytical methods are necessary. This chapter introduces existing analytical approaches that are widely employed for biomass characterization during biomass pretreatment and conversion process. Diverse analytical methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for biomass characterization are reviewed. In addition, biomass accessibility methods by analyzing surface properties of biomass are also summarized in this chapter.

  20. Evaluation of analytical performance based on partial order methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessova, Olga; Erzhigitov, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    Classical measurements of performances are typically based on linear scales. However, in analytical chemistry a simple scale may be not sufficient to analyze the analytical performance appropriately. Here partial order methodology can be helpful. Within the context described here, partial order analysis can be seen as an ordinal analysis of data matrices, especially to simplify the relative comparisons of objects due to their data profile (the ordered set of values an object have). Hence, partial order methodology offers a unique possibility to evaluate analytical performance. In the present data as, e.g., provided by the laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testings is used as an illustrative example. However, the presented scheme is likewise applicable for comparison of analytical methods or simply as a tool for optimization of an analytical method. The methodology can be applied without presumptions or pretreatment of the analytical data provided in order to evaluate the analytical performance taking into account all indicators simultaneously and thus elucidating a "distance" from the true value. In the present illustrative example it is assumed that the laboratories analyze a given sample several times and subsequently report the mean value, the standard deviation and the skewness, which simultaneously are used for the evaluation of the analytical performance. The analyses lead to information concerning (1) a partial ordering of the laboratories, subsequently, (2) a "distance" to the Reference laboratory and (3) a classification due to the concept of "peculiar points". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually

  2. Analytical methods for determination of mycotoxins: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas W; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-01-26

    Mycotoxins are small (MW approximately 700), toxic chemical products formed as secondary metabolites by a few fungal species that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. Ochratoxins and Aflatoxins are mycotoxins of major significance and hence there has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful and practical. Due to the variety of structures of these toxins, it is impossible to use one standard technique for analysis and/or detection. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis and the need for a specialist laboratory setting create challenges for routine analysis. Several existing analytical techniques, which offer flexible and broad-based methods of analysis and in some cases detection, have been discussed in this manuscript. There are a number of methods used, of which many are lab-based, but to our knowledge there seems to be no single technique that stands out above the rest, although analytical liquid chromatography, commonly linked with mass spectroscopy is likely to be popular. This review manuscript discusses (a) sample pre-treatment methods such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), solid phase extraction (SPE), (b) separation methods such as (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (c) others such as ELISA. Further currents trends, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  3. Photographic and drafting techniques simplify method of producing engineering drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisor, H.

    1968-01-01

    Combination of photographic and drafting techniques has been developed to simplify the preparation of three dimensional and dimetric engineering drawings. Conventional photographs can be converted to line drawings by making copy negatives on high contrast film.

  4. Simplified static method for determining seismic loads on equipment in moderate and high hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.; Holmes, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified static analysis methodology is presented for qualifying equipment in moderate and high-hazard facility-use category structures, where the facility use is defined in Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subjected to Natural Phenomena Hazards, UCRL-15910. Currently there are no equivalent simplified static methods for determining seismic loads on equipment in these facility use categories without completing dynamic analysis of the facility to obtain local floor accelerations or spectra. The requirements of UCRL-15910 specify the use of open-quotes dynamicclose quotes analysis methods, consistent with Seismic Design Guidelines for Essential Buildings, Chapter 6, open-quotes Nonstructural Elements,close quotes TM5-809-10-1, be used for determining seismic loads on mechanical equipment and components. Chapter 6 assumes that the dynamic analysis of the facility has generated either floor response spectra or model floor accelerations. These in turn are utilized with the dynamic modification factor and the actual demand and capacity ratios to determine equipment loading. This complex methodology may be necessary to determine more exacting loads for hard to qualify equipment but does not provide a simple conservative loading methodology for equipment with ample structural capacity

  5. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  6. An Investigation to Manufacturing Analytical Services Composition using the Analytical Target Cascading Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Wen; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jung, Kiwook; Prabhu, Vittaldas

    2017-01-01

    As cloud computing is increasingly adopted, the trend is to offer software functions as modular services and compose them into larger, more meaningful ones. The trend is attractive to analytical problems in the manufacturing system design and performance improvement domain because 1) finding a global optimization for the system is a complex problem; and 2) sub-problems are typically compartmentalized by the organizational structure. However, solving sub-problems by independent services can result in a sub-optimal solution at the system level. This paper investigates the technique called Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) to coordinate the optimization of loosely-coupled sub-problems, each may be modularly formulated by differing departments and be solved by modular analytical services. The result demonstrates that ATC is a promising method in that it offers system-level optimal solutions that can scale up by exploiting distributed and modular executions while allowing easier management of the problem formulation.

  7. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable

  8. An analytic data analysis method for oscillatory slug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Shyun

    2006-01-01

    An analytical data analysis method is developed for slug tests in partially penetrating wells in confined or unconfined aquifers of high hydraulic conductivity. As adapted from the van der Kamp method, the determination of the hydraulic conductivity is based on the occurrence times and the displacements of the extreme points measured from the oscillatory data and their theoretical counterparts available in the literature. This method is applied to two sets of slug test response data presented by Butler et al.: one set shows slow damping with seven discernable extremities, and the other shows rapid damping with three extreme points. The estimates of the hydraulic conductivity obtained by the analytic method are in good agreement with those determined by an available curve-matching technique.

  9. A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES' MEAN FREE PATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Qin, G.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain the mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) for a solar event, one usually has to fit time profiles of both flux and anisotropy from spacecraft observations to numerical simulations of SEPs' transport processes. This method can be called a simulation method. But a reasonably good fitting needs a lot of simulations, which demand a large amount of calculation resources. Sometimes, it is necessary to find an easy way to obtain the mean free path of SEPs quickly, for example, in space weather practice. Recently, Shalchi et al. provided an approximate analytical formula of SEPs' anisotropy time profile as a function of particles' mean free path for impulsive events. In this paper, we determine SEPs' mean free path by fitting the anisotropy time profiles from Shalchi et al.'s analytical formula to spacecraft observations. This new method can be called an analytical method. In addition, we obtain SEPs' mean free path with the traditional simulation methods. Finally, we compare the mean free path obtained with the simulation method to that of the analytical method to show that the analytical method, with some minor modifications, can give us a good, quick approximation of SEPs' mean free path for impulsive events.

  10. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  11. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Rice University, MS 318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Case Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  12. Regional and longitudinal estimation of product lifespan distribution: a case study for automobiles and a simplified estimation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Fuse, Masaaki

    2015-02-03

    Product lifespan estimates are important information for understanding progress toward sustainable consumption and estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products. Publications reported actual lifespan of products; however, quantitative data are still limited for many countries and years. This study presents regional and longitudinal estimation of lifespan distribution of consumer durables, taking passenger cars as an example, and proposes a simplified method for estimating product lifespan distribution. We estimated lifespan distribution parameters for 17 countries based on the age profile of in-use cars. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the shape parameter of the lifespan distribution can be replaced by a constant value for all the countries and years. This enabled a simplified estimation that does not require detailed data on the age profile. Applying the simplified method, we estimated the trend in average lifespans of passenger cars from 2000 to 2009 for 20 countries. Average lifespan differed greatly between countries (9-23 years) and was increasing in many countries. This suggests consumer behavior differs greatly among countries and has changed over time, even in developed countries. The results suggest that inappropriate assumptions of average lifespan may cause significant inaccuracy in estimating the stocks and end-of-life flows of products.

  13. Simplified TBA equations of the AdS5 × S5 mirror model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arutyunov, G.E.; Frolov, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use the recently found integral representation for the dressing phase in the kinematic region of the mirror theory to simplify the TBA equations for the AdS5 × S5 mirror model. The resulting set of equations provides an efficient starting point for both analytic and numerical studies.

  14. Spatial accuracy of a simplified disaggregation method for traffic emissions applied in seven mid-sized Chilean cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossés de Eicker, Margarita; Zah, Rainer; Triviño, Rubén; Hurni, Hans

    The spatial accuracy of top-down traffic emission inventory maps obtained with a simplified disaggregation method based on street density was assessed in seven mid-sized Chilean cities. Each top-down emission inventory map was compared against a reference, namely a more accurate bottom-up emission inventory map from the same study area. The comparison was carried out using a combination of numerical indicators and visual interpretation. Statistically significant differences were found between the seven cities with regard to the spatial accuracy of their top-down emission inventory maps. In compact cities with a simple street network and a single center, a good accuracy of the spatial distribution of emissions was achieved with correlation values>0.8 with respect to the bottom-up emission inventory of reference. In contrast, the simplified disaggregation method is not suitable for complex cities consisting of interconnected nuclei, resulting in correlation valuessituation to get an overview on the spatial distribution of the emissions generated by traffic activities.

  15. Analysis and synthesis of bianisotropic metasurfaces by using analytical approach based on equivalent parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaeifar, Mohammad; Granpayeh, Nosrat

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented to analyze and synthesize bianisotropic metasurfaces. The equivalent parameters of metasurfaces in terms of meta-atom properties and other specifications of metasurfaces are derived. These parameters are related to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic/magnetoelectric dipole moments of the bianisotropic media, and they can simplify the analysis of complicated and multilayer structures. A metasurface of split ring resonators is studied as an example demonstrating the proposed method. The optical properties of the meta-atom are explored, and the calculated polarizabilities are applied to find the reflection coefficient and the equivalent parameters of the metasurface. Finally, a structure consisting of two metasurfaces of the split ring resonators is provided, and the proposed analytical method is applied to derive the reflection coefficient. The validity of this analytical approach is verified by full-wave simulations which demonstrate good accuracy of the equivalent parameter method. This method can be used in the analysis and synthesis of bianisotropic metasurfaces with different materials and in different frequency ranges by considering electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic/magnetoelectric dipole moments.

  16. A non overlapping parallel domain decomposition method applied to the simplified transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathuiliere, B.; Barrault, M.; Ramet, P.; Roman, J.

    2009-01-01

    A reactivity computation requires to compute the highest eigenvalue of a generalized eigenvalue problem. An inverse power algorithm is used commonly. Very fine modelizations are difficult to tackle for our sequential solver, based on the simplified transport equations, in terms of memory consumption and computational time. So, we propose a non-overlapping domain decomposition method for the approximate resolution of the linear system to solve at each inverse power iteration. Our method brings to a low development effort as the inner multigroup solver can be re-use without modification, and allows us to adapt locally the numerical resolution (mesh, finite element order). Numerical results are obtained by a parallel implementation of the method on two different cases with a pin by pin discretization. This results are analyzed in terms of memory consumption and parallel efficiency. (authors)

  17. A gravimetric simplified method for nucleated marrow cell counting using an injection needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Toshiki; Fang, Liu; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2005-08-01

    A simplified gravimetric marrow cell counting method for rats is proposed for a regular screening method. After fresh bone marrow was aspirated by an injection needle, the marrow cells were suspended in carbonate buffered saline. The nucleated marrow cell count (NMC) was measured by an automated multi-blood cell analyzer. When this gravimetric method was applied to rats, the NMC of the left and right femurs had essentially identical values due to careful handling. The NMC at 4 to 10 weeks of age in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats was 2.72 to 1.96 and 2.75 to 1.98 (x10(6) counts/mg), respectively. More useful information for evaluation could be obtained by using this gravimetric method in addition to myelogram examination. However, some difficulties with this method include low NMC due to blood contamination and variation of NMC due to handling. Therefore, the utility of this gravimetric method for screening will be clarified by the accumulation of the data on myelotoxicity studies with this method.

  18. Studies on analytical method and nondestructive measuring method on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onimura, Kichiro; Arioka, Koji; Horai, Manabu; Noguchi, Shigeru.

    1982-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used as structural materials for the machine and equipment of various kinds of plants, such as thermal power, nuclear power, and chemical plants. The machines and equipment using this kind of material, however, have the possibility of suffering corrosion damage while in service, and these damages are considered to be largely due to the sensitization of the material in sometimes. So, it is necessary to develop an analytical method for grasping the sensitization of the material more in detail and a quantitative nondestructive measuring method which is applicable to various kinds of structures in order to prevent the corrosion damage. From the above viewpoint, studies have been made on the analytical method based on the theory of diffusion of chromium in austenitic stainless steels and on Electro-Potentiokinetics Reactivation Method (EPR Method) as a nondestructive measuring method, using 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels having different carbon contents in base metals. This paper introduces the results of EPR test on the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels and the correlation between analytical and experimental results. (author)

  19. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  20. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  1. Propulsion and launching analysis of variable-mass rockets by analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Ganji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, applications of some analytical methods on nonlinear equation of the launching of a rocket with variable mass are investigated. Differential transformation method (DTM, homotopy perturbation method (HPM and least square method (LSM were applied and their results are compared with numerical solution. An excellent agreement with analytical methods and numerical ones is observed in the results and this reveals that analytical methods are effective and convenient. Also a parametric study is performed here which includes the effect of exhaust velocity (Ce, burn rate (BR of fuel and diameter of cylindrical rocket (d on the motion of a sample rocket, and contours for showing the sensitivity of these parameters are plotted. The main results indicate that the rocket velocity and altitude are increased with increasing the Ce and BR and decreased with increasing the rocket diameter and drag coefficient.

  2. Simplified method of calculating residual stress in circumferential welding of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1984-01-01

    Many circumferential joints of piping are used in as-welded state, but in these welded joints, the residual stress as high as the yield stress of materials arises, and causes to accelerate stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. The experiment or the finite element method to clarify welding residual stress requires much time and labor, and is expensive, therefore, the author proposed the simplified method of calculation. The heating and cooling process of welding is very complex, and cannot be modeled as it is, therefore, it was assumed that in multiple layer welding, the welding condition of the last layer determines the residual stress, that material constants are invariable regardless of temperature, that the temperature distribution and residual stress are axisymmetric, and that there is repeated stress-strain relation in the vicinity of welded parts. The temperature distribution at the time of welding, thermal stress and welding residual stress are analyzed, and the material constants used for the calculation of residual stress are given. As the example of calculation, the effect of welding heat input and materials is shown. The extension of the method to a thick-walled pipe is discussed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is receiving great attention worldwide. The material contained in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about biodiesel engines and fuels, analytical methods used to measure fuel properties, and specifications for biodiesel quality control.

  4. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  5. Application of a Simplified Method for Estimating Perfusion Derived from Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Glioma Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengqiu; Suo, Shiteng; Han, Xu; Jin, Ke; Sun, Yawen; Wang, Yao; Ding, Weina; Qu, Jianxun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the feasibility of a simplified method based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) acquired with three b -values to measure tissue perfusion linked to microcirculation, to validate it against from perfusion-related parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and to investigate its utility to differentiate low- from high-grade gliomas. Materials and Methods : The prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. From May 2016 and May 2017, 50 patients confirmed with glioma were assessed with multi- b -value DWI and DCE MR imaging at 3.0 T. Besides conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC 0,1000 ) map, perfusion-related parametric maps for IVIM-derived perfusion fraction ( f ) and pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), DCE MR imaging-derived pharmacokinetic metrics, including K trans , v e and v p , as well as a metric named simplified perfusion fraction (SPF), were generated. Correlation between perfusion-related parameters was analyzed by using the Spearman rank correlation. All imaging parameters were compared between the low-grade ( n = 19) and high-grade ( n = 31) groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The diagnostic performance for tumor grading was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results : SPF showed strong correlation with IVIM-derived f and D* ( ρ = 0.732 and 0.716, respectively; both P simplified method to measure tissue perfusion based on DWI by using three b -values may be helpful to differentiate low- from high-grade gliomas. SPF may serve as a valuable alternative to measure tumor perfusion in gliomas in a noninvasive, convenient and efficient way.

  6. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Radhika, TSL; Rani, T Raja

    2015-01-01

    Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

  7. Examination of fast reactor fuels, FBR analytical quality assurance standards and methods, and analytical methods development: irradiation tests. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1976, and FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    Characterization of unirradiated and irradiated LMFBR fuels by analytical chemistry methods will continue, and additional methods will be modified and mechanized for hot cell application. Macro- and microexaminations will be made on fuel and cladding using the shielded electron microprobe, emission spectrograph, radiochemistry, gamma scanner, mass spectrometers, and other analytical facilities. New capabilities will be developed in gamma scanning, analyses to assess spatial distributions of fuel and fission products, mass spectrometric measurements of burnup and fission gas constituents and other chemical analyses. Microstructural analyses of unirradiated and irradiated materials will continue using optical and electron microscopy and autoradiographic and x-ray techniques. Analytical quality assurance standards tasks are designed to assure the quality of the chemical characterizations necessary to evaluate reactor components relative to specifications. Tasks include: (1) the preparation and distribution of calibration materials and quality control samples for use in quality assurance surveillance programs, (2) the development of and the guidance in the use of quality assurance programs for sampling and analysis, (3) the development of improved methods of analysis, and (4) the preparation of continuously updated analytical method manuals. Reliable analytical methods development for the measurement of burnup, oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, and various gases in irradiated fuels is described

  8. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masanori, E-mail: ando.masanori@jaea.go.jp; Takaya, Shigeru, E-mail: takaya.shigeru@jaea.go.jp

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  9. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel Part II: Plate bending test and proposal of a simplified evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Takaya, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Creep-fatigue evaluation method for weld joint of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel is proposed. • A simplified evaluation method is also proposed for the codification. • Both proposed evaluation method was validated by the plate bending test. • For codification, the local stress and strain behavior was analyzed. - Abstract: In the present study, to develop an evaluation procedure and design rules for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints, a method for evaluating the creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints was proposed based on finite element analysis (FEA) and a series of cyclic plate bending tests of longitudinal and horizontal seamed plates. The strain concentration and redistribution behaviors were evaluated and the failure cycles were estimated using FEA by considering the test conditions and metallurgical discontinuities in the weld joints. Inelastic FEA models consisting of the base metal, heat-affected zone and weld metal were employed to estimate the elastic follow-up behavior caused by the metallurgical discontinuities. The elastic follow-up factors determined by comparing the elastic and inelastic FEA results were determined to be less than 1.5. Based on the estimated elastic follow-up factors obtained via inelastic FEA, a simplified technique using elastic FEA was proposed for evaluating the creep-fatigue life in Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. The creep-fatigue life obtained using the plate bending test was compared to those estimated from the results of inelastic FEA and by a simplified evaluation method.

  10. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Francis C., E-mail: francis.b.c@videotron.ca

    2017-01-15

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  11. Analytical method of waste allocation in waste management systems: Concept, method and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Francis C.

    2017-01-01

    Waste is not a rejected item to dispose anymore but increasingly a secondary resource to exploit, influencing waste allocation among treatment operations in a waste management (WM) system. The aim of this methodological paper is to present a new method for the assessment of the WM system, the “analytical method of the waste allocation process” (AMWAP), based on the concept of the “waste allocation process” defined as the aggregation of all processes of apportioning waste among alternative waste treatment operations inside or outside the spatial borders of a WM system. AMWAP contains a conceptual framework and an analytical approach. The conceptual framework includes, firstly, a descriptive model that focuses on the description and classification of the WM system. It includes, secondly, an explanatory model that serves to explain and to predict the operation of the WM system. The analytical approach consists of a step-by-step analysis for the empirical implementation of the conceptual framework. With its multiple purposes, AMWAP provides an innovative and objective modular method to analyse a WM system which may be integrated in the framework of impact assessment methods and environmental systems analysis tools. Its originality comes from the interdisciplinary analysis of the WAP and to develop the conceptual framework. AMWAP is applied in the framework of an illustrative case study on the household WM system of Geneva (Switzerland). It demonstrates that this method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of WM. - Highlights: • The study presents a new analytical method based on the waste allocation process. • The method provides an in-depth and contextual knowledge of the waste management system. • The paper provides a reproducible procedure for professionals, experts and academics. • It may be integrated into impact assessment or environmental system analysis tools. • An illustrative case study is provided based on household waste

  12. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  13. Implementing analytics a blueprint for design, development, and adoption

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, Nauman

    2013-01-01

    Implementing Analytics demystifies the concept, technology and application of analytics and breaks its implementation down to repeatable and manageable steps, making it possible for widespread adoption across all functions of an organization. Implementing Analytics simplifies and helps democratize a very specialized discipline to foster business efficiency and innovation without investing in multi-million dollar technology and manpower. A technology agnostic methodology that breaks down complex tasks like model design and tuning and emphasizes business decisions rather than the technology behi

  14. Transport methods: general. 1. The Analytical Monte Carlo Method for Radiation Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative Monte Carlo method for solving the coupled equations of radiation transport and material energy. This method is based on incorporating the analytical solution to the material energy equation directly into the Monte Carlo simulation for the radiation intensity. This method, which we call the Analytical Monte Carlo (AMC) method, differs from the well known Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) method of Fleck and Cummings because there is no discretization of the material energy equation since it is solved as a by-product of the Monte Carlo simulation of the transport equation. Our method also differs from the method recently proposed by Ahrens and Larsen since they use Monte Carlo to solve both equations, while we are solving only the radiation transport equation with Monte Carlo, albeit with effective sources and cross sections to represent the emission sources. Our method bears some similarity to a method developed and implemented by Carter and Forest nearly three decades ago, but there are substantive differences. We have implemented our method in a simple zero-dimensional Monte Carlo code to test the feasibility of the method, and the preliminary results are very promising, justifying further extension to more realistic geometries. (authors)

  15. Using the gauge condition to simplify the elastodynamic analysis of guided wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yeasin BHUIYAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, gauge condition in elastodynamics is explored more to revive its potential capability of simplifying wave propagation problems in elastic medium. The inception of gauge condition in elastodynamics happens from the Navier-Lame equations upon application of Helmholtz theorem. In order to solve the elastic wave problems by potential function approach, the gauge condition provides the necessary conditions for the potential functions. The gauge condition may be considered as the superposition of the separate gauge conditions of Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH guided waves respectively, and thus, it may be resolved into corresponding gauges of Lamb waves and SH waves. The manipulation and proper choice of the gauge condition does not violate the classical solutions of elastic waves in plates; rather, it simplifies the problems. The gauge condition allows to obtain the analytical solution of complicated problems in a simplified manner.

  16. A simplified method for quantitative assessment of the relative health and safety risk of environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Smith, T.H.; Peatross, R.G.; Stepan, I.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents a simplified method to assess the health and safety risk of Environmental Management activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The method applies to all types of Environmental Management activities including waste management, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning. The method is particularly useful for planning or tradeoff studies involving multiple conceptual options because it combines rapid evaluation with a quantitative approach. The method is also potentially applicable to risk assessments of activities other than DOE Environmental Management activities if rapid quantitative results are desired

  17. Analytical method for optimization of maintenance policy based on available system failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, V.H.; Maximov, S.; Rivas-Dávalos, F.; Melchor, C.L.; Guardado, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy with minimal repair at failure, periodic maintenance, and replacement is proposed for systems with historical failure time data influenced by a current PM policy. The method includes a new imperfect PM model based on Weibull distribution and incorporates the current maintenance interval T 0 and the optimal maintenance interval T to be found. The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Based on this model, the optimal number of PM and the optimal maintenance interval for minimizing the expected cost over an infinite time horizon are also analytically determined. A number of examples are presented involving different failure time data and current maintenance intervals to analyze how the proposed analytical optimization method for periodic PM policy performances in response to changes in the distribution of the failure data and the current maintenance interval. - Highlights: • An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy is proposed. • A new imperfect PM model is developed. • The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood. • The optimal maintenance interval and number of PM are also analytically determined. • The model is validated by several numerical examples

  18. New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Analytical Method for the Determination of Metronidazole in Human Plasma: Application to Bioequivalence Study. ... Methods: Metronidazole was extracted from human plasma through one step of ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v11i5.14.

  19. Development and validation of analytical methods for dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Darryl; Crowley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of innovative botanical ingredients in dietary supplements and foods has resulted in a flurry of research aimed at the development and validation of analytical methods for accurate measurement of active ingredients. The pressing need for these methods is being met through an expansive collaborative initiative involving industry, government, and analytical organizations. This effort has resulted in the validation of several important assays as well as important advances in the method engineering procedures which have improved the efficiency of the process. The initiative has also allowed researchers to hurdle many of the barricades that have hindered accurate analysis such as the lack of reference standards and comparative data. As the availability for nutraceutical products continues to increase these methods will provide consumers and regulators with the scientific information needed to assure safety and dependable labeling

  20. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  1. Simplified Freeman-Tukey test statistics for testing probabilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the simplified version of the Freeman-Tukey test statistic for testing hypothesis about multinomial probabilities in one, two and multidimensional contingency tables that does not require calculating the expected cell frequencies before test of significance. The simplified method established new criteria of ...

  2. Recent analytical applications of magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Analytical chemistry has experienced, as well as other areas of science, a big change due to the needs and opportunities provided by analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology. Now, nanotechnology is increasingly proving to be a powerful ally of analytical chemistry to achieve its objectives, and to simplify analytical processes. Moreover, the information needs arising from the growing nanotechnological activity are opening an exciting new field of action for analytical chemists. Magnetic nanoparticles have been used in various fields owing to their unique properties including large specific surface area and simple separation with magnetic fields. For Analytical applications, they have been used mainly for sample preparation techniques (magnetic solid phase extraction with different advanced functional groups (layered double hydroxide, β-cyclodextrin, carbon nanotube, graphen, polymer, octadecylsilane and automation of it, microextraction techniques enantioseparation and chemosensors. This review summarizes the basic principles and achievements of magnetic nanoparticles in sample preparation techniques, enantioseparation and chemosensors. Also, some selected articles recently published (2010-2016 have been reviewed and discussed.

  3. Coach simplified structure modeling and optimization study based on the PBM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miaoli; Ren, Jindong; Yin, Ying; Du, Jian

    2016-09-01

    For the coach industry, rapid modeling and efficient optimization methods are desirable for structure modeling and optimization based on simplified structures, especially for use early in the concept phase and with capabilities of accurately expressing the mechanical properties of structure and with flexible section forms. However, the present dimension-based methods cannot easily meet these requirements. To achieve these goals, the property-based modeling (PBM) beam modeling method is studied based on the PBM theory and in conjunction with the characteristics of coach structure of taking beam as the main component. For a beam component of concrete length, its mechanical characteristics are primarily affected by the section properties. Four section parameters are adopted to describe the mechanical properties of a beam, including the section area, the principal moments of inertia about the two principal axles, and the torsion constant of the section. Based on the equivalent stiffness strategy, expressions for the above section parameters are derived, and the PBM beam element is implemented in HyperMesh software. A case is realized using this method, in which the structure of a passenger coach is simplified. The model precision is validated by comparing the basic performance of the total structure with that of the original structure, including the bending and torsion stiffness and the first-order bending and torsional modal frequencies. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to choose design variables. The optimal Latin hypercube experiment design is adopted to sample the test points, and polynomial response surfaces are used to fit these points. To improve the bending and torsion stiffness and the first-order torsional frequency and taking the allowable maximum stresses of the braking and left turning conditions as constraints, the multi-objective optimization of the structure is conducted using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm on the ISIGHT platform. The result of the

  4. Analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo data. Stochastic sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Khaldoon; Koch, Erik [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We apply Bayesian inference to the analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data from the imaginary axis to the real axis. Demanding a proper functional Bayesian formulation of any analytic continuation method leads naturally to the stochastic sampling method (StochS) as the Bayesian method with the simplest prior, while it excludes the maximum entropy method and Tikhonov regularization. We present a new efficient algorithm for performing StochS that reduces computational times by orders of magnitude in comparison to earlier StochS methods. We apply the new algorithm to a wide variety of typical test cases: spectral functions and susceptibilities from DMFT and lattice QMC calculations. Results show that StochS performs well and is able to resolve sharp features in the spectrum.

  5. Big Data Analytics Tools as Applied to ATLAS Event Data

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Ilija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Big Data technologies have proven to be very useful for storage, processing and visualization of derived metrics associated with ATLAS distributed computing (ADC) services. Log file data and database records, and metadata from a diversity of systems have been aggregated and indexed to create an analytics platform for ATLAS ADC operations analysis. Dashboards, wide area data access cost metrics, user analysis patterns, and resource utilization efficiency charts are produced flexibly through queries against a powerful analytics cluster. Here we explore whether these techniques and analytics ecosystem can be applied to add new modes of open, quick, and pervasive access to ATLAS event data so as to simplify access and broaden the reach of ATLAS public data to new communities of users. An ability to efficiently store, filter, search and deliver ATLAS data at the event and/or sub-event level in a widely supported format would enable or significantly simplify usage of big data, statistical and machine learning tools...

  6. Anisotropic Multishell Analytical Modeling of an Intervertebral Disk Subjected to Axial Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Sébastien; Nadeau, Sylvie; Bouzid, Abdel-Hakim

    2016-04-01

    Studies on intervertebral disk (IVD) response to various loads and postures are essential to understand disk's mechanical functions and to suggest preventive and corrective actions in the workplace. The experimental and finite-element (FE) approaches are well-suited for these studies, but validating their findings is difficult, partly due to the lack of alternative methods. Analytical modeling could allow methodological triangulation and help validation of FE models. This paper presents an analytical method based on thin-shell, beam-on-elastic-foundation and composite materials theories to evaluate the stresses in the anulus fibrosus (AF) of an axisymmetric disk composed of multiple thin lamellae. Large deformations of the soft tissues are accounted for using an iterative method and the anisotropic material properties are derived from a published biaxial experiment. The results are compared to those obtained by FE modeling. The results demonstrate the capability of the analytical model to evaluate the stresses at any location of the simplified AF. It also demonstrates that anisotropy reduces stresses in the lamellae. This novel model is a preliminary step in developing valuable analytical models of IVDs, and represents a distinctive groundwork that is able to sustain future refinements. This paper suggests important features that may be included to improve model realism.

  7. Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, O.D.L.

    1982-02-01

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks

  9. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Adamsen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...... allowing elastic deformations only in a layer between the pull-out cone and the concrete base. The derived model is in good agreement with experimental results, it predicts size effects and the model parameters found by calibration of the model on experimental data are in good agreement with what should...

  10. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...... allowing elastic deformations only in a layer between the pull-out cone and the concrete base. The derived model is in good agreement with experimental results, it predicts size effects and the model parameters found by calibration of the model on experimental data are in good agreement with what should...

  11. A Simplified Version of the Fuzzy Decision Method and its Comparison with the Paraconsistent Decision Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fábio Romeu; Abe, Jair Minoro

    2010-11-01

    Two recent non-classical logics have been used to make decision: fuzzy logic and paraconsistent annotated evidential logic Et. In this paper we present a simplified version of the fuzzy decision method and its comparison with the paraconsistent one. Paraconsistent annotated evidential logic Et, introduced by Da Costa, Vago and Subrahmanian (1991), is capable of handling uncertain and contradictory data without becoming trivial. It has been used in many applications such as information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence, production engineering, decision making etc. Intuitively, one Et logic formula is type p(a, b), in which a and b belong to [0, 1] (real interval) and represent respectively the degree of favorable evidence (or degree of belief) and the degree of contrary evidence (or degree of disbelief) found in p. The set of all pairs (a; b), called annotations, when plotted, form the Cartesian Unitary Square (CUS). This set, containing a similar order relation of real number, comprises a network, called lattice of the annotations. Fuzzy logic was introduced by Zadeh (1965). It tries to systematize the knowledge study, searching mainly to study the fuzzy knowledge (you don't know what it means) and distinguish it from the imprecise one (you know what it means, but you don't know its exact value). This logic is similar to paraconsistent annotated one, since it attributes a numeric value (only one, not two values) to each proposition (then we can say that it is an one-valued logic). This number translates the intensity (the degree) with which the preposition is true. Let's X a set and A, a subset of X, identified by the function f(x). For each element x∈X, you have y = f(x)∈[0, 1]. The number y is called degree of pertinence of x in A. Decision making theories based on these logics have shown to be powerful in many aspects regarding more traditional methods, like the one based on Statistics. In this paper we present a first study for a simplified

  12. Eigenvalues of the simplified ideal MHD ballooning equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, R.B.; Auby, N.; Dagazian, R.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of the spectrum of the simplified differential equation describing the variation of the amplitude of the ideal MHD ballooning instability along magnetic field lines constitutes a multiparameter Schroedinger eigenvalue problem. An exact eigenvalue relation for the discrete part of the spectrum is obtained in terms of the oblate spheroidal functions. The dependence of the eigenvalues lambda on the two free parameters γ 2 and μ 2 of the equation is discussed, together with certain analytical approximations in the limits of small and large γ 2 . A brief review of the principal properties of the spheroidal functions is given in an appendix

  13. Methods of analytical check for highly pure tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklin, D.G.; Karpov, Yu.A.; Orlova, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    The review is devoted to the methods of high-purity tungsten analysis. Current trends in the development of this branch of analytical chemistry are considered. Application of both instrument mass-spectrometry analysis and optico-spectral, activation methods and mass-spectrometry ones with inductively-bound plasma in combination with preliminary isolation of the basis and impurity concentration is expected to be the most actual

  14. Java Programs for Using Newmark's Method and Simplified Decoupled Analysis to Model Slope Performance During Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.; Jibson, Matthew W.

    2003-01-01

    Landslides typically cause a large proportion of earthquake damage, and the ability to predict slope performance during earthquakes is important for many types of seismic-hazard analysis and for the design of engineered slopes. Newmark's method for modeling a landslide as a rigid-plastic block sliding on an inclined plane provides a useful method for predicting approximate landslide displacements. Newmark's method estimates the displacement of a potential landslide block as it is subjected to earthquake shaking from a specific strong-motion record (earthquake acceleration-time history). A modification of Newmark's method, decoupled analysis, allows modeling landslides that are not assumed to be rigid blocks. This open-file report is available on CD-ROM and contains Java programs intended to facilitate performing both rigorous and simplified Newmark sliding-block analysis and a simplified model of decoupled analysis. For rigorous analysis, 2160 strong-motion records from 29 earthquakes are included along with a search interface for selecting records based on a wide variety of record properties. Utilities are available that allow users to add their own records to the program and use them for conducting Newmark analyses. Also included is a document containing detailed information about how to use Newmark's method to model dynamic slope performance. This program will run on any platform that supports the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) version 1.3, including Windows, Mac OSX, Linux, Solaris, etc. A minimum of 64 MB of available RAM is needed, and the fully installed program requires 400 MB of disk space.

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, M.; Wittig, M.; Reinhard, A.; Ohe, von der K.; Blacquière, T.; Raezke, K.P.; Michel, R.; Schreier, P.; Beuerle, T.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One

  16. The Application of Real Convolution for Analytically Evaluating Fermi-Dirac-Type and Bose-Einstein-Type Integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Selvaggi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi-Dirac-type or Bose-Einstein-type integrals can be transformed into two convergent real-convolution integrals. The transformation simplifies the integration process and may ultimately produce a complete analytical solution without recourse to any mathematical approximations. The real-convolution integrals can either be directly integrated or be transformed into the Laplace Transform inversion integral in which case the full power of contour integration becomes available. Which method is employed is dependent upon the complexity of the real-convolution integral. A number of examples are introduced which will illustrate the efficacy of the analytical approach.

  17. Long-Term Prediction of Satellite Orbit Using Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Cheol Yoon

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term prediction algorithm of geostationary orbit was developed using the analytical method. The perturbation force models include geopotential upto fifth order and degree and luni-solar gravitation, and solar radiation pressure. All of the perturbation effects were analyzed by secular variations, short-period variations, and long-period variations for equinoctial elements such as the semi-major axis, eccentricity vector, inclination vector, and mean longitude of the satellite. Result of the analytical orbit propagator was compared with that of the cowell orbit propagator for the KOREASAT. The comparison indicated that the analytical solution could predict the semi-major axis with an accuarcy of better than ~35meters over a period of 3 month.

  18. Ball Bearing Stiffnesses- A New Approach Offering Analytical Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Pascal; Frikha, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Space mechanisms use preloaded ball bearings in order to withstand the severe vibrations during launch.The launch strength requires the calculation of the bearing stiffness, but this calculation is complex. Nowadays, there is no analytical expression that gives the stiffness of a bearing. Stiffness is computed using an iterative algorithm such as Newton-Raphson, to solve the nonlinear system of equations.This paper aims at offering a simplified analytical approach, based on the assumption that the contact angle is constant. This approach gives analytical formulas of the stiffness of preloaded ball bearing.

  19. AgarTrap: a simplified Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for sporelings of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboyama, Shoko; Kodama, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. is being developed as an emerging model plant, and several transformation techniques were recently reported. Examples are biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods. Here, we report a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sporelings, and it is termed Agar-utilized Transformation with Pouring Solutions (AgarTrap). The procedure of the AgarTrap was carried out by simply exchanging appropriate solutions in a Petri dish, and completed within a week, successfully yielding sufficient numbers of independent transformants for molecular analysis (e.g. characterization of gene/protein function) in a single experiment. The AgarTrap method will promote future molecular biological study in M. polymorpha.

  20. An analytical-numerical comprehensive method for optimizing the fringing magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Meiqin; Mao Naifeng

    1991-01-01

    The criterion of optimizing the fringing magnetic field is discussed, and an analytical-numerical comprehensive method for realizing the optimization is introduced. The method mentioned above consists of two parts, the analytical part calculates the field of the shims, which corrects the fringing magnetic field by using uniform magnetizing method; the numerical part fulfils the whole calculation of the field distribution by solving the equation of magnetic vector potential A within the region covered by arbitrary triangular meshes with the aid of finite difference method and successive over relaxation method. On the basis of the method, the optimization of the fringing magnetic field for a large-scale electromagnetic isotope separator is finished

  1. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  2. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  3. Analysis of simplified heat transfer models for thermal property determination of nano-film by TDTR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Fangyuan; Zhang, Hang; Jiang, Yuyan; Tang, Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer in nanostructures is of critical importance for a wide range of applications such as functional materials and thermal management of electronics. Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) has been proved to be a reliable measurement technique for the thermal property determinations of nanoscale structures. However, it is difficult to determine more than three thermal properties at the same time. Heat transfer model simplifications can reduce the fitting variables and provide an alternative way for thermal property determination. In this paper, two simplified models are investigated and analyzed by the transform matrix method and simulations. TDTR measurements are performed on Al-SiO2-Si samples with different SiO2 thickness. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the simplified tri-layer model (STM) is reliable and suitable for thin film samples with a wide range of thickness. Furthermore, the STM can also extract the intrinsic thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal resistance from serial samples with different thickness.

  4. Modern methods in analytical acoustics lecture notes

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, D G; Williams, J E Ffowcs; Heckl, M; Leppington, F G

    1992-01-01

    Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics considers topics fundamental to the understanding of noise, vibration and fluid mechanisms. The series of lectures on which this material is based began by some twenty five years ago and has been developed and expanded ever since. Acknowledged experts in the field have given this course many times in Europe and the USA. Although the scope of the course has widened considerably, the primary aim of teaching analytical techniques of acoustics alongside specific areas of wave motion and unsteady fluid mechanisms remains. The distinguished authors of this volume are drawn from Departments of Acoustics, Engineering of Applied Mathematics in Berlin, Cambridge and London. Their intention is to reach a wider audience of all those concerned with acoustic analysis than has been able to attend the course.

  5. OPTIMAL METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF SILICATE ROCK SAMPLES FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  6. An analytical erosion model for divertor plates and limiter experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, A.; Noda, N.; Akiyama, R.; Arimoto, H.; Idei, H.; Iguchi, H.; Kaneko, O.; Kohmoto, T.; Kubo, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Morita, S.; Motojima, O.; Nishimura, K.; Okamura, S.; Takahasi, C.; Takita, Y.; Yamada, I.; Matsunami, N.; Rice, J.; Yamada, H.; Shoji, T.; Ueda, M.

    1992-01-01

    A self-consistent analytical solution for net erosion of a divertor plate which is set perpendicular to magnetic field lines is presented. The primary flux profile of hydrogen and impurities except redepositing particles is externally given as well as the return ratio of sputtered atoms to the plate. In the direction along the divertor trace, all conditions are uniform. The ionization mean free path is assumed constant to simplify equations. The analytical solution is compared with net erosion experiments carried out in compact helical system (CHS) by exposing a graphite target to a neutral beam heated plasma column introduced perpendicularly to the target along the magnetic field lines through a 2 cm slit opend on a graphite limiter. After exposure to 98 discharges, the target surface is analyzed with Rutherford backscattering method. Deposition profiles of Ti and O impurities are very well explained with the analytical predictions. (orig.)

  7. Analytic Methods Used in Quality Control in a Compounding Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical testing will no doubt become a more important part of pharmaceutical compounding as the public and regulatory agencies demand increasing documentation of the quality of compounded preparations. Compounding pharmacists must decide what types of testing and what amount of testing to include in their quality-control programs, and whether testing should be done in-house or outsourced. Like pharmaceutical compounding, analytical testing should be performed only by those who are appropriately trained and qualified. This article discusses the analytical methods that are used in quality control in a compounding pharmacy. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  8. Analytical maximum-likelihood method to detect patterns in real networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect patterns in real networks, randomized graph ensembles that preserve only part of the topology of an observed network are systematically used as fundamental null models. However, the generation of them is still problematic. Existing approaches are either computationally demanding and beyond analytic control or analytically accessible but highly approximate. Here, we propose a solution to this long-standing problem by introducing a fast method that allows one to obtain expectation values and standard deviations of any topological property analytically, for any binary, weighted, directed or undirected network. Remarkably, the time required to obtain the expectation value of any property analytically across the entire graph ensemble is as short as that required to compute the same property using the adjacency matrix of the single original network. Our method reveals that the null behavior of various correlation properties is different from what was believed previously, and is highly sensitive to the particular network considered. Moreover, our approach shows that important structural properties (such as the modularity used in community detection problems) are currently based on incorrect expressions, and provides the exact quantities that should replace them.

  9. EPA's analytical methods for water: The next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hites, R.A.; Budde, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    By the late 1970s, it had become clear to EPA that organic compounds were polluting many of the nation's waters. By 1977, as a result of a lawsuit by several environmentally concerned plaintiffs, EPA had focused on a list of 114 'priority' organic pollutants. Its long-term goal was the regulation of specific compounds that were found to pose significant environmental problems, a daunting task. Tens of thousands of samples needed to be measured by hundreds of different laboratories. Clearly, there were concerns about the comparability of data among laboratories. The result was a series of laboratory-based analytical 'methods.' These EPA methods are detailed, step-by-step directions (recipes) that describe everything the analyst needs to know to complete a satisfactory analysis. During the 1970s the first set of methods was developed; this was the '600 series' for the analysis of organic compounds in wastewater. In 1979 and the 1980s, a set of '500 series' methods, focusing on drinking water, was developed. By now, many of the 500 and 600 series methods are in widespread use, and it is clear that there are considerably overlaps among the methods in terms of both procedures and analytes. Indiana University was asked by EPA to consider the question, 'Is it possible to revise or eliminate some of the 500 and 600 series methods and effect a savings of time and money?' This and related questions were studied and recommendations were developed

  10. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 37Cl/35Cl isotope ratio analysis in perchlorate by ion chromatography/multi collector -ICPMS: Analytical performance and implication for biodegradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Ronen, Zeev; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2017-10-01

    In the present study we propose a new analytical method for 37 Cl/ 35 Cl analysis in perchlorate by Ion Chromatography(IC) coupled to Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The accuracy of the analytical method was validated by analysis of international perchlorate standard materials USGS-37 and USGS -38; analytical precision better than ±0.4‰ was achieved. 37 Cl/ 35 Cl isotope ratio analysis in perchlorate during laboratory biodegradation experiment with microbial cultures enriched from the contaminated soil in Israel resulted in isotope enrichment factor ε 37 Cl = -13.3 ± 1‰, which falls in the range reported previously for perchlorate biodegradation by pure microbial cultures. The proposed analytical method may significantly simplify the procedure for isotope analysis of perchlorate which is currently applied in environmental studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A simplified method of calculating heat flow through a two-phase heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohanis, Y.G. [Thermal Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: yg.yohanis@ulster.ac.uk; Popel, O.S. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Frid, S.E. [Non-traditional Renewable Energy Sources, Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya str., IVTAN, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-01

    A simplified method of calculating the heat flow through a heat exchanger in which one or both heat carrying media are undergoing a phase change is proposed. It is based on enthalpies of the heat carrying media rather than their temperatures. The method enables the determination of the maximum rate of heat flow provided the thermodynamic properties of both heat-carrying media are known. There will be no requirement to separately simulate each part of the system or introduce boundaries within the heat exchanger if one or both heat-carrying media undergo a phase change. The model can be used at the pre-design stage, when the parameters of the heat exchangers may not be known, i.e., to carry out an assessment of a complex energy scheme such as a steam power plant. One such application of this model is in thermal simulation exercises within the TRNSYS modeling environment.

  13. A simplified method of calculating heat flow through a two-phase heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Y.G.; Popel, O.S.; Frid, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    A simplified method of calculating the heat flow through a heat exchanger in which one or both heat carrying media are undergoing a phase change is proposed. It is based on enthalpies of the heat carrying media rather than their temperatures. The method enables the determination of the maximum rate of heat flow provided the thermodynamic properties of both heat-carrying media are known. There will be no requirement to separately simulate each part of the system or introduce boundaries within the heat exchanger if one or both heat-carrying media undergo a phase change. The model can be used at the pre-design stage, when the parameters of the heat exchangers may not be known, i.e., to carry out an assessment of a complex energy scheme such as a steam power plant. One such application of this model is in thermal simulation exercises within the TRNSYS modeling environment

  14. Analytical chromatography. Methods, instrumentation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashin, Ya I; Yashin, A Ya

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and the prospects in the development of main methods of analytical chromatography, viz., gas, high performance liquid and ion chromatographic techniques, are characterised. Achievements of the past 10-15 years in the theory and general methodology of chromatography and also in the development of new sorbents, columns and chromatographic instruments are outlined. The use of chromatography in the environmental control, biology, medicine, pharmaceutics, and also for monitoring the quality of foodstuffs and products of chemical, petrochemical and gas industries, etc. is considered.

  15. The Emergence of the Analytical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    accountability, visibility and documentation. It is argued that pedagogy is generated as a sequential and unit-specified way of working on the production of ‘the learning child’, forming a time- and material-optimising approach. Hereby, the nursery teacher, as a daily scientific researcher, comes to serve...... the nation by an ongoing observational intervention, producing the learning foundation for the entrepreneurial citizen, and thus the nation as a knowledge society in a globalised world. This is what this article terms the emergence of the analytical method....

  16. assessment of concentration of air pollutants using analytical and numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmail, S.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems a results in differential equations actually partial or ordinary differential equations.In our study we are interested in solutions of partial differential equations.The aim of this work is to calculate the concentrations of the pollution, by solving the atmospheric diffusion equation(ADE) using different mathematical methods of solution. It is difficult to solve the general form of ADE analytically, so we use some assumptions to get its solution.The solutions of it depend on the eddy diffusivity profiles(k) and the wind speed u. We use some physical assumptions to simplify its formula and solve it. In the present work, we solve the ADE analytically in three dimensions using Green's function method, Laplace transform method, normal mode method and these separation of variables method. Also, we use ADM as a numerical method. Finally, comparisons are made with the results predicted by the previous methods and the observed data.

  17. A simple analytical model for reactive particle ignition in explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguay, Vincent [Defence Research and Development Canada - Valcartier, 2459 Pie XI Blvd. North, Quebec, QC, G3J 1X5 (Canada); Higgins, Andrew J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Zhang, Fan [Defence Research and Development Canada - Suffield, P. O. Box 4000, Stn Main, Medicine Hat, AB, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    A simple analytical model is developed to predict ignition of magnesium particles in nitromethane detonation products. The flow field is simplified by considering the detonation products as a perfect gas expanding in a vacuum in a planar geometry. This simplification allows the flow field to be solved analytically. A single particle is then introduced in this flow field. Its trajectory and heating history are computed. It is found that most of the particle heating occurs in the Taylor wave and in the quiescent flow region behind it, shortly after which the particle cools. By considering only these regions, thereby considerably simplifying the problem, the flow field can be solved analytically with a more realistic equation of state (such as JWL) and a spherical geometry. The model is used to compute the minimum charge diameter for particle ignition to occur. It is found that the critical charge diameter for particle ignition increases with particle size. These results are compared to experimental data and show good agreement. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. An analytical optimization method for electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleson, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Due to electric propulsion's inherent propellant mass savings over chemical propulsion, electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EPOTVs) are a highly efficient mode of orbit transfer. When selecting an electric propulsion device (ion, MPD, or arcjet) and propellant for a particular mission, it is preferable to use quick, analytical system optimization methods instead of time intensive numerical integration methods. It is also of interest to determine each thruster's optimal operating characteristics for a specific mission. Analytical expressions are derived which determine the optimal specific impulse (Isp) for each type of electric thruster to maximize payload fraction for a desired thrusting time. These expressions take into account the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Verification of the method is made with representative electric propulsion values on a LEO-to-GEO mission. Application of the method to specific missions is discussed

  19. A first course in ordinary differential equations analytical and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a modern introduction to analytical and numerical techniques for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Contrary to the traditional format—the theorem-and-proof format—the book is focusing on analytical and numerical methods. The book supplies a variety of problems and examples, ranging from the elementary to the advanced level, to introduce and study the mathematics of ODEs. The analytical part of the book deals with solution techniques for scalar first-order and second-order linear ODEs, and systems of linear ODEs—with a special focus on the Laplace transform, operator techniques and power series solutions. In the numerical part, theoretical and practical aspects of Runge-Kutta methods for solving initial-value problems and shooting methods for linear two-point boundary-value problems are considered. The book is intended as a primary text for courses on the theory of ODEs and numerical treatment of ODEs for advanced undergraduate and early graduate students. It is assumed t...

  20. Simplified method to solve sound transmission through structures lined with elastic porous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, J

    2001-11-01

    An approximate analysis method is developed to calculate sound transmission through structures lined with porous material. Because the porous material has both the solid phase and fluid phase, three wave components exist in the material, which makes the related analysis very complicated. The main idea in developing the approximate method is very simple: modeling the porous material using only the strongest of the three waves, which in effect idealizes the material as an equivalent fluid. The analysis procedure has to be conducted in two steps. In the first step, sound transmission through a flat double panel with a porous liner of infinite extents, which has the same cross sectional construction as the actual structure, is solved based on the full theory and the strongest wave component is identified. In the second step sound transmission through the actual structure is solved modeling the porous material as an equivalent fluid while using the actual geometry of the structure. The development and validation of the method are discussed in detail. As an application example, the transmission loss through double walled cylindrical shells with a porous core is calculated utilizing the simplified method.

  1. Screening efficacy of a simplified logMAR chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naganathan Muthuramalingam

    2016-04-01

    Aim: This study evaluates the efficacy of a simplified logMAR chart, designed for VA testing over the conventional Snellen chart, in a school-based vision-screening programme. Methods: We designed a simplified logMAR chart by employing the principles of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS chart in terms of logarithmic letter size progression, inter-letter spacing, and inter-line spacing. Once the simplified logMAR chart was validated by students in the Elite school vision-screening programme, we set out to test the chart in 88 primary and middle schools in the Tiruporur block of Kancheepuram district in Tamil Nadu. One school teacher in each school was trained to screen a cross-sectional population of 10 354 primary and secondary school children (girls: 5488; boys: 4866 for VA deficits using a new, simplified logMAR algorithm. An experienced paediatric optometrist was recruited to validate the screening methods and technique used by the teachers to collect the data. Results: The optometrist screened a subset of 1300 school children from the total sample. The optometrist provided the professional insights needed to validate the clinical efficacy of the simplified logMAR algorithm and verified the reliability of the data collected by the teachers. The mean age of children sampled for validation was 8.6 years (range: 9–14 years. The sensitivity and the specificity of the simplified logMAR chart when compared to the standard logMAR chart were found to be 95% and 98%, respectively. Kappa value was 0.97. Sensitivity of the teachers’ screening was 66.63% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.73–77.02 and the specificity was 98.33% (95% CI: 97.49–98.95. Testing of VA was done under substandard illumination levels in 87% of the population. A total of 10 354 children were screened, 425 of whom were found to have some form of visual and/or ocular defect that was identified by the teacher or optometrist. Conclusion: The simplified logMAR testing algorithm

  2. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  3. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Prediction of polymer flooding performance using an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Czek Hoong; Mariyamni Awang; Foo Kok Wai

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the applicability of an analytical method developed by El-Khatib in polymer flooding. Results from a simulator UTCHEM and experiments were compared with the El-Khatib prediction method. In general, by assuming a constant viscosity polymer injection, the method gave much higher recovery values than the simulation runs and the experiments. A modification of the method gave better correlation, albeit only oil production. Investigation is continuing on modifying the method so that a better overall fit can be obtained for polymer flooding. (Author)

  5. Computational split-field finite-difference time-domain evaluation of simplified tilt-angle models for parallel-aligned liquid-crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Andrés; Francés, Jorge; Martínez, Francisco J.; Gallego, Sergi; Álvarez, Mariela L.; Calzado, Eva M.; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2018-03-01

    Simplified analytical models with predictive capability enable simpler and faster optimization of the performance in applications of complex photonic devices. We recently demonstrated the most simplified analytical model still showing predictive capability for parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) devices, which provides the voltage-dependent retardance for a very wide range of incidence angles and any wavelength in the visible. We further show that the proposed model is not only phenomenological but also physically meaningful, since two of its parameters provide the correct values for important internal properties of these devices related to the birefringence, cell gap, and director profile. Therefore, the proposed model can be used as a means to inspect internal physical properties of the cell. As an innovation, we also show the applicability of the split-field finite-difference time-domain (SF-FDTD) technique for phase-shift and retardance evaluation of PA-LCoS devices under oblique incidence. As a simplified model for PA-LCoS devices, we also consider the exact description of homogeneous birefringent slabs. However, we show that, despite its higher degree of simplification, the proposed model is more robust, providing unambiguous and physically meaningful solutions when fitting its parameters.

  6. Simplified elastoplastic fatigue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Acker, D.; Hoffmann, A.

    1987-01-01

    Oligocyclic fatigue behaviour is a function of the local strain range. The design codes ASME section III, RCC-M, Code Case N47, RCC-MR, and the Guide issued by PNC propose simplified methods to evaluate the local strain range. After having briefly described these simplified methods, we tested them by comparing the results of experimental strains with those predicted by these rules. The experiments conducted for this study involved perforated plates under tensile stress, notched or reinforced beams under four-point bending stress, grooved specimens under tensile-compressive stress, and embedded grooved beams under bending stress. They display a relative conservatism depending on each case. The evaluation of the strains of rather inaccurate and sometimes lacks conservatism. So far, the proposal is to use the finite element codes with a simple model. The isotropic model with the cyclic consolidation curve offers a good representation of the real equivalent strain. There is obviously no question of representing the cycles and the entire loading history, but merely of calculating the maximum variation in elastoplastic equivalent deformations with a constant-rate loading. The results presented testify to the good prediction of the strains with this model. The maximum equivalent strain will be employed to evaluate fatigue damage

  7. Groundwater Seepage Estimation into Amirkabir Tunnel Using Analytical Methods and DEM and SGR Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Farhadian; Homayoon Katibeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, groundwater seepage into Amirkabir tunnel has been estimated using analytical and numerical methods for 14 different sections of the tunnel. Site Groundwater Rating (SGR) method also has been performed for qualitative and quantitative classification of the tunnel sections. The obtained results of above mentioned methods were compared together. The study shows reasonable accordance with results of the all methods unless for two sections of tunnel. In these t...

  8. METHOD OF CALCULATING THE OPTIMAL HEAT EMISSION GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Akaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified method of calculating the optimal regimes of the fountain and the pumping exploitation of geothermal wells, reducing scaling and corrosion during operation. Comparative characteristics to quantify the heat of formation for these methods of operation under the same pressure at the wellhead. The problem is solved graphic-analytical method based on a balance of pressure in the well with the heat pump. 

  9. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  10. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards'' uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper

  11. A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qing; Zhu Jiamin; Hong Bihai

    2008-01-01

    A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed and applied to a (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified and generalized Broer-Kaup system. It is shown that the method presented by Huang and Zhang [Huang DJ, Zhang HQ. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005; 23:601] is a special case of our method. The results obtained in the paper include many new formal solutions besides the all solutions found by Huang and Zhang

  12. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  13. Literature Review on Processing and Analytical Methods for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The purpose of this report was to survey the open literature to determine the current state of the science regarding the processing and analytical methods currently available for recovery of F. tularensis from water and soil matrices, and to determine what gaps remain in the collective knowledge concerning F. tularensis identification from environmental samples.

  14. An analytical method of estimating Value-at-Risk on the Belgrade Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Milica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents market risk evaluation for a portfolio consisting of shares that are continuously traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, by applying the Value-at-Risk model - the analytical method. It describes the manner of analytical method application and compares the results obtained by implementing this method at different confidence levels. Method verification was carried out on the basis of the failure rate that demonstrated the confidence level for which this method was acceptable in view of the given conditions.

  15. A Simplified Method for Stationary Heat Transfer of a Hollow Core Concrete Slab Used for TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Thermally activated building systems (TABS) have been an energy efficient way to improve the indoor thermal comfort. Due to the complicated structure, heat transfer prediction for a hollow core concrete used for TABS is difficult. This paper proposes a simplified method using equivalent thermal...... resistance for the stationary heat transfer of this kind of system. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate this method, and this method shows very small deviations from the numerical simulations. Meanwhile, this method is used to investigate the influence of the thickness of insulation on the heat...... transfer. The insulation with a thickness of more than 0.06 m can keep over 95 % of the heat transferred from the lower surface, which is beneficial to the radiant ceiling cooling. Finally, this method is extended to involve the effect of the pipe, and the numerical comparison results show that this method...

  16. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  17. Continuous Analytical Performances Monitoring at the On-Site Laboratory through Proficiency, Inter-Laboratory Testing and Inter-Comparison Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Dashdondog, S.; Kim, C.-K.; Toervenyi, A.; Hara, S.; Kato, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, as one measure to strengthen its quality management system, the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, has increased its participation in domestic and international proficiency and inter-laboratory testing for the purpose of determining analytical method accuracy, precision and robustness but also to support method development and improvement. This paper provides a description of the testing and its scheduling. It presents the way the testing was optimized to cover most of the analytical methods at the OSL. The paper presents the methodology used for the evaluation of the obtained results based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results are discussed with respect to random, systematic and long term systematic error. (author)

  18. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  19. Review and evaluation of spark source mass spectrometry as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beske, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The analytical features and most important fields of application of spark source mass spectrometry are described with respect to the trace analysis of high-purity materials and the multielement analysis of technical alloys, geochemical and cosmochemical, biological and radioactive materials, as well as in environmental analysis. Comparisons are made to other analytical methods. The distribution of the method as well as opportunities for contract analysis are indicated and developmental tendencies discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. An interactive website for analytical method comparison and bias estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Burak; Tuncel, Ayse F; Holmes, Earle W; Holmes, Daniel T

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory standards mandate laboratories to perform studies to ensure accuracy and reliability of their test results. Method comparison and bias estimation are important components of these studies. We developed an interactive website for evaluating the relative performance of two analytical methods using R programming language tools. The website can be accessed at https://bahar.shinyapps.io/method_compare/. The site has an easy-to-use interface that allows both copy-pasting and manual entry of data. It also allows selection of a regression model and creation of regression and difference plots. Available regression models include Ordinary Least Squares, Weighted-Ordinary Least Squares, Deming, Weighted-Deming, Passing-Bablok and Passing-Bablok for large datasets. The server processes the data and generates downloadable reports in PDF or HTML format. Our website provides clinical laboratories a practical way to assess the relative performance of two analytical methods. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A simplified method to measure choroidal thickness using adaptive compensation in enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Gupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using a post-processing compensation algorithm. The enhanced images were then analysed using Photoshop. Two graders independently graded the images to assess inter-grader reliability. One grader re-graded the images after 2 weeks to determine intra-grader reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and Bland-Altman plot analyses. RESULTS: Using adaptive compensation both the intra-grader reliability (ICC: 0.95 to 0.97 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.93 to 0.97 were perfect for all five locations of CT. However, with the conventional technique of manual CT measurements using built-in callipers provided with the Heidelberg explorer software, the intra- (ICC: 0.87 to 0.94 and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.90 to 0.93 for all the measured locations is lower. Using adaptive compensation, the mean differences (95% limits of agreement for intra- and inter-grader sub-foveal CT measurements were -1.3 (-3.33 to 30.8 µm and -1.2 (-36.6 to 34.2 µm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of CT obtained from EDI SD-OCT using our simplified method was highly reliable and efficient. Our method is an easy and practical approach to improve the quality of choroidal images and the precision of CT measurement.

  2. An analytic method for S-expansion involving resonance and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipinza, M.C.; Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Lingua, F. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper we describe an analytic method able to give the multiplication table(s) of the set(s) involved in an S-expansion process (with either resonance or 0{sub S}-resonant-reduction) for reaching a target Lie (super)algebra from a starting one, after having properly chosen the partitions over subspaces of the considered (super)algebras. This analytic method gives us a simple set of expressions to find the subset decomposition of the set(s) involved in the process. Then, we use the information coming from both the initial (super)algebra and the target one for reaching the multiplication table(s) of the mentioned set(s). Finally, we check associativity with an auxiliary computational algorithm, in order to understand whether the obtained set(s) can describe semigroup(s) or just abelian set(s) connecting two (super)algebras. We also give some interesting examples of application, which check and corroborate our analytic procedure and also generalize some result already presented in the literature. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Simplified semi-analytical model for mass transport simulation in unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Bernadete L. Vieira de; Hiromoto, Goro

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a simple model to determine the flux of radionuclides released from a concrete vault repository and its implementation through the development of a computer program. The radionuclide leach rate from waste is calculated using a model based on simple first order kinetics and the transport through porous media bellow the waste is determined using a semi-analytical solution of the mass transport equation. Results obtained in the IAEA intercomparison program are also related in this communication. (author)

  4. Analytical method used for intermediate products in continuous distillation of furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.L.; Jia, M.; Wang, L.J.; Deng, Y.X.

    1981-01-01

    During distillation of furfural, analysis of main components in the crude furfural condensate and intermediate products is very important. Since furfural and methylfurfural are homologous and both furfural and acetone contain a carbonyl group, components in the sample must be separated before analysis. An improved analytical method has been studied, the accuracy and precision of which would meet the requirement of industrial standards. The analytical procedure was provided as follows: to determine the furfural content with gravimetric method of barbituric acid; to determine the methanol content with dichromate method after precipitating furfural and acetone, and distilling the liquid for analysis; and to determine the methylfurfural content with bromide-bromate method, which can be used only in the sample containing higher content of methylfurfural. For the sample in low content, the gas-liquid chromatographic method can be used. 7 references.

  5. Simplified quantitative treatment of uncertainty and interindividual variability in health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1993-01-01

    A distinction between uncertainty (or the extent of lack of knowledge) and interindividual variability (or the extent of person-to-person heterogeneity) regarding the values of input variates must be maintained if a quantitative characterization of uncertainty in population risk or in individual risk is sought. Here, some practical methods are presented that should facilitate implementation of the analytic framework for uncertainty and variability proposed by Bogen and Spear. (1,2) Two types of methodology are discussed: one that facilitates the distinction between uncertainty and variability per se, and another that may be used to simplify quantitative analysis of distributed inputs representing either uncertainty or variability. A simple and a complex form for modeled increased risk are presented and then used to illustrate methods facilitating the distinction between uncertainty and variability in reference to characterization of both population and individual risk. Finally, a simple form of discrete probability calculus is proposed as an easily implemented, practical altemative to Monte-Carlo based procedures to quantitative integration of uncertainty and variability in risk assessment

  6. Method of sections in analytical calculations of pneumatic tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. N.; Boyarkina, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Analytical calculations in the pneumatic tire theory are more preferable in comparison with experimental methods. The method of section of a pneumatic tire shell allows to obtain equations of intensities of internal forces in carcass elements and bead rings. Analytical dependencies of intensity of distributed forces have been obtained in tire equator points, on side walls (poles) and pneumatic tire bead rings. Along with planes in the capacity of secant surfaces cylindrical surfaces are used for the first time together with secant planes. The tire capacity equation has been obtained using the method of section, by means of which a contact body is cut off from the tire carcass along the contact perimeter by the surface which is normal to the bearing surface. It has been established that the Laplace equation for the solution of tasks of this class of pneumatic tires contains two unknown values that requires the generation of additional equations. The developed computational schemes of pneumatic tire sections and new equations allow to accelerate the pneumatic tire structure improvement process during engineering.

  7. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  8. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. 425.03 Section 425.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions...

  9. Elasto-plastic strain analysis by a semi-analytical method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deformation problems following a semi-analytical method, incorporating the com- ..... The set of equations in (8) are non-linear in nature, which is solved by direct ...... Here, [K] and [M] are stiffness matrix and mass matrix which are of the form ...

  10. A two-dimensional, semi-analytic expansion method for nodal calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmtag, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    Most modern nodal methods used today are based upon the transverse integration procedure in which the multi-dimensional flux shape is integrated over the transverse directions in order to produce a set of coupled one-dimensional flux shapes. The one-dimensional flux shapes are then solved either analytically or by representing the flux shape by a finite polynomial expansion. While these methods have been verified for most light-water reactor applications, they have been found to have difficulty predicting the large thermal flux gradients near the interfaces of highly-enriched MOX fuel assemblies. A new method is presented here in which the neutron flux is represented by a non-seperable, two-dimensional, semi-analytic flux expansion. The main features of this method are (1) the leakage terms from the node are modeled explicitly and therefore, the transverse integration procedure is not used, (2) the corner point flux values for each node are directly edited from the solution method, and a corner-point interpolation is not needed in the flux reconstruction, (3) the thermal flux expansion contains hyperbolic terms representing analytic solutions to the thermal flux diffusion equation, and (4) the thermal flux expansion contains a thermal to fast flux ratio term which reduces the number of polynomial expansion functions needed to represent the thermal flux. This new nodal method has been incorporated into the computer code COLOR2G and has been used to solve a two-dimensional, two-group colorset problem containing uranium and highly-enriched MOX fuel assemblies. The results from this calculation are compared to the results found using a code based on the traditional transverse integration procedure

  11. A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-,.., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results. (orig.)

  12. The analytic regularization ζ function method and the cut-off method in Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The zero point energy associated to a hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of perfectly reflecting plates in a three dimensional flat space-time is discussed. A new technique to unify two different methods - the ζ function and a variant of the cut-off method - used to obtain the so called Casimir energy is presented, and the proof of the analytic equivalence between both methods is given. (author)

  13. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  14. Some recent developments in the surface-analytical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Standard depth profiles of an analyte deposited into (diffusion or ion implantation) or on (thin-film deposition) a plane surface can be analyzed for profile type and centroid depth or film thickness by means of a standardless method in which the matrix-attenuated signals of the fluorescing analyte measured at two different take-off angles are related to the mathematical distribution moments of the profile. For a binary thin film the element ratio can also be established. Results obtained on phosphorus profiles in silicon and on zinc sulphide optical coatings are referred to. The quantity or concentration level can be determined by use of a reference standard which may contain the analyte in an entirely different distribution. This simplifies the calibration of secondary reference standards. A good lateral resolution in the sub-millimeter range can be achieved with synchrotron radiation. A further improvement of lateral resolution is possible by direct excitation with electron microbeams, though at significantly inferior detection limits. (orig.)

  15. Simplified Method of Optimal Sizing of a Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schools are a suitable public building for renewable energy systems. Renewable energy hybrid systems (REHSs have recently been introduced in schools following a new national regulation that mandates renewable energy utilization. An REHS combines the common renewable-energy sources such as geothermal heat pumps, solar collectors for water heating, and photovoltaic systems with conventional energy systems (i.e., boilers and air-source heat pumps. Optimal design of an REHS by adequate sizing is not a trivial task because it usually requires intensive work including detailed simulation and demand/supply analysis. This type of simulation-based approach for optimization is difficult to implement in practice. To address this, this paper proposes simplified sizing equations for renewable-energy systems of REHSs. A conventional optimization process is used to calculate the optimal combinations of an REHS for cases of different numbers of classrooms and budgets. On the basis of the results, simplified sizing equations that use only the number of classrooms as the input are proposed by regression analysis. A verification test was carried out using an initial conventional optimization process. The results show that the simplified sizing equations predict similar sizing results to the initial process, consequently showing similar capital costs within a 2% error.

  16. A simplified spherical harmonic method for coupled electron-photon transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josef, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    In this thesis we have developed a simplified spherical harmonic method (SP N method) and associated efficient solution techniques for 2-D multigroup electron-photon transport calculations. The SP N method has never before been applied to charged-particle transport. We have performed a first time Fourier analysis of the source iteration scheme and the P 1 diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) scheme applied to the 2-D SP N equations. Our theoretical analyses indicate that the source iteration and P 1 DSA schemes are as effective for the 2-D SP N equations as for the 1-D S N equations. Previous analyses have indicated that the P 1 DSA scheme is unstable (with sufficiently forward-peaked scattering and sufficiently small absorption) for the 2-D S N equations, yet is very effective for the 1-D S N equations. In addition, we have applied an angular multigrid acceleration scheme, and computationally demonstrated that it performs as well for the 2-D SP N equations as for the 1-D S N equations. It has previously been shown for 1-D S N calculations that this scheme is much more effective than the DSA scheme when scattering is highly forward-peaked. We have investigated the applicability of the SP N approximation to two different physical classes of problems: satellite electronics shielding from geomagnetically trapped electrons, and electron beam problems. In the space shielding study, the SP N method produced solutions that are accurate within 10% of the benchmark Monte Carlo solutions, and often orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo. We have successfully modeled quasi-void problems and have obtained excellent agreement with Monte Carlo. We have observed that the SP N method appears to be too diffusive an approximation for beam problems. This result, however, is in agreement with theoretical expectations

  17. Simplified models for radiational losses calculating a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutiunov, A.B.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Prokhorov, D.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the magnitudes and profiles of radiational losses in a Tokamak plasma, particularly for high plasma densities, when formation of MARFE or detached-plasma takes place, it is necessary to know impurity distribution over the ionization states. Equations describing time evolution of this distribution are rather cumbersome, besides that, transport coefficients as well as rate constants of the processes involving complex ions are known nowadays with high degree of uncertainty, thus it is believed necessary to develop simplified, half-analytical models describing time evolution of the impurities analysis of physical processes taking place in a Tokamak plasma on the base of the experimental data. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  18. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  19. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  20. Analytical methods and laboratory facility for the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Dewberry, R.A.; Lethco, A.J.; Denard, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical methods, instruments, and laboratory that will support vitrification of defense waste. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is now being constructed at Savannah River Plant (SRP). Beginning in 1989, SRP high-level defense waste will be immobilized in borosilicate glass for disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will contain an analytical laboratory for performing process control analyses. Additional analyses will be performed for process history and process diagnostics. The DWPF analytical facility will consist of a large shielded sampling cell, three shielded analytical cells, a laboratory for instrumental analysis and chemical separations, and a counting room. Special instrumentation is being designed for use in the analytical cells, including microwave drying/dissolution apparatus, and remote pipetting devices. The instrumentation laboratory will contain inductively coupled plasma, atomic absorption, Moessbauer spectrometers, a carbon analyzer, and ion chromatography equipment. Counting equipment will include intrinsic germanium detectors, scintillation counters, Phoswich alpha, beta, gamma detectors, and a low-energy photon detector

  1. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  2. Analytical method for determining colour intensities based on Cherenkov radiation colour quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, C; Lopez-Gonzalez, J deD; Ferro-Garcia, M A [Univ. of Granada, Granada (Spain). Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry. Radiochemistry Section; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Research Coordinated Centre)

    1983-01-01

    A study was made for determining color intensities using as luminous non-monochromatic source produced by the Cherenkov emission in the walls of a glass capillary which acts as luminous source itself inside the colored solution to be evaluated. The reproducibility of this method has been compared with the spectrophotometric assay; the relative errors of both analytical methods have been calculated for different concentrations of congo red solution in the range of minimal error, according to Ringbom's criterion. The sensitivity of this analytical method has been studied for the two ..beta..-emitters employed: /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y and /sup 204/Tl.

  3. Development of a simplified statistical methodology for nuclear fuel rod internal pressure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Oh Hwan

    1999-01-01

    A simplified statistical methodology is developed in order to both reduce over-conservatism of deterministic methodologies employed for PWR fuel rod internal pressure (RIP) calculation and simplify the complicated calculation procedure of the widely used statistical methodology which employs the response surface method and Monte Carlo simulation. The simplified statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic statistical methodology employs the system moment method with a deterministic approach in determining the maximum variance of RIP. The maximum RIP variance is determined with the square sum of each maximum value of a mean RIP value times a RIP sensitivity factor for all input variables considered. This approach makes this simplified statistical methodology much more efficient in the routine reload core design analysis since it eliminates the numerous calculations required for the power history-dependent RIP variance determination. This simplified statistical methodology is shown to be more conservative in generating RIP distribution than the widely used statistical methodology. Comparison of the significances of each input variable to RIP indicates that fission gas release model is the most significant input variable. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Origin Determination and Differentiation of Gelatin Species of Bovine, Porcine, and Piscine through Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Saadiye Eryılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin origin determination has been a crucial issue with respect to religion and health concerns. It is necessary to analyze the origin of gelatin with reliable methods to ensure not only consumer choices but also safety and legal requirements such as labeling. There are many analytical methods developed for detection and/or quantification of gelatin from different sources including bovine, porcine and piscine. These analytical methods can be divided into physicochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Moreover, computational methods have been used in some cases consecutively to ensure sensitivity of the analytical methods. Every method has different advantages and limitations due to their own principles, applied food matrix and process conditions of material. The present review intends to give insight into novel analytical methods and perspectives that have been developed to differentiate porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins and to establish their authenticity. Almost every method can be succeeded in origin determination; however, it is a matter of sensitivity in that some researches fail to ensure sufficient differentiation.

  5. Application of a Simplified Method for Estimating Perfusion Derived from Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging in Glioma Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiu Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of a simplified method based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI acquired with three b-values to measure tissue perfusion linked to microcirculation, to validate it against from perfusion-related parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE magnetic resonance (MR imaging, and to investigate its utility to differentiate low- from high-grade gliomas.Materials and Methods: The prospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. From May 2016 and May 2017, 50 patients confirmed with glioma were assessed with multi-b-value DWI and DCE MR imaging at 3.0 T. Besides conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC0,1000 map, perfusion-related parametric maps for IVIM-derived perfusion fraction (f and pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*, DCE MR imaging-derived pharmacokinetic metrics, including Ktrans, ve and vp, as well as a metric named simplified perfusion fraction (SPF, were generated. Correlation between perfusion-related parameters was analyzed by using the Spearman rank correlation. All imaging parameters were compared between the low-grade (n = 19 and high-grade (n = 31 groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. The diagnostic performance for tumor grading was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis.Results: SPF showed strong correlation with IVIM-derived f and D* (ρ = 0.732 and 0.716, respectively; both P < 0.001. Compared with f, SPF was more correlated with DCE MR imaging-derived Ktrans (ρ = 0.607; P < 0.001 and vp (ρ = 0.397; P = 0.004. Among all parameters, SPF achieved the highest accuracy for differentiating low- from high-grade gliomas, with an area under the ROC curve value of 0.942, which was significantly higher than that of ADC0,1000 (P = 0.004. By using SPF as a discriminative index, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87.1% and 94

  6. Modelling of packet traffic with matrix analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.

    1995-01-01

    BISDN network. The heuristic formula did not seem to yield substantially better results than already available approximations. Finally, some results for the finite capacity BMAP/G/1 queue have been obtained. The steady state probability vector of the embedded chain is found by a direct method where...... process. A heuristic formula for the tail behaviour of a single server queue fed by a superposition of renewal processes has been evaluated. The evaluation was performed by applying Matrix Analytic methods. The heuristic formula has applications in the Call Admission Control (CAC) procedure of the future...

  7. Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical methods validated by the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, Geologic Division, is the subject of this manual. This edition replaces the methods portion of Open-File Report 90-668 published in 1990. Newer methods may be used which have been approved by the quality assurance (QA) project and are on file with the QA coordinator.This manual is intended primarily for use by laboratory scientists; this manual can also assist laboratory users to evaluate the data they receive. The analytical methods are written in a step by step approach so that they may be used as a training tool and provide detailed documentation of the procedures for quality assurance. A "Catalog of Services" is available for customer (submitter) use with brief listings of:the element(s)/species determined,method of determination,reference to cite,contact person,summary of the technique,and analyte concentration range.For a copy please contact the Branch office at (303) 236-1800 or fax (303) 236-3200.

  8. An analytical nodal method for time-dependent one-dimensional discrete ordinates problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, relatively little work has been done in developing time-dependent discrete ordinates (S N ) computer codes. Therefore, the topic of time integration methods certainly deserves further attention. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-mesh method for time-dependent monoenergetic S N transport problesm in slab geometry. This numerical method preserves the analytic solution of the transverse-integrated S N nodal equations by constants, so we call our method the analytical constant nodal (ACN) method. For time-independent S N problems in finite slab geometry and for time-dependent infinite-medium S N problems, the ACN method generates numerical solutions that are completely free of truncation errors. Bsed on this positive feature, we expect the ACN method to be more accurate than conventional numerical methods for S N transport calculations on coarse space-time grids

  9. Survey of Technetium Analytical Production Methods Supporting Hanford Nuclear Materials Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a historical survey of analytical methods used for measuring 99 Tc in nuclear fuel reprocessing materials and wastes at Hanford. Method challenges including special sludge matrices tested are discussed. Special problems and recommendations are presented

  10. Simplified analytical model for radionuclide transport simulation in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, G.

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate postclosure off-site doses from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, an integrated safety assessment methodology has being developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The source-term modelling approach adopted in this system is described and the results obtained in the IAEA NSARS 'The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities' programme for model intercomparison studies are presented. The radionuclides released from the waste are calculated using a simple first order kinetics model, and the transport, through porous media below the waste is determined by using an analytical solution of the mass transport equation. The methodology and the results obtained in this work are compared with those reported by others participants of the NSARS programme. (author). 4 refs., 4 figs

  11. Simplified and rapid method for extraction of ergosterol from natural samples and detection with quantitative and semi-quantitative methods using thin-layer chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cand.scient Thomas; Ravn, Senior scientist Helle; Axelsen, Senior Scientist Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A new and simplified method for extraction of ergosterol (ergoste-5,7,22-trien-3-beta-ol) from fungi in soil and litter was developed using pre-soaking extraction and paraffin oil for recovery. Recoveries of ergosterol were in the range of 94 - 100% depending on the solvent to oil ratio. Extraction efficiencies equal to heat-assisted extraction treatments were obtained with pre-soaked extraction. Ergosterol was detected with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using fluorodensitometry with a quan...

  12. A transfer function type of simplified electrochemical model with modified boundary conditions and Padé approximation for Li-ion battery: Part 1. lithium concentration estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifei; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Chengliang; Wu, Hongjie; Zhang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    To guarantee the safety, high efficiency and long lifetime for lithium-ion battery, an advanced battery management system requires a physics-meaningful yet computationally efficient battery model. The pseudo-two dimensional (P2D) electrochemical model can provide physical information about the lithium concentration and potential distributions across the cell dimension. However, the extensive computation burden caused by the temporal and spatial discretization limits its real-time application. In this research, we propose a new simplified electrochemical model (SEM) by modifying the boundary conditions for electrolyte diffusion equations, which significantly facilitates the analytical solving process. Then to obtain a reduced order transfer function, the Padé approximation method is adopted to simplify the derived transcendental impedance solution. The proposed model with the reduced order transfer function can be briefly computable and preserve physical meanings through the presence of parameters such as the solid/electrolyte diffusion coefficients (Ds&De) and particle radius. The simulation illustrates that the proposed simplified model maintains high accuracy for electrolyte phase concentration (Ce) predictions, saying 0.8% and 0.24% modeling error respectively, when compared to the rigorous model under 1C-rate pulse charge/discharge and urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) profiles. Meanwhile, this simplified model yields significantly reduced computational burden, which benefits its real-time application.

  13. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However......, as with other analytical techniques, certain limitations restrict the wide application of perturbation methods, most important of which is the dependence of these methods on the existence of a small parameter in the equation. Disappointingly, the majority of nonlinear problems have no small parameter at all......Purpose – In the last two decades with the rapid development of nonlinear science, there has appeared ever-increasing interest of scientists and engineers in the analytical techniques for nonlinear problems. This paper considers linear and nonlinear systems that are not only regarded as general...

  14. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  15. Simplified Method for Rapid Purification of Soluble Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ivić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural studies of histone-chaperone complexes, nucleosome modifications, their interactions with remodelers and regulatory proteins rely on obtaining recombinant histones from bacteria. In the present study, we show that co-expression of Xenopus laevis histone pairs leads to production of soluble H2AH2B heterodimer and (H3H42 heterotetramer. The soluble histone complexes are purified by simple chromatographic techniques. Obtained H2AH2B dimer and H3H4 tetramer are proficient in histone chaperone binding and histone octamer and nucleosome formation. Our optimized protocol enables rapid purification of multiple soluble histone variants with a remarkable high yield and simplifies histone octamer preparation. We expect that this simple approach will contribute to the histone chaperone and chromatin research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  16. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  17. A Simplified Method to Measure Choroidal Thickness Using Adaptive Compensation in Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Preeti; Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a simplified method to measure choroidal thickness (CT) using commercially available enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods We measured CT in 31 subjects without ocular diseases using Spectralis EDI SD-OCT. The choroid-scleral interface of the acquired images was first enhanced using a post-processing compensation algorithm. The enhanced images were then analysed using Photoshop. Two graders independently graded the images to assess inter-grader reliability. One grader re-graded the images after 2 weeks to determine intra-grader reliability. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot analyses. Results Using adaptive compensation both the intra-grader reliability (ICC: 0.95 to 0.97) and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.93 to 0.97) were perfect for all five locations of CT. However, with the conventional technique of manual CT measurements using built-in callipers provided with the Heidelberg explorer software, the intra- (ICC: 0.87 to 0.94) and inter-grader reliability (ICC: 0.90 to 0.93) for all the measured locations is lower. Using adaptive compensation, the mean differences (95% limits of agreement) for intra- and inter-grader sub-foveal CT measurements were −1.3 (−3.33 to 30.8) µm and −1.2 (−36.6 to 34.2) µm, respectively. Conclusions The measurement of CT obtained from EDI SD-OCT using our simplified method was highly reliable and efficient. Our method is an easy and practical approach to improve the quality of choroidal images and the precision of CT measurement. PMID:24797674

  18. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  19. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  20. Analytical difficulties facing today's regulatory laboratories: issues in method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, James D

    2012-08-01

    The challenges facing analytical laboratories today are not unlike those faced in the past, although both the degree of complexity and the rate of change have increased. Challenges such as development and maintenance of expertise, maintenance and up-dating of equipment, and the introduction of new test methods have always been familiar themes for analytical laboratories, but international guidelines for laboratories involved in the import and export testing of food require management of such changes in a context which includes quality assurance, accreditation, and method validation considerations. Decisions as to when a change in a method requires re-validation of the method or on the design of a validation scheme for a complex multi-residue method require a well-considered strategy, based on a current knowledge of international guidance documents and regulatory requirements, as well the laboratory's quality system requirements. Validation demonstrates that a method is 'fit for purpose', so the requirement for validation should be assessed in terms of the intended use of a method and, in the case of change or modification of a method, whether that change or modification may affect a previously validated performance characteristic. In general, method validation involves method scope, calibration-related parameters, method precision, and recovery. Any method change which may affect method scope or any performance parameters will require re-validation. Some typical situations involving change in methods are discussed and a decision process proposed for selection of appropriate validation measures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simplified elastic-plastic analysis of reinforced concrete structures - design method for self-restraining stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aihara, S.; Atsumi, K.; Ujiie, K.; Satoh, S.

    1981-01-01

    Self-restraining stresses generate not only moments but also axial forces. Therefore the moment and force equilibriums of cross section are considered simultaneously, in combination with other external forces. Thus, under this theory, two computer programs are prepared for. Using these programs, the design procedures which considered the reduction of self-restraining stress, become easy if the elastic design stresses, which are separated normal stresses and self-restraining stresses, are given. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the application of the simplified elastic-plastic analysis and to study its effectiveness. First this method is applied to analyze an upper shielding wall in MARK-2 type's Reactor building. The results are compared with those obtained by the elastic-plastic analysis of Finite Element Method. From this comparison it was confirmed that the method described, had adequate accuracy for re-bar design. As a second example, Mat slab of Reactor building is analyzed. The quantity of re-bars calculated by this method, comes to about two third of re-bars less than those required when self-restraining stress is considered as normal stress. Also, the self-restraining stress reduction factor is about 0.5. (orig./HP)

  2. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha

    2005-01-01

    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  3. Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, M S; Brooks III, E D; Daffin, F

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations

  4. THE QuEChERS ANALYTICAL METHOD COMBINED WITH LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method has also been applied to different cereal samples and satisfactory average recoveries ... Analysis of multiclass pesticide residues in foods is a challenging task because of the ... compounds set by regulatory bodies. ..... analytes were used to evaluate the influences of the selected factors on performance of the.

  5. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  6. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  7. Developing automated analytical methods for scientific environments using LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christoph; Armenta, Sergio; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-15

    The development of new analytical techniques often requires the building of specially designed devices, each requiring its own dedicated control software. Especially in the research and development phase, LabVIEW has proven to be one highly useful tool for developing this software. Yet, it is still common practice to develop individual solutions for different instruments. In contrast to this, we present here a single LabVIEW-based program that can be directly applied to various analytical tasks without having to change the program code. Driven by a set of simple script commands, it can control a whole range of instruments, from valves and pumps to full-scale spectrometers. Fluid sample (pre-)treatment and separation procedures can thus be flexibly coupled to a wide range of analytical detection methods. Here, the capabilities of the program have been demonstrated by using it for the control of both a sequential injection analysis - capillary electrophoresis (SIA-CE) system with UV detection, and an analytical setup for studying the inhibition of enzymatic reactions using a SIA system with FTIR detection.

  8. Simplified sample preparation in the simultaneous measurement of whole blood antimony, bismuth, manganese, and zinc by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglock-Adler, Carrie J; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2015-02-01

    We developed and validated a simplified sample preparation for the analysis of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in whole blood. This simplification included a reduction in sample volume, removal of a lengthy acidic digestion, and optimization of the internal standard. Measurement of Sb, Bi, Mn and Zn in whole blood was conducted using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry. Method performance characteristics, including intra- and inter-assay imprecision, accuracy, linearity, AMR, sensitivity, carryover, sample stability and assay stability were determined in accordance with clinical laboratory standards. In addition, analytical and clinical recoveries were assessed to investigate comparability between goat blood matrix and pooled patient blood. Established assay performance characteristics included inter- and intra-assay imprecision samples, proficiency testing samples, and comparison to an outside reference laboratory. This method overcomes the laborious acidic heat digestion previously used and replaces it with a simplified sample preparation involving an alkaline dilution. The method requires minimal sample preparation with the dilution of alkaline diluent and is validated to quantify Sb and Bi from 1 to 25 μg/L, Mn from 1 to 80 μg/L, and Zn from 50 to 1500 μg/dL in whole blood. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of optimum time interval for neutron- γ discrimination by simplified digital charge collection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harleen; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2014-01-01

    The discrimination of mixed radiation field is of prime importance due to its application in neutron detection which leads to radiation safety, nuclear material detection etc. The liquid scintillators are one of the most important radiation detectors because the relative decay rate of neutron pulse is slower as compared to gamma radiation in these detectors. There are techniques like zero crossing and charge comparison which are very popular and implemented using analogue electronics. In the recent years due to availability of fast ADC and FPGA, digital methods for discrimination of mixed field radiations have been investigated. Some of the digital time domain techniques developed are pulse gradient analysis (PGA), simplified digital charge collection method (SDCC), digital zero crossing method. The performance of these methods depends on the appropriate selection of gate time for which the pulse is processed. In this paper, the SDCC method is investigated for a neutron-gamma mixed field. The main focus of the study is to get the knowledge of optimum gate time which is very important in neutron gamma discrimination analysis in a mixed radiation field. The comparison with charge collection (CC) method is also investigated

  10. Determination of 237Np in environmental and nuclear samples: A review of the analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Mulholland, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of analytical methods has been developed and used for the determination of neptunium in environmental and nuclear fuel samples using alpha, ICP–MS spectrometry, and other analytical techniques. This review summarizes and discusses development of the radiochemical procedures for separation of neptunium (Np), since the beginning of the nuclear industry, followed by a more detailed discussion on recent trends in the separation of neptunium. This article also highlights the progress in analytical methods and issues associated with the determination of neptunium in environmental samples. - Highlights: ► Determination of Np in environmental and nuclear samples is reviewed. ► Various analytical methods used for the determination of Np are listed. ► Progress and issues associated with the determination of Np are discussed.

  11. A simplified counter diffusion method combined with a 1D simulation program for optimizing crystallization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Inaka, Koji; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Takahashi, Sachiko; Sano, Satoshi; Sato, Masaru; Yoshitomi, Susumu

    2004-01-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method has been developed using a simplified counter-diffusion method for optimizing crystallization condition. It is composed of only a single capillary, the gel in the silicon tube and the screw-top test tube, which are readily available in the laboratory. The one capillary can continuously scan a wide range of crystallization conditions (combination of the concentrations of the precipitant and the protein) unless crystallization occurs, which means that it corresponds to many drops in the vapor-diffusion method. The amount of the precipitant and the protein solutions can be much less than in conventional methods. In this study, lysozyme and alpha-amylase were used as model proteins for demonstrating the efficiency of this method. In addition, one-dimensional (1-D) simulations of the crystal growth were performed based on the 1-D diffusion model. The optimized conditions can be applied to the initial crystallization conditions for both other counter-diffusion methods with the Granada Crystallization Box (GCB) and for the vapor-diffusion method after some modification.

  12. Advances in the Analytical Methods for Determining the Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in the Analytical Methods for Determining the Antioxidant Properties of Honey: A Review. M Moniruzzaman, MI Khalil, SA Sulaiman, SH Gan. Abstract. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical ...

  13. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  14. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  15. Microgenetic Learning Analytics Methods: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababyan, Ani; Martin, Taylor; Janisiewicz, Philip; Close, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics is an emerging discipline and, as such, benefits from new tools and methodological approaches. This work reviews and summarizes our workshop on microgenetic data analysis techniques using R, held at the second annual Learning Analytics Summer Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on 30 June 2014. Specifically, this paper…

  16. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantos, J.; Virtics, I. [Plant Protection & Soil Conservation Service of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyíregyháza (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

  18. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with arbitrary potential profiles ... Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass ... Current Issue : Vol.

  19. Simplified Qualitative Discrete Numerical Model to Determine Cracking Pattern in Brittle Materials by Means of Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa-Avendaño, J.; Garzon-Alvarado, D. A.; Linero, Dorian L.; Cerrolaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending...

  20. A sample preparation method for recovering suppressed analyte ions in MALDI TOF MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Waal, de B.F.M.; Milroy, L.G.; Dongen, van J.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS), analyte signals can be substantially suppressed by other compounds in the sample. In this technical note, we describe a modified thin-layer sample preparation method that significantly reduces the analyte

  1. Analytic descriptions of ion cyclotron absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.; Francis, G.; Fuchs, V.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of energy propagation and absorption in ion-cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas has relied on numerical solutions of fourth (and sixth) order differential equations for slab models of the plasma (poloidal) cross section. Realistic two-dimensional and fully toroidal geometry analyses would become quite unwieldy. It is shown here that the analysis of the slab model can be simplified considerably. A first-order differential equation is shown to describe the transmission coefficient for the fast wave, and it is solved analytically. A second order differential equation is shown to adequately describe both transmission and reflection. Conditions for ion absorption or mode conversion are derived. Including toroidal effects in propagation, conditions for electron absorption on the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves are also described analytically

  2. Analytical methods in rotor dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dimarogonas, Andrew D; Chondros, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    The design and construction of rotating machinery operating at supercritical speeds was, in the 1920s, an event of revolutionary importance for the then new branch of dynamics known as rotor dynamics. In the 1960s, another revolution occurred: In less than a decade, imposed by operational and economic needs, an increase in the power of turbomachinery by one order of magnitude took place. Dynamic analysis of complex rotor forms became a necessity, while the importance of approximate methods for dynamic analysis was stressed. Finally, the emergence of fracture mechanics, as a new branch of applied mechanics, provided analytical tools to investigate crack influence on the dynamic behavior of rotors. The scope of this book is based on all these developments. No topics related to the well-known classical problems are included, rather the book deals exclusively with modern high-power turbomachinery.

  3. Analytic function expansion nodal method for nuclear reactor core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hae Man

    1995-02-01

    In most advanced nodal methods the transverse integration is commonly used to reduce the multi-dimensional diffusion equation into equivalent one- dimensional diffusion equations when derving the nodal coupling equations. But the use of the transverse integration results in some limitations. The first limitation is that the transverse leakage term which appears in the transverse integration procedure must be appropriately approximated. The second limitation is that the one-dimensional flux shapes in each spatial direction resulted from the nodal calculation are not accurate enough to be directly used in reconstructing the pinwise flux distributions. Finally the transverse leakage defined for a non-rectangular node such as a hexagonal node or a triangular node is too complicated to be easily handled and may contain non-physical singular terms of step-function and delta-function types. In this thesis, the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method and its two variations : the Polynomial Expansion Nodal (PEN) method and the hybrid of the AFEN and PEN methods, have been developed to overcome the limitations of the transverse integration procedure. All of the methods solve the multidimensional diffusion equation without the transverse integration. The AFEN method which we believe is the major contribution of this study to the reactor core analysis expands the homogeneous flux distributions within a node in non-separable analytic basis functions satisfying the neutron diffusion equations at any point of the node and expresses the coefficients of the flux expansion in terms of the nodal unknowns which comprise a node-average flux, node-interface fluxes, and corner-point fluxes. Then, the nodal coupling equations composed of the neutron balance equations, the interface current continuity equations, and the corner-point leakage balance equations are solved iteratively to determine all the nodal unknowns. Since the AFEN method does not use the transverse integration in

  4. Improvement of spatial discretization error on the semi-analytic nodal method using the scattered source subtraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Tatsumi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the scattered source subtraction (SSS) method is newly proposed to improve the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. In the SSS method, the scattered source is subtracted from both side of the diffusion or the transport equation to make spatial variation of the source term to be small. The same neutron balance equation is still used in the SSS method. Since the SSS method just modifies coefficients of node coupling equations (those used in evaluation for the response of partial currents), its implementation is easy. Validity of the present method is verified through test calculations that are carried out in PWR multi-assemblies configurations. The calculation results show that the SSS method can significantly improve the spatial discretization error. Since the SSS method does not have any negative impact on execution time, convergence behavior and memory requirement, it will be useful to reduce the spatial discretization error of the semi-analytic nodal method with the flat-source approximation. (author)

  5. Heat Conduction Analysis Using Semi Analytical Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wargadipura, A. H. S.

    1997-01-01

    Heat conduction problems are very often found in science and engineering fields. It is of accrual importance to determine quantitative descriptions of this important physical phenomena. This paper discusses the development and application of a numerical formulation and computation that can be used to analyze heat conduction problems. The mathematical equation which governs the physical behaviour of heat conduction is in the form of second order partial differential equations. The numerical resolution used in this paper is performed using the finite element method and Fourier series, which is known as semi-analytical finite element methods. The numerical solution results in simultaneous algebraic equations which is solved using the Gauss elimination methodology. The computer implementation is carried out using FORTRAN language. In the final part of the paper, a heat conduction problem in a rectangular plate domain with isothermal boundary conditions in its edge is solved to show the application of the computer program developed and also a comparison with analytical solution is discussed to assess the accuracy of the numerical solution obtained

  6. Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demailly, J.-P.

    2001-01-01

    Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry

  7. Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demailly, J -P [Universite de Grenoble I, Institut Fourier, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)

    2001-12-15

    Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry.

  8. Status of photonuclear method of analysis among other nuclear analytical methods and main fields of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistenko, Yu.N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical, organizational and economical aspects as applied to the field of application of photonuclear methods of analysis of substance composition are considered. As for the technical aspect, the most important factors are nuclear-physical characteristics of the elements under determination and the elements composing the sample matrix. As for the organizational aspect, the governing factor in a number of cases is the availability of an irradiation device in the close vicinity of the analytical laboratory. Studying the technical and organizational aspects while choosing the proper method one can obtain the main source data to perform feasibility studies of a nuclear analytical complex with this or that activation source. Therefore, the economical aspect is governing for the choice of the method

  9. Analytical solutions for the study of immersed unanchored structures under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mege, Romain

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, most of the major components are anchored to the civil works using numerous types of supports devices. These anchorages are big issues of the nuclear plant design: the implantation of the components has to be fixed definitely, stress concentration in the surroundings of the anchorage, and for immersed structure, possible loss of the impermeability. Thereby, under certain safety regulations, some structures lay directly on the ground. This is the case for in air or underwater structure, such as fuel storage racks. This solution gives more flexibility in the use of the components and a decrease of the stress. However, one has to evaluate precisely the behavior of this sliding structure, and in particular, the cumulated sliding displacement during a seismic event in order to prevent any impact with other components. During a seismic event, the unanchored structure can slide, rotate and tilt. The aim of this paper is to present analytical solutions to estimate the sliding amplitudes of different simplified systems which represent a given dynamic behavior. These simplified models are: a sliding mass and a complex sliding structure defined by its eigenmodes. Each simplified system corresponds to a different set of assumptions made on the flexibility of the structure. Two analytical solutions are presented in this article: single sliding mass and a vertical sliding beam. In each model, the fluid-structure interaction between the immersed body and the pool is modeled as hydrodynamic masses. The sliding is represented by Coulomb friction. The seismic loading can be any 3D seismic accelerogram. The analytical solutions are obtained considering the different phases of the movement and the continuity between each phase. The results are then compared to the values computed with the commercial Finite Element package ANSYS TM . The analytical curves show a good fit of the computational results. (author)

  10. Numerical methods: Analytical benchmarking in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical methods applied to reactor technology have reached a high degree of maturity. Certainly one- and two-dimensional neutron transport calculations have become routine, with several programs available on personal computer and the most widely used programs adapted to workstation and minicomputer computational environments. With the introduction of massive parallelism and as experience with multitasking increases, even more improvement in the development of transport algorithms can be expected. Benchmarking an algorithm is usually not a very pleasant experience for the code developer. Proper algorithmic verification by benchmarking involves the following considerations: (1) conservation of particles, (2) confirmation of intuitive physical behavior, and (3) reproduction of analytical benchmark results. By using today's computational advantages, new basic numerical methods have been developed that allow a wider class of benchmark problems to be considered

  11. Analytical quality by design: a tool for regulatory flexibility and robust analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Bhadraya, Kalva; Padmanabha Reddy, Yiragamreddy

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT).

  12. A simplified parsimonious higher order multivariate Markov chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Chuan-sheng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a simplified parsimonious higher-order multivariate Markov chain model (SPHOMMCM) is presented. Moreover, parameter estimation method of TPHOMMCM is give. Numerical experiments shows the effectiveness of TPHOMMCM.

  13. A simplified method for low-level tritium measurement in the environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Ogata, Yoshimune

    2004-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting took much time with a lot of doing to distill off the impurities in the sample water before mixing the sample with the liquid scintillation cocktail. In the light of it, we investigated the possibility of an alternative filtration method for sample purification. The tritium concentration in the environmental water has become very low, and the samples have to be treated by electrolysis enrichment with a liquid scintillation analyzer. Using the solid polymer electrolyte enriching device, there is no need to add neither any electrolyte nor the neutralization after the concentration. If we could replace the distillation process with the filtration, the procedure would be simplified very much. We investigated the procedure and we were able to prove that the reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was available. Moreover, in order to rationalize all through the measurement method, we examined the followings: (1) Improvement of the enriching apparatus. (2) Easier measurement of heavy water concentration using a density meter, instead of a mass spectrometer. The concentration of water samples was measured to determine the enrichment rate of tritium during the electrolysis enrichment. (author)

  14. Simplified analytical model to simulate radionuclide release from radioactive waste trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Bernardete Lemes Vieira de

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate postclosure off-site doses from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, a computer code was developed to simulate the radionuclide released from waste form, transport through vadose zone and transport in the saturated zone. This paper describes the methodology used to model these process. The radionuclide released from the waste is calculated using a model based on first order kinetics and the transport through porous media was determined using semi-analytical solution of the mass transport equation, considering the limiting case of unidirectional convective transport with three-dimensional dispersion in an isotropic medium. The results obtained in this work were compared with other codes, showing good agreement. (author)

  15. Analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient of metals at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamoto, S; Izumi, S; Nakata, T; Sakai, S; Oinuma, S; Nakatani, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an analytical method for estimating the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of metals at high-temperature ranges. Although the conventional method based on quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) shows good results at low temperatures, anharmonic effects caused by large-amplitude thermal vibrations reduces its accuracy at high temperatures. Molecular dynamics (MD) naturally includes the anharmonic effect. However, since the computational cost of MD is relatively high, in order to make an interatomic potential capable of reproducing TEC, an analytical method is essential. In our method, analytical formulation of the radial distribution function (RDF) at finite temperature realizes the estimation of the TEC. Each peak of the RDF is approximated by the Gaussian distribution. The average and variance of the Gaussian distribution are formulated by decomposing the fluctuation of interatomic distance into independent elastic waves. We incorporated two significant anharmonic effects into the method. One is the increase in the averaged interatomic distance caused by large amplitude vibration. The second is the variation in the frequency of elastic waves. As a result, the TECs of fcc and bcc crystals estimated by our method show good agreement with those of MD. Our method enables us to make an interatomic potential that reproduces the TEC at high temperature. We developed the GEAM potential for nickel. The TEC of the fitted potential showed good agreement with experimental data from room temperature to 1000 K. As compared with the original potential, it was found that the third derivative of the wide-range curve was modified, while the zeroth, first and second derivatives were unchanged. This result supports the conventional theory of solid state physics. We believe our analytical method and developed interatomic potential will contribute to future high-temperature material development. (paper)

  16. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good....... The method took the angle dependence of the solar characteristic into account, including the simplified hourly building model developed according to EN 13790 to evaluate the influence of the controlled façade on both the indoor environment (indoor air temperature, solar transmittance through the façade...

  17. Appraisal of allowable loads by simplified rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Roche, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a simplified method of analysis of buckling of thin structures like those of L.M.F.B.R.'s. The edification of the method is very similar to methods used for buckling of beams and columns having initial geometric imperfections and buckling in the plastic range. Particular attention is paid to the stress hardening of material involved (austenitic steel) and to possible unstable post buckling of thin structures. The analysis method is based on elastic calculation and diagrams that take into account various initial geometric defects

  18. [Progress in sample preparation and analytical methods for trace polar small molecules in complex samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianchun; Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Xiao, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Small polar molecules such as nucleosides, amines, amino acids are important analytes in biological, food, environmental, and other fields. It is necessary to develop efficient sample preparation and sensitive analytical methods for rapid analysis of these polar small molecules in complex matrices. Some typical materials in sample preparation, including silica, polymer, carbon, boric acid and so on, are introduced in this paper. Meanwhile, the applications and developments of analytical methods of polar small molecules, such as reversed-phase liquid chromatography, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, etc., are also reviewed.

  19. A GPU code for analytic continuation through a sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nordström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We here present a code for performing analytic continuation of fermionic Green’s functions and self-energies as well as bosonic susceptibilities on a graphics processing unit (GPU. The code is based on the sampling method introduced by Mishchenko et al. (2000, and is written for the widely used CUDA platform from NVidia. Detailed scaling tests are presented, for two different GPUs, in order to highlight the advantages of this code with respect to standard CPU computations. Finally, as an example of possible applications, we provide the analytic continuation of model Gaussian functions, as well as more realistic test cases from many-body physics.

  20. Application of an analytical method for the field calculation in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are taking on ever-growing importance due to their increasing prospects of utilization in electrical machines, nuclear fusion, MHD conversion and high-energy physics. These magnets are generally composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, while a ferromagnetic shield is generally situated outside them. This paper uses an analytical method for calculating the magnetic field at every point in a superconducting magnet composed of cylindrical or saddle coils. The method takes into account the real lengths and finite thickness of the coils as well as their radial and axial ferromagnetic shields, if present. The values and distribution of the flux density for some superconducting magnets of high dimensions and high magnetic field, composed of cylindrical or saddle coils, are also given. The results obtained with analytical method are compared with those obtained using numerical methods

  1. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  2. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.; Grant, K.; Hoopes, V.; Lerner, B.; Lucke, R.; Mong, G.; Rau, J.; Wahl, K.; Steele, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  3. Application of model-based and knowledge-based measuring methods as analytical redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, R.; Kaestner, W.; Chaker, N.; Vandreier, B.

    1997-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants requires the application of modern and intelligent methods of signal processing for the normal operation as well as for the management of accident conditions. Such modern and intelligent methods are model-based and knowledge-based ones being founded on analytical knowledge (mathematical models) as well as experiences (fuzzy information). In addition to the existing hardware redundancies analytical redundancies will be established with the help of these modern methods. These analytical redundancies support the operating staff during the decision-making. The design of a hybrid model-based and knowledge-based measuring method will be demonstrated by the example of a fuzzy-supported observer. Within the fuzzy-supported observer a classical linear observer is connected with a fuzzy-supported adaptation of the model matrices of the observer model. This application is realized for the estimation of the non-measurable variables as steam content and mixture level within pressure vessels with water-steam mixture during accidental depressurizations. For this example the existing non-linearities will be classified and the verification of the model will be explained. The advantages of the hybrid method in comparison to the classical model-based measuring methods will be demonstrated by the results of estimation. The consideration of the parameters which have an important influence on the non-linearities requires the inclusion of high-dimensional structures of fuzzy logic within the model-based measuring methods. Therefore methods will be presented which allow the conversion of these high-dimensional structures to two-dimensional structures of fuzzy logic. As an efficient solution of this problem a method based on cascaded fuzzy controllers will be presented. (author). 2 refs, 12 figs, 5 tabs

  4. A functional-analytic method for the study of difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafarikas Panayiotis D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We will give the generalization of a recently developed functional-analytic method for studying linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial, difference equations in the and spaces, p∈ℕ, . The method will be illustrated by use of two examples concerning a nonlinear ordinary difference equation known as the Putnam equation, and a linear partial difference equation of three variables describing the discrete Newton law of cooling in three dimensions.

  5. Coupled cooling method and application of latent heat thermal energy storage combined with pre-cooling of envelope: Method and model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yanping; Gao, Xiangkui; Wu, Hongwei; Zhang, Zujin; Cao, Xiaoling; Sun, Liangliang; Yu, Nanyang

    2017-01-01

    The traditional cooling methods cannot meet the requirements of safety, stability, reliability and no-power at the same time under some special circumstances. In this study, a new coupled cooling method of Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LHTES) combined with Pre-cooling of Envelope (PE) is proposed and the numerical model of the coupled cooling method is developed. In the current study, a refuge chamber is selected as a case study. A semi-analytical method is used to analyze the cold storage performance of the Surrounding Rock (SR). Afterwards, a numerical model of the coupled cooling system, which takes the heat source, SR, Phase Change Material (PCM) and air heat transfer into consideration, is further established. The study identified that the simplified semi-analytical calculation formula with the diagram of the cold storage quantity of SR are very helpful for engineering calculation. The influence of the Fourier and Biot number on the cold storage capacity of SR can be easily analyzed. In addition, the whole-field model of the coupled cooling system is completely developed based on the PCM unit. - Highlights: • A new coupled cooling method that combines LHTES with PE is proposed. • This method can be applicable to a high-temperature and no-power circumstance. • The simplified calculation formula of the cold storage quantity of SR is given. • An efficient simulation model of the coupled cooling system is established.

  6. An analytical method for calculating stresses and strains of ATF cladding based on thick walled theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hak Sung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, an analytical method based on thick walled theory has been studied to calculate stress and strain of ATF cladding. In order to prescribe boundary conditions of the analytical method, two algorithms were employed which are called subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' of FRACAS, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent model using finite element method was established and stress components of the method were compared with those of equivalent FE model. One of promising ATF concepts is the coated cladding, which take advantages such as high melting point, a high neutron economy, and low tritium permeation rate. To evaluate the mechanical behavior and performance of the coated cladding, we need to develop the specified model to simulate the ATF behaviors in the reactor. In particular, the model for simulation of stress and strain for the coated cladding should be developed because the previous model, which is 'FRACAS', is for one body model. The FRACAS module employs the analytical method based on thin walled theory. According to thin-walled theory, radial stress is defined as zero but this assumption is not suitable for ATF cladding because value of the radial stress is not negligible in the case of ATF cladding. Recently, a structural model for multi-layered ceramic cylinders based on thick-walled theory was developed. Also, FE-based numerical simulation such as BISON has been developed to evaluate fuel performance. An analytical method that calculates stress components of ATF cladding was developed in this study. Thick-walled theory was used to derive equations for calculating stress and strain. To solve for these equations, boundary and loading conditions were obtained by subroutine 'Cladf' and 'Couple' and applied to the analytical method. To evaluate the developed method, equivalent FE model was established and its results were compared to those of analytical model. Based on the

  7. Simplified method for measuring the response time of scram release electromagnet in a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patri, Sudheer, E-mail: patri@igcar.gov.in; Mohana, M.; Kameswari, K.; Kumar, S. Suresh; Narmadha, S.; Vijayshree, R.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Venkatesan, A.; Palanisami, K.; Murthy, D. Thirugnana; Babu, B.; Prakash, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • An alternative method for estimating the electromagnet clutch release time. • A systematic approach to develop a computer based measuring system. • Prototype tests on the measurement system. • Accuracy of the method is ±6% and repeatability error is within 2%. - Abstract: The delay time in electromagnet clutch release during a reactor trip (scram action) is an important safety parameter, having a bearing on the plant safety during various design basis events. Generally, it is measured using current decay characteristics of electromagnet coil and its energising circuit. A simplified method of measuring the same in a Sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) is proposed in this paper. The method utilises the position data of control rod to estimate the delay time in electromagnet clutch release. A computer based real time measurement system for measuring the electromagnet clutch delay time is developed and qualified for retrofitting in prototype fast breeder reactor. Various stages involved in the development of the system are principle demonstration, experimental verification of hardware capabilities and prototype system testing. Tests on prototype system have demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the system with intended accuracy and repeatability.

  8. Finite element and analytical models for twisted and coiled actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xintian; Liu, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Chen, Weishan; Zhao, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Twisted and coiled actuator (TCA) is a class of recently discovered artificial muscle, which is usually made by twisting and coiling polymer fibers into spring-like structures. It has been widely studied since discovery due to its impressive output characteristics and bright prospects. However, its mathematical models describing the actuation in response to the temperature are still not fully developed. It is known that the large tensile stroke is resulted from the untwisting of the twisted fiber when heated. Thus, the recovered torque during untwisting is a key parameter in the mathematical model. This paper presents a simplified model for the recovered torque of TCA. Finite element method is used for evaluating the thermal stress of the twisted fiber. Based on the results of the finite element analyses, the constitutive equations of twisted fibers are simplified to develop an analytic model of the recovered torque. Finally, the model of the recovered torque is used to predict the deformation of TCA under varying temperatures and validated against experimental results. This work will enhance our understanding of the deformation mechanism of TCAs, which will pave the way for the closed-loop position control.

  9. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-01-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  10. Hyphenated analytical techniques for materials characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gordon; Kailas, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This topical review will provide a survey of the current state of the art in ‘hyphenated’ techniques for characterisation of bulk materials, surface, and interfaces, whereby two or more analytical methods investigating different properties are applied simultaneously to the same sample to better characterise the sample than can be achieved by conducting separate analyses in series using different instruments. It is intended for final year undergraduates and recent graduates, who may have some background knowledge of standard analytical techniques, but are not familiar with ‘hyphenated’ techniques or hybrid instrumentation. The review will begin by defining ‘complementary’, ‘hybrid’ and ‘hyphenated’ techniques, as there is not a broad consensus among analytical scientists as to what each term means. The motivating factors driving increased development of hyphenated analytical methods will also be discussed. This introduction will conclude with a brief discussion of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis in electron microscopy as two examples, in the context that combining complementary techniques for chemical analysis were among the earliest examples of hyphenated characterisation methods. The emphasis of the main review will be on techniques which are sufficiently well-established that the instrumentation is commercially available, to examine physical properties including physical, mechanical, electrical and thermal, in addition to variations in composition, rather than methods solely to identify and quantify chemical species. Therefore, the proposed topical review will address three broad categories of techniques that the reader may expect to encounter in a well-equipped materials characterisation laboratory: microscopy based techniques, scanning probe-based techniques, and thermal analysis based techniques. Examples drawn from recent literature, and a concluding case study, will be used to explain the

  11. Two-dimensional semi-analytic nodal method for multigroup pin power reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung Gyou, Baek; Han Gyu, Joo; Un Chul, Lee

    2007-01-01

    A pin power reconstruction method applicable to multigroup problems involving square fuel assemblies is presented. The method is based on a two-dimensional semi-analytic nodal solution which consists of eight exponential terms and 13 polynomial terms. The 13 polynomial terms represent the particular solution obtained under the condition of a 2-dimensional 13 term source expansion. In order to achieve better approximation of the source distribution, the least square fitting method is employed. The 8 exponential terms represent a part of the analytically obtained homogeneous solution and the 8 coefficients are determined by imposing constraints on the 4 surface average currents and 4 corner point fluxes. The surface average currents determined from a transverse-integrated nodal solution are used directly whereas the corner point fluxes are determined during the course of the reconstruction by employing an iterative scheme that would realize the corner point balance condition. The outgoing current based corner point flux determination scheme is newly introduced. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated with the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  12. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  13. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  14. Analytical Method Development for the Determination of Α-Endosulfan and Bifenthrin Pesticide Residues in Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Styarini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical method for the determination of α-endosulfan and bifenthrin residues in tea has been done. The complex matrices and also the pigment were the challenge in doing quantification of the pesticide residues in tea matrices. In order to get appropriate analysis method for the determination of pesticide residues in tea, the modification was done in the analytical method for the determination of organochlorine multiresidue in non fat matrices: seasoning and spicy that is published by Directorate General of Food Crops, Directorate of Food Plant Protection. The modification was done particularly in clean-up step to remove the interferences from the extract of tea matrices such as the pigment that usually interfere the measurement with Gas Chromatography (GC. The result showed that the MDL value for both analytes were 0.5 ng/g that were much lower than MRLs. The percent recovery obtained from the method was 78.58 and 90.19% for α-endosulfan and bifenthrin, respectively. The precision of the analysis method for both analytes were good since the % RSD values were below than the Horwitz’s value that was 19.18% at spiking level concentration of 300 ng/g.

  15. Verification of an analytic fit for the vortex core profile in superfluid Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhelst, Nick; Klimin, Serghei; Tempere, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vortex profile in an imbalanced Fermi condensate is investigated. • The analytic fit for the vortex profile is compared with numerical simulations. • The analytic fit excellently agrees with numeric results in the BCS-BEC crossover. - Abstract: A characteristic property of superfluidity and -conductivity is the presence of quantized vortices in rotating systems. To study the BEC-BCS crossover the two most common methods are the Bogoliubov-De Gennes theory and the usage of an effective field theory. In order to simplify the calculations for one vortex, it is often assumed that the hyperbolic tangent yields a good approximation for the vortex structure. The combination of a variational vortex structure, together with cylindrical symmetry yields analytic (or numerically simple) expressions. The focus of this article is to investigate to what extent this analytic fit truly reflects the vortex structure throughout the BEC-BCS crossover at finite temperatures. The vortex structure will be determined using the effective field theory presented in [Eur. Phys. Journal B 88, 122 (2015)] and compared to the variational analytic solution. By doing this it is possible to see where these two structures agree, and where they differ. This comparison results in a range of applicability where the hyperbolic tangent will be a good fit for the vortex structure.

  16. Verification of an analytic fit for the vortex core profile in superfluid Fermi gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhelst, Nick, E-mail: nick.verhelst@uantwerpen.be [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Klimin, Serghei, E-mail: sergei.klimin@uantwerpen.be [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Theoretical Physics, State University of Moldova, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Tempere, Jacques [TQC, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The vortex profile in an imbalanced Fermi condensate is investigated. • The analytic fit for the vortex profile is compared with numerical simulations. • The analytic fit excellently agrees with numeric results in the BCS-BEC crossover. - Abstract: A characteristic property of superfluidity and -conductivity is the presence of quantized vortices in rotating systems. To study the BEC-BCS crossover the two most common methods are the Bogoliubov-De Gennes theory and the usage of an effective field theory. In order to simplify the calculations for one vortex, it is often assumed that the hyperbolic tangent yields a good approximation for the vortex structure. The combination of a variational vortex structure, together with cylindrical symmetry yields analytic (or numerically simple) expressions. The focus of this article is to investigate to what extent this analytic fit truly reflects the vortex structure throughout the BEC-BCS crossover at finite temperatures. The vortex structure will be determined using the effective field theory presented in [Eur. Phys. Journal B 88, 122 (2015)] and compared to the variational analytic solution. By doing this it is possible to see where these two structures agree, and where they differ. This comparison results in a range of applicability where the hyperbolic tangent will be a good fit for the vortex structure.

  17. Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Detection in Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chee Wei; Chung, Gerald; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2017-10-03

    Aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ) and B₂ (AFB₂) and G 1 and G₂ remain the top mycotoxins routinely analyzed and monitored by Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) national laboratories primarily for food safety regulation in the major food commodities, nuts and spices. LC tandem fluorescence detection (LC–fluorescence) represents a current mainstream analytical method, with a progressive migration to a primary method by LC tandem MS (MS/MS) for the next half decade. Annual proficiency testing (PT) is conducted by ASEAN Food Reference Laboratories (AFRLs) for mycotoxin testing as part of capability building in national laboratories, with the scope of PT materials spanning from naturally mycotoxin-contaminated spices and nuts in the early 2010s to the recent contamination of corn flour in 2017 for total aflatoxin assay development. The merits of the mainstream LC–fluorescence method are witnessed by a significant improvement ( P < 0.05) in PT z -score passing rates (≤2) from 11.8 to 79.2% for AFB 1 , 23.5 to 83.3% for AFB₂, and 23.5 to 79.2% for total aflatoxins in the last 5 years. This paper discusses the journey of ASEAN national laboratories in analytical testing through AFRLs, and the progressive collective adoption of a multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS method aided by an isotopic dilution assay as a future primary method for safer food commodities.

  18. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  19. A new diffusion nodal method based on analytic basis function expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Cho, N.Z.

    1993-01-01

    The transverse integration procedure commonly used in most advanced nodal methods results in some limitations. The first is that the transverse leakage term that appears in the transverse integration procedure must be appropriately approximated. In most advanced nodal methods, this term is expanded in a quadratic polynomial. The second arises when reconstructing the pinwise flux distribution within a node. The available one-dimensional flux shapes from nodal calculation in each spatial direction cannot be used directly in the flux reconstruction. Finally, the transverse leakage defined for a hexagonal node becomes so complicated as not to be easily handled and contains nonphysical singular terms. In this paper, a new nodal method called the analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is described for both the rectangular geometry and the hexagonal geometry in order to overcome these limitations. This method does not solve the transverse-integrated one-dimensional diffusion equations but instead solves directly the original multidimensional diffusion equation within a node. This is a accomplished by expanding the solution (or the intranodal homogeneous flux distribution) in terms of nonseparable analytic basis functions satisfying the diffusion equation at any point in the node

  20. Recent applications of nuclear analytical methods to the certification of elemental content in NIST standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Well-characterized, certified reference materials (CRMs) play an essential role in assuring the quality of analytical measurements. NIST has been producing CRMs, currently called NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), to validate analytical measurements for nearly one hundred years. The predominant mode of certifying inorganic constituents in complex-matrix SRMs is through the use of two critically evaluated, independent analytical techniques at NIST. These techniques should have no significant sources of error in common. The use of nuclear analytical methods in combination with one of the chemically based analytical method at NIST eliminates the possibility of any significant, common error source. The inherent characteristics of the various forms of nuclear analytical methods make them extremely valuable for SRM certification. Instrumental NAA is nondestructive, which eliminates the possibility of any dissolution problems, and often provides homogeneity information. Radiochemical NAA typically provides nearly blank-free determinations of some highly important, but difficult elements at very low levels. Prompt-gamma NAA complements INAA, and provides independent determinations of some key elements. In addition, all significant uncertainty components can be evaluated for these techniques, and we believe these methods can meet all the requirements of a primary method of measurement as defined by ISO and the CCQM. NIST has certified several SRMs using INAA and RNAA as primary methods. In addition, NIST has compared measurements by INAA and PGAA with other primary methods as part of the CCQM intercomparisons of national metrology institutes. Some significant SRMs recently certified for inorganic constituents with contributions from the nuclear analytical methods include: Toxic Substances in Urine (SRM 2670a), Lake Superior Fish Tissue (SRM 1946), Air Particulate on Filter Media (SRM 2783), Inorganics in Marine Sediment (SRM 2702), Sediment for Solid Sampling (Small

  1. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  2. Optimization of offshore wind turbine support structures using analytical gradient-based method

    OpenAIRE

    Chew, Kok Hon; Tai, Kang; Ng, E.Y.K.; Muskulus, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Design optimization of the offshore wind turbine support structure is an expensive task; due to the highly-constrained, non-convex and non-linear nature of the design problem. This report presents an analytical gradient-based method to solve this problem in an efficient and effective way. The design sensitivities of the objective and constraint functions are evaluated analytically while the optimization of the structure is performed, subject to sizing, eigenfrequency, extreme load an...

  3. The analytic nodal method in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomasevic, Djordje I.

    2008-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations, specifically for their performance advantage, but also for their superior accuracy. More specifically, the Analytic Nodal Method (ANM), utilising the transverse integration principle, has been applied to numerous reactor problems with much success. In this work, a nodal diffusion method is developed for cylindrical geometry. Application of this method to three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry has never been satisfactorily addressed and we propose a solution which entails the use of conformal mapping. A set of 1D-equations with an adjusted, geometrically dependent, inhomogeneous source, is obtained. This work describes the development of the method and associated test code, as well as its application to realistic reactor problems. Numerical results are given for the PBMR-400 MW benchmark problem, as well as for a 'cylindrisized' version of the well-known 3D LWR IAEA benchmark. Results highlight the improved accuracy and performance over finite-difference core solutions and investigate the applicability of nodal methods to 3D PBMR type problems. Results indicate that cylindrical nodal methods definitely have a place within PBMR applications, yielding performance advantage factors of 10 and 20 for 2D and 3D calculations, respectively, and advantage factors of the order of 1000 in the case of the LWR problem

  4. Efficient analytic computation of higher-order QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Chalmers, G.; Dunbar, D.C.; Kosower, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review techniques simplifying the analytic calculation of one-loop QCD amplitudes with many external legs, for use in next-to-leading-order corrections to multi-jet processes. Particularly useful are the constraints imposed by perturbative unitarity, collinear singularities and a supersymmetry-inspired organization of helicity amplitudes. Certain sequences of one-loop helicity amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external gluons have been obtained using these constraints

  5. A numerical simulation of wheel spray for simplified vehicle model based on discrete phase method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjun Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Road spray greatly affects vehicle body soiling and driving safety. The study of road spray has attracted increasing attention. In this article, computational fluid dynamics software with widely used finite volume method code was employed to investigate the numerical simulation of spray induced by a simplified wheel model and a modified square-back model proposed by the Motor Industry Research Association. Shear stress transport k-omega turbulence model, discrete phase model, and Eulerian wall-film model were selected. In the simulation process, the phenomenon of breakup and coalescence of drops were considered, and the continuous and discrete phases were treated as two-way coupled in momentum and turbulent motion. The relationship between the vehicle external flow structure and body soiling was also discussed.

  6. Fatigue analysis for analytically overloaded piping components and valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambus, B.

    1992-01-01

    Lately, in connection with life extension aspects of power plants, an increasingly accurate determination of the lifetime of components in nuclear stations is being required. In order to assess reliably current fatigue levels in piping systems, variables such as pressure, temperature, and resultant force and moment transients as well as analytical methods which take into account the real operational history must be considered. This paper presents a method for analyzing the transient heat transfer between fluid and pipe wall in order to investigate effects which until now have been assumed conservatively to be caused by a sudden jump in temperature. Further, an example is given showing that the K e factor approach in current design codes for performing simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analyses is conservative. (orig.)

  7. Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.

  8. Extended Finite Element Method with Simplified Spherical Harmonics Approximation for the Forward Model of Optical Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended finite element method (XFEM for the forward model of 3D optical molecular imaging is developed with simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN. In XFEM scheme of SPN equations, the signed distance function is employed to accurately represent the internal tissue boundary, and then it is used to construct the enriched basis function of the finite element scheme. Therefore, the finite element calculation can be carried out without the time-consuming internal boundary mesh generation. Moreover, the required overly fine mesh conforming to the complex tissue boundary which leads to excess time cost can be avoided. XFEM conveniences its application to tissues with complex internal structure and improves the computational efficiency. Phantom and digital mouse experiments were carried out to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with standard finite element method and classical Monte Carlo (MC method, the validation results show the merits and potential of the XFEM for optical imaging.

  9. Analytical method for the isotopic characterization of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita; Cozzella, Maria Letizia; Mariani, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an analytical method in order to determine the isotopic composition of different elements in soil samples and to determine the existence of contamination. The method used in the digestion of the samples was the EPA 3050B, and some metal concentration were determined including uranium and thorium. For elements with even lower concentrations such as plutonium and radium a treatment after mineralization by EPA, was necessary. The measurement technique used was mass spectrometry with quadrupole and plasma induced associated (ICP-MS). Results of the analysis performed in two laboratories showed a good correspondence. This method allowed to perform the isotopic characterization of studied soils and results showed that the studied soils do not present any local pollution and that the presence of plutonium-239, is due to global failure

  10. Radiochemical methods. Analytical chemistry by open learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, W.J.; James, A.M. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the analytical uses of radioactive isotopes within the context of radiochemistry as a whole. It is designed for scientists with relatively little background knowledge of the subject. Thus the initial emphasis is on developing the basic concepts of radioactive decay, particularly as they affect the potential usage of radioisotopes. Discussion of the properties of various types of radiation, and of factors such as half-life, is related to practical considerations such as counting and preparation methods, and handling/disposal problems. Practical aspects are then considered in more detail, and the various radioanalytical methods are outlined with particular reference to their applicability. The approach is 'user friendly' and the use of self assessment questions allows the reader to test his/her understanding of individual sections easily. For those who wish to develop their knowledge further, a reading list is provided.

  11. Precision profiles and analytic reliability of radioimmunologic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, Z.; Popova, Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare some methods for creation of 'precision profiles' (PP) and to clarify their possibilities for determining the analytical reliability of RIA. Only methods without complicated mathematical calculations has been used. The reproducibility in serums with a concentration of the determinable hormone in the whole range of the calibration curve has been studied. The radioimmunoassay has been performed with TSH-RIA set (ex East Germany), and comparative evaluations - with commercial sets of HOECHST (Germany) and AMERSHAM (GB). Three methods for obtaining the relationship concentration (IU/l) -reproducibility (C.V.,%) are used and a comparison is made of their corresponding profiles: preliminary rough profile, Rodbard-PP and Ekins-PP. It is concluded that the creation of a precision profile is obligatory and the method of its construction does not influence the relationship's course. PP allows to determine concentration range giving stable results which improves the efficiency of the analitical work. 16 refs., 4 figs

  12. Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a method based on FEM and FDTD for the study of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array (EMAT. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the eddy current problem for the meander coil used in an EMAT, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution originally intended for circular coils. The analytical solution resulting from this novel adaptation exploits the large radius extrapolation and shows several advantages over the finite element method (FEM, especially in the higher frequency regime. The calculated Lorentz force density from the analytical EM solver is then coupled to the ultrasonic simulations, which exploit the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method to describe the propagation of ultrasound waves, in particular for Rayleigh waves. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time-domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle, which can produce performance parameters for an EMAT array, facilitating the optimum design of such sensors.

  13. Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslum, Herbjoern Alf

    2000-07-01

    Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft

  14. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for Separation of Mineral and Chelated Fraction from an Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Qazi, M.A.; Khan, N.A.; Mian, S.M.; Ahmed, N.; Ahmed, N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid's analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid's (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid's analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid's analytical method was selected being equallyeffective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. (author)

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of a Simplified Fire Dynamic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for performing a sensitivity analysis of parameters used in a simplified fire model for temperature estimates in the upper smoke layer during a fire. The results from the sensitivity analysis can be used when individual parameters affecting fire safety are assessed...

  16. A Simplified Method for Laboratory Preparation of Organ Specific Indium 113m Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adatepe, M H; Potchen, E James [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    1969-03-15

    Generator systems producing short lived nuclides from longer lived parents have distinct clinical advantages. They are more economical, result in a lower radiation dose, and can make short lived scanning readily available even in areas remote from rapid radiopharmaceutical delivery services. The {sup 113}Sn-{sup 113m}In generator has the additional advantage that, as a transition metal, Indium can be readily complexed into organ specific preparations. 113Sn, a reactor produced nuclide with a 118 day half life, is absorbed on a zirconium or silica gel column. the generator is eluded with 5 to 8 ml of 0.05 N HCL solution at pH 1.3-1.4. The daughter nuclide, {sup 113m}In, has a half life of 1.7 hours and emits a 393 Kev monoenergetic gamma ray. Previous methods for labeling organ specific complexes with {sup 113m}In required terminal autoclaving before injection. With the recent introduction of sterile, apyrogenic {sup 113}Sn-{sup 113m}In generators, we have developed a simplified technique for the laboratory preparation of Indium labeled compounds. This method eliminates autoclaving and titration enabling us to pre-prepare organ specific complexes for blood pool, liver, spleen, brain, kidney and lung scanning.

  17. MS-Based Analytical Techniques: Advances in Spray-Based Methods and EI-LC-MS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Isabel; Cappiello, Achille; Careri, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is the most powerful technique for the detection and identification of organic compounds. It can provide molecular weight information and a wealth of structural details that give a unique fingerprint for each analyte. Due to these characteristics, mass spectrometry-based analytical methods are showing an increasing interest in the scientific community, especially in food safety, environmental, and forensic investigation areas where the simultaneous detection of targeted and nontargeted compounds represents a key factor. In addition, safety risks can be identified at the early stage through online and real-time analytical methodologies. In this context, several efforts have been made to achieve analytical instrumentation able to perform real-time analysis in the native environment of samples and to generate highly informative spectra. This review article provides a survey of some instrumental innovations and their applications with particular attention to spray-based MS methods and food analysis issues. The survey will attempt to cover the state of the art from 2012 up to 2017.

  18. An improved method for preparing Agrobacterium cells that simplifies the Arabidopsis transformation protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülker Bekir

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Agrobacterium vacuum (Bechtold et al 1993 and floral-dip (Clough and Bent 1998 are very efficient methods for generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These methods allow plant transformation without the need for tissue culture. Large volumes of bacterial cultures grown in liquid media are necessary for both of these transformation methods. This limits the number of transformations that can be done at a given time due to the need for expensive large shakers and limited space on them. Additionally, the bacterial colonies derived from solid media necessary for starting these liquid cultures often fail to grow in such large volumes. Therefore the optimum stage of plant material for transformation is often missed and new plant material needs to be grown. Results To avoid problems associated with large bacterial liquid cultures, we investigated whether bacteria grown on plates are also suitable for plant transformation. We demonstrate here that bacteria grown on plates can be used with similar efficiency for transforming plants even after one week of storage at 4°C. This makes it much easier to synchronize Agrobacterium and plants for transformation. DNA gel blot analysis was carried out on the T1 plants surviving the herbicide selection and demonstrated that the surviving plants are indeed transgenic. Conclusion The simplified method works as efficiently as the previously reported protocols and significantly reduces the workload, cost and time. Additionally, the protocol reduces the risk of large scale contaminations involving GMOs. Most importantly, many more independent transformations per day can be performed using this modified protocol.

  19. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Detection of food irradiation - two analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication summarizes the activities of Nordic countries in the field of detection of irradiated food. The National Food Agency of Denmark has coordinated the project. The two analytical methods investigated were: the gas-chromatographic determination of the hydrocarbon/lipid ratio in irradiated chicken meat, and a bioassay based on microelectrophoresis of DNA from single cells. Also a method for determination of o-tyrosine in the irradiated and non-irradiated chicken meat has been tested. The first method based on radiolytical changes in fatty acids, contained in chicken meat, has been tested and compared in the four Nordic countries. Four major hydrocarbons (C16:2, C16:3, C17:1 and C17:2) have been determined and reasonable agreement was observed between the dose level and hydrocarbons concentration. Results of a bioassay, where strand breaks of DNA are demonstrated by microelectrophoresis of single cells, prove a correlation between the dose levels and the pattern of DNA fragments migration. The hydrocarbon method can be applied to detect other irradiated, fat-containing foods, while the DNA method can be used for some animal and some vegetable foods as well.Both methods allow to determine the fact of food irradiation beyond any doubt, thus making them suitable for food control analysis. The detailed determination protocols are given. (EG)

  1. Recent Progress on the Factorization Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Harrach

    2013-01-01

    method was introduced by Kirsch for inverse scattering problems and extended to electrical impedance tomography (EIT by Brühl and Hanke. Since these pioneering works, substantial progress has been made on the theoretical foundations of the method. The necessary assumptions have been weakened, and the proofs have been considerably simplified. In this work, we aim to summarize this progress and present a state-of-the-art formulation of the Factorization Method for EIT with continuous data. In particular, we formulate the method for general piecewise analytic conductivities and give short and self-contained proofs.

  2. The Methodical Instrumentarium for Analytical Monitoring of Markets for High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaelian Suren G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at clarifying the essential characteristics of high-tech products and specifying the features of analytical monitoring of markets for high-tech products. The conceptual approaches to interpretation of the essence of high-tech products as a basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of technological development have been clarified. The most efficient instruments for assessing innovation processes in the high-tech sphere have been systematized. The methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of the markets for high-tech products has been clarified. The terminology of a high-tech product has been clarified in order to formulate the methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of market for high-tech products. It has been determined that «high-tech products» are the original basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of the high-tech market that needs to be concretized. Conceptual approaches to the essence of high-tech products have been systematized.

  3. Rational Selection, Criticality Assessment, and Tiering of Quality Attributes and Test Methods for Analytical Similarity Evaluation of Biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Seidl, Andreas; Gutka, Hiten; Kumar, Manish; Gratzl, Gyöngyi; Keire, David; Coffey, Todd; Kuehne, Henriette

    2018-05-10

    Leading regulatory agencies recommend biosimilar assessment to proceed in a stepwise fashion, starting with a detailed analytical comparison of the structural and functional properties of the proposed biosimilar and reference product. The degree of analytical similarity determines the degree of residual uncertainty that must be addressed through downstream in vivo studies. Substantive evidence of similarity from comprehensive analytical testing may justify a targeted clinical development plan, and thus enable a shorter path to licensing. The importance of a careful design of the analytical similarity study program therefore should not be underestimated. Designing a state-of-the-art analytical similarity study meeting current regulatory requirements in regions such as the USA and EU requires a methodical approach, consisting of specific steps that far precede the work on the actual analytical study protocol. This white paper discusses scientific and methodological considerations on the process of attribute and test method selection, criticality assessment, and subsequent assignment of analytical measures to US FDA's three tiers of analytical similarity assessment. Case examples of selection of critical quality attributes and analytical methods for similarity exercises are provided to illustrate the practical implementation of the principles discussed.

  4. Equivalent properties for perforated plates. An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepkauskas, M.M.; Yang Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Structures that contain perforated plates have been a subject of interest in the Nuclear Industry. Steam generators, condensers and reactor internals utilize plates containing holes which act as flow holes or separate structures from flow by using a 'tube bank' design. The equivalent plate method has been beneficial in analyzing perforate plates. Details are found in various papers found in the bibliography. In addition the ASME code addresses perforated plates in Appendix A-8000, but is limited to a triangular hole pattern. This early work performed in this field utilized test data and analytical approaches. This paper is an examination of an analytical approach for determining equivalent plate mechanical and thermal properties. First a patch of the real plate is identified that provides a model for the necessary physical behavior of the plate. The average strain of this patch is obtained by first applying simplified one dimensional mechanical load to the patch, determining stress as a function of position, converting the stress to strain and then integrating the strain over the patch length. This average strain is then equated to the average strain of an equivalent fictitious rectangular patch. This results in obtaining equivalent Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio for the equivalent plate in all three orthogonal directions. The corresponding equivalent shear modulus in all three directions is then determined. An orthotropic material stress strain matrix relationship is provided for the fictitious properties. By equating the real average strain with the fictitious average strain in matrix form, a stress multiplier is found to convert average fictitious stress to average real stress. This same type of process is repeated for heat conduction coefficients and coefficients of thermal expansion. Results are provided for both a square and triangular hole pattern. Reasonable results are obtained when comparing the effective Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio with ASME

  5. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP. 2520.104-48 Section 2520.104-48 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110 of... Security Act of 1974 in the case of a simplified employee pension (SEP) described in section 408(k) of the...

  6. Methods for the calculation of uncertainty in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Sohn, S. C.; Park, Y. J.; Park, K. K.; Jee, K. Y.; Joe, K. S.; Kim, W. H

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the statistical rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in analytical chemistry. The procedures for the evaluation of uncertainty in chemical analysis are illustrated by worked examples. This report, in particular, gives guidance on how uncertainty can be estimated from various chemical analyses. This report can be also used for planning the experiments which will provide the information required to obtain an estimate of uncertainty for the method.

  7. The general 2-D moments via integral transform method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerry R.; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2004-05-01

    The moments via integral transform method (MITM) is a technique to analytically reduce the 2-D method of moments (MoM) impedance double integrals into single integrals. By using a special integral representation of the Green's function, the impedance integral can be analytically simplified to a single integral in terms of transformed shape and weight functions. The reduced expression requires fewer computations and reduces the fill times of the MoM impedance matrix. Furthermore, the resulting integral is analytic for nearly arbitrary shape and weight function sets. The MITM technique is developed for mixed boundary conditions and predictions with basic shape and weight function sets are presented. Comparisons of accuracy and speed between MITM and brute force are presented. [Work sponsored by ONR and NSWCCD ILIR Board.

  8. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  9. A Simplified Control Method for Tie-Line Power of DC Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Che

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the AC micro-grid, the DC micro-grid has low energy loss and no issues of frequency stability, which makes it more accessible for distributed energy. Thus, the DC micro-grid has good potential for development. A variety of renewable energy is included in the DC micro-grid, which is easily affected by the environment, causing fluctuation of the DC voltage. For grid-connected DC micro-grid with droop control strategy, the tie-line power is affected by fluctuations in the DC voltage, which sets higher requirements for coordinated control of the DC micro-grid. This paper presents a simplified control method to maintain a constant tie-line power that is suitable for the DC micro-grid with the droop control strategy. By coordinating the designs of the droop control characteristics of generators, energy storage units and grid-connected inverter, a dead band is introduced to the droop control to improve the system performance. The tie-line power in the steady state is constant. When a large disturbance occurs, the AC power grid can provide power support to the micro-grid in time. The simulation example verifies the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  10. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery includes various gastrointestinal procedures. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the prototype of mixed procedures being the most practiced worldwide. A similar and novel technique has been adopted by Dr. Almino Cardoso Ramos and Dr. Manoel Galvao called "simplified bypass," which has been accepted due to the greater ease and very similar results to the conventional technique. The aim of this study is to describe the results of the simplified gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients undergoing simplified gastric bypass from January 2008 to July 2012 in the obesity clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with morbid obesity underwent simplified gastric bypass. Complications occurred in 10% of patients; these were more frequent bleeding and internal hernia. Mortality in the study period was 0%. The average weight loss at 12 months was 72.7%. Simplified gastric bypass surgery is safe with good mid-term results and a loss of adequate weight in 71% of cases.

  11. No Impact of the Analytical Method Used for Determining Cystatin C on Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Hoefele, Julia; Benz, Marcus R; Bökenkamp, Arend; Weber, Lutz T

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inulin clearance is considered to be the gold standard for determining kidney function in children, but this method is time consuming and expensive. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is on the other hand easier to calculate by using various creatinine- and/or cystatin C (Cys C)-based formulas. However, for the determination of serum creatinine (Scr) and Cys C, different and non-interchangeable analytical methods exist. Given the fact that different analytical methods for the determination of creatinine and Cys C were used in order to validate existing GFR formulas, clinicians should be aware of the type used in their local laboratory. In this study, we compared GFR results calculated on the basis of different GFR formulas and either used Scr and Cys C values as determined by the analytical method originally employed for validation or values obtained by an alternative analytical method to evaluate any possible effects on the performance. Cys C values determined by means of an immunoturbidimetric assay were used for calculating the GFR using equations in which this analytical method had originally been used for validation. Additionally, these same values were then used in other GFR formulas that had originally been validated using a nephelometric immunoassay for determining Cys C. The effect of using either the compatible or the possibly incompatible analytical method for determining Cys C in the calculation of GFR was assessed in comparison with the GFR measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl). Unexpectedly, using GFR equations that employed Cys C values derived from a possibly incompatible analytical method did not result in a significant difference concerning the classification of patients as having normal or reduced GFR compared to the classification obtained on the basis of CrCl. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. On the other hand, formulas using Cys C values derived from a compatible analytical method partly showed insufficient

  12. Simplified approach to dynamic process modelling. Annex 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilytchev, A.; Elistratov, D.; Stogov, V.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the OKBM contribution to the analysis of a benchmark of BN-600 reactor hybrid core with simultaneous loading of uranium fuel and MOX within the framework of the international IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project 'Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects'. In accordance with Action 12 defined during the second RCM, the simplified transient analysis was carried out on the basis of the reactivity coefficients sets, presented by all CRP participants. Purpose of present comparison is the evaluation of spread in the basic transient parameters in connection with spread in the used reactivity coefficients. A ULOF accident initial stage on the simplified model was calculated by using the SAS4A code

  13. Fault feature analysis of cracked gear based on LOD and analytical-FE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiateng; Yang, Yu; Yang, Xingkai; Cheng, Junsheng

    2018-01-01

    At present, there are two main ideas for gear fault diagnosis. One is the model-based gear dynamic analysis; the other is signal-based gear vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a method for fault feature analysis of gear crack is presented, which combines the advantages of dynamic modeling and signal processing. Firstly, a new time-frequency analysis method called local oscillatory-characteristic decomposition (LOD) is proposed, which has the attractive feature of extracting fault characteristic efficiently and accurately. Secondly, an analytical-finite element (analytical-FE) method which is called assist-stress intensity factor (assist-SIF) gear contact model, is put forward to calculate the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) under different crack states. Based on the dynamic model of the gear system with 6 degrees of freedom, the dynamic simulation response was obtained for different tooth crack depths. For the dynamic model, the corresponding relation between the characteristic parameters and the degree of the tooth crack is established under a specific condition. On the basis of the methods mentioned above, a novel gear tooth root crack diagnosis method which combines the LOD with the analytical-FE is proposed. Furthermore, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) are contrasted with the LOD by gear crack fault vibration signals. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method performs effectively and feasibility for the tooth crack stiffness calculation and the gear tooth crack fault diagnosis.

  14. Simplified Method for Preliminary EIA of WE Installations based on Newtechnology Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an environmental management instrument implemented worldwide. Full scale WECs are expected to be subjects to EIA. The consents application process can be a very demanding for Wave Energy Converters (WECs) developers. The process is possibly aggravated...... depending on few strategic parameters to simplify and speed up the scoping procedure and to provide an easier understanding of the technologies to the authorities and bodies involved in the EIA of WECs....

  15. An Analytical Method for the Abel Inversion of Asymmetrical Gaussian Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guosheng; Wan Baonian

    2007-01-01

    An analytical algorithm for fast calculation of the Abel inversion for density profile measurement in tokamak is developed. Based upon the assumptions that the particle source is negligibly small in the plasma core region, density profiles can be approximated by an asymmetrical Gaussian distribution controlled only by one parameter V 0 /D and V 0 /D is constant along the radial direction, the analytical algorithm is presented and examined against a testing profile. The validity is confirmed by benchmark with the standard Abel inversion method and the theoretical profile. The scope of application as well as the error analysis is also discussed in detail

  16. Analytical methods used at IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas - Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murta, C.C.

    The analytical methods available at IPR (MG-Brazil) for the routine determination of uranium are described. These methods are: gravimetric analysis; fluorescence spectroscopy, voltametry, polarography, absorption spectroscopy, beta-and gamma-radiometric analysis, gamma spectroscopy, activation analysis, X-rays fluorescence analysis and delayed neutron analysis. Some additional methods for the study of mineral ores, such as X-rays diffractometry, emmission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, etc, are also discussed [pt

  17. Simplifying the audit of risk factor recording and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Min; Cooney, Marie Therese; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To simplify the assessment of the recording and control of coronary heart disease risk factors in different countries and regions. DESIGN: The SUrvey of Risk Factors (SURF) is an international clinical audit. METHODS: Data on consecutive patients with established coronary heart disease...

  18. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A., E-mail: aasmol@spels.ru; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-06-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  19. A simple analytical model of single-event upsets in bulk CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, Armen V.; Chumakov, Alexander I.; Smolin, Anatoly A.; Ulanova, Anastasia V.; Boruzdina, Anna B.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, multiple new methods of single event upset (SEU) rate prediction for aerospace systems have been proposed. Despite different models and approaches being employed in these methods, they all share relatively high usage complexity and require information about a device that is not always available to an end user. This work presents an alternative approach to estimating SEU cross-section as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) that can be further developed into a method of SEU rate prediction. The goal is to propose a simple, yet physics-based, approach with just two parameters that can be used even in situations when only a process node of the device is known. The developed approach is based on geometrical interpretation of SEU cross-section and an analytical solution to the diffusion problem obtained for a simplified IC topology model. A good fit of the model to the experimental data encompassing 7 generations of SRAMs is demonstrated.

  20. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  1. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  2. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  3. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  4. Comparison of three analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, N.I.; Stephens, R.; Ryan, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Three different analytical techniques were compared in a study of the role of trace elements in multiple sclerosis. Data for eight elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Zn) from neutron activation, flame atomic absorption and electrothermal atomic absorption methods were compared and evaluated statistically. No difference (probability less than 0.001) was observed in the elemental values obtained. Comparison of data between suitably different analytical methods gives increased confidence in the results obtained and is of particular value when standard reference materials are not available. (Auth.)

  5. Simplified Fuzzy Control for Flux-Weakening Speed Control of IPMSM Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simplified fuzzy logic-based speed control scheme of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM above the base speed using a flux-weakening method. In this work, nonlinear expressions of d-axis and q-axis currents of the IPMSM have been derived and subsequently incorporated in the control algorithm for the practical purpose in order to implement fuzzy-based flux-weakening strategy to operate the motor above the base speed. The fundamentals of fuzzy logic algorithms as related to motor control applications are also illustrated. A simplified fuzzy speed controller (FLC for the IPMSM drive has been designed and incorporated in the drive system to maintain high performance standards. The efficacy of the proposed simplified FLC-based IPMSM drive is verified by simulation at various dynamic operating conditions. The simplified FLC is found to be robust and efficient. Laboratory test results of proportional integral (PI controller-based IPMSM drive have been compared with the simulated results of fuzzy controller-based flux-weakening IPMSM drive system.

  6. Net Analyte Signal Standard Additions Method for Simultaneous Determination of Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Givianrad, M. H.; Mohagheghian, M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of a novel net analyte signal standard addition method (NASSAM) to the resolving of overlapping spectra corresponding to the sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim was verified by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the net analyte signal standard additions method with simultaneous addition of both analytes is suitable for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in aqueous media. Moreover, applying the net analyte signal standard a...

  7. Application of nuclear analytical methods to heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, B.; Junge, W.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.; Pepelnik, R.; Schwenke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Important objectives of heavy metal pollution studies of estuaries are the understanding of the transport phenomena in these complex ecosystems and the discovery of the pollution history and the geochemical background. Such studies require high precision and accuracy of the analytical methods. Moreover, pronounced spatial heterogeneities and temporal variabilities that are typical for estuaries necessitate the analysis of a great number of samples if relevant results are to be obtained. Both requirements can economically be fulfilled by a proper combination of analytical methods. Applications of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with total reflection of the exciting beam at the sample support and of neutron activation analysis with both thermal and fast neutrons are reported in the light of pollution studies performed in the Lower Elbe River. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining method using analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Heyong; Tan Kaixuan; Liu Huizhen

    2007-01-01

    According to the complicated conditions and main influence factors of in-situ leaching min- ing, a model and processes of analytic hierarchy are established for evaluation and selection of in-situ leaching mining methods based on analytic hierarchy process. Taking a uranium mine in Xinjiang of China for example, the application of this model is presented. The results of analyses and calculation indicate that the acid leaching is the optimum project. (authors)

  9. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  10. A simplified model for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-07-01

    A personal computer-based model, SMART, has been developed that uses an integral approach for calculating early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The solution procedure uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast-running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarking and detailed sensitivity/uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented. 34 refs., 21 figs., 24 tabs

  11. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite element method solution of simplified P3 equation for flexible geometry handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eun Hyun; Joo, Han Gyu

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain efficiently core flux solutions which would be much closer to the transport solution than the diffusion solution is, not being limited by the geometry of the core, the simplified P 3 (SP 3 ) equation is solved with the finite element method (FEM). A generic mesh generator, GMSH, is used to generate linear and quadratic mesh data. The linear system resulting from the SP 3 FEM discretization is solved by Krylov subspace methods (KSM). A symmetric form of the SP 3 equation is derived to apply the conjugate gradient method rather than the KSMs for nonsymmetric linear systems. An optional iso-parametric quadratic mapping scheme, which is to selectively model nonlinear shapes with a quadratic mapping to prevent significant mismatch in local domain volume, is also implemented for efficient application of arbitrary geometry handling. The gain in the accuracy attainable by the SP 3 solution over the diffusion solution is assessed by solving numerous benchmark problems having various core geometries including the IAEA PWR problems involving rectangular fuels and the Takeda fast reactor problems involving hexagonal fuels. The reference transport solution is produced by the McCARD Monte Carlo code and the multiplication factor and power distribution errors are assessed. In addition, the effect of quadratic mapping is examined for circular cell problems. It is shown that significant accuracy gain is possible with the SP 3 solution for the fast reactor problems whereas only marginal improvement is noted for thermal reactor problems. The quadratic mapping is also quite effective handling geometries with curvature. (author)

  13. Method of analytic continuation by duality in QCD: Beyond QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, M.; Nasrallah, N.F.; Papadopoulos, N.A.; Schilcher, K.

    1986-01-01

    We present the method of analytic continuation by duality which allows the approximate continuation of QCD amplitudes to small values of the momentum variables where direct perturbative calculations are not possible. This allows a substantial extension of the domain of applications of hadronic QCD phenomenology. The method is illustrated by a simple example which shows its essential features

  14. Analytical method of spectra calculations in the Bargmann representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a universal method for solving an arbitrary quantum system which, in the Bargmann representation, is described by a system of linear equations with one independent variable, such as one- and multi-photon Rabi models, or N level systems interacting with a single mode of the electromagnetic field and their various generalizations. We explain three types of conditions that determine the spectrum and show their usage for two deformations of the Rabi model. We prove that the spectra of both models are just zeros of transcendental functions, which in one case are given explicitly in terms of confluent Heun functions. - Highlights: • Analytical method of spectrum determination in Bargmann representation is proposed. • Three types of conditions determining spectrum are identified. • Method to two generalizations of the Rabi system is applied

  15. MINOS: A simplified Pn solver for core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudron, A.M.; Lautard, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a new generation of the neutronic core solver MINOS resulting from developments done in the DESCARTES project. For performance reasons, the numerical method of the existing MINOS solver in the SAPHYR system has been reused in the new system. It is based on the mixed-dual finite element approximation of the simplified transport equation. We have extended the previous method to the treatment of unstructured geometries composed by quadrilaterals, allowing us to treat geometries where fuel pins are exactly represented. For Cartesian geometries, the solver takes into account assembly discontinuity coefficients in the simplified P n context. The solver has been rewritten in C + + programming language using an object-oriented design. Its general architecture was reconsidered in order to improve its capability of evolution and its maintainability. Moreover, the performance of the previous version has been improved mainly regarding the matrix construction time; this result improves significantly the performance of the solver in the context of industrial application requiring thermal-hydraulic feedback and depletion calculations. (authors)

  16. Data analytics and parallel-coordinate materials property charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jeffrey M.

    2018-01-01

    It is often advantageous to display material properties relationships in the form of charts that highlight important correlations and thereby enhance our understanding of materials behavior and facilitate materials selection. Unfortunately, in many cases, these correlations are highly multidimensional in nature, and one typically employs low-dimensional cross-sections of the property space to convey some aspects of these relationships. To overcome some of these difficulties, in this work we employ methods of data analytics in conjunction with a visualization strategy, known as parallel coordinates, to represent better multidimensional materials data and to extract useful relationships among properties. We illustrate the utility of this approach by the construction and systematic analysis of multidimensional materials properties charts for metallic and ceramic systems. These charts simplify the description of high-dimensional geometry, enable dimensional reduction and the identification of significant property correlations and underline distinctions among different materials classes.

  17. Simplified analysis for liquid pathway studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    The analysis of the potential contamination of surface water via groundwater contamination from severe nuclear accidents is routinely calculated during licensing reviews. This analysis is facilitated by the methods described in this report, which is codified into a BASIC language computer program, SCREENLP. This program performs simplified calculations for groundwater and surface water transport and calculates population doses to potential users for the contaminated water irrespective of possible mitigation methods. The results are then compared to similar analyses performed using data for the generic sites in NUREG-0440, Liquid Pathway Generic Study, to determine if the site being investigated would pose any unusual liquid pathway hazards

  18. Simplified scheme or radioactive plume calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, T.A.; Montan, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical scheme to estimate external whole-body γ radiation exposure rates from gaseous radioactive plumes was developed for the Rio Blanco Gas Field Nuclear Stimulation Experiment. The method enables one to calculate swiftly, in the field, downwind exposure rates knowing the meteorological conditions and γ radiation exposure rates measured by detectors positioned near the plume source. The method is straightforward and easy to use under field conditions without the help of mini-computers. It is applicable to a wide range of radioactive plume situations. It should be noted that the Rio Blanco experiment was detonated on May 17, 1973, and no seep or release of radioactive material occurred

  19. Prediction of the heat gain of external walls: An innovative approach for full-featured excitations based on the simplified method of Mackey-and-Wright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruivo, C.R.; Vaz, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The transient thermal behaviour of external multilayer walls of buildings is studied. • Reference results for four representative walls, obtained with a numerical model, are provided. • Shortcomings of approaches based on the Mackey-and-Wright method are identified. • Handling full-feature excitations with Fourier series decomposition improves accuracy. • A simpler, yet accurate, promising novel approach to predict heat gain is proposed. - Abstract: Nowadays, simulation tools are available for calculating the thermal loads of multiple rooms of buildings, for given inputs. However, due to inaccuracies or uncertainties in some of the input data (e.g., thermal properties, air infiltrations flow rates, building occupancy), the evaluated thermal load may represent no more than just an estimate of the actual thermal load of the spaces. Accordingly, in certain practical situations, simplified methods may offer a more reasonable trade-off between effort and results accuracy than advanced software. Hence, despite the advances in computing power over the last decades, simplified methods for the evaluation of thermal loads are still of great interest nowadays, for both the practicing engineer and the graduating student, since these can be readily implemented or developed in common computational-tools, like a spreadsheet. The method of Mackey and Wright (M&W) is a simplified method that upon values of the decrement factor and time lag of a wall (or roof) estimates the instantaneous rate of heat transfer through its indoor surface. It assumes cyclic behaviour and shows good accuracy when the excitation and response have matching shapes, but it involves non negligible error otherwise, for example, in the case of walls of high thermal inertia. The aim of this study is to develop a simplified procedure that considerably improves the accuracy of the M&W method, particularly for excitations that noticeably depart from the sinusoidal shape, while not

  20. An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

  1. A new analytical method to solve the heat equation for a multi-dimensional composite slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Tervola, P; Viljanen, M

    2005-01-01

    A novel analytical approach has been developed for heat conduction in a multi-dimensional composite slab subject to time-dependent boundary changes of the first kind. Boundary temperatures are represented as Fourier series. Taking advantage of the periodic properties of boundary changes, the analytical solution is obtained and expressed explicitly. Nearly all the published works necessitate searching for associated eigenvalues in solving such a problem even for a one-dimensional composite slab. In this paper, the proposed method involves no iterative computation such as numerically searching for eigenvalues and no residue evaluation. The adopted method is simple which represents an extension of the novel analytical approach derived for the one-dimensional composite slab. Moreover, the method of 'separation of variables' employed in this paper is new. The mathematical formula for solutions is concise and straightforward. The physical parameters are clearly shown in the formula. Further comparison with numerical calculations is presented

  2. Study on the Analytical Method for Determination of P-32 in Human Hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syarbaini; Lubis, E.; Sarwani

    1996-01-01

    Neutron doses due to accident criticality can be estimated by measuring of radionuclide of neutron activation products in human hair. In this work, the analytical method for the determination of P-32 in neutron irradiated hair sample by G.A Siwabessy reactor has been studied. This analytical method consists of dissolving of human hair sample by 10 M HNO3, separation dan purification of P-32 by precipitation as ammonium molibdophosphate finally, the precipitate was measured by low backgroundα/βcounter. The minimum detectable activity of P-32 was 0,05 Bq at a background of 4,6 cpm and with a counting efficiency of 55 % for a 30 minute counting time

  3. Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.

    1985-11-01

    A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA

  4. Investigation of eddy currents in the components of the dynamic ergodic divertor of TEXTOR using analytical and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, B.; Neubauer, O.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kitaev, B.; Obidenko, T.; Panin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches for the calculation of eddy currents in mechanical structures of the TEXTOR tokamak in view of operating the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) coil system fed with the alternating current up to 15 kA at frequencies up to 10 kHz are described. The design of the in-vessel components located close to the DED coils requires detailed investigation of eddy current effects to avoid unacceptable heating and forces. Different approaches depending on skin-layer depths compared with the body dimensions are analyzed. The applied algorithms are based on analytical and simplified numerical methods. Precision and application range of these algorithms have been checked by a numerical code. The simplified technique is rather effective for first step engineering estimation and gives a good understanding for the problem. In a certain parameter range, it results in even precise values and can be used for design optimization of the structures without huge efforts in numerical modeling. After modification of the component's shape prototypes have been manufactured and successfully tested in a full-scale model under the real DED field. The design recommendations resulting from the eddy current studies contributed significantly to the optimized lay out of the DED in-vessel components

  5. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Daniele; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig, Rouven; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; Freitas, Ayres; Gainer, James S.; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Gregoire, Thomas; Gripaios, Ben; Gunion, Jack; Han, Tao; Haas, Andy; Hansson, Per; Hewett, JoAnne; Hits, Dmitry; Hubisz, Jay; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Katz, Emanuel; Kilic, Can; Kim, Hyung-Do; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Koay, Sue Ann; Ko, Pyungwon; Krohn, David; Kuflik, Eric; Lewis, Ian; Lisanti, Mariangela; Liu, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Lu, Ran; Luty, Markus; Meade, Patrick; Morrissey, David; Mrenna, Stephen; Nojiri, Mihoko; Okui, Takemichi; Padhi, Sanjay; Papucci, Michele; Park, Michael; Park, Myeonghun; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael; Phalen, Daniel; Rehermann, Keith; Rentala, Vikram; Roy, Tuhin; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Sanz, Veronica; Schmaltz, Martin; Schnetzer, Stephen; Schuster, Philip; Schwaller, Pedro; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Schwartzman, Ariel; Shao, Jing; Shelton, Jessie; Shih, David; Shu, Jing; Silverstein, Daniel; Simmons, Elizabeth; Somalwar, Sunil; Spannowsky, Michael; Spethmann, Christian; Strassler, Matthew; Su, Shufang; Tait, Tim; Thomas, Brooks; Thomas, Scott; Toro, Natalia; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Yavin, Itay; Yu, Felix; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the "Topologies for Early LHC Searches" workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a...

  6. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  7. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France); Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)], E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: fabien.buisseret@umh.ac.be

    2009-06-19

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -{alpha}r{sup {lambda}}exp(-{beta}r) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential.

  8. The auxiliary field method and approximate analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, Bernard; Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    The auxiliary field method is a new and efficient way to compute approximate analytical eigenenergies of the Schroedinger equation. This method has already been successfully applied to the case of central potentials of power-law and logarithmic forms. In the present work, we show that the Schroedinger equation with exponential potentials of the form -αr λ exp(-βr) can also be analytically solved by using the auxiliary field method. Closed formulae giving the critical heights and the energy levels of these potentials are presented. Special attention is drawn to the Yukawa potential and the pure exponential potential

  9. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.

  10. Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Jun; Chen Chang-Le

    2016-01-01

    Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions, and XM-bar are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X-bar and M-bar by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. (paper)

  11. Simplified method for preparation of concentrated exoproteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus grown on surface of cellophane bag containing liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Seki, K; Nishihara, S; Masuda, S

    1988-01-01

    A simplified method for preparation of concentrated exoproteins including protein A and alpha-toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus was successfully devised. The concentrated proteins were obtained by cultivating S. aureus organisms on the surface of a liquid medium-containing cellophane bag enclosed in a sterilized glass flask. With the same amount of medium, the total amount of proteins obtained by the method presented here was identical with that obtained by conventional liquid culture. The concentration of proteins obtained by the method, however, was high enough to observe their distinct bands stained on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This method was considered quite useful not only for large-scale cultivation for the purification of staphylococcal proteins but also for small-scale study using the proteins. The precise description of the method was presented and its possible usefulness was discussed.

  12. Analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography for quality control French Macaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M; Torres Amaro, Leonid; Menendez Castillo, Rosa; Sanchez, Esther; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian; Gonzalez, Maria Lidia; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Was developed and validated an analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography applicable to quality control of drugs dry French Macaw (Senna alata L. Roxb.) With ultraviolet detection at 340 nm. The method for high resolution liquid chromatography used to quantify the sennosides A and B, main components, was validated and proved to be specific, linear, precise and accurate. (Author)

  13. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The pollution of the seas by various chemical substances constitutes nowadays one of the principal concerns of mankind. The International Atomic Energy Agency has organized in past years several intercomparison exercises in the framework of its Analytical Quality Control Service. The present intercomparison had a double aim: first, to give laboratories participating in this intercomparison an opportunity for checking their analytical performance. Secondly, to produce on the basis of the results of this intercomparison a reference material made of fish tissue which would be accurately certified with respect to many trace elements. Such a material could be used by analytical chemists to check the validity of new analytical procedures. In total, 53 laboratories from 29 countries reported results (585 laboratory means for 48 elements). 5 refs, 52 tabs

  14. Application of FEM analytical method for hydrogen migration behaviour in Zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, K; Ohta, H [Takasago Research and Development Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Hyogo-ken (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    It is well recognized that the hydriding behaviours of Zirconium alloys are very significant problems as a safety issues. Also, it is well known that the diffusion of hydrogen in Zirconium alloys are affected not only by concentration but also temperature gradient. But in actual component, especially heat transfer tube such as fuel rod, we can not avoid the temperature gradient in some degree. So, it is very useful to develop the computer code which can analyze the hydrogen diffusion and precipitation behaviours under temperature gradient as a function of the structure of fuel rod. For this objective, we have developed the computer code for hydrogen migration behaviour using FEM analytical methods. So, following items are presented and discussed. Analytical method and conditions; correlation between the computed and test results; application to designing studies. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  16. FastCloning: a highly simplified, purification-free, sequence- and ligation-independent PCR cloning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a variety of methods and expensive kits are available, molecular cloning can be a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results Here we report a highly simplified, reliable, and efficient PCR-based cloning technique to insert any DNA fragment into a plasmid vector or into a gene (cDNA in a vector at any desired position. With this method, the vector and insert are PCR amplified separately, with only 18 cycles, using a high fidelity DNA polymerase. The amplified insert has the ends with ~16-base overlapping with the ends of the amplified vector. After DpnI digestion of the mixture of the amplified vector and insert to eliminate the DNA templates used in PCR reactions, the mixture is directly transformed into competent E. coli cells to obtain the desired clones. This technique has many advantages over other cloning methods. First, it does not need gel purification of the PCR product or linearized vector. Second, there is no need of any cloning kit or specialized enzyme for cloning. Furthermore, with reduced number of PCR cycles, it also decreases the chance of random mutations. In addition, this method is highly effective and reproducible. Finally, since this cloning method is also sequence independent, we demonstrated that it can be used for chimera construction, insertion, and multiple mutations spanning a stretch of DNA up to 120 bp. Conclusion Our FastCloning technique provides a very simple, effective, reliable, and versatile tool for molecular cloning, chimera construction, insertion of any DNA sequences of interest and also for multiple mutations in a short stretch of a cDNA.

  17. Investigations of phosphate coatings of galvanized steel sheets by a surface-analytical multi-method approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubert, H.; Garten, R.; Klockenkaemper, R.; Puderbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings on galvanized steel sheets have been studied by a combination of SEM, EDX, AES, ISS and SIMS. Analytical statements concerning such rough, poly-crystalline and contaminated surfaces of technical samples are quite difficult to obtain. The use of a surface-analytical multi-method approach overcomes, the intrinsic limitations of the individual method applied, thus resulting in a consistent picture of those technical surfaces. Such results can be used to examine technical faults and to optimize the technical process. (Author)

  18. A Simplification for Exp-Function Method When the Balanced Nonlinear Term Is a Certain Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Exp-function method plays an important role in searching for analytic solutions of many nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, we prove that the balancing procedure in the method is unnecessary when the balanced nonlinear term is a product of the dependent variable under consideration and its derivatives. And in this case, the ansatz of the method can be simplified to be with less parameters so as to be easy to calculate.

  19. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar; Muhammet Kurulay

    2013-01-01

    A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as...

  20. The riddle of Siegfried: exploring methods and psychological perspectives in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Marco Heleno

    2016-02-01

    Jung's dream of the killing of Siegfried poses a riddle: why did the unconscious choose precisely Siegfried as the hero to be murdered? Jung himself declares that he does not know. This paper attempts to decipher this riddle using three distinct methodological approaches accepted by Jung, two of them in fact grounded in his theories of dream interpretation. Besides presenting some possible answers to the riddle of Siegfried, this interpretative reflection brings to light the discrepancy of the psychological perspectives created by the heterogeneity of methods within analytical psychology. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  1. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  2. An analytical method for computing atomic contact areas in biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Paul; Koehl, Patrice

    2013-01-15

    We propose a new analytical method for detecting and computing contacts between atoms in biomolecules. It is based on the alpha shape theory and proceeds in three steps. First, we compute the weighted Delaunay triangulation of the union of spheres representing the molecule. In the second step, the Delaunay complex is filtered to derive the dual complex. Finally, contacts between spheres are collected. In this approach, two atoms i and j are defined to be in contact if their centers are connected by an edge in the dual complex. The contact areas between atom i and its neighbors are computed based on the caps formed by these neighbors on the surface of i; the total area of all these caps is partitioned according to their spherical Laguerre Voronoi diagram on the surface of i. This method is analytical and its implementation in a new program BallContact is fast and robust. We have used BallContact to study contacts in a database of 1551 high resolution protein structures. We show that with this new definition of atomic contacts, we generate realistic representations of the environments of atoms and residues within a protein. In particular, we establish the importance of nonpolar contact areas that complement the information represented by the accessible surface areas. This new method bears similarity to the tessellation methods used to quantify atomic volumes and contacts, with the advantage that it does not require the presence of explicit solvent molecules if the surface of the protein is to be considered. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  4. A comparison of two analytical evaluation methods for educational computer games for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Baauw, E.; Barendregt, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a comparison of two analytical methods for educational computer games for young children. The methods compared in the study are the Structured Expert Evaluation Method (SEEM) and the Combined Heuristic Evaluation (HE) (based on a combination of Nielsen’s HE and the

  5. Analytical and numerical techniques for predicting the interfacial stresses of wavy carbon nanotube/polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdchi, K.; Salehi, M.; Shokrieh, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By introducing a new simplified 3D representative volume element for wavy carbon nanotubes, an analytical model is developed to study the stress transfer in single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites. Based on the pull-out modeling technique, the effects of waviness, aspect ratio,

  6. Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, H; Kuze, N; Ichi, T; Koda, T

    2001-04-01

    Buddleja yellow colorant derived from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. has recently been approved for use as a new kind of natural colorant for food additives in China. In order to distinguish Buddleja yellow colorant from other yellow colorants, two known phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside (= verbascoside) and poliumoside, were isolated from the colorant as marker substances for Buddleja yellow colorant. Poliumoside has not been detected in B. officinalis Maxim. previously. These phenylpropanoid glycosides were not detected in the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis or in the stamens of the flowers of Crocus sativus L., which also contain crocetin derivatives as coloring components, using a photodiode array and mass chromatograms. Thus, an analytical HPLC method was developed to distinguish foods that have been colored with yellow colorants containing crocetin derivatives, using phenylpropanoid glycosides as markers.

  7. A semi-analytical study on helical springs made of shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghani, M; Naghdabadi, R; Arghavani, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the responses of shape memory polymer (SMP) helical springs under axial force are studied both analytically and numerically. In the analytical solution, we first derive the response of a cylindrical tube under torsional loadings. This solution can be used for helical springs in which both the curvature and pitch effects are negligible. This is the case for helical springs with large ratios of the mean coil radius to the cross sectional radius (spring index) and also small pitch angles. Making use of this solution simplifies the analysis of the helical springs to that of the torsion of a straight bar with circular cross section. The 3D phenomenological constitutive model recently proposed for SMPs is also reduced to the 1D shear case. Thus, an analytical solution for the torsional response of SMP tubes in a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery is derived. In addition, the curvature effect is added to the formulation and the SMP helical spring is analyzed using the exact solution presented for torsion of curved SMP tubes. In this modified solution, the effect of the direct shear force is also considered. In the numerical analysis, the 3D constitutive equations are implemented in a finite element program and a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery of an SMP (extension or compression) helical spring is simulated. Analytical and numerical results are compared and it is shown that the analytical solution gives accurate stress distributions in the cross section of the helical SMP spring besides the global load–deflection response. Some case studies are presented to show the validity of the presented analytical method. (paper)

  8. Evaluation of FTIR-based analytical methods for the analysis of simulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Cash, R.J.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Meacham, J.E.; Winkelman, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three FTIR-based analytical methods that have potential to characterize simulated waste tank materials have been evaluated. These include: (1) fiber optics, (2) modular transfer optic using light guides equipped with non-contact sampling peripherals, and (3) photoacoustic spectroscopy. Pertinent instrumentation and experimental procedures for each method are described. The results show that the near-infrared (NIR) region of the infrared spectrum is the region of choice for the measurement of moisture in waste simulants. Differentiation of the NIR spectrum, as a preprocessing steps, will improve the analytical result. Preliminary data indicate that prominent combination bands of water and the first overtone band of the ferrocyanide stretching vibration may be utilized to measure water and ferrocyanide species simultaneously. Both near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra must be collected, however, to measure ferrocyanide species unambiguously and accurately. For ease of sample handling and the potential for field or waste tank deployment, the FTIR-Fiber Optic method is preferred over the other two methods. Modular transfer optic using light guides and photoacoustic spectroscopy may be used as backup systems and for the validation of the fiber optic data

  9. A simplified method for assessing cytotechnologist workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaickus, Louis J; Tambouret, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Examining cytotechnologist workflow and how it relates to job performance and patient safety is important in determining guidelines governing allowable workloads. This report discusses the development of a software tool that significantly simplifies the process of analyzing cytotechnologist workload while simultaneously increasing the quantity and resolution of the data collected. The program runs in Microsoft Excel and minimizes manual data entry and data transcription by automating as many tasks as is feasible. Data show the cytotechnologists tested were remarkably consistent in the amount of time it took them to screen a cervical cytology (Gyn) or a nongynecologic cytology (Non-Gyn) case and that this amount of time was directly proportional to the number of slides per case. Namely, the time spent per slide did not differ significantly in Gyn versus Non-Gyn cases (216 ± 3.4 seconds and 235 ± 24.6 seconds, respectively; P=.16). There was no significant difference in the amount of time needed to complete a Gyn case between the morning and the evening (314 ± 4.7 seconds and 312 ± 7.1 seconds; P=.39), but a significantly increased time spent screening Non-Gyn cases (slide-adjusted) in the afternoon hours (323 ± 20.1 seconds and 454 ± 67.6 seconds; P=.027), which was largely the result of significantly increased time spent on prescreening activities such as checking the electronic medical record (62 ± 6.9 seconds and 145 ± 36 seconds; P=.006). This Excel-based data collection tool generates highly detailed data in an unobtrusive manner and is highly customizable to the individual working environment and clinical climate. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  10. Analytical methods associated with the recovery of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes various approaches made to the analysis of materials arising from the processing of Karoo deposits for uranium. These materials include head and residue samples, aqueous solutions and organic solvents and, finally, the precipitated cakes of the elements recovered, i.e. uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic. Analysis was required for these elements and also vanadium, carbon, sulphur, and carbonate in the head and residue samples. The concentration of uranium, molybdenum, and arsenic, other than in the precipitated cakes, ranges from 1 to 2000μg/g, and that of carbon, sulphur, and carbonate from 0,1 to 5 per cent. The analysis of cakes necessitates the determination of silver, arsenic, iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, titanium, and vanadium within the range 1 to 1000μg/g, and of sodium and silica within the range 10 to 20 000μg/g. The methods used include combustion methods for carbon, sulphur, and carbonate, and atomic-absorption, X-ray-fluorescence, and emission methods for the other analytes. The accuracy of the analysis is within 10 per cent

  11. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  12. A method for determining the analytical form of a radionuclide depth distribution using multiple gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Steven Clifford, E-mail: sdewey001@gmail.com [United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Occupational Environmental Health Division, Health Physics Branch, Radiation Analysis Laboratories, 2350 Gillingham Drive, Brooks City-Base, TX 78235 (United States); Whetstone, Zachary David, E-mail: zacwhets@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Kearfott, Kimberlee Jane, E-mail: kearfott@umich.edu [Radiological Health Engineering Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, 1906 Cooley Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    When characterizing environmental radioactivity, whether in the soil or within concrete building structures undergoing remediation or decommissioning, it is highly desirable to know the radionuclide depth distribution. This is typically modeled using continuous analytical expressions, whose forms are believed to best represent the true source distributions. In situ gamma ray spectroscopic measurements are combined with these models to fully describe the source. Currently, the choice of analytical expressions is based upon prior experimental core sampling results at similar locations, any known site history, or radionuclide transport models. This paper presents a method, employing multiple in situ measurements at a single site, for determining the analytical form that best represents the true depth distribution present. The measurements can be made using a variety of geometries, each of which has a different sensitivity variation with source spatial distribution. Using non-linear least squares numerical optimization methods, the results can be fit to a collection of analytical models and the parameters of each model determined. The analytical expression that results in the fit with the lowest residual is selected as the most accurate representation. A cursory examination is made of the effects of measurement errors on the method. - Highlights: > A new method for determining radionuclide distribution as a function of depth is presented. > Multiple measurements are used, with enough measurements to determine the unknowns in analytical functions that might describe the distribution. > The measurements must be as independent as possible, which is achieved through special collimation of the detector. > Although the effects of measurements errors may be significant on the results, an improvement over other methods is anticipated.

  13. SPEAK YOUR MIND: SIMPLIFIED DEBATES AS A LEARNING TOOL AT THE UNIVERSITY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUSTIGOVÁ, Lenka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of speaking skills in intermediate and lower level university classes through the simplified format of debates. The aim of this paper is to describe teaching observations with special attention given to the preparatory stages, strengths and challenges of simplified debate faced by both the teacher and the students. Observations were made while teaching speaking through simple debate to 19 - 20 year-old-students of general English at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague in intermediate and lower level classes. By describing the methods and procedures used to engage in debates, this paper aims to enrich pedagogical methods for effectively teaching speaking skills and thus serve ESL teachers at large. By contextualizing debate within a milieu larger than the ESL classroom, this study also accesses possibilities for further application of simplified debate to heighten training for other subjects, while drawing upon the democratic context supported by debate.

  14. Analytical methods applied to the study of lattice gauge and spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreo, Adriana.

    1985-01-01

    A study of interactions between quarks and gluons is presented. Certain difficulties of the quantum chromodynamics to explain the behaviour of quarks has given origin to the technique of lattice gauge theories. First the phase diagrams of the discrete space-time theories are studied. The analysis of the phase diagrams is made by numerical and analytical methods. The following items were investigated and studied: a) A variational technique was proposed to obtain very accurated values for the ground and first excited state energy of the analyzed theory; b) A mean-field-like approximation for lattice spin models in the link formulation which is a generalization of the mean-plaquette technique was developed; c) A new method to study lattice gauge theories at finite temperature was proposed. For the first time, a non-abelian model was studied with analytical methods; d) An abelian lattice gauge theory with fermionic matter at the strong coupling limit was analyzed. Interesting results applicable to non-abelian gauge theories were obtained. (M.E.L.) [es

  15. Selection and authentication of botanical materials for the development of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S

    2013-05-01

    Herbal products, for example botanical dietary supplements, are widely used. Analytical methods are needed to ensure that botanical ingredients used in commercial products are correctly identified and that research materials are of adequate quality and are sufficiently characterized to enable research to be interpreted and replicated. Adulteration of botanical material in commerce is common for some species. The development of analytical methods for specific botanicals, and accurate reporting of research results, depend critically on correct identification of test materials. Conscious efforts must therefore be made to ensure that the botanical identity of test materials is rigorously confirmed and documented through preservation of vouchers, and that their geographic origin and handling are appropriate. Use of material with an associated herbarium voucher that can be botanically identified is always ideal. Indirect methods of authenticating bulk material in commerce, for example use of organoleptic, anatomical, chemical, or molecular characteristics, are not always acceptable for the chemist's purposes. Familiarity with botanical and pharmacognostic literature is necessary to determine what potential adulterants exist and how they may be distinguished.

  16. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  17. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. The application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in uranium mine mining method of the optimal selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhongyin; Kuang Zhengping; Qiu Huiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Analytic hierarchy process, AHP, is a combination of qualitative and quantitative, systematic and hierarchical analysis method. Basic decision theory of analytic hierarchy process is applied in this article, with a project example in north Guangdong region as the research object, the in-situ mining method optimization choose hierarchical analysis model is established and the analysis method, The results show that, the AHP model for mining method selecting model was reliable, optimization results were conformity with the actual use of the in-situ mining method, and it has better practicability. (authors)

  20. Aspects of investigating scrambling in the synthesis of porphyrins Different analytical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2005-01-01

    Herein, we discuss the analyses and quantification of the different components in porphyrin mixtures, prepared from p-anisaidehyde, p-tolualdehyde, and 5-(4-bromophenyl)-dipyrromethane with acid catalysis, using NMR and HPLC. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are emphas...

  1. Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Bendoyro, Maria Olga; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Fernandez, Juan Lugones; Garcia Borges, Lisandra; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval

  2. Comparison of the acetyl bromide spectrophotometric method with other analytical lignin methods for determining lignin concentration in forage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Hatfield, Ronald D

    2004-06-16

    Present analytical methods to quantify lignin in herbaceous plants are not totally satisfactory. A spectrophotometric method, acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), has been employed to determine lignin concentration in a range of plant materials. In this work, lignin extracted with acidic dioxane was used to develop standard curves and to calculate the derived linear regression equation (slope equals absorptivity value or extinction coefficient) for determining the lignin concentration of respective cell wall samples. This procedure yielded lignin values that were different from those obtained with Klason lignin, acid detergent acid insoluble lignin, or permanganate lignin procedures. Correlations with in vitro dry matter or cell wall digestibility of samples were highest with data from the spectrophotometric technique. The ABSL method employing as standard lignin extracted with acidic dioxane has the potential to be employed as an analytical method to determine lignin concentration in a range of forage materials. It may be useful in developing a quick and easy method to predict in vitro digestibility on the basis of the total lignin content of a sample.

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  4. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline

  5. Global existence of periodic solutions on a simplified BAM neural network model with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Baodong; Zhang Yazhuo; Zhang Chunrui

    2008-01-01

    A simplified n-dimensional BAM neural network model with delays is considered. Some results of Hopf bifurcations occurring at the zero equilibrium as the delay increases are exhibited. Global existence of periodic solutions are established using a global Hopf bifurcation result of Wu [Wu J. Symmetric functional-differential equations and neural networks with memory. Trans Am Math Soc 1998;350:4799-838], and a Bendixson criterion for higher dimensional ordinary differential equations due to Li and Muldowney [Li MY, Muldowney J. On Bendixson's criterion. J Differ Equations 1994;106:27-39]. Finally, computer simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results found

  6. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  7. One-dimensional model of interacting-step fluctuations on vicinal surfaces: Analytical formulas and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2010-12-01

    We study analytically and numerically a one-dimensional model of interacting line defects (steps) fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. Our goal is to formulate and validate analytical techniques for approximately solving systems of coupled nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. In our analytical approach, the starting point is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model by which step motion is driven by diffusion of adsorbed atoms on terraces and atom attachment-detachment at steps. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. By including Gaussian white noise to the equations of motion for terrace widths, we formulate large systems of SDEs under different choices of diffusion coefficients for the noise. We simplify this description via (i) perturbation theory and linearization of the step interactions and, alternatively, (ii) a mean-field (MF) approximation whereby widths of adjacent terraces are replaced by a self-consistent field but nonlinearities in step interactions are retained. We derive simplified formulas for the time-dependent terrace-width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. Our MF analytical predictions for the TWD compare favorably with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations under the addition of a suitably conservative white noise in the BCF equations.

  8. An Equal-Strain Analytical Solution for the Radial Consolidation of Unsaturated Soils by Vertical Drains considering Drain Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing an analytical solution for the consolidation of unsaturated soils remains a challenging task due to the complexity of coupled governing equations for air and water phases. This paper presents an equal-strain model for the radial consolidation of unsaturated soils by vertical drains, and the effect of drain resistance is also considered. Simplified governing equations are established, and an analytical solution to calculate the excess pore-air and pore-water pressures is derived by using the methods of matrix analysis and eigenfunction expansion. The average degrees of consolidation for air and water phases and the ground surface settlement are also given. The solutions of the equal-strain model are verified by comparing the proposed free-strain model with the equal-strain model, and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Moreover, parametric studies regarding the drain resistance effect are graphically presented.

  9. Simplified proceeding as a civil procedure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Юрійович Зуб

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the directions for the development of modern civil procedural law such as optimization, facilitation, forwarding proceedings promoting the increase of the civil procedure efficiency factor are of peculiar importance. Their results are occurrence and functionality of simplified proceedings system designed to facilitate significantly hearing some categories of cases, promotion of their consideration within reasonable time and reduce legal expenses so far as it is possible. The category “simplified proceedings” in the native science of the procedural law is underexamined. A good deal of scientists-processualists were limited to studying summary (in the context of optimization as a way to improve the civil procedural form, summary proceedings and procedures functioning in terms of the mentioned proceedings, consideration of case in absentia as well as their modification. Among the Ukrainian scientist who studied some aspects of the simplified proceedings are: E. A. Belyanevych, V. I. Bobrik, S. V. Vasilyev, M. V. Verbitska, S. I. Zapara, A. A. Zgama, V. V. Komarov, D. D. Luspenuk, U. V. Navrotska, V. V. Protsenko, T. V. Stepanova, E. A. Talukin, S. Y. Fursa, M. Y. Shtefan others. The problems of the simplified proceedings were studied by the foreign scientists as well, such as: N. Andrews, Y. Y. Grubanon, N. A. Gromoshina, E. P. Kochanenko, J. Kohler, D. I. Krumskiy, E. M. Muradjan, I. V. Reshetnikova, U. Seidel, N. V. Sivak, M. Z. Shvarts, V. V. Yarkov and others. The paper objective is to develop theoretically supported, practically reasonable notion of simplified proceedings in the civil process, and also basing on the notion of simplified proceedings, international experience of the legislative regulation of simplified proceedings, native and foreign doctrine, to distinguish essential features of simplified proceedings in the civil process and to describe them. In the paper we generated the notion of simplified proceedings that

  10. Small-scale CDM projects in a competitive electricity industry: How good is a simplified baseline methodology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Setting baseline emissions is one of the principal tasks involved in awarding credits for greenhouse gas emission (GHG) mitigation projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An emission baseline has to be project-specific in order to be accurate. However, project-specific baseline calculations are subject to high transaction costs, which disadvantage small-scale projects. For this reason, the CDM-Executive Board (CDM-EB) has approved simplified baseline methodologies for selected small-scale CDM project categories. While the simplified methods help reduce the transaction cost, they may also result in inaccuracies in the estimation of emission reductions from CDM projects. The purpose of this paper is to present a rigorous economic scheduling method for calculating the GHG emission reduction in a hypothetical competitive electricity industry due to the operation of a renewable energy-based power plant under CDM and compare the GHG emission reduction derived from the rigorous method with that obtained from the use of a simplified (i.e., standardized) method approved by the CDM-EB. A key finding of the paper is that depending upon the level of power demand, prices of electricity and input fuels, the simplified method can lead to either significant overestimation or substantial underestimation of emission reduction due to the operation of renewable energy-based power projects in a competitive electricity industry

  11. Experience with simplified inelastic analysis of piping designed for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severud, L.K.

    1980-03-01

    Screening rules and preliminary design of FFTF piping were developed in 1974 based on expected behavior and engineering judgment, approximate calculations, and a few detailed inelastic analyses of pipelines. This paper provides findings from six additional detailed inelastic analyses with correlations to the simplified analysis screening rules. In addition, simplified analysis methods for treating weldment local stresses and strains as well as fabrication induced flaws are described. Based on the FFTF experience, recommendations for future Code and technology work to reduce design analysis costs are identified

  12. Simplifying the design of microstructured optical fibre pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Jonas H; Chesini, Giancarlo; Serrão, Valdir A; Franco, Marcos A R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, we propose a way to simplify the design of microstructured optical fibres with high sensitivity to applied pressure. The use of a capillary fibre with an embedded core allows the exploration of the pressure-induced material birefringence due to the capillary wall displacements and the photoelastic effect. An analytical description of pressure-induced material birefringence is provided, and fibre modal characteristics are explored through numerical simulations. Moreover, a capillary fibre with an embedded core is fabricated and used to probe pressure variations. Even though the embedded-core fibre has a non-optimized structure, measurements showed a pressure sensitivity of (1.04 ± 0.01) nm/bar, which compares well with more complex, specially designed fibre geometries reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that this geometry enables a novel route towards the simplification of microstructured fibre-based pressure sensors.

  13. Characterization, thermal stability studies, and analytical method development of Paromomycin for formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wahid; Kumar, Neeraj

    2011-06-01

    Paromomycin (PM) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, first isolated in the 1950s, and approved in 2006 for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Although isolated six decades back, sufficient information essential for development of pharmaceutical formulation is not available for PM. The purpose of this paper was to determine thermal stability and development of new analytical method for formulation development of PM. PM was characterized by thermoanalytical (DSC, TGA, and HSM) and by spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques and these techniques were used to establish thermal stability of PM after heating PM at 100, 110, 120, and 130 °C for 24 h. Biological activity of these heated samples was also determined by microbiological assay. Subsequently, a simple, rapid and sensitive RP-HPLC method for quantitative determination of PM was developed using pre-column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate. The developed method was applied to estimate PM quantitatively in two parenteral dosage forms. PM was successfully characterized by various stated techniques. These techniques indicated stability of PM for heating up to 120 °C for 24 h, but when heated at 130 °C, PM is liable to degradation. This degradation is also observed in microbiological assay where PM lost ∼30% of its biological activity when heated at 130 °C for 24 h. New analytical method was developed for PM in the concentration range of 25-200 ng/ml with intra-day and inter-day variability of stability of PM was determined successfully. Developed analytical method was found sensitive, accurate, and precise for quantification of PM. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Validation of analytical method for quality control of B12 Vitamin-10 000 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet Garcia, Martha; Garcia Penna, Caridad Margarita; Troche Concepcion, Yenilen; Cannizares Arencibia, Yanara; Moreno Correoso, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analytical method reported by USA Pharmacopeia was validated for quality control of injectable B 1 2 Vitamin (10 000 U) by UV spectrophotometry because this is a simpler and low-cost method allowing quality control of finished product. Calibration curve was graphed at 60 to 140% interval, where it was linear with a correlation coefficient similar to 0, 9999; statistical test for interception and slope was considered non-significant. There was a recovery of 99.7 % in study concentrations interval where the Cochran (G) and Student(t) test were not significant too. Variation coefficient in repetition study was similar to 0.59 % for the 6 assayed replies, whereas in intermediate precision analysis, the Fisher and Student tests were not significant. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in study concentrations interval

  15. An analytical method to determine the optimal size of a photovoltaic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra, L; Catalanotti, S; Fontana, F; Lavorante, F

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a simplified method for the optimal sizing of a photovoltaic system is presented. The results have been obtained for Italian meteorological data, but the methodology can be applied to any geographical area. The system studied is composed of a photovoltaic array, power tracker, battery storage, inverter and load. Computer simulation was used to obtain the performance of this system for many values of field area, battery storage value, solar flux and load by keeping constant the efficiencies. A simple fit was used to achieve a formula relating the system variables to the performance. Finally, the formulae for the optimal values of the field area and the battery storage value are shown.

  16. Analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yoshida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical free energy gradient for the molecular Ornstein-Zernike self-consistent-field (MOZ-SCF method is presented. MOZ-SCF theory is one of the theories to considering the solvent effects on the solute electronic structure in solution. [Yoshida N. et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2000, 113, 4974] Molecular geometries of water, formaldehyde, acetonitrile and acetone in water are optimized by analytical energy gradient formula. The results are compared with those from the polarizable continuum model (PCM, the reference interaction site model (RISM-SCF and the three dimensional (3D RISM-SCF.

  17. Simplified methods for in vivo measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity in rodent brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Snyder, Scott E.

    1999-01-01

    Simplified methods for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rodent brain were evaluated using N-[ 11 C]methylpiperidinyl propionate ([ 11 C]PMP) as an enzyme substrate. Regional mouse brain distributions were determined at 1 min (representing initial brain uptake) and 30 min (representing trapped product) after intravenous [ 11 C]PMP administration. Single time point tissue concentrations (percent injected dose/gram at 30 min), tissue concentration ratios (striatum/cerebellum and striatum/cortex ratios at 30 min), and regional tissue retention fractions (defined as percent injected dose 30 min/percent injected dose 1 min) were evaluated as measures of AChE enzymatic activity in mouse brain. Studies were carried out in control animals and after dosing with phenserine, a selective centrally active AChE inhibitor; neostigmine, a peripheral cholinesterase inhibitor; and a combination of the two drugs. In control and phenserine-treated animals, absolute tissue concentrations and regional retention fractions provide good measures of dose-dependent inhibition of brain AChE; tissue concentration ratios, however, provide erroneous conclusions. Peripheral inhibition of cholinesterases, which changes the blood pharmacokinetics of the radiotracer, diminishes the sensitivity of all measures to detect changes in central inhibition of the enzyme. We conclude that certain simple measures of AChE hydrolysis rates for [ 11 C]PMP are suitable for studies where alterations of the peripheral blood metabolism of the tracer are kept to a minimum

  18. A Comparison of Two Approaches for the Ruggedness Testing of an Analytical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestroni, Britt

    2016-01-01

    As part of an initiative under the “Red Analitica de Latino America y el Caribe” (RALACA) network the FAO/IAEA Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory validated a multi-residue method for pesticides in potato. One of the parameters to be assessed was the intra laboratory robustness or ruggedness. The objective of this work was to implement a worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method. As a conclusion to this study, it is evident that there is a need for harmonization of the definition of the terms robustness/ruggedness, the limits, the methodology and the statistical treatment of the generated data. A worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method will soon be posted on the RALACA website (www.red-ralaca.net). This study was carried out with collaborators from LVA (Austria), University of Antwerp (Belgium), University of Leuwen (The Netherlands), Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay) and Agilent technologies.

  19. Shape resonances of Be- and Mg- investigated with the method of analytic continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čurík, Roman; Paidarová, I.; Horáček, J.

    2018-05-01

    The regularized method of analytic continuation is used to study the low-energy negative-ion states of beryllium (configuration 2 s2ɛ p 2P ) and magnesium (configuration 3 s2ɛ p 2P ) atoms. The method applies an additional perturbation potential and requires only routine bound-state multi-electron quantum calculations. Such computations are accessible by most of the free or commercial quantum chemistry software available for atoms and molecules. The perturbation potential is implemented as a spherical Gaussian function with a fixed width. Stability of the analytic continuation technique with respect to the width and with respect to the input range of electron affinities is studied in detail. The computed resonance parameters Er=0.282 eV, Γ =0.316 eV for the 2 p state of Be- and Er=0.188 eV, Γ =0.167 for the 3 p state of Mg- agree well with the best results obtained by much more elaborate and computationally demanding present-day methods.

  20. Laser-induced Breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis method via adaptive analytical line selection and relevance vector machine regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Yi, Cancan; Xu, Jinwu; Ma, Xianghong

    2015-01-01

    A new LIBS quantitative analysis method based on analytical line adaptive selection and Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) regression model is proposed. First, a scheme of adaptively selecting analytical line is put forward in order to overcome the drawback of high dependency on a priori knowledge. The candidate analytical lines are automatically selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines, such as spectral intensity, wavelength and width at half height. The analytical lines which will be used as input variables of regression model are determined adaptively according to the samples for both training and testing. Second, an LIBS quantitative analysis method based on RVM is presented. The intensities of analytical lines and the elemental concentrations of certified standard samples are used to train the RVM regression model. The predicted elemental concentration analysis results will be given with a form of confidence interval of probabilistic distribution, which is helpful for evaluating the uncertainness contained in the measured spectra. Chromium concentration analysis experiments of 23 certified standard high-alloy steel samples have been carried out. The multiple correlation coefficient of the prediction was up to 98.85%, and the average relative error of the prediction was 4.01%. The experiment results showed that the proposed LIBS quantitative analysis method achieved better prediction accuracy and better modeling robustness compared with the methods based on partial least squares regression, artificial neural network and standard support vector machine. - Highlights: • Both training and testing samples are considered for analytical lines selection. • The analytical lines are auto-selected based on the built-in characteristics of spectral lines. • The new method can achieve better prediction accuracy and modeling robustness. • Model predictions are given with confidence interval of probabilistic distribution