WorldWideScience

Sample records for simple-minded unitarity constraint

  1. Unitarity Constraints on Asymmetric Freeze-In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, Anson; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    This paper considers unitarity and CPT constraints on asymmetric freeze-in, the use of freeze-in to store baryon number in a dark sector. In this scenario, Sakharov's out of equilibrium condition is satisfied by placing the visible and hidden sectors at different temperatures while a net visible baryon number is produced by storing negative baryon number in a dark sector. It is shown that unitarity and CPT lead to unexpected cancellations. In particular, the transfer of baryon number cancels completely at leading order. This note has shown that if two sectors are in thermal equilibrium with themselves, but not with each other, then the leading effect transferring conserved quantities between the two sectors is of order the the weak coupling connecting them to the third power. When freeze-in is used to produce a net baryon number density, the leading order effect comes from {Omicron}({lambda}{sup 3}) diagrams where the intermediate state that goes on-shell has a different visible baryon number than the final state visible baryon number. Models in which the correct baryon number is generated with freeze-in as the dominant source of abundance, typically require {lambda} {approx}> 10{sup -6} and m{sub bath} {approx}> TeV. m{sub bath} is the mass of the visible particle which communicates with the hidden sector. The lower window is potentially observable at the LHC.

  2. Perturbative unitarity constraints on the NMSSM Higgs Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betre, Kassahun; El Hedri, Sonia; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2018-03-01

    We place perturbative unitarity constraints on both the dimensionful and dimensionless parameters in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) Higgs Sector. These constraints, plus the requirement that the singlino and/or Higgsino constitutes at least part of the observed dark matter relic abundance, generate upper bounds on the Higgs, neutralino and chargino mass spectrum. Requiring higher-order corrections to be no more than 41% of the tree-level value, we obtain an upper bound of 20 TeV for the heavy Higgses and 12 TeV for the charginos and neutralinos outside defined fine-tuned regions. If the corrections are no more than 20% of the tree-level value, the bounds are 7 TeV for the heavy Higgses and 5 TeV for the charginos and neutralinos. In all, by using the NMSSM as a template, we describe a method which replaces naturalness arguments with more rigorous perturbative unitarity arguments to get a better understanding of when new physics will appear.

  3. Unitarity and positivity constraints for CFT at large central charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese

    2017-07-01

    We consider the four-point correlator of the stress tensor multiplet in N=4 SYM in the limit of large central charge c ˜ N 2. For finite values of g 2 N single-trace intermediate operators arise at order 1 /c and this leads to specific poles in the Mellin representation of the correlator. The sign of the residue at these poles is fixed by unitarity. We consider solutions consistent with crossing symmetry and this pole structure. We show that in a certain regime all solutions result in a negative contribution to the anomalous dimension of twist four operators. The reason behind this is a positivity property of Mack polynomials that leads to a positivity condition for the Mellin amplitude. This positivity condition can also be proven by assuming the correct Regge behaviour for the Mellin amplitude. For large g 2 N we recover a tower of solutions in one to one correspondence with local interactions in a effective field theory in the AdS bulk, with the appropriate suppression factors, and with definite overall signs. These signs agree with the signs that would follow from causality constraints on the effective field theory. The positivity constraints arising from CFT for the Mellin amplitude take a very similar form to the causality constraint for the forward limit of the S-matrix.

  4. Unitarity constraints in the construction of optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannata, F.; Deponder, J.P.; Lenz, F.

    1982-01-01

    We first review the unitarity properties of the first order optical potential theory which arise from the one-body nature of both the single scattering approximation and of the single particle model for the nucleus. We construct optical potentials relaxing either the independent particle guided by the requirement of incorporating the minimal unitary of the first order theory and extending it to more complex situations. Our investigation of the effects of nucleon-nucleon residual interaction results in a description of the quasifree mechanism modified by final state unitarity requires the inclusion of all possible scattering processes on a given pair of target nucleons. This naturally leads to a formation of the optical potential in terms of three-body rather than two-body amplitudes. We discuss various approximation which make, in combination with phenomenological ingredients, an evaluation of these optical potentials feasible

  5. Unitarity constraints on the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in higher derivative gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We discuss corrections to the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density $\\eta/s$ in higher-derivative gravity theories. Generically, these theories contain ghost modes with Planck-scale masses. Motivated by general considerations about unitarity, we propose new boundary conditions for the equations of motion of the graviton perturbations that force the amplitude of the ghosts modes to vanish. We analyze explicitly four-derivative corrections to Einstein gravity, compare our choice of boundary conditions to previous proposals and show that, with our new prescription, the ratio $\\eta/s$ remains at the Einstein-gravity value of $1/4\\pi$ to leading order in the corrections. It is argued that, when the new boundary conditions are imposed on six and higher-derivative theories, $\\eta/s$ can only increase from the Einstein-gravity value. We also recall some general arguments that support the validity of our results to all orders in the strength of the corrections to Einstein gravity. Our findings provide further ev...

  6. Constraints on the unitarity triangle angle γ from Dalitz plot analysis of B0→D K+π- decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yin, H.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The first study is presented of C P violation with an amplitude analysis of the Dalitz plot of B0→D K+π- decays, with D →K+π-, K+K-, and π+π-. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb-1 of p p collisions collected with the LHCb detector. No significant C P violation effect is seen, and constraints are placed on the angle γ of the unitarity triangle formed from elements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix. Hadronic parameters associated with the B0→D K*(892 )0 decay are determined for the first time. These measurements can be used to improve the sensitivity to γ of existing and future studies of the B0→D K*(892 )0 decay.

  7. Generalized eikonalization and unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffon, M. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Predazzi, E. [Universita di Torino (Italy); Martynov, E.

    1996-12-31

    In the literature, the notion of eikonalization is often used as synonymous of unitarization or, at least, as implying that unitarity is not violated. This, to the very least, appears to be wishful thinking. We discuss the properties of various types of eikonalization within a unified treatment. Linear trajectories with intercept larger than unity (so popular nowadays) lead to small asymptotic violations of unitarity even after eikonalization. Classes of eikonalizations in which the Odderon could dominate over the Pomeron are given; even so the maximal Odderon is still excluded by eikonalization. (authors). 18 refs.

  8. Generalized eikonalization and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.; Martynov, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, the notion of eikonalization is often used as synonymous of unitarization or, at least, as implying that unitarity is not violated. This, to the very least, appears to be wishful thinking. We discuss the properties of various types of eikonalization within a unified treatment. Linear trajectories with intercept larger than unity (so popular nowadays) lead to small asymptotic violations of unitarity even after eikonalization. Classes of eikonalizations in which the Odderon could dominate over the Pomeron are given; even so the maximal Odderon is still excluded by eikonalization. (authors)

  9. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  10. ULTRAHIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS, SMALL X AND UNITARITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall Reno, M.; Sarcevic, In.; Sterman, G.; Stratmann, M.; Vogelsang, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy cross section for neutrino interactions with nucleons is reviewed, and unitarity constraints are discussed. We argue that existing QCD extrapolations are self-consistent, and do not imply a breakdown of the perturbative expansion in the weak coupling

  11. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  12. Non-perturbative unitarity constraints on the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in UV complete theories with a gravity dual

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider, from a novel perspective, how unitarity constrains the corrections to the ratio of shear viscosity \\eta\\ to entropy density s. We start with higher-derivative extensions of Einstein gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. It is assumed that these theories are derived from string theory and thus have a unitary UV completion that is dual to a unitary, UV-complete boundary gauge theory. We then propose that the gravitational perturbations about a solution of the UV complete theory are described by an effective theory whose linearized equations of motion have at most two time derivatives. Our proposal leads to a concrete prescription for the calculation of \\eta/s for theories of gravity with arbitrary higher-derivative corrections. The resulting ratio can take on values above or below 1/4\\pi\\ and is consistent with all the previous calculations, even though our reasoning is substantially different. For the purpose of calculating \\eta/s, our proposal also leads to only two possible cand...

  13. Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes

  14. Unitarity Bounds and the Cuspy Halo Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam

    2001-01-01

    Conventional cold dark matter cosmological models predict cuspy halos which are in apparent conflict with observations. We show that unitarity arguments imply interesting constraints on two proposals to address this problem: collisional dark matter and strongly annihilating dark matter. Efficient scattering in both implies m∼<12 GeV and m∼<25 GeV , respectively. We also show that the strong annihilation in the second scenario implies the presence of elastic scattering. Recent evidence suggests a collisional scenario where the cross section scales inversely with velocity -- we argue superelastic processes are likely involved. Exceptions and implications for searches are discussed

  15. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Parodi, F.; Caravaglios, F.

    2000-02-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available by end 1999. (authors)

  16. Unitarity corrections and high field strengths in high energy hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Y.V.; Mueller, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Unitarity corrections to the BFKL description of high energy hard scattering are viewed in large N c QCD in light-cone quantization. In a center of mass frame unitarity corrections to high energy hard scattering are manifestly perturbatively calculable and unrelated to questions of parton saturation. In a frame where one of the hadrons is initially at rest unitarity corrections are related to parton saturation effects and involve potential strengths A μ ∝1/g. In such a frame we describe the high energy scattering in terms of the expectation value of a Wilson loop. The large potentials A μ ∝1/g are shown to be pure gauge terms allowing perturbation theory to again describe unitarity corrections and parton saturation effects. Genuine nonperturbative effects only come in at energies well beyond those energies where unitarity constraints first become important. (orig.)

  17. Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardecchia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics models explaining the LHC di-photon excess at 750 GeV. We argue that the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single scalar resonance breaks down at scales of few tens of TeV, where perturbative unitarity is violated due to the large cross-section required in order to fit the $\\gamma\\gamma$ signal. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the EFT description. We finally discuss under which conditions the data can be accommodated within weakly-coupled models.

  18. Double-Copy Constructions and Unitarity Cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Nohle, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in $D$ dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. ...

  19. Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p T hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p T spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.

  20. Simple Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, John

    2013-01-01

    This article describes John Kelleher's experience in observing the creations of his preschool daughter. Both he and his wife are formally trained in the arts, and looked forward to guiding their daughter down an artistic path. In his mind, what makes a great artist usually involves a great deal of technical ability and commitment to a complex…

  1. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  2. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  3. Anomalous weak boson couplings suggestions from unitarity and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, G.J.; Tsirigoti, G.; Gounaris, G J; Renard, F M; Tsirigoti, G

    1995-01-01

    Taking into account the constraints from LEP1 and lower energy experiments, we identify the seven SU(2)\\times U(1) gauge invariant purely bosonic dim=6 operators which provide a quite general description of how New Physics could reflect in the bosonic world, if it happens that all new degrees of freedom are too heavy to be directly produced in the future colliders. Five of these operators are CP conserving and the remaining ones are CP violating. We derive the unitarity constraints for the CP violating operators and compare them with the already known constraints for the CP conserving ones. Dynamical renormalizable models are also presented, which partly elucidate what the appearance of each of these operators can teach us on the mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking.

  4. Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luzio, Luca [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Kamenik, Jernej F. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nardecchia, Marco [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics in the form of spin-zero di-boson resonances at LHC. We derive the scale where the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single resonance is expected to break down depending on the resonance mass and signal cross section. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the effective description. We finally discuss under which conditions scalar di-boson resonance signals can be accommodated within weakly coupled models. (orig.)

  5. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  6. Probing direct and indirect unitarity violation in future accelerator neutrino facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Zhang, Yibing; Li, Yu-Feng

    2017-11-01

    The possible existence of light and heavy sterile neutrinos may give rise to direct and indirect unitarity violation of the 3 × 3 lepton mixing matrix respectively. In the current work we study the potential of future accelerator neutrino facilities in probing the unitarity violation effects. Taking DUNE, T2HK and a low-energy Neutrino Factory (LENF) as working examples of future accelerator neutrino facilities, we study the distinct effects of direct and indirect unitarity violation on the discovery reach of the leptonic CP violation and precision measurements of θ23 in the three neutrino framework. In addition, constraints on the additional mixing parameters of direct and indirect unitarity violation are also discussed. Finally, we stress that the combination of experiments with different oscillation channels, different neutrino beams and different detector techniques will be an effective solution to the parameter degeneracy problem and give the robust measurement of leptonic CP violation even if the direct and indirect unitarity violation are taken into account.

  7. Matter scattering in quadratic gravity and unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yugo; Inami, Takeo; Izumi, Keisuke; Kitamura, Tomotaka

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet (UV) behavior of two-scalar elastic scattering with graviton exchanges in higher-curvature gravity theory. In Einstein gravity, matter scattering is shown not to satisfy the unitarity bound at tree level at high energy. Among some of the possible directions for the UV completion of Einstein gravity, such as string theory, modified gravity, and inclusion of high-mass/high-spin states, we take R_{μν}^2 gravity coupled to matter. We show that matter scattering with graviton interactions satisfies the unitarity bound at high energy, even with negative norm states due to the higher-order derivatives of metric components. The difference in the unitarity property of these two gravity theories is probably connected to that in another UV property, namely, the renormalizability property of the two.

  8. Three-body unitarity with isobars revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, M.; Hu, B. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Doering, M. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pilloni, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Szczepaniak, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN (United States); Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The particle exchange model of hadron interactions can be used to describe three-body scattering under the isobar assumption. In this study we start from the 3 → 3 scattering amplitude for spinless particles, which contains an isobar-spectator scattering amplitude. Using a Bethe-Salpeter Ansatz for the latter, we derive a relativistic three-dimensional scattering equation that manifestly fulfills three-body unitarity and two-body unitarity for the sub-amplitudes. This property holds for energies above breakup and also in the presence of resonances in the sub-amplitudes. (orig.)

  9. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  10. Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2016-09-01

    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, but globally not: we explain why Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole must be 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. This produces exclusively pure quantum states evolving in a unitary manner, and removes the interior region for the outside observer, while it still completely agrees locally with the laws of general relativity. Unitarity is a starting point; no other assumptions are made. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a PT or CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual black holes of the type described here.

  11. A framework for testing leptonic unitarity by neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, Chee Sheng [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Minakata, Hisakazu [Department of Physics, Yachay Tech,San Miguel de Urcuquí, 100119 (Ecuador); Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro,C.P. 38097, 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-02-22

    If leptonic unitarity is violated by new physics at an energy scale much lower than the electroweak scale, which we call low-scale unitarity violation, it has different characteristic features from those expected in unitarity violation at high-energy scales. They include maintaining flavor universality and absence of zero-distance flavor transition. We present a framework for testing such unitarity violation at low energies by neutrino oscillation experiments. Starting from the unitary 3 active plus N (arbitrary positive integer) sterile neutrino model we show that by restricting the active-sterile and sterile-sterile neutrino mass squared differences to ≳ 0.1 eV{sup 2} the oscillation probability in the (3+N) model becomes insensitive to details of the sterile sector, providing a nearly model-independent framework for testing low-scale unitarity violation. Yet, the presence of the sterile sector leaves trace as a constant probability leaking term, which distinguishes low-scale unitarity violation from the high-scale one. The non-unitary mixing matrix in the active neutrino subspace is common for the both cases. We analyze how severely the unitarity violation can be constrained in ν{sub e}-row by taking a JUNO-like setting to simulate medium baseline reactor experiments. Possible modification of the features of the (3+N) model due to matter effect is discussed to first order in the matter potential.

  12. Signature of a Collaboration agreement between Unitar & CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Gildemyn

    2012-01-01

    Signature of agreement with Mr Carlos Lopes (UNITAR) and Prof Rolf Heuer (CERN). From left to right : Einar Bjorgo, Francesco Pisano, Calors Lopes, Rolf Heuer, Maurizio Bona, Frédéric Hemmer, Olivier Van Damme

  13. Born series and unitarity in noncommutative quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Bemfica, F. S.; Girotti, H. O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to present model independent results for noncommutative quantum mechanics. We determine sufficient conditions for the convergence of the Born series and, in the sequel, unitarity is proved in full generality.

  14. Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  15. Unitarity in gauge symmetry breaking on an orbifold

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Higashide, Y; Kobayashi, K; Matsunaga, M

    2003-01-01

    We study the unitarity bounds of scattering amplitudes in extra-dimensional gauge theory, in which the gauge symmetry is broken by the boundary conditions. The evaluation of the amplitude of the diagram including four massive gauge bosons in the external lines shows that the asymptotic power behavior of the amplitude is canceled. The calculation is carried out with the 5-dimensional standard model and the SU(5) grand unified theory, whose 5th dimensional coordinate is compactified on S sup 1 /Z sub 2. The gauge theories broken through the orbifolding preserve unitarity a high energies, similarly to the broken gauge theories in which the gauge bosons acquire masses through the Higgs mechanism. We show that the contributions of the Kaluza-Klein states play a crucial role in conserving the unitarity. (author)

  16. Amplitudes, recursion relations and unitarity in the Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, Ronald; Luna, Oscar Boher

    2017-12-01

    The Abelian Higgs model forms an essential part of the electroweak standard model: it is the sector containing only Z0 and Higgs bosons. We present a diagram-based proof of the tree-level unitarity of this model inside the unitary gauge, where only physical degrees of freedom occur. We derive combinatorial recursion relations for off-shell amplitudes in the massless approximation, which allows us to prove the cancellation of the first two orders in energy of unitarity-violating high-energy behaviour for any tree-level amplitude in this model. We describe a deformation of the amplitudes by extending the physical phase space to at least 7 spacetime dimensions, which leads to on-shell recursion relations à la BCFW. These lead to a simple proof that all on-shell tree amplitudes obey partial-wave unitarity.

  17. On unitarity of the particle-hole dispersive optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Shlomo, S.; Tulupov, B. A.; Urin, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    For the recently developed particle-hole dispersive optical model, weak violations of unitarity due to a phenomenological description of the spreading effect are considered. Methods for unitarity restoration are proposed and implemented for the 208Pb nucleus in the description of the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density and strength functions in a wide excitation energy interval that includes the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone. To illustrate abilities of the model, direct neutron decay of the mentioned giant resonance is also considered.

  18. The 2004 UTfit collaboration report on the status of the unitarity triangle in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Marcella; Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Lubicz, Vittorio; Martinelli, Guido; Parodi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Maurizio; Roudeau, Patrick; Schiavi, Carlo; Silvestrini, Luca; Stocchi, Achille

    2005-01-01

    Using the latest determinations of several theoretical and experimental parameters, we update the Unitarity Triangle analysis in the Standard Model. The basic experimental constraints come from the measurements of |V ub /V cb |, Δm d , the lower limit on Δm s , ε K , and the measurement of the phase of the B d - B-bar d mixing amplitude through the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B 0 →J/ψK 0 decays. In addition, we consider the direct determination of α, γ, 2β+γ and cos 2β from the measurements of new CP-violating quantities, recently performed at the B factories. We also discuss the opportunities offered by improving the precision of the various physical quantities entering in the determination of the Unitarity Triangle parameters. The results and the plots presented in this paper can also be found at the URL http://www.utfit.org , where they are continuously updated with the newest experimental and theoretical results

  19. An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.

  20. Twisted-baryon-loop effects in dual topological unitarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Ouvry, S.; Uschersohn, J.

    1981-05-01

    Within the framework of dual topological unitarization we propose a simple model for mesons, baryons, and baryonium which allows us to calculate the effects of inserting nonplanar BB-bar loops in all possible ways into meson and baryonium propagators. We study the renormalization of the leading nonzero-isospin trajectories and the mixing of qq-bar and qqq-barq-bar states.

  1. Unitarity-Cuts, Stokes' Theorem and Berry's Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Two-particle unitarity-cuts of scattering amplitudes can be efficiently computed by applying Stokes' Theorem, in the fashion of the Generalised Cauchy Theorem. Consequently, the Optical Theorem can be related to the Berry Phase, showing how the imaginary part of arbitrary one-loop Feynman amplitudes can be interpreted as the flux of a complex 2-form.

  2. The pion form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyticity and unitarity techniques are employed to estimate Taylor coefficients of the pion electromagnetic form factor at = 0 by exploiting the recently evaluated two-pion contribution to the muon ( − 2) and the phase of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the elastic region, known from scattering by ...

  3. Perturbative unitarity of Lee-Wick quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano; Piva, Marco

    2017-08-01

    We study the perturbative unitarity of the Lee-Wick models, formulated as nonanalytically Wick rotated Euclidean theories. The complex energy plane is divided into disconnected regions and the values of a loop integral in the various regions are related to one another by a nonanalytic procedure. We show that the one-loop diagrams satisfy the expected, unitary cutting equations in each region: only the physical d.o.f. propagate through the cuts. The goal can be achieved by working in suitable subsets of each region and proving that the cutting equations can be analytically continued as a whole. We make explicit calculations in the cases of the bubble and triangle diagrams and address the generality of our approach. We also show that the same higher-derivative models violate unitarity if they are formulated directly in Minkowski spacetime.

  4. Quantitative many-body theory of unitarity BECs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Mackillo

    2017-04-01

    Perturbative approaches, such as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, can successfully explain weak interactions in BECs, while they become questionable at unitarity where the scattering length diverges. The first unitary BEC experiment demonstrated that a surprisingly large BEC fraction survived a quench from weak to unitary interactions. I will show that introducing an excitation picture identifies how a quench creates noncondensed atoms in a strict sequential order where large atom clusters only emerge from existing smaller ones. This observation yields an efficient nonperturbative many-body description of unitary BECs, based on a cluster-expansion approach developed originally for semiconductor quantum optics. I will discuss how this method quantitatively explains the first unitarity BEC measurement, and how it can be extended to explore, e.g., Efimov physics, universality, and entanglement in one or many strongly interacting BECs.

  5. Effective field theory and unitarity in vector boson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekulla, Marco [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kilian, Wolfgang [Siegen Univ. (Germany); Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2016-10-15

    Weak vector boson scattering at high energies will be one of the key measurements in current and upcoming LHC runs. It is most sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. However, a conventional EFT analysis will fail at high energies. To address this problem, we present a parameter-free prescription valid for arbitrary perturbative and non-perturbative models: the T-matrix unitarization. We describe its implementation as an asymptotically consistent reference model matched to the low-energy effective theory. We show examples of typical observables of vector-boson scattering at the LHC in our unitarized framework. For many strongly-coupled models like composite Higgs models, dimension-8 operators might be actually the leading operators. In addition to those longitudinal and transversal dimension eight EFT operators, the effects of generic tensor and scalar resonances within simplified models are considered.

  6. Nuclear physics from an expansion around the unitarity limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kolck, U.

    2018-02-01

    Many features of the structure of nuclei can be understood in the unitarity limit, where the two-nucleon S waves have bound states at zero energy. In this limit, the only dimensionful parameter, which is needed for proper renormalization of the relevant effective field theory, is set by the triton binding energy. While the complexity of some many-body systems may stem from a profusion of distinct scales, this one three-body scale is sufficient to generate rich structures already in few-body systems due to the anomalous breaking of continuous to discrete scale invariance. I discuss how the spectra of light nuclei arise from a controlled, perturbative expansion around the unitarity limit. I also present some implications of discrete scale invariance for nuclear matter.

  7. The pion form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-15

    Nov 15, 2012 ... Regions in the complex t-plane are isolated where the form factor cannot have zeros. ... t-plane cut along the real axis from the unitarity threshold t+ = 4M2 πto ∞ and is nor- malized to Fπ ... cast the integral equation into a canonical form and derive a determinant (for details, see ref. [2]) which is central to ...

  8. Unitarity corrections to current algebra versus chiral perturbation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Borges, J.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the result of the application of the chiral perturbation approach for pion-pion scattering amplitudes with the description that follows from our first order quasi-unitarized current algebra method. We show that the only discrepancy comes in the polynomial part of the amplitudes and we trace back its origin. We discuss the peculiarities of each model irrespective of their abilities to fit the low energy experimental data. We have extended our analysis to the possible parametrization of the unknown symmetry breaking dynamics of the standard model. (orig.)

  9. Unitarity bounds on angular distribution in multiparticle production - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaran, P.P.; Kugler, M.; Soffer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Upper bounds which follow from unitarity are derived for the angular distribution of the detected particle C in the inclusive process AB→C+anything at a finite energy, in terms of the corresponding elastic amplitudes for a fixed value of the forward inelastic cross-section and for a fixed value of the total inelastic cross-section for the production of C. In comparison with the pp→p+anything data at 24GeV/c, some improvement on previous bounds is observed [fr

  10. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    CKM2016

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  11. Anomalous couplings, resonances and unitarity in vector boson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekulla, Marco

    2015-12-04

    The Standard Model of particle physics has proved itself as a reliable theory to describe interactions of elementary particles. However, many questions concerning the Higgs sector and the associated electroweak symmetry breaking are still open, even after (or because) a light Higgs boson has been discovered. The 2→2 scattering amplitude of weak vector bosons is suppressed in the Standard Model due to the Higgs boson exchange. Therefore, weak vector boson scattering processes are very sensitive to additional contributions beyond the Standard Model. Possible new physics deviations can be studied model-independently by higher dimensional operators within the effective field theory framework. In this thesis, a complete set of dimension six and eight operators are discussed for vector boson scattering processes. Assuming a scenario where new physics in the Higgs/Goldstone boson decouples from the fermion-sector and the gauge-sector in the high energy limit, the impact of the dimension six operator L{sub HD} and dimension eight operators L{sub S,0} and L{sub S,1} to vector boson scattering processes can be studied separately for complete processes at particle colliders. However, a conventional effective field theory analysis will violate the S-matrix unitarity above a certain energy limit. The direct T-matrix scheme is developed to allow a study of effective field theory operators consistent with basic quantum-mechanical principles in the complete energy reach of current and future colliders. Additionally, this scheme can be used preventively for any model, because it leaves theoretical predictions invariant, which already satisfies unitarity. The effective field theory approach is further extended by allowing additional generic resonances coupling to the Higgs/Goldstone boson sector, namely the isoscalar-scalar, isoscalar-tensor, isotensor-scalar and isotensor-tensor. In particular, the Stueckelberg formalism is used to investigate the impact of the tensor degree of

  12. S-Channel Dark Matter Simplified Models and Unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael

    The ultraviolet structure of $s$-channel mediator dark matter simplified models at hadron colliders is considered. In terms of commonly studied $s$-channel mediator simplified models it is argued that at arbitrarily high energies the perturbative description of dark matter production in high energy scattering at hadron colliders will break down in a number of cases. This is analogous to the well documented breakdown of an EFT description of dark matter collider production. With this in mind, to diagnose whether or not the use of simplified models at the LHC is valid, perturbative unitarity of the scattering amplitude in the processes relevant to LHC dark matter searches is studied. The results are as one would expect: at the LHC and future proton colliders the simplified model descriptions of dark matter production are in general valid. As a result of the general discussion, a simple new class of previously unconsidered `Fermiophobic Scalar' simplified models is proposed, in which a scalar mediator couples to...

  13. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  14. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Giddings

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  15. Constraints on the Kl3 form factors from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... lattice and t is the momentum transfer. Analogously we define the expansion for vector form factor. The purpose of this work is to obtain .... The model independence has a price: we only are able to predict bounds. Nev- ertheless, the precision of the input is already so large, that the bounds are stringent and.

  16. Restoring unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2005-01-01

    Whether or not a system is unitary can be seen from the way it, if perturbed, relaxes back to equilibrium. The relaxation of a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of a correlation function which exponentially decays with time. In the momentum space it is represented by an infinite set of complex poles to be identified with the quasinormal modes. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the relaxation in unitary theory in finite volume: the correlation function of the perturbation in this case is a quasiperiodic function of time and, in general, is expected to show the Poincare recurrences. In this paper I demonstrate how restore unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the simplest example of an eternal black hole in finite volume. I start with reviewing the relaxation in the semiclassical BTZ black hole and how this relaxation is mirrored in the boundary conformal field theory as suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. I analyze the sum over SL(2,Z) images of the BTZ space-time and suggest that it does not produce a quasiperiodic relaxation, as one might have hoped, but results in a correlation function which decays by power law. I develop an earlier suggestion and consider a nonsemiclassical deformation of the BTZ space-time that has the structure of a wormhole connecting two asymptotic regions semiclassically separated by a horizon. The small deformation parameter λ is supposed to have a nonperturbative origin to capture the finite N behavior of the boundary theory. The discrete spectrum of perturbation in the modified space-time is computed and is shown to determine the expected unitary behavior: the corresponding time evolution is quasiperiodic with a hierarchy of large time scales ln1/λ and 1/λ interpreted, respectively, as the Heisenberg and Poincare time scales in the system

  17. Non-Unitarity, sterile neutrinos, and Non-Standard neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2017-04-27

    The simplest Standard Model extension to explain neutrino masses involves the addition of right-handed neutrinos. At some level, this extension will impact neutrino oscillation searches. In this work we explore the differences and similarities between the case in which these neutrinos are kinematically accessible (sterile neutrinos) or not (mixing matrix non-unitarity). We clarify apparent inconsistencies in the present literature when using different parametrizations to describe these effects and recast both limits in the popular neutrino non-standard interaction (NSI) formal- ism. We find that, in the limit in which sterile oscillations are averaged out at the near detector, their effects at the far detector coincide with non-unitarity at leading order, even in presence of a matter potential. We also summarize the present bounds existing in both limits and compare them with the expected sensitivities of near-future facilities taking the DUNE proposal as a bench- mark. We conclude that non-unitarity effects ...

  18. Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-05

    We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.

  19. Operator quantization of dynamical systems with irreducible first- and second-class constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, I.A.; Fradkin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    An operator version is suggested of the generalized canonical quantization method of dynamical systems subjected to irreducible first- and second-class constraints. An operator analog of classical Dirac brackets is realized. Generating equations for the generalized algebra of first- and second-class constraints, as well as for the unitarizing hamiltonian are formulated. In the first-class constraint sector new generating equations are presented directly in terms of operator Dirac brackets. (orig.)

  20. Determination of the scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section and unitarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D; Johnson, P. W.; Warnock, R. L.

    When the differential cross-section for spin-zero elastic scattering is given, the elastic unitarity condition constitutes a nonlinear integral equation for the phase of the scattering amplitude. Existence and uniquences theorems for solutions of the equation were obtained by Newton and Martin. Some

  1. On the unitarity of string propagation on SU(1,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1989-12-01

    We discuss the consistency (unitarity) of string propagation on the non-compact group SU(1,1) x G c and find the restrictions on the level of the Kac-Moody algebra for this propagation to be unitary. We also suggest some modifications to the Virasoro generators and obtain a manifestly unitary string theory. (author). 10 refs

  2. Combined constraints on holographic bosonic technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of strong electroweak symmetry breaking in which the expectation value of an additional, possibly composite, scalar field is responsible for the generation of fermion masses. The dynamics of the strongly coupled sector is defined and studied via its holographic dual, and does not correspond to a simple, scaled-up version of QCD. We consider the bounds from perturbative unitarity, the S parameter, and the mass of the Higgs-like scalar. We show that the combination of these constraints leaves a relatively limited region of parameter space viable, and suggests the qualitative features of the model that might be probed at the LHC.

  3. Soft-group-manifold structure of supergravity, and the proof of unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry-Mieg, J.; Ne' eman, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The Soft Group Manifold (SGM) method of gauging a non-internal group is reviewed. Applications to three different versions of Extended Supergravity are presented. Then the geometric identification of the ghost fields and BRS equations, another aspect of the Group Manifold method, is summarized. The results are applied to Supergravity, and a completion of the proof of Unitarity of Sterman, Townsend, and Van Nieuwenhuizen is provided. 3 figures.

  4. Unitarity cuts and Reduction to master integrals in d dimensions for one-loop amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, C; Feng, B; Kunszt, Z; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Anastasiou, Charalampos; Britto, Ruth; Feng, Bo; Kunszt, Zoltan; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative reduction to master integrals for one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity cut method in arbitrary dimensions. We carry out the reduction in two steps. The first step is a pure four-dimensional cut-integration of tree amplitudes with a mass parameter, and the second step is applying dimensional shift identities to master integrals. This reduction is performed at the integrand level, so that coefficients can be read out algebraically.

  5. Nonviolent unitarization: basic postulates to soft quantum structure of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2017-12-01

    A first-principles approach to the unitarity problem for black holes is systematically explored, based on the postulates of 1) quantum mechanics 2) the ability to approximately locally divide quantum gravitational systems into subsystems 3) correspondence with quantum field theory predictions for appropriate observers and (optionally) 4) universality of new gravitational effects. Unitarity requires interactions between the internal state of a black hole and its surroundings that have not been identified in the field theory description; correspondence with field theory indicates that these are soft. A conjectured information-theoretic result for information transfer between subsystems, partly motivated by a perturbative argument, then constrains the minimum coupling size of these interactions of the quantum atmosphere of a black hole. While large couplings are potentially astronomically observable, given this conjecture one finds that the new couplings can be exponentially small in the black hole entropy, yet achieve the information transfer rate needed for unitarization, due to the large number of black hole internal states. This provides a new possible alternative to arguments for large effects near the horizon. If universality is assumed, these couplings can be described as small, soft, state-dependent fluctuations of the metric near the black hole. Open questions include that of the more fundamental basis for such an effective picture.

  6. The symmetric expressions for the open bosonic string amplitudes and one-loop unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro; Suzuki, Takashi (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics)

    1990-04-19

    We propose a unified propagator defined by the sum of the twisted and the untwisted propagators which are introduced in the BRST invariant operator formalism for the open bosonic string theory. We apply the propagator to evaluate N-point tree amplitudes and one-loop amplitudes. It is shown that the tree amplitudes are represented by the symmetric sum of all inequivalent amplitudes, and that the one-loop amplitudes which are uniquely derived as the sum of all inequivalent one-loop amplitudes satisfy unitarity. (orig.).

  7. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  8. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  9. Unitarity implications of diboson resonance in the TeV region for Higgs physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the implications of a putative new resonance in the TeV region coupled to the weak bosons. By studying perturbative unitarity in longitudinal WW scattering, we find that a weakly coupled spin-1 resonance, that explains the ATLAS diboson excesses, is allowed with a SM-like Higgs....... On the other hand, larger values of the resonance couplings, preferred in models of strong dynamics, would imply either sizeable reduction of the Higgs couplings or new physics, beyond the diboson resonance, at a few TeV....

  10. On long time unitarity restoring processes in the presence of eternal black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbón, José L F; 10.1002/prop.200410157

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the various scales determining the temporal behaviour of correlation functions in the presence of eternal black holes. We point out the origins of the failure of the semiclassical gravity approximation to respect a unitarity-based bound suggested by Maldacena. We find that the presence of a subleading (in the large-N approximation involved) master field does restore the compliance with one bound but additional configurations are needed to explain the more detailed expected time dependence of the Poincare recurrences and their magnitude.

  11. αs and |Vcs| determination, and CKM unitarity test, from W decays at NNLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David d'Enterria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic (ΓhadW and total (ΓtotW widths of the W boson, computed at least at next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO accuracy, are combined to derive a new precise prediction for the hadronic W branching ratio BhadW ≡ ΓhadW/ΓtotW=0.682±0.011par, using the experimental Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM matrix elements, with uncertainties dominated by the input parameters of the calculations, or BhadW=0.6742±0.0002th±0.0001par assuming CKM unitarity. Comparing the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements for various W decay observables, the NNLO strong coupling constant at the Z pole, αs(mZ2=0.117±0.042exp±0.004th±0.001par, as well as the charm-strange CKM element, |Vcs|=0.973±0.004exp±0.002par, can be extracted under different assumptions. We also show that W decays provide today the most precise test of CKM unitarity for the 5 quarks lighter than mW, ∑u,c,d,s,b|Vij|2=1.999±0.008exp±0.001th. Perspectives for αs and |Vcs| extractions from W decays measurements at the LHC and future e+e− colliders are presented.

  12. Unitarity of scattering and edge spin accumulation in a ballistic and quasiballistic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaetskii, Alexander; Sukhorukov, Eugene

    2011-03-01

    We consider a 2D ballistic structure with spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum. We calculated the edge spin density which appears in the presence of a charge current through the structure. Combined effect of the boundary scattering and spin precession leads to oscillations of the edge polarization. The problem is solved with the use of the method of scattering states. We clarified the important role of the unitarity of scattering for the problem of edge spin accumulation. For Rashba Hamiltonian, which is linear in momentum, and in the case of a straight boundary it leads to exact cancellation of long-wave oscillations of the spin density with a period order of spin precession length. However, this appears to be rather exceptional case. In general, the smooth spin oscillations recover, as it happens, e.g., for the wiggly boundary. For qubic Hamiltonian (2D holes) the unitarity scattering conditions are different, as a result, even in the case of a straight boundary the cancellation of the smooth oscillations in spin density does not occur. Similar problem is considered for the case when the sample size is large compared to the mean free path which in its turn is much larger than the spin precession length. For example, for the cubic Hamiltonian the ``edge'' contribution to the spin density can be larger than the ``bulk'' one which appears as a result of the spin flux from the bulk. This demands the reinterpretation of the experimental results.

  13. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  14. Constraints on the unitarity triangle angle gamma from Dalitz plot analysis of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Betti, F.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borgheresi, A.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Fazzini, D.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hongming, L.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hutchcroft, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Merli, A.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Nieswand, S.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rodrigues, B. Osorio; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Lopez, J. A. Rodriguez; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Rogozhnikov, A.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zheng, Y.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    The first study is presented of CP violation with an amplitude analysis of the Dalitz plot of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays, with D -> K+pi(-), K+K-, and pi(+)pi(-). The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector. No significant CP

  15. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle. Proceedings, workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 13-16, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2004-04-02

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters

  16. Two aspects of one loop structure: Unitarity delay in the Standard Model and modular invariance in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.

    1989-08-01

    We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} {yields} {ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}}. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Two aspects of one loop structure: Unitarity delay in the Standard Model and modular invariance in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, C.

    1989-08-01

    We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process e + e - → W + W - . In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs

  18. Unitarity restoring graviton radiation in the collapse regime of gravitational scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Colferai, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    We investigate graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at small impact parameters b b , so as to suggest a possible completion of the unitarity sum. In fact, such energy radiation at large distances turns out to compensate and to gradually reduce to nothing the amount of energy E' being trapped at small-b 's, by thus avoiding the quantum tunneling suppression of the elastic scattering and suggesting a unitary evolution. We finally look at the coherent radiation sample so obtained and we find that, by energy conservation, it develops an exponential frequency damping corresponding to a "quasitemperature" of order ℏ/R , which is naturally related to a Hawking radiation and is suggestive of a black-hole signal at quantum level.

  19. QED on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries: Unitarity versus covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilevich, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Some recent results show that the covariant path integral and the integral over physical degrees of freedom give contradicting results on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries. This looks like a conflict between unitarity and covariance. We argue that this effect is due to the use of non-covariant measure on the space of physical degrees of freedom. Starting with the reduced phase space path integral and using covariant measure throughout computations we recover standard path integral in the Lorentz gauge and the Moss and Poletti BRST-invariant boundary conditions. We also demonstrate by direct calculations that in the approach based on Gaussian path integral on the space of physical degrees of freedom some basic symmetries are broken. (author). 39 refs

  20. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R. Keith [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kunszt, Zoltan [Institute for Theoretical Physics (Switzerland); Melnikov, Kirill [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Zanderighi, Giulia [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  1. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  2. Q Value of the Superallowed Decay of 46V and Its Influence on Vud and the Unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, G.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J.K.P.; Clark, J.A.; Sharma, H.; Sharma, K.S.; Hardy, J.C.; Hecht, A.A.; Levand, A.F.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tanihata, I.; Villari, A.C.C.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The masses of the radioactive nuclei 46 V and its decay daughter 46 Ti have been measured with the Canadian Penning Trap on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer to a precision of 1x10 -8 . A Q EC value of 7052.90(40) keV for the superallowed beta decay of 46 V is obtained from the difference of these two masses. With this precise Q value, the Ft value for this decay is determined with improved precision. An investigation of an earlier Q-value measurement for 46 V uncovers a set of 7 measurements that cannot be reconciled with modern data and affects previous evaluations of V ud from superallowed Fermi decays. A new evaluation, adding our new data and removing the discredited subset, yields new values for G V and V ud . When combined with recent results for V us , this yields modified constraints for the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and other extensions of the standard model

  3. Combining experimental and cosmological constraints on heavy neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Drewes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study experimental and cosmological constraints on the extension of the Standard Model by three right handed neutrinos with masses between those of the pion and W boson. We combine for the first time direct, indirect and cosmological constraints in this mass range. This includes experimental constraints from neutrino oscillation data, neutrinoless double β decay, electroweak precision data, lepton universality, searches for rare lepton decays, tests of CKM unitarity and past direct searches at colliders or fixed target experiments. On the cosmological side, big bang nucleosynthesis has the most pronounced impact. Our results can be used to evaluate the discovery potential of searches for heavy neutrinos at LHCb, BELLE II, SHiP, ATLAS, CMS or a future lepton collider.

  4. Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations and unitarity of SU(2) and SU(1,1) squeeze operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    For squeeze operators, an alternative to the matrix derivations of Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff relations is presented for the groups SU(2) and SU(1,1). The technique involves the solution of a system of nonlinear, first-order differential equations. By this method, criteria for unitarity of the representations are established, and these apply to both infinite- and to finite-dimensional representations of these groups

  5. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  6. Self-unitarization of New Higgs Inflation and compatibility with Planck and BICEP2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano; Wintergerst, Nico [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Watanabe, Yuki, E-mail: cristiano.germani@lmu.de, E-mail: watanabe@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: nico.wintergerst@physik.lmu.de [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we show that the Germani-Kehagias model of Higgs inflation (or New Higgs Inflation), where the Higgs boson is kinetically non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor is in perfect compatibility with the latest Planck and BICEP2 data. Moreover, we show that the tension between the Planck and BICEP2 data can be relieved within the New Higgs inflation scenario by a negative running of the spectral index. Regarding the unitarity of the model, we argue that it is unitary throughout the evolution of the Universe. Weak couplings in the Higgs-Higgs and Higgs-graviton sectors are provided by a large background dependent cut-off scale during inflation. In the same regime, the W and Z gauge bosons acquire a very large mass, thus decouple. On the other hand, if they are also non-minimally coupled to the Higgs boson, their effective masses can be enormously reduced. In this case, the W and Z bosons are no longer decoupled. After inflation, the New Higgs model is well approximated by a quartic Galileon with a renormalizable potential. We argue that this can unitarily create the right conditions for inflation to eventually start.

  7. Higgs Spin Determination and Unitarity of Vector-boson Scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Jessica

    After the discovery of a new particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is crucial to definitely verify or disprove whether this new 125 − 126 GeV resonance is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM). Thus, its features, including its spin, have to be determined. In order to distinguish the two most likely spin hypotheses, spin-0 or spin-2, the phenomenology of light spin-2 resonances produced in different gluon-fusion and vectorboson-fusion processes at the LHC is studied. Starting from an effective model for the interaction of a spin-2 particle with SM gauge bosons, cross sections and differential distributions are calculated within the Monte Carlo program Vbfnlo. Whereas with specific model parameters, such a spin-2 resonance can mimic rates and transverse-momentum distributions of a SM Higgs boson in the main decay channels γγ, WW and ZZ, several distributions allow to separate spin-2 from spin-0, almost independently of model parameters. Since the SM Higgs boson ensures the unitarity of the S...

  8. Multi-Higgs doublet models: physical parametrization, sum rules and unitarity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Miguel P.; Haber, Howard E.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, João P.

    2017-11-01

    If the scalar sector of the Standard Model is non-minimal, one might expect multiple generations of the hypercharge-1/2 scalar doublet analogous to the generational structure of the fermions. In this work, we examine the structure of a Higgs sector consisting of N Higgs doublets (where N ≥ 2). It is particularly convenient to work in the so-called charged Higgs basis, in which the neutral Higgs vacuum expectation value resides entirely in the first Higgs doublet, and the charged components of remaining N - 1 Higgs doublets are mass-eigenstate fields. We elucidate the interactions of the gauge bosons with the physical Higgs scalars and the Goldstone bosons and show that they are determined by an N × 2 N matrix. This matrix depends on ( N - 1)(2 N - 1) real parameters that are associated with the mixing of the neutral Higgs fields in the charged Higgs basis. Among these parameters, N - 1 are unphysical (and can be removed by rephasing the physical charged Higgs fields), and the remaining 2( N - 1)2 parameters are physical. We also demonstrate a particularly simple form for the cubic interaction and some of the quartic interactions of the Goldstone bosons with the physical Higgs scalars. These results are applied in the derivation of Higgs coupling sum rules and tree-level unitarity bounds that restrict the size of the quartic scalar couplings. In particular, new applications to three Higgs doublet models with an order-4 CP symmetry and with a Z_3 symmetry, respectively, are presented.

  9. Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu–Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, η, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, η/s, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to η. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering 1↔2 processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, T≲0.1T F , we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for η/s can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law. -- Highlights: •We study the contribution of phonons to shear viscosity of a cold Fermi gas at unitary. •The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) is reproduced for T F . •For very low temperatures η/s correlates with the size of the optical trap. •We explain η/s for T>∼0.1T F assuming an anomalous dispersion law for phonons

  10. The measurements of angle γ of the unitarity triangle with the BaBar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, D.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis, we present studies of the B mesons system performed using the full dataset collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II collider at SLAC. The first analysis presented here is the search of the rare V ub mediated decays B + → D + K *0 . The experimental analysis is performed looking at several D + decay modes. No signals have been found and upper limits have been set to be: Br(B + → D + K 0 ) -6 at 90% prob.; Br(B + → D + K *0 ) -6 at 90% prob. In the second part we present the CP violation studies in the B-meson system, and in particular the measurements of the γ angle of the unitarity triangle. The γ angle is the relative weak phase between the V ub and V cb elements of the CKM matrix. We present and describe the analysis using the charged B meson decays: B + → D 0 K + . These decays are studied through the ADS method, where the neutral D mesons are reconstructed into Kππ 0 final states. Combining this analysis with a similar one that used Kπ as a D 0 final state, we have obtained the following values: ratio r(DK) 0.083+0.028-0.043; γ angle = (86+51-45) degrees. If the results of this thesis are used in the full system of the B → DK and B → DK * decay amplitudes, other interesting results can be obtained. The error on the ratio r(DK * ) for the charged B decays is improved by a factor 3 resulting in r(DK * ) = (0.08 ± 0.03). The ration between the V ub mediated annihilation (A) and the color suppressed (C) amplitudes is obtained to be A/C 0 ) for neutral B decays is found to be (0.27 ± 0.09)

  11. Study of 14O as a test of the unitarity of the CKM matrix and the CVC hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Jason Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The study of superallowed beta decay in nuclei, in conjunction with other experiments, provide a test of the unitarity of the quark mixing matrix or CKM matrix. Nonunitarity of the CKM matrix could imply the existence of a fourth generation of quarks, right handed currents in the weak interaction, and/or new exotic fermions. Advances in radioactive beam techniques allow the creation of nearly pure samples of nuclei for beta decay studies. The subject of this thesis is the development of a radioactive beam of 14O and the study of the 14O halflife and branching ratio. The radioactive beam is produced by ionizing 12C14O radioactive gas and then accelerating with an ECR ion source. The 14O nucleus decays via superallowed beta decay with a branching ratio > 99 percent. The low Z of 14O is important for calculating reliable corrections to the beta decay that generally increase in with Z. The > 99 percent branching ratio can be established with modest precision on the complementary branching ratio.When this work began the experimentally determined CKM matrix was nonunitary by 2.5 standard deviations. Recent studies of Kaon, Hyperon, and B meson decays have been used to determine Vus and Vub matrix elements. In this work the halflife and branching ratio of 14O are measured and used to establish Vud. The unitarity of the CKM matrix is then assessed. The halflife of 14O was determined to be 70.683 +- 0.015 s and the GamowTeller branching ratio was found to be 0.643 +- 0.020 percent. Using these results the value of Vud is 0.9738 +- 0.0005. Incorporating the new values for Vus of 0.2272 +- 0.0030 and Vub of 0.0035 +- 0.0015 the squared sum of the first row of the CKM matrix is 0.9999 +- 0.0017 which is consistent with unitarity

  12. Light scalar and vector mesons in the large N{sub c} limit from unitarized chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. Fisica Teorica II

    2005-07-01

    We review the large N{sub c} behavior of light scalar and vector resonances generated from unitarized meson-meson scattering amplitudes at one loop in Chiral Perturbation Theory. The vectors nicely follow the behavior expected for qq-bar states, whereas scalar mesons do not. This suggests that the main component of light scalars is not q-barq. We also comment on t-channel vector exchange as well as on the large N{sub c} behavior of the mass splittings between the vectors generated from the inverse amplitude method. (author)

  13. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0008098 [The Seventh International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Alan

    2014-12-02

    The Seventh International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (http://ckm2012.uc.edu/) was held at the University of Cincinnati September 28-October 2, 2012. This workshop series is one of the leading meetings in the field of quark flavor physics. The Cincinnati workshop provided a venue for theorists and experimentalists to discuss the latest results and to develop new ideas for improved analyses. The most recent measurements from current experiments as well as the status of future experiments were discussed. On the theoretical side, progress in lattice QCD and other calculational techniques that allow more precise determinations of CKM matrix elements were presented.

  14. (Beta)-decay experiments and the unitarity of the CKM matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, P E

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform very precise measurements of super-allowed Fermi β decay in order to investigate a possible non-unitarity in the CKM matrix of the Standard Model of particle physics. Current data from 9 precisely measured β decays indicated that the sum-of-squares of the first row of the CKM matrix differs from 1.0 at the 2.2σ (or 98% confidence) level. If true, it would be the first firm indication of physics beyond the Standard Model--the model that has been the backbone of the worldwide physics community for more than 30 years. The physics goal of the project was to test and constrain the calculated correction factors that must be applied to the experimental data by performing measurements at the TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facility ISAC. Accurate and precise (precision goal >99.9%) half lives and decay branching ratios were measured for nuclei where different sets of calculated corrections give divergent results thereby allowing us to determine which theory, if any, gives the correct result. The LLNL contribution was to design and build the data acquisition system that will enable the experiments, and to provide theoretical calculations necessary for the interpretation of the results. The first planned measurement was 34 Ar, to be followed by 62 Ga and 74 Rb. However, there were major problems in creating a suitable, intense beam of radioactive 34 Ar. The collaboration decided to proceed with measurements on 62 Ga and 18 Ne. These experiments were performed in a series of measurements in the summer and fall of 2004. The LLNL team also is leading the effort to perform measurements on 66 As and 70 Br that are expected during 2006-2008. While the definitive experiments to meet the goals of the LDRD were not conducted during the funding period, the involvement in the radioactive program at TRIUMF has lead to a number of new initiatives, and has attracted new staff to LLNL. This LDRD has laid the foundation for involvement in one of the

  15. The constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    There are considerable incentives for the use of nuclear in preference to other sources for base load electricity generation in most of the developed world. These are economic, strategic, environmental and climatic. However, there are two potential constraints which could hinder the development of nuclear power to its full economic potential. These are public opinion and financial regulations which distort the nuclear economic advantage. The concerns of the anti-nuclear lobby are over safety, (especially following the Chernobyl accident), the management of radioactive waste, the potential effects of large scale exposure of the population to radiation and weapons proliferation. These are discussed. The financial constraint is over two factors, the availability of funds and the perception of cost, both of which are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Apparent unitarity violation in high mass region of MbW from a “hidden” top partner at high energy colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perturbative unitarity conditions have been playing an important role in estimating the energy scale of new physics, including the Higgs mass as the most important example. In this letter, we show that there is a possibility to see the hint of a new physics (top quark partner indirectly by observing an “apparent” unitarity violation in the distribution of invariant mass of b-jet and W-boson (Mbw well above the mass of a top quark in a process of a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of top quarks.

  17. Experimental Constraints on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, S

    2000-01-01

    The LEP investigation of the Bd and Bs oscillations and of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |Vub| improve the constraints on the other elements of this matrix. From a fit to the experim ental data and the theory calculations it is possible to determine the vertex of the unitarity triangle as: rho =0.155 -0.105} +0.115 eta =0.383 -0.060 +0.063. The corresponding values of its angl es, in their customary definition in terms of sines for alpha and beta, are: sin(2 alpha) = 0.08 -0.50 +0.43 sin(2 beta) = 0.75 +/- 0.10 gamma = 68 +/- 15o The fit also yields indirect information on the compatibility with zero of the CP violating phase of the matrix, on some non-perturbative QCD parameters and on the Bs oscillation frequency.

  18. Ground-State Thermodynamic Quantities of Homogeneous Spin-1 /2 Fermions from the BCS Region to the Unitarity Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Munekazu; Koashi, Masato; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Yoji; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of physical properties of fermions in the unitary regime, where the s -wave scattering length in the collisional channel of particles is longer than both the interparticle distance and the size of the interaction potential, is a crucial issue for electron systems of high-temperature superconductivity, dilute nucleons in nuclei, and neutron stars. We experimentally determine various thermodynamic quantities of interacting two-component fermions at the zero-temperature limit from the BCS region to the unitarity limit. The obtained results are very accurate in the sense that the systematic error is within 4% in the unitary regime. Using this advantage, we can compare our data with various many-body theories. We find that an extended T -matrix approximation, which is a strong-coupling theory involving fluctuations in the Cooper channel, well reproduces our experimental results. We also find that the superfluid order parameter Δ calculated by solving the ordinary BCS gap equation with the chemical potential of interacting fermions is close to the binding energy of the paired fermions directly observed in a spectroscopic experiment and that obtained using a quantum Monte Carlo method.

  19. Ground-State Thermodynamic Quantities of Homogeneous Spin-1/2 Fermions from the BCS Region to the Unitarity Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munekazu Horikoshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of physical properties of fermions in the unitary regime, where the s-wave scattering length in the collisional channel of particles is longer than both the interparticle distance and the size of the interaction potential, is a crucial issue for electron systems of high-temperature superconductivity, dilute nucleons in nuclei, and neutron stars. We experimentally determine various thermodynamic quantities of interacting two-component fermions at the zero-temperature limit from the BCS region to the unitarity limit. The obtained results are very accurate in the sense that the systematic error is within 4% in the unitary regime. Using this advantage, we can compare our data with various many-body theories. We find that an extended T-matrix approximation, which is a strong-coupling theory involving fluctuations in the Cooper channel, well reproduces our experimental results. We also find that the superfluid order parameter Δ calculated by solving the ordinary BCS gap equation with the chemical potential of interacting fermions is close to the binding energy of the paired fermions directly observed in a spectroscopic experiment and that obtained using a quantum Monte Carlo method.

  20. Study of open-charm 0^+ states in unitarized chiral effective theory with one-loop potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meng-Lin; Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Yao, De-Liang

    2017-11-01

    Chiral potentials are derived for the interactions between Goldstone bosons and pseudo-scalar charmed mesons up to next-to-next-to-leading order in a covariant chiral effective field theory with explicit vector charmed-meson degrees of freedom. Using the extended-on-mass-shell scheme, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet divergences and the so-called power counting breaking terms can be properly absorbed by the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangians. We calculate the scattering lengths by unitarizing the one-loop potentials and fit them to the data extracted from lattice QCD. The obtained results are compared to the ones without an explicit contribution of vector charmed mesons given previously. It is found that the difference is negligible for S-wave scattering in the threshold region. This validates the use of D^*-less one-loop potentials in the study of the pertinent scattering lengths. We search for dynamically generated open-charm states with J^P=0^+ as poles of the S-matrix on various Riemann sheets. The trajectories of those poles for varying pion masses are presented as well.

  1. Study of open-charm 0{sup +} states in unitarized chiral effective theory with one-loop potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Meng-Lin [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Yao, De-Liang [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Centro mixto CSIC-UV), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    Chiral potentials are derived for the interactions between Goldstone bosons and pseudo-scalar charmed mesons up to next-to-next-to-leading order in a covariant chiral effective field theory with explicit vector charmed-meson degrees of freedom. Using the extended-on-mass-shell scheme, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet divergences and the so-called power counting breaking terms can be properly absorbed by the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangians. We calculate the scattering lengths by unitarizing the one-loop potentials and fit them to the data extracted from lattice QCD. The obtained results are compared to the ones without an explicit contribution of vector charmed mesons given previously. It is found that the difference is negligible for S-wave scattering in the threshold region. This validates the use of D*-less one-loop potentials in the study of the pertinent scattering lengths. We search for dynamically generated open-charm states with J{sup P} = 0{sup +} as poles of the S-matrix on various Riemann sheets. The trajectories of those poles for varying pion masses are presented as well. (orig.)

  2. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  3. Problems with a simple-minded cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Cluster model approximation for the resolvent operator can reduce many-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations to an efective two-body equation. It is shown that such approximation may suppress mathematical mechanisms for rearrangement processes. This leads then to highly reduced wave functions and weak effective intercluster potentials. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  5. Constraints meet concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the benefits that emerge when the fields of constraint programming and concurrency meet. On the one hand, constraints can be used in concurrency theory to increase the conciseness and the expressive power of concurrent languages from a pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, problems modeled by using constraints can be solved faster and more efficiently using a concurrent system. Both directions are explored providing two separate lines of development. Firstly the expressive power of a concurrent language is studied, namely Constraint Handling Rules, that supports constraints as a primitive construct. The features of this language which make it Turing powerful are shown. Then a framework is proposed to solve constraint problems that is intended to be deployed on a concurrent system. For the development of this framework the concurrent language Jolie following the Service Oriented paradigm is used. Based on this experience, an extension to Service Oriented Languages is also proposed in ...

  6. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    constraint propagation techniques, see Bessière (2006). 3.1.3 Depth-First Search Depth-first search (also called backtracking search) is a trial-and...any constraints, the algorithm backtracks by unassigning the most recent variable binding and reassigning the variable to a different value. If all...to a solution, so choosing the value that is least likely to cause a constraint violation reduces the chance that it will be necessary to backtrack

  7. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  8. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  9. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  10. Credit Constraints in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  11. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  12. Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Miller, Warner A.; Kheyfets, Arkady

    We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamical equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approaches leads to the well known problems of time evolution. These problems of time are of both an interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamical variables separates the issues of quantization from the enforcement of the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account states that are off-shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. We develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context of homogeneous cosmologies.

  13. Study of 14O as a test of the unitarity of the CKM matrix and the CVC hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Jason Timothy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The study of superallowed beta decay in nuclei, in conjunction with other experiments, provide a test of the unitarity of the quark mixing matrix or CKM matrix. Nonunitarity of the CKM matrix could imply the existence of a fourth generation of quarks, right handed currents in the weak interaction, and/or new exotic fermions. Advances in radioactive beam techniques allow the creation of nearly pure samples of nuclei for beta decay studies. The subject of this thesis is the development of a radioactive beam of 14O and the study of the 14O halflife and branching ratio. The radioactive beam is produced by ionizing 12C14O radioactive gas and then accelerating with an ECR ion source. The 14O nucleus decays via superallowed beta decay with a branching ratio > 99 percent. The low Z of 14O is important for calculating reliable corrections to the beta decay that generally increase in with Z. The > 99 percent branching ratio can be established with modest precision on the complementary branching ratio.When this work began the experimentally determined CKM matrix was nonunitary by 2.5 standard deviations. Recent studies of Kaon, Hyperon, and B meson decays have been used to determine Vus and Vub matrix elements. In this work the halflife and branching ratio of 14O are measured and used to establish Vud. The unitarity of the CKM matrix is then assessed. The halflife of 14O was determined to be 70.683 ± 0.015 s and the GamowTeller branching ratio was found to be 0.643 ± 0.020 percent. Using these results the value of Vud is 0.9738 ± 0.0005. Incorporating the new values for Vus of 0.2272 ± 0.0030 and Vub of 0.0035 ± 0.0015 the squared sum of the first row of the CKM matrix is 0.9999 ± 0.0017 which is consistent with unitarity.

  14. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  15. A Study of B0 to rho+rho- Decays and Constraints on theCKM Angle alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2007-05-16

    The authors present results from an analysis of B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup -} decays using (383.6 {+-} 4.2) x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. The measurements of the B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup -} branching fraction, longitudinal polarization fraction f{sub L}, and the CP-violating parameters S{sub long} and C{sub long} are: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup -}) = (25.5 {+-} 2.1(stat){sub -3.9}{sup +3.6}(syst)) x 10{sup -6}, f{sub L} = 0.992 {+-} 0.024(stat){sub -0.013}{sup +0.026}(syst), S{sub long} = -0.17 {+-} 0.20(stat){sub -0.06}{sup +0.05}(syst), C{sub long} = 0.01 {+-} 0.15(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst). The authors determine the unitarity triangle angle {alpha}, using an isospin analysis of B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays. One of the two solutions, {alpha} = [73.1, 117.0]{sup o} at 68% CL is compatible with standard model-based fits of existing data. Constraints on the unitarity triangle are also evaluated using an SU(3) symmetry based approach.

  16. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  17. Dynamics and causality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Manoelito M. de

    2001-04-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  18. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  19. Misconceptions and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, M.; Mahon, R.

    2005-01-01

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  20. Occupational dose constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    The revision process of the international radiological protection regulations has resulted in the adoption of new concepts, such as practice, intervention, avoidable and restriction of dose (dose constraint). The latter deserving of special mention since it may involve reducing a priori of the dose limits established both for the public and to individuals occupationally exposed, values that can be further reduced, depending on the application of the principle of optimization. This article aims to present, with clarity, from the criteria adopted to define dose constraint values to the public, a methodology to establish the dose constraint values for occupationally exposed individuals, as well as an example of the application of this methodology to the practice of industrial radiography

  1. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  2. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  3. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972 ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  5. Constraints on Dbar uplifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwis, S.P. de

    2016-01-01

    We discuss constraints on KKLT/KKLMMT and LVS scenarios that use anti-branes to get an uplift to a deSitter vacuum, coming from requiring the validity of an effective field theory description of the physics. We find these are not always satisfied or are hard to satisfy.

  6. A constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangians subjected to nonholonomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, M. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); de Diego, D.M. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    We construct a constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangian systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints which generalizes that of Dirac for constrained Hamiltonian systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Constraints on γ and strong phases from B → πK decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Fleischer, Robert

    2001-01-01

    As we pointed out recently, the neutral decays B d → π - + K± and B d → π 0 K may provide non-trivial bounds on the CKM angle γ. Here we reconsider this approach in the light of recent CLEO data, which look very interesting. In particular, the results for the corresponding CP-averaged branching ratios are in favour of strong constraints on γ, where the second quadrant is preferred. Such a situation would be in conflict with the standard analysis of the unitarity triangle. Moreover, constraints on a CO-conserving strong phase δ n are in favour of a negative value of cosδ n , which would be in conflict with the factorization expectation. In addition, there seems to be an interesting discrepancy with the bounds that are implied by the charged B → πK system: whereas these decays favour a range for γ that is similar to that of the neutral modes, they point towards a positive value of cosδ c , which would be in conflict with the expectation of equal signs for cosδ n and cosδ c . (author)

  8. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  9. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough

  10. Searching for genomic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lio', P.; Ruffo, S.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  11. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  12. Solving Sudoku with Constraint Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Castro, Carlos; Monfroy, Eric

    Constraint Programming (CP) is a powerful paradigm for modeling and solving Complex Combinatorial Problems (generally issued from Decision Making). In this work, we model the known Sudoku puzzle as a Constraint Satisfaction Problems and solve it with CP comparing the performance of different Variable and Value Selection Heuristics in its Enumeration phase. We encourage this kind of benchmark problem because it may suggest new techniques in constraint modeling and solving of complex systems, or aid the understanding of its main advantages and limits.

  13. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  14. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...... of knowledge. The language of Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, is suggested for defining constraint solvers that reflect “world knowledge” for the given domain, and driver algorithms may be ex- pressed in Prolog or additional rules of CHR. It is argued that this way of doing context comprehension is an instance...

  15. Constraint rescaling in refined algebraic quantisation: Momentum constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louko, Jorma; Martinez-Pascual, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate refined algebraic quantisation within a family of classically equivalent constrained Hamiltonian systems that are related to each other by rescaling a momentum-type constraint. The quantum constraint is implemented by a rigging map that is motivated by group averaging but has a resolution finer than what can be peeled off from the formally divergent contributions to the averaging integral. Three cases emerge, depending on the asymptotics of the rescaling function: (i) quantisation is equivalent to that with identity scaling; (ii) quantisation fails, owing to nonexistence of self-adjoint extensions of the constraint operator; (iii) a quantisation ambiguity arises from the self-adjoint extension of the constraint operator, and the resolution of this purely quantum mechanical ambiguity determines the superselection structure of the physical Hilbert space. Prospects of generalising the analysis to systems with several constraints are discussed.

  16. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  17. Constraints on WIMP masses and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that cosmology, experiments and unitarity considerations limit the mass and coupling g' of a generic, heavy WIMP from the above as well as from the below. There are absolute lower limits of 4x10 -5 g and 6x10 -5 g for the couplings of Diracn and Majorana WIMPs, respectively. In U(1)' models cosmology implies an upper limit of about 1 TeV on the Z' and on the WIMP masses, but only in the absence of Z-Z' mixing. (orig.)

  18. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  19. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  20. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  1. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  2. Conservation constraints on random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wen Jong; Hsieh, J

    2003-01-01

    We study the random matrices constrained by the summation rules that are present in the Hessian of the potential energy surface in the instantaneous normal mode calculations, as a result of momentum conservation. In this paper, we analyse the properties related to such conservation constraints in two classes of real symmetric matrices: one with purely row-wise summation rules and the other with the constraints on the blocks of each matrix, which underscores partially the spatial dimension. We show explicitly that the constraints are removable by separating the degrees of freedom of the zero-eigenvalue modes. The non-spectral degrees of freedom under the constraints can be realized in terms of the ordinary constraint-free orthogonal symmetry but with the rank deducted by the block dimension. We propose that the ensemble of real symmetric matrices with full randomness, constrained by the summation rules, is equivalent to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) with lowered rank. Independent of the joint probabil...

  3. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  4. CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING AND UNIVERSITY TIMETABLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  5. Analysis of optical flow constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1995-01-01

    Different constraint equations have been proposed in the literature for the derivation of optical flow. Despite of the large number of papers dealing with computational techniques to estimate optical flow, only a few authors have investigated conditions under which these constraints exactly model the velocity field, that is, the perspective projection on the image plane of the true 3-D velocity. These conditions are analyzed under different hypotheses, and the departures of the constraint equations in modeling the velocity field are derived for different motion conditions. Experiments are also presented giving measures of these departures and of the induced errors in the estimation of the velocity field.

  6. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  7. Machine tongues. X. Constraint languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, D.

    Constraint languages and programming environments will help the designer produce a lucid description of a problem domain, and then of particular situations and problems in it. Early versions of these languages were given descriptions of real world domain constraints, like the operation of electrical and mechanical parts. More recently, the author has automated a vocabulary for describing musical jazz phrases, using constraint language as a jazz improviser. General constraint languages will handle all of these domains. Once the model is in place, the system will connect built-in code fragments and algorithms to answer questions about situations; that is, to help solve problems. Bugs will surface not in code, but in designs themselves. 15 references.

  8. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate cross- disciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  9. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here...... and sub-concepts, including ‘late’, ‘self-imposed’, and ‘continua of creativity constraints’, to inform future cross-disciplinary work on creativity constraints....

  10. PROPAGATION-BASED CONSTRAINT SOLVER IN IMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ol. Blynov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Article compiling the main ideas of creating propagation-based constraint solver, theoretical basis of constraint programming and its implementation in IMS (Insertion Modeling System

  11. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  12. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  13. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  14. Aggregating energy flexibilities under constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Abello, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of individual energy prosumers (producers and/or consumers) has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Aggregation of such flexibilities provides prosumers with the opportunity to directly participate in the energy market and at the same time reduces the complexity of scheduling...... and amount dimensions. We define the problem of aggregating FOs taking into account grid power constraints. We also propose two constraint-based aggregation techniques that efficiently aggregate FOs while retaining flexibility. We show through a comprehensive evaluation that our techniques, in contrast...

  15. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  16. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  17. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  18. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint....... This problem is called halfspace range searching in the computational geometry literature. Our goal is to minimize the number of disk blocks required to store the data structure and the number of disk accesses (I/Os) required to answer a query. For d=2, we present the first data structure that uses linear...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear...

  19. Constraints to increased sludge utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.E.; Bory, L.D.

    1979-01-01

    The management and disposition of municipal sewage sludge is a growing problem as secondary treatment plants are completed to meet Clean Water Act standards. The prohibition of ocean dumping, the increased cost and difficulty to secure and operate sludge landfills, and the high energy costs of dewatering and incineration should all contribute to an increase in land application. However, land application and other beneficial use alternatives, such as give away/sale, account for only 20% of the 12 m/day tons of sludge produced nationally. This result can in part be attributed to public health, institutional, and legal constraints on implementing land application systems. Public health constraints include contaminants in sludge which may pose a risk to human health. Much current controversy about the safety of applying sludge to agricultural land on which food chain crops are grown focuses on heavy metals, especially cadmium. But proposed federal and state regulation of cadmium concentrations in sludge, at levels where human health risk has not been demonstrated, may limit utilization by land application. State operating rules and other administrative controls over sludge application are among the institutional constraints. Since land is an essential element in a land application system, securing adequate and suitable land involves legal constraints. Involuntary acquisition and zoning procedures can delay and frustrate land application programs. Securing indemnity insurance for possible damage to land to which sludge is applied has also been an obstacle to implementation of utilization programs

  20. Financial Constraints: Explaining Your Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jennifer

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educating library patrons about the library's finances and the impact of budget constraints and the escalating cost of serials on materials acquisition. Steps that can be taken in educating patrons by interpreting and publicizing financial information are suggested. (MES)

  1. Observational constraints on cluster evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current observational constraints on the dynamical evolution of star clusters are reviewed. Theory and observations now agree nicely on the mass dependency and time scales for disruption of young star clusters in galactic disks, but many problems still await resolution. The origin of the mass

  2. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......, the influence of the constraints generated by these constraint generators decreased during the design process except for supplier-generated constraints, which increased in the final stages of the design process. The paper argues that a thorough design preparation phase would be beneficial, and that constraints...

  3. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable...... and ownership of formal constraints played a crucial role in defining their influence on creativity – along with the tacit constraints held by the designers. The designers were found to be highly constraint focused, and four main creative strategies for constraint manipulation were observed: blackboxing...

  4. Measurements of direct CP violation and constraints on the CKM triangle in B → K*π decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Andrew Phillips [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We constrain the apex of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle with measurements of B → K*π amplitudes from analyses of B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays. This constraint is consistent with the world average. The B0 → K+π-π0 decay mode is reconstructed from a sample of 454 million B0$\\bar{B}$ 0 events collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure direct CP violation in B0 → K*+π- decays at the level of 3σ when measurements from both B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays are combined.

  5. BFFT quantization with nonlinear constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Caixa Postal 68528 (Brazil)

    1997-02-01

    We consider the method due to Batalin, Fradkin, Fradkina, and Tyutin (BFFT) that makes the conversion of second-class constraints into first-class ones for the case of nonlinear theories. We first present a general analysis of an attempt to simplify the method, showing the conditions that must be satisfied in order to have first-class constraints for nonlinear theories that are linear in the auxiliary variables. There are cases where this simplification cannot be done and the full BFFT method has to be used. However, in the way the method is formulated, we show with details that it is not practicable to be done. Finally, we speculate on a solution for these problems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: clare.burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: jeremy.sakstein@port.ac.uk [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  7. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f ( R ) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  8. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    and high concept awareness characterizing the humanities’ general mode of inquiry; (b) expertise in formulating new ‘big’ exploratory and unifying questions, which are waning in creativity research; and (c) greater versatility in the use of empirical data material, since the analytical, speculative...... increasingly fragmented and in need of new ‘big’ unifying questions. Hence the designation of the dissertation’s research approach. The four papers serve a dual purpose. They are contributions in their own right, and they provide partial answers to the overall research question. In this respect, the concept...... of the current dispersed studies on constraints in creativity, spanning psychology, engineering, philosophy, design, and aesthetics. (2) Definitions, concepts, and models of self-imposed creativity constraints for analytical application within and across creative domains, including the 6i model for demonstrating...

  9. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  10. Profit Taxation and Finance Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of financing frictions, profit taxes reduce investment by their effect on the user cost of capital. With finance constraints due to moral hazard, investment becomes sensitive to cash-flow and own equity of firms. The impact of taxes changes fundamentally. Taxes reduce investment because they erode cash flow and, thereby, a firm's pledgeable income available for repayment to outside investors, and not because they reduce the user cost of capital. We propose a corporate finance m...

  11. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  12. Analysis of Space Tourism Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnal, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Space tourism appears today as a new Eldorado in a relatively near future. Private operators are already proposing services for leisure trips in Low Earth Orbit, and some happy few even tested them. But are these exceptional events really marking the dawn of a new space age ? The constraints associated to the space tourism are severe : - the economical balance of space tourism is tricky; development costs of large manned - the technical definition of such large vehicles is challenging, mainly when considering - the physiological aptitude of passengers will have a major impact on the mission - the orbital environment will also lead to mission constraints on aspects such as radiation, However, these constraints never appear as show-stoppers and have to be dealt with pragmatically: - what are the recommendations one can make for future research in the field of space - which typical roadmap shall one consider to develop realistically this new market ? - what are the synergies with the conventional missions and with the existing infrastructure, - how can a phased development start soon ? The paper proposes hints aiming at improving the credibility of Space Tourism and describes the orientations to follow in order to solve the major hurdles found in such an exciting development.

  13. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  14. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values of the variable domains...

  15. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  16. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  17. Constraints and Strategies for Improving Agricultural Intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty was the major constraint perceived by farmers (mean = 3.89), while facilitators perceived both high cost of farm inputs and lack of credit facilities as the most serious constraint (mean = 3.38 each). Both farmers and facilitators shared similar opinion on twenty identified constraints and have significant differences in ...

  18. Elimination of Constraints from Feature Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Galvao, I.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an algorithm which eliminates constraints from a feature model whose feature diagram is a tree and whose constraints are "requires" or "excludes" constraints. The algorithm constructs a feature tree which has the same semantics as the original feature model. The computational complexity

  19. Learning and Parallelization Boost Constraint Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a powerful way to abstract and represent academic and real-world problems from both artificial intelligence and operations research. A constraint satisfaction problem is typically addressed by a sequential constraint solver running on a single processor. Rather than construct a new, parallel solver, this work…

  20. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable......, removal, introducing and revising. Constraints introduced late in a project contributed to the generation of new solutions to old problems, and existing solutions were creatively adopted to satisfy new constraints. This paper recommends creative constraint-handling strategies, as well as identifying...

  1. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available with an attribute) changes and the scheduled attribute of occupation becomes active. CASE A is not just a byproduct of inheritance because the values of the attributes change as object migration takes place. Employee Manager access access eID eID DEX ADEX HIVpos... certain value, he is moved to a higher class of tax remittance. 4.3 Logical Implications Logical implications are important to derive new constraints from a set of defined ax- ioms. Given the set of axioms for attribute migration and the set of axioms...

  2. Weight Constraints in Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hebbian plasticity precisely describes how synapses increase their synaptic strengths according to the correlated activities between two neurons; however, it fails to explain how these activities dilute the strength of the same synapses. Recent literature has proposed spike-timing-dependent plasticity and short-term plasticity on multiple dynamic stochastic synapses that can control synaptic excitation and remove many user-defined constraints. Under this hypothesis, a network model was implemented giving more computational power to receptors, and the behavior at a synapse was defined by the collective dynamic activities of stochastic receptors. An experiment was conducted to analyze can spike-timing-dependent plasticity interplay with short-term plasticity to balance the excitation of the Hebbian neurons without weight constraints? If so what underline mechanisms help neurons to maintain such excitation in computational environment? According to our results both plasticity mechanisms work together to balance the excitation of the neural network as our neurons stabilized its weights for Poisson inputs with mean firing rates from 10 Hz to 40 Hz. The behavior generated by the two neurons was similar to the behavior discussed under synaptic redistribution, so that synaptic weights were stabilized while there was a continuous increase of presynaptic probability of release and higher turnover rate of postsynaptic receptors.

  3. Constraint percolation on hyperbolic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge H.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Hyperbolic lattices interpolate between finite-dimensional lattices and Bethe lattices, and they are interesting in their own right, with ordinary percolation exhibiting not one but two phase transitions. We study four constraint percolation models—k -core percolation (for k =1 ,2 ,3 ) and force-balance percolation—on several tessellations of the hyperbolic plane. By comparing these four different models, our numerical data suggest that all of the k -core models, even for k =3 , exhibit behavior similar to ordinary percolation, while the force-balance percolation transition is discontinuous. We also provide proof, for some hyperbolic lattices, of the existence of a critical probability that is less than unity for the force-balance model, so that we can place our interpretation of the numerical data for this model on a more rigorous footing. Finally, we discuss improved numerical methods for determining the two critical probabilities on the hyperbolic lattice for the k -core percolation models.

  4. Metric approach to quantum constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T

    2009-01-01

    A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.

  5. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  6. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  7. Use of dose constraints in public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tageldein, Amged

    2015-02-01

    An overview of the dose constraints in public exposures has been carried out in this project. The establishment, development and the application of the concept of dose constraints are reviewed with regards to public exposure. The role of dose constraints in the process of optimization of radiation protection was described and has been showed that the concept of the dose constraints along with many other concept of radiation protection is widely applied in the optimization of exposure to radiation. From the beginning of the establishment of dose constraints as a concept in radiation protection, the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published a number of documents that provides detailed application related to radiation protection and safety of public exposure from ionizing radiation. This work provides an overview of such publications and related documents with special emphasis on optimization of public exposure using dose constraints. (au)

  8. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  9. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  10. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Hansen, Jan; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures...... divided into chirality constraints and distance constraints. Here we report that the problem of mirrored structures, in some cases, can be solved by using a chirality term in the cost function....... using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the effect of using predicted secondary structure and surface assignments. The constraints used...

  11. Some cosmological constraints on gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures, a review is made of various constraints cosmology may place on gauge theories. Particular emphasis is placed on those constraints obtainable from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, with only brief mention made of Big Bang Baryosynthesis. There is also a considerable discussion of astrophysical constraints on masses and lifetimes of neutrinos with specific mention of the 'missing mass (light)' problem of galactic dynamics. (orig./HSI)

  12. Constraints on a massive Dirac neutrino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynter, T.; Randall, L.

    1994-01-01

    We examine constraints on a simple neutrino model in which there are three massless and three massive Dirac neutrinos and in which the left-handed neutrinos are linear combinations of doublet and singlet neutrinos. We examine constraints from direct decays into heavy neutrinos, indirect effects on electroweak parameters, and flavor-changing processes. We combine these constraints to examine the allowed mass range for the heavy neutrinos of each of the three generations

  13. Measurement of the CKM angle gamma of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix in B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} decays at the BaBar experiment; Mesure de l'angle gamma du triangle d'unitarite de la matrice CKM dans les desintegrations B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} aupres de l'experience BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latour, E

    2007-10-15

    This thesis applies the Gronau-London-Wyler (GLW) method to the B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} decays in view of measuring the angle {gamma} of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix at the Babar experiment. After a review of CP violation, we describe the different paths used so far for measuring {gamma}, with a special emphasis on the GLW method. Then the analysis is presented. It relies on an optimized selection for maximizing signal sensitivity, and on an extended maximum likelihood fit from which we extract the four GLW observables A{sup *}(CP+), R{sup *}(CP+), A{sup *}(CP-) and R{sup *}(CP-). Results obtained using Run 1 to 5 of Babar, corresponding to 347 fb{sup -1}, i.e. 381*10{sup 6} BB-bar pairs, give A{sup *}(CP+) equals -0.114{+-}0.089{+-}0.007; R{sup *}(CP+) equals 1.313{+-}0.132{+-}0.029; A{sup *}(CP-) equals 0.060{+-}0.099{+-}0.016 and R{sup *}(CP-) equals 1.081{+-}0.119{+-}0.034. Translated into cartesian coordinates x{sub {+-}}{sup *} for comparing with Dalitz analysis, we get x{sub +}{sup *} equals 0,112{+-}0,061{+-}0,012; x{sub -}{sup *} equals 0,004{+-}0,059{+-}0,012. All these results are in agreement with previous measurements from Babar and Belle experiments. Precision is improved by a factor two on CP even observables and a factor three for CP odd observables, in particular due to the use of D{sup *} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma} decays, and is better on x{sub {+-}}{sup *} than the world average of Babar and Belle Dalitz measurements. The statistics used is too small for providing a precise enough r{sub B}{sup *} with R{sup *}(CP{+-}) that could constrain {gamma}. However the combination of our results with Dalitz measurements will improve this constraint. (author)

  14. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  15. Phonological Constraint Induction in a Connectionist Network: Learning OCP-Place Constraints from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John; Tupper, Paul; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem in computational language learning is that of inferring the content of well-formedness constraints from input data. In this article, we approach the constraint induction problem as the gradual adjustment of subsymbolic constraints in a connectionist network. In particular, we develop a multi-layer feed-forward network that…

  16. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  17. Constraints In Implementating The Agricultural Sector Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the Agency-related constraints to effective programme implementation. High cost of transportation, problems of pests and diseases and difficulty in acquiring enough land for farming were some of the socio-cultural/environmental constraints to effective programme implementation. Global Approaches to Extension Practice ...

  18. Climate Change Adaptation Constraints among Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean ranks of the constraints significantly differ from one another with the three topmost constraints being unreliable water source, lack of information on climate change and limited income. But for crop diversification, poor extension services and lack of credit are factors that cut across all the identified adaptation ...

  19. Integrity Constraints in Trust Management (Extended Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.; Ahn, G-J.

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust managementstyle authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then we address the fact that not all participants in a trust

  20. Quantum Einstein's equations and constraints algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we shall address this problem: Is quantum gravity constraints algebra closed and what are the quantum Einstein's equations. We shall investigate this problem in the deBroglie–Bohm quantum theory framework. It is shown that the constraint algebra is weakly closed and the quantum Einstein's equations are ...

  1. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . In this paper, we explore these particular issues in two creative domains: art and engineering design. These domains vary so greatly in terms of number and types of constraints in play that we argue for considering them as opposite extremes of a continuum of levels of creative freedom. By comparing two case......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  2. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos ...

  3. Filtering Algorithms for Global Chance Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Prestwich, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs) are a powerful modeling framework for problems under uncertainty. To solve them is a PSPACE task. The only complete solution approach to date — scenario-based stochastic constraint programming — compiles SCSPs down into classical CSPs. This allows

  4. Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampelli, Stéphane; Vergados, Yannis; Van Schaeren, Rowan; Dullaert, Wout; Raa, Birger

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the combination of berth and crane allocation problems in container terminals. We propose a novel approach based on constraint programming which is able to model many realistic operational constraints. The costs for berth allocation, crane allocation, time windows, breaks and

  5. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  6. A model for strategy in constraint solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of constraints for the definition of graphical user interfaces has been recognized as a great concept. However, often many valuations of the variables will satisfy the constraints, and which particular valuation matches best with the expectation of the user cannot be decided

  7. Missed opportunities and caretaker constraints to childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite concerted support to vaccination programmes, coverage remains low. While health service reasons for this are known, there is little information on caretaker constraints to vaccination in Africa. Objective: To establish the prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities and caretaker constraints to ...

  8. Modifier constraints in alkali ultraphosphate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, B.P.; Mauro, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    In applying the recently introduced concept of cationic constraint strength [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 214501 (2014)] to bond constraint theory (BCT) of binary phosphate glasses in the ultraphosphate region of xR2O-(1-x)P2O5 (with x ≤ 0.5 and R = {Li, Na, Cs}), we demonstrate that a fundamental limitat...

  9. VOCABULARY CONSTRAINT ON READING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Sutarsyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in reading materials and to seek if the texts are useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. Some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the texts are dominated by low frequency words which compose 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only comprises 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words constitute account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also impede the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  10. Cosmological constraints on quintessential halos

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Salati, Pierre; Arbey, Alexandre; Lesgourgues, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    A complex scalar field has recently been suggested to bind galaxies and flatten the rotation curves of spirals. Its cosmological behavior is thoroughly investigated here. Such a field is shown to be a potential candidate for the cosmological dark matter that fills up a fraction Omega_cdm = 0.3 of the Universe. However, problems arise when the limits from galactic dynamics and some cosmological constraints are taken simultaneously into account. A free complex field, associated to a very small mass m = 10^{-23} eV, has a correct cosmological behavior in the early Universe, but behaves today mostly as a real axion, with a problematic value of its conserved quantum number. On the other hand, an interacting field with quartic coupling lambda = 0.1 has a more realistic mass m = 1 eV and carries a quantum number close to the photon number density. Unlike a free field, it would be spinning today in the complex plane - like the so-called ``spintessence''. Unfortunately, the cosmological evolution of such field in the ...

  11. Constraints on astronomical silicate dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical radiative-transfer models are used to discuss the properties of circumstellar dust grains around the premain-sequence star AB Aur (HD 31293). It is assumed that the dust consists of a silicate-graphite mixture with Draine and Lee (1984) optical properties. The modeling technique is to match the observed FUV through FIR energy distribution with the spectral energy distribution predicted for a spherical dust shell around a luminous hot star. Special attention is given to matching the observed 10-micron silicate emission feature and the observed circumstellar absorption curve at UV wavelengths, making it possible to strengthen constraints on dust-grain opacity and chemical composition. It is concluded that, although silicate grains can explain the observed 10-micron emission feature, the Draine and Lee silicate-graphite mixture cannot explain the observed FUV circumstellar absorption at the same time. The dust shell around AB Aur contains an additional population of small particles, the most likely candidate being amorphous carbon grains in a nonhydrogenated form. 18 refs

  12. Constraints on astronomical silicate dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Wilfred H.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical radiative-transfer models are used to discuss the properties of circumstellar dust grains around the premain-sequence star AB Aur (HD 31293). It is assumed that the dust consists of a silicate-graphite mixture with Draine and Lee (1984) optical properties. The modeling technique is to match the observed FUV through FIR energy distribution with the spectral energy distribution predicted for a spherical dust shell around a luminous hot star. Special attention is given to matching the observed 10-micron silicate emission feature and the observed circumstellar absorption curve at UV wavelengths, making it possible to strengthen constraints on dust-grain opacity and chemical composition. It is concluded that, although silicate grains can explain the observed 10-micron emission feature, the Draine and Lee silicate-graphite mixture cannot explain the observed FUV circumstellar absorption at the same time. The dust shell around AB Aur contains an additional population of small particles, the most likely candidate being amorphous carbon grains in a nonhydrogenated form.

  13. Two Constraints on Tonal Derivation in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-chuan Hsu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to further examine two working constraints on tonal derivation proposed in some recent generative studies on Changting, namely One Step Principle (OSP and Moving Windows Constraint (MWC. Our extension of the scope of discussion to other Chinese dialects leads to the necessity of proposing the more general Domain Constraint (DC which subsumes the MWC. The comparison and contrast between OSP and DC exhibits a see-saw battle at present. Both successfully account for Dongshi Hakka, Tianjin, and Yaoping. OSP wins in Changting (Chen 2003, Chen et al. 2004 and fast speeches in Xuzhou and Standard Mandarin. Different form the above-mentioned cases, Tianjin fast speech demonstrates a dual nature in regard to both constraints. Furthermore, DC receives non-Sinitic support from Hakha Lai; segmental derivation of fanqie languages reveals an OSP counterpart. How these two constraints behave in African tone languages awaits further study.

  14. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    -down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  15. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Lewitus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the

  16. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  17. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ghedira, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a

  18. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... of prices to some agents who learn about the quality of an investment opportunity from market prices and have additional private information. Then I apply this observation when modeling a run on an investment bank by its short-term creditors, who are endowed with dispersed information and also learn from...

  19. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints.

  20. Use of dose constraints for occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaijage, Tunu

    2015-02-01

    The use of dose constraints for occupational exposure was reviewed in this project. The role of dose constraints as used in optimization of protection of workers was described. Different issues to be considered in application of the concept and challenges associated with their implementation were also discussed. The situation where dose constraints could be misinterpreted to dose limits is also explained as the two are clearly differentiated by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103. Moreover, recommendations to all parties responsible for protection and safety of workers were discussed. (au)

  1. Expressing Model Constraints Visually with VMQL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    ) for specifying constraints on UML models. We examine VMQL's usability by controlled experiments and its expressiveness by a representative sample. We conclude that VMQL is less expressive than OCL, although expressive enough for most of the constraints in the sample. In terms of usability, however, VMQL......OCL is the de facto standard language for expressing constraints and queries on UML models. However, OCL expressions are very difficult to create, understand, and maintain, even with the sophisticated tool support now available. In this paper, we propose to use the Visual Model Query Language (VMQL...

  2. Constraint theory multidimensional mathematical model management

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, George J

    2017-01-01

    Packed with new material and research, this second edition of George Friedman’s bestselling Constraint Theory remains an invaluable reference for all engineers, mathematicians, and managers concerned with modeling. As in the first edition, this text analyzes the way Constraint Theory employs bipartite graphs and presents the process of locating the “kernel of constraint” trillions of times faster than brute-force approaches, determining model consistency and computational allowability. Unique in its abundance of topological pictures of the material, this book balances left- and right-brain perceptions to provide a thorough explanation of multidimensional mathematical models. Much of the extended material in this new edition also comes from Phan Phan’s PhD dissertation in 2011, titled “Expanding Constraint Theory to Determine Well-Posedness of Large Mathematical Models.” Praise for the first edition: "Dr. George Friedman is indisputably the father of the very powerful methods of constraint theory...

  3. New cosmological constraints on primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B. J.; Kohri, Kazunori; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-01-01

    We update the constraints on the fraction of the Universe going into primordial black holes in the mass range 10 9 -10 17 g associated with the effects of their evaporations on big bang nucleosynthesis and the extragalactic photon background. We include for the first time all the effects of quark and gluon emission by black holes on these constraints and account for the latest observational developments. We then discuss the other constraints in this mass range and show that these are weaker than the nucleosynthesis and photon background limits, apart from a small range 10 13 -10 14 g, where the damping of cosmic microwave background anisotropies dominates. Finally we review the gravitational and astrophysical effects of nonevaporating primordial black holes, updating constraints over the broader mass range 1-10 50 g.

  4. Constraints Faced by m-Kisan Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayanthi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on constraints faced by m-Kisan users while availing mobile agricultural extension service. Data were derived from 120 m-Kisan users in two districts of Tamil Nadu state.

  5. Constraints To Farmers Effective Participation In Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eastern Nigeria is the provision of agricultural extension services to farmers. This study, therefore, examined the constraints to farmers' effective participation in the agricultural extension programmes of four non-profit NGOs in three states of ...

  6. Modernizing China's Military: Opportunities and Constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crane, Keith; Cliff, Roger; Medeiros, Evan; Mulvenon, James; Overholt, William

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess future resource constraints on, and potential domestic economic and industrial contributions to, the ability of the Chinese military to become a significant threat to U.S. forces by 2025...

  7. Dynamic shortfall constraints for optimal portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Luderer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio problem when a Tail Conditional Expectation constraint is imposed. The financial market is composed of n risky assets driven by geometric Brownian motion and one risk-free asset. The Tail Conditional Expectation is calculated for short intervals of time and imposed as risk constraint dynamically. The method of Lagrange multipliers is combined with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation to insert the constraint into the resolution framework. A numerical method is applied to obtain an approximate solution to the problem. We find that the imposition of the Tail Conditional Expectation constraint when risky assets evolve following a log-normal distribution, curbs investment in the risky assets and diverts the wealth to consumption.

  8. Optimal portfolio strategies under a shortfall constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Akuma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We impose dynamically, a shortfall constraint in terms of Tail Conditional Expectation on the portfolio selection problem in continuous time, in order to obtain optimal strategies. The financial market is assumed to comprise n risky assets driven by geometric Brownian motion and one risk-free asset. The method of Lagrange multipliers is combined with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation to insert the constraint into the resolution framework. The constraint is re-calculated at short intervals of time throughout the investment horizon. A numerical method is applied to obtain an approximate solution to the problem. It is found that the imposition of the constraint curbs investment in the risky assets.

  9. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has...... applications within the design of transportation networks. The model is solved using a Tabu Search heuristic using a hybrid of the add/drop procedure and cycle-based neighbourhoods....

  11. Portfolios with nonlinear constraints and spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Adrienn; Kondor, I.

    1999-12-01

    In a recent paper Galluccio, Bouchaud and Potters demonstrated that a certain portfolio problem with a nonlinear constraint maps exactly onto finding the ground states of a long-range spin glass, with the concomitant nonuniqueness and instability of the optimal portfolios. Here we put forward geometric arguments that lead to qualitatively similar conclusions, without recourse to the methods of spin glass theory, and give two more examples of portfolio problems with convex nonlinear constraints.

  12. Firm Heterogeneity, Credit Constraints, and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Torben Klarl; Alfred Maussner

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of firm heterogeneity under credit constraints for economic growth. We focus on firm size, innovativeness and credit constraints in a semi-endogenous growth model reflecting recent empirical findings on firm heterogeneity. It allows for an explicit solution for transitional growth and balanced growth path productivity as well as the growth maximizing firm heterogeneity. This enables us to draw inference about the impact of key policy parameters of the mod...

  13. University Course Timetabling using Constraint Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shahmoradi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available University course timetabling problem is a challenging and time-consuming task on the overall structure of timetable in every academic environment. The problem deals with many factors such as the number of lessons, classes, teachers, students and working time, and these are influenced by some hard and soft constraints. The aim of solving this problem is to assign courses and classes to teachers and students, so that the restrictions are held. In this paper, a constraint programming method is proposed to satisfy maximum constraints and expectation, in order to address university timetabling problem. For minimizing the penalty of soft constraints, a cost function is introduced and AHP method is used for calculating its coefficients. The proposed model is tested on department of management, University of Isfahan dataset using OPL on the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio platform. A statistical analysis has been conducted and shows the performance of the proposed approach in satisfying all hard constraints and also the satisfying degree of the soft constraints is on maximum desirable level. The running time of the model is less than 20 minutes that is significantly better than the non-automated ones.

  14. Experimental Constraints on Core Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Fei, Y.

    2003-12-01

    complex structure of the Earth's interior, seismic investigations require extensive data coverage, sophisticated modeling and efficient data analytical methods. Deciphering geochemical core signatures carried by mantle plumes faces similar challenges. In addition, experimental and computational simulations have been hindered by the necessity to approach extreme pressure and temperature conditions prevalent in the core. For these reasons, many fundamental issues concerning the Earth's core remain controversial or poorly understood.Along with steady improvement in observational, experimental, and computational techniques, research interest in the Earth's core has been growing over the last few decades. Issues of current interest include the timing, duration, and mechanism of core formation, the identity and abundance of light elements in the core, the thermal and chemical evolution of the core, the possibility of ongoing radioactive decay in the core, evidence for continuing core-mantle interaction, structure and dynamics of the outer and inner core, and the origin, structure, and evolution of the geomagnetic field. Progress in the study of the Earth's core has been reviewed by a number of researchers with different perspectives (e.g., Stevenson, 1981; Jacobs, 1987; Jeanloz, 1990; Poirier, 1994; Hillgren et al., 2000). The aim of this chapter is to provide an updated summary of our understanding of the composition of the Earth's core, with an emphasis on experimental constraints. Another chapter focusing on cosmochemical and geochemical observations can be found in Chapter 2.15.We will start with a description of experimental and analytical techniques used in the studies of the Earth's core. Following a review of geophysical and geochemical evidence for iron being the most abundant element in the core, we will provide a summary of experimental data on the phase diagram, equation-of-state (EOS), and physical properties of iron and discuss their implications for the core

  15. Reduction Of Constraints For Coupled Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-01-01

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% (ΣM 2 O 2 O 3 constraint to 4 wt% (Al 2 O 3 (ge) 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al 2 O 3 and sum of alkali constraint for future coupled operations processing based on projections from Revision 14 of

  16. Black hole unitarity and antipodal entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators

  17. Relating chronology protection and unitarity through holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raeymaekers, Joris; Van den Bleeken, D.; Vercnocke, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 4 (2010), s. 1-9 ISSN 1126-6708 Grant - others:EUROHORC(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : AdS-CFT correspondence * models of quantum gravity * classical theories of gravity Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.049, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/g5q123uj51218371/

  18. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  19. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Wotzasek, C. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-08-10

    In a recent Letter, Faddeev and Jackiw have shown that the reduction of constrained systems into its canonical, first-order form, can bring some new insight into the research of this field. For sympletic manifolds the geometrical structure, called Dirac or generalized bracket, is obtained directly from the inverse of the nonsingular sympletic two-form matrix. In the cases of nonsympletic manifolds, this two-form is degenerated and cannot be inverted to provide the generalized brackets. This singular behavior of the sympletic matrix is indicative of the presence of constraints that have to be carefully considered to yield to consistent results. One has two possible routes to treat this problem: Dirac has taught us how to implement the constraints into the potential part (Hamiltonian) of the canonical Lagrangian, leading to the well-known Dirac brackets, which are consistent with the constraints and can be mapped into quantum commutators (modulo ordering terms). The second route, suggested by Faddeev and Jackiw, and followed in this paper, is to implement the constraints directly into the canonical part of the first order Lagrangian, using the fact that the consistence condition for the stability of the constrained manifold is linear in the time derivative. This algorithm may lead to an invertible two-form sympletic matrix from where the Dirac brackets are readily obtained. This algorithm is used in this paper to investigate some aspects of the quantization of constrained systems with first- and second-class constraints in the sympletic approach.

  20. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Gardner, Susan; /Kentucky U.

    2012-02-16

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p{sup 2} can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  1. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Wotzasek, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Faddeev and Jackiw have shown that the reduction of constrained systems into its canonical, first-order form, can bring some new insight into the research of this field. For sympletic manifolds the geometrical structure, called Dirac or generalized bracket, is obtained directly from the inverse of the nonsingular sympletic two-form matrix. In the cases of nonsympletic manifolds, this two-form is degenerated and cannot be inverted to provide the generalized brackets. This singular behavior of the sympletic matrix is indicative of the presence of constraints that have to be carefully considered to yield to consistent results. One has two possible routes to treat this problem: Dirac has taught us how to implement the constraints into the potential part (Hamiltonian) of the canonical Lagrangian, leading to the well-known Dirac brackets, which are consistent with the constraints and can be mapped into quantum commutators (modulo ordering terms). The second route, suggested by Faddeev and Jackiw, and followed in this paper, is to implement the constraints directly into the canonical part of the first order Lagrangian, using the fact that the consistence condition for the stability of the constrained manifold is linear in the time derivative. This algorithm may lead to an invertible two-form sympletic matrix from where the Dirac brackets are readily obtained. This algorithm is used in this paper to investigate some aspects of the quantization of constrained systems with first- and second-class constraints in the sympletic approach

  2. Pair Production Constraints on Superluminal Neutrinos Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the pair creation constraint on superluminal neutrinos considered by Cohen and Glashow in order to clarify which types of superluminal models are constrained. We show that a model in which the superluminal neutrino is effectively light-like can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint. In summary, any model for which the CG pair production process operates is excluded because such timelike neutrinos would not be detected by OPERA or other experiments. However, a superluminal neutrino which is effectively lightlike with fixed p 2 can evade the Cohen-Glashow constraint because of energy-momentum conservation. The coincidence involved in explaining the SN1987A constraint certainly makes such a picture improbable - but it is still intrinsically possible. The lightlike model is appealing in that it does not violate Lorentz symmetry in particle interactions, although one would expect Hughes-Drever tests to turn up a violation eventually. Other evasions of the CG constraints are also possible; perhaps, e.g., the neutrino takes a 'short cut' through extra dimensions or suffers anomalous acceleration in matter. Irrespective of the OPERA result, Lorentz-violating interactions remain possible, and ongoing experimental investigation of such possibilities should continue.

  3. Forces Associated with Nonlinear Nonholonomic Constraint Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2010-01-01

    A concise method has been formulated for identifying a set of forces needed to constrain the behavior of a mechanical system, modeled as a set of particles and rigid bodies, when it is subject to motion constraints described by nonholonomic equations that are inherently nonlinear in velocity. An expression in vector form is obtained for each force; a direction is determined, together with the point of application. This result is a consequence of expressing constraint equations in terms of dot products of vectors rather than in the usual way, which is entirely in terms of scalars and matrices. The constraint forces in vector form are used together with two new analytical approaches for deriving equations governing motion of a system subject to such constraints. If constraint forces are of interest they can be brought into evidence in explicit dynamical equations by employing the well-known nonholonomic partial velocities associated with Kane's method; if they are not of interest, equations can be formed instead with the aid of vectors introduced here as nonholonomic partial accelerations. When the analyst requires only the latter, smaller set of equations, they can be formed directly; it is not necessary to expend the labor to form the former, larger set first and subsequently perform matrix multiplications.

  4. The use of dose constraints concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina, Dumitru; Andrei, Veronica; Glodeanu, Florin; Goicea, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 60) explicitly introduced the concept of 'dose constraints' within the context of optimization of protection. The concept was not new and the meaning of its introduction was an attempt to consolidate and rationalize various concepts already existing in the ICRP guidance. In Romania the Order of National Commission for Control of Nuclear Activities - CNCAN no. 14/2000, for approval of the Fundamental Regulations for Radiological Safety, may impose the use of dose constraints for practices or for specific radiation sources inside the practices when required. Dose constraints would be used like upper bound in radioprotection optimization. The use of dose constraints is not an easy task because the understanding and interpretation of its meaning and application in the regulatory and operational practice is still under development. For operation of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 1 as well as in the implementation of the new Interim Spent Fuel Dry Storage Facility project the dose constraints concept was used in the licensing process. On this basis the authorized dose limit and legal dose limit concepts became clearer and would be used within the documents. (authors)

  5. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  6. Constraints and Creativity in NPD - Testing the Impact of 'Late Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný

    The aim of the presented work is to investigate how the timing of project constraints can influence the creativity of the output in New Product Development (NPD) projects. When seeking to produce a creative output, is it beneficial to know all constraints when initiating a project......, or will constraints introduced throughout a project potentially lead to a more creative output? While the relationship between constraints and creativity is fairly well studied, the question of how introducing constraints late in a project can influence creativity is still unanswered. A single factor, two level...... was assessed for creativity using the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT), and a comparative within-subjects analysis found no significant different between the two conditions. Controlling for task and assessor a small but non-significant effect was found, in favor of the ‘late constraint’ condition. Thus...

  7. Constraints and spandrels of interareal connectomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail

    2016-12-01

    Interareal connectomes are whole-brain wiring diagrams of white-matter pathways. Recent studies have identified modules, hubs, module hierarchies and rich clubs as structural hallmarks of these wiring diagrams. An influential current theory postulates that connectome modules are adequately explained by evolutionary pressures for wiring economy, but that the other hallmarks are not explained by such pressures and are therefore less trivial. Here, we use constraint network models to test these postulates in current gold-standard vertebrate and invertebrate interareal-connectome reconstructions. We show that empirical wiring-cost constraints inadequately explain connectome module organization, and that simultaneous module and hub constraints induce the structural byproducts of hierarchies and rich clubs. These byproducts, known as spandrels in evolutionary biology, include the structural substrate of the default-mode network. Our results imply that currently standard connectome characterizations are based on circular analyses or double dipping, and we emphasize an integrative approach to future connectome analyses for avoiding such pitfalls.

  8. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, S.; Maccione, L.

    2009-09-01

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  9. Lorentz violation. Motivation and new constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberati, S. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Maccione, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    We review the main theoretical motivations and observational constraints on Planck scale sup-pressed violations of Lorentz invariance. After introducing the problems related to the phenomenological study of quantum gravitational effects, we discuss the main theoretical frameworks within which possible departures from Lorentz invariance can be described. In particular, we focus on the framework of Effective Field Theory, describing several possible ways of including Lorentz violation therein and discussing their theoretical viability. We review the main low energy effects that are expected in this framework. We discuss the current observational constraints on such a framework, focusing on those achievable through high-energy astrophysics observations. In this context we present a summary of the most recent and strongest constraints on QED with Lorentz violating non-renormalizable operators. Finally, we discuss the present status of the field and its future perspectives. (orig.)

  10. Latin hypercube sampling with inequality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iooss, B.; Petelet, M.; Asserin, O.; Loredo, A.

    2010-01-01

    In some studies requiring predictive and CPU-time consuming numerical models, the sampling design of the model input variables has to be chosen with caution. For this purpose, Latin hypercube sampling has a long history and has shown its robustness capabilities. In this paper we propose and discuss a new algorithm to build a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) taking into account inequality constraints between the sampled variables. This technique, called constrained Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS), consists in doing permutations on an initial LHS to honor the desired monotonic constraints. The relevance of this approach is shown on a real example concerning the numerical welding simulation, where the inequality constraints are caused by the physical decreasing of some material properties in function of the temperature. (authors)

  11. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2012-01-01

    classifier solution, compared to the SVM i.e. reduces variance and improves classification rates. We present a quantitative measure of the information level contained in the pairing and test the method on simulated as well as a high-dimensional paired data set of ear-canal surfaces.......We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time....... Assuming that two observations of the same subject in different states span a vector, we hypothesise that such structure of the data contains implicit information which can aid the classification, thus the name data driven constraints. We derive a constraint based on the data which allow for the use...

  12. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H.; Ulrich, S.; Bangert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities q(\\hat{d}, \\hat{v}) of covering a specific target volume fraction \\hat{v} with a certain dose \\hat{d} . Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target volume objectives.

  13. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN

    2012-05-01

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  14. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (based on a convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  15. On the evolutionary constraint surface of hydra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, L. B.; Dunn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Food consumption, body size, and budding rate were measured simultaneously in isolated individual hydra of six strains. For each individual hydra the three measurements define a point in the three dimensional space with axes: food consumption, budding rate, and body size. These points lie on a single surface, regardless of species. Floating rate and incidence of sexuality map onto this surface. It is suggested that this surface is an example of a general class of evolutionary constraint surfaces derived from the conjunction of evolutinary theory and the theory of ecological resource budgets. These constraint surfaces correspond to microevolutionary domains.

  16. Universal constraints on axions from inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, R. Z.; Sloth, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    through this mechanism, larger than the vacuum ones, without violating the observational constraints unless we combine this mechanism with a curvaton or if the sigma field becomes heavy and decays during inflation. Even in this last case there are non-trivial constraints coming from the slow......-roll evolution of the curvature perturbation on super horizon scales which should be taken into account. We also comment on implications for inflationary models where axions play an important role as, for example, models of natural inflation where more than one axion are included and models where the curvaton...

  17. Space Shuttle capabilities, constraints, and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities, constraints, and costs of the Space Transportation System (STS), which combines reusable and expendable components, are reviewed, and an overview of the current planning activities for operating the STS in an efficient and cost-effective manner is presented. Traffic forecasts, performance constraints and enhancements, and potential new applications are discussed. Attention is given to operating costs, pricing policies, and the steps involved in 'getting on board', which includes all the interfaces between NASA and the users necessary to come to launch service agreements.

  18. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  19. Groundwater for sustainable development opportunities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman Attia, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses water resources availability and demand; concept and constraints of sustainable development; ground water protection. Water issues specific for arid zones and the network on ground water protection in the Arab region are discussed. Recommendations on ground water protection in arid zones are given

  20. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  1. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay

    1997-01-01

    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  2. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)

    2015-04-15

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.

  3. Management practices and production constraints of central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management practices of central highland goats and their major constraints. ... a basic education. Almost all 249 (99.6%) of the respondents practiced a mixed crop livestock production system, and majority of them (85.2%) reared goats ..... owners and the children who often keep the goats do not have adequate aware-.

  4. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  5. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  6. Domain general constraints on statistical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D

    2011-01-01

    All theories of language development suggest that learning is constrained. However, theories differ on whether these constraints arise from language-specific processes or have domain-general origins such as the characteristics of human perception and information processing. The current experiments explored constraints on statistical learning of patterns, such as the phonotactic patterns of an infants' native language. Infants in these experiments were presented with a visual analog of a phonotactic learning task used by J. R. Saffran and E. D. Thiessen (2003). Saffran and Thiessen found that infants' phonotactic learning was constrained such that some patterns were learned more easily than other patterns. The current results indicate that infants' learning of visual patterns shows the same constraints as infants' learning of phonotactic patterns. This is consistent with theories suggesting that constraints arise from domain-general sources and, as such, should operate over many kinds of stimuli in addition to linguistic stimuli. © 2011 The Author. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation with prime constraints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    50

    constraints. In the present paper, we study an inhomogeneous version of the problem. Inhomogeneous Diophantine .... Our strategy is to split the interval [1,N] into subintervals [P, P µ] and sum up over the. P's in the end. Accordingly, we restrict p to the interval P ≤ p < Pµ with Pµ ≤ N. We then obtain a lower bound for (6) by ...

  8. Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships Between Firm Characteristics and Export Constraints in SME Exporters. Zororo Muranda. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 89-107. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v30i1.6737.

  9. Integer Constraints for Train Series Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe scheduling of train services is subject to a number of constraints describing railway infrastructure, required train services and reasonable time-intervals for waiting and transits. Timetable planners at Dutch Railways are nowadays supported by a software tool, called CADANS, which

  10. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  11. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbashov, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a specific Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  12. Cognitive Dissonance Reduction as Constraint Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Lepper, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the reduction of cognitive dissonance can be viewed as a constraint satisfaction problem, and a computational model of the process of consonance seeking is proposed. Simulations from this model matched psychological findings from the insufficient justification and free-choice paradigms of cognitive dissonance theory. (SLD)

  13. Further Note on the Probabilistic Constraint Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.; Datta, R

    2016-01-01

    A robust probabilistic constraint handling approach in the framework of joint evolutionary-classical optimization has been presented earlier. In this work, the
    theoretical foundations of the method are presented in detail. The method is known as bi-objective method, where the conventional

  14. CONSTRAINTS TO USE OF MOBILE TELEPHONY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services by mobile telecommunications service providers, regular electric power supply, training of the farmers by extension agents and agricultural development agencies as well as formation of agricultural societies by the farmers. Key words: Constraints, mobile telephony, frequency, farmers and telecommunications ...

  15. Organizing Creativity : Creativity and Innovation under Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein C.J.; Rietzschel, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    The best way of organizing creativity within organizations remains somewhat enigmatic to scholars, particularly when it comes to the role of constraints. On the one hand, creative organizations are often associated with freedom, autonomy, weak rules and few boundaries. On the other hand, several

  16. Calmness of constraint systems with applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Henrion, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 104, 2/3 (2005), s. 437-464 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Grant - others:DFG(DE) Matheon Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : calmness * constraint sets * nonsmooth calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.497, year: 2005

  17. Value constraints in the CLP scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van Emden

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the question of how to incorporate constraint propagation into logic programming. A likely candidate is the CLP scheme, which allows one to exploit algorithmic opportunities while staying within logic programming semantics. CLP($cal R$) is an example: it combines

  18. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  19. Institutional and resource constraints that inhibit contractor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that contractors face institutional constraints (work allocation limitations, lack of performance incentives and high transaction costs, such as negotiation costs, the risk of a loss in work and contract default risk), cash flow problems, poor physical infrastructure and a lack of labour. It is expected that the promotion ...

  20. Loosening Psychometric Constraints on Educational Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    In response to an argument by Baird, Andrich, Hopfenbeck and Stobart (2017), Michael Kane states that there needs to be a better fit between educational assessment and learning theory. In line with this goal, Kane will examine how psychometric constraints might be loosened by relaxing some psychometric "rules" in some assessment…

  1. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  2. Constraints to Gender Participation in Rural Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Dept. of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. E-mail: juliewuchukwu@yahoo.com. Phone: 08063276459. Abstract. This study examined constraints to gender participation in rural community development in Abia State. A multistage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 120 ...

  3. Constraints To Effective Community Development Projects Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the perceived constraints to effective community development projects among rural households in Calabar agricultural zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire from 104 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Data analysis was by the ...

  4. Tilapia culture in Kuwait: constraints and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ridha, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Tilapia farming in Kuwait is in its early stages. Slow growth, high production cost and poor demand are the major constraints to the expansion of tilapia culture in Kuwait. This article presents some suggestions for overcoming these problems to improve the economic feasibility of tilapia culture in Kuwait.

  5. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  6. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Paul

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... The speed of sound obtained in the model is small, necessary for structure formation. We also determine the observational constraints on the constants of the ECG equation. Keywords. Modified Chaplygin gas; accelerating Universe; dark energy. PACS Nos 04.20.–q; 98.80.Jk; 98.80.–k. 1. Introduction.

  7. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take. (author)

  8. A Microkernel Architecture for Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microkernel architecture for constraint programming organized around a number of small number of core functionalities and minimal interfaces. The architecture contrasts with the monolithic nature of many implementations. Experimental results indicate that the software engineering benefits are not incompatible with runtime efficiency.

  9. Ability or Finances as Constraints to Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    This study exploits a natural experiment to investigate why financial constraints appear to limit firm formation. Exogenous variation in wealth results from unexpected inheritance due to sudden death and allows us to identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs, who start a business after receiving win...

  10. CONSTRAINTS AND PROBLEMS OF INTERNET SERVICES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife who were presently at the thesis writing stage of their programmes. The results from the analysis of the responses showed that the greatest constraints to Internet connectivity and usage was the high cost involved, while the associated problems were identified as incessant power failure ...

  11. Constraint-induced movement therapy after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Veerbeek, J.M.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Wolf, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for the rehabilitation of patients. Original CIMT includes constraining of the non-paretic arm and task-oriented training. Modified versions also apply

  12. Coping with Algebraic Constraints in Power Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshizadeh, Nima; De Persis, Claudio; van der Schaft, Abraham; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the intuitive modelling of the power network, the generators and the loads are located at different subset of nodes. This corresponds to the so-called structure preserving model which is naturally expressed in terms of differential algebraic equations (DAE). The algebraic constraints in the

  13. Coverage maximization under resource constraints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-07

    Feb 7, 2015 ... Dissemination of information has been one of the prime needs in almost every kind of communication network. The existing algorithms for this service, try to maximize the coverage, i.e., the number of distinct nodes to which a given piece of information could be conveyed under the constraints of time and ...

  14. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  15. Ability or Finances as Constraints on Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    We use a natural experiment in Denmark to test the hypothesis that aspiring entrepreneurs face financial constraints because of low entrepreneurial quality. We identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs who start a business after receiving windfall wealth and examine the performance of these marginal...

  16. Energetic constraints on species coexistence in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigot, Alexander L.; Tobias, Joseph A.; Jetz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven

  17. Constraints to Women Farmers' Entrepreneurial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study examined the entrepreneurial competencies among women farmers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Specifically, this paper described the characteristics of the respondents, identified the characteristics (type, form and duration) of enterprises the respondents engaged in, and examined their constraints to ...

  18. Constraint Embedding Technique for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Multibody dynamics play a critical role in simulation testbeds for space missions. There has been a considerable interest in the development of efficient computational algorithms for solving the dynamics of multibody systems. Mass matrix factorization and inversion techniques and the O(N) class of forward dynamics algorithms developed using a spatial operator algebra stand out as important breakthrough on this front. Techniques such as these provide the efficient algorithms and methods for the application and implementation of such multibody dynamics models. However, these methods are limited only to tree-topology multibody systems. Closed-chain topology systems require different techniques that are not as efficient or as broad as those for tree-topology systems. The closed-chain forward dynamics approach consists of treating the closed-chain topology as a tree-topology system subject to additional closure constraints. The resulting forward dynamics solution consists of: (a) ignoring the closure constraints and using the O(N) algorithm to solve for the free unconstrained accelerations for the system; (b) using the tree-topology solution to compute a correction force to enforce the closure constraints; and (c) correcting the unconstrained accelerations with correction accelerations resulting from the correction forces. This constraint-embedding technique shows how to use direct embedding to eliminate local closure-loops in the system and effectively convert the system back to a tree-topology system. At this point, standard tree-topology techniques can be brought to bear on the problem. The approach uses a spatial operator algebra approach to formulating the equations of motion. The operators are block-partitioned around the local body subgroups to convert them into aggregate bodies. Mass matrix operator factorization and inversion techniques are applied to the reformulated tree-topology system. Thus in essence, the new technique allows conversion of a system with

  19. Toward making the constraint hypersurface an attractor in free evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, David R.

    2004-01-01

    When constructing numerical solutions to systems of evolution equations subject to a constraint, one must decide what role the constraint equations will play in the evolution system. In one popular choice, known as free evolution, a simulation is treated as a Cauchy problem, with the initial data constructed to satisfy the constraint equations. This initial data are then evolved via the evolution equations with no further enforcement of the constraint equations. The evolution, however, via the discretized evolution equations introduce constraint violating modes at the level of truncation error, and these constraint violating modes will behave in a formalism dependent way. This paper presents a generic method for incorporating the constraint equations into the evolution equations so that the off-constraint dynamics are biased toward the constraint satisfying solutions

  20. Constraint qualifications and optimality conditions for optimization problems with cardinality constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, Michal; Kanzow, Ch.; Schwartz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2016), s. 353-377 ISSN 0025-5610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309; GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Cardinality constraints * Constraint qualifications * Optimality conditions * KKT conditions * Strongly stationary points Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/cervinka-0461165.pdf

  1. Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih

    2010-01-01

    Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications

  2. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  3. Automated constraint placement to maintain pile shape

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2012-11-01

    We present a simulation control to support art-directable stacking designs by automatically adding constraints to stabilize the stacking structure. We begin by adapting equilibrium analysis in a local scheme to find "stable" objects of the stacking structure. Next, for stabilizing the structure, we pick suitable objects from those passing the equilibrium analysis and then restrict their DOFs by managing the insertion of constraints on them. The method is suitable for controlling stacking behavior of large scale. Results show that our control method can be used in varied ways for creating plausible animation. In addition, the method can be easily implemented as a plug-in into existing simulation solvers without changing the fundamental operations of the solvers. © 2012 ACM.

  4. Decoupling Coupled Constraints Through Utility Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, N; Marden, JR

    2014-08-01

    Several multiagent systems exemplify the need for establishing distributed control laws that ensure the resulting agents' collective behavior satisfies a given coupled constraint. This technical note focuses on the design of such control laws through a game-theoretic framework. In particular, this technical note provides two systematic methodologies for the design of local agent objective functions that guarantee all resulting Nash equilibria optimize the system level objective while also satisfying a given coupled constraint. Furthermore, the designed local agent objective functions fit into the framework of state based potential games. Consequently, one can appeal to existing results in game-theoretic learning to derive a distributed process that guarantees the agents will reach such an equilibrium.

  5. Fundamental constraints on some event data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    A modified version of Searle's theory of the structure of human action has been explained and applied to man machine interaction. The comprehensiveness of the theory has been demonstrated, in particular its explanation of human performance and that its consistency with current theories of human error for which it provides an overall setting. The importance of the mental component of human error is highlighted and the constraints that this puts on the collection analysis and use of human error data. Examples have been given to illustrate and apply the theory ranging from considerations of the tenuousness of the link between safety goals and data to simple valve operations. Two approaches which recognise the constraints shown by the theory have been explained. (orig./DG)

  6. Multifrequency electrical impedance tomography using spectral constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Emma; Sato Dos Santos, Gustavo; Holder, David; Arridge, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Multifrequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) exploits the dependence of tissue impedance on frequency to recover an image of conductivity. MFEIT could provide emergency diagnosis of pathologies such as acute stroke, brain injury and breast cancer. We present a method for performing MFEIT using spectral constraints. Boundary voltage data is employed directly to reconstruct the volume fraction distribution of component tissues using a nonlinear method. Given that the reconstructed parameter is frequency independent, this approach allows for the simultaneous use of all multifrequency data, thus reducing the degrees of freedom of the reconstruction problem. Furthermore, this method allows for the use of frequency difference data in a nonlinear reconstruction algorithm. Results from empirical phantom measurements suggest that our fraction reconstruction method points to a new direction for the development of multifrequency EIT algorithms in the case that the spectral constraints are known, and may provide a unifying framework for static EIT imaging.

  7. Constraints on reusability of learning objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Hussmann, Peter Munkebo; Jensen, Anne Skov

    2010-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper to discuss some didactic constraints on the use and reuse of digital modular learning objects. Engineering education is used as the specific context of use with examples from courses in introductory electronics and mathematics. Digital multimedia and modular learning...... objects have been proclaimed as important elements in e-learning for a long time, and there are good reasons to believe in the benefits of interactive multimedia as well as flexible and modular learning objects. Nevertheless the use and reuse of learning objects on a large scale seems to be a slow success....... Constraints on reuse arise from the nature of conceptual understanding in higher education and the functionality of learning objects within present technologies. We will need didactic as well as technical perspectives on learning objects in designing for understanding....

  8. Simplification of integrity constraints for data integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2004-01-01

    When two or more databases are combined into a global one, integrity may be violated even when each database is consistent with its own local integrity constraints. Efficient methods for checking global integrity in data integration systems are called for: answers to queries can then be trusted......, because either the global database is known to be consistent or suitable actions have been taken to provide consistent views. The present work generalizes simplification techniques for integrity checking in traditional databases to the combined case. Knowledge of local consistency is employed, perhaps...... together with given a priori constraints on the combination, so that only a minimal number of tuples needs to be considered. Combination from scratch, integration of a new source, and absorption of local updates are dealt with for both the local-as-view and global-as-view approaches to data integration....

  9. Some Properties of Metric Polytope Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrality recognition problem is considered on the sequence Mn,k of the nested Boolean quadric polytope relaxations, including the rooted semimetric Mn and the metric Mn,3 polytopes. Constraints of the metric polytope cut off all faces of the rooted semimetric polytope, containing only fractional vertices, that allows to solve the problem of integrality recognition on Mn in polynomial time. To solve the problem of integrality recognition on the metric polytope, we consider the possibility of cutting off all fractional faces of Mn,3 by some relaxation Mn,k. We represent the coordinates of the metric polytope in a homogeneous form by a three-dimensional block matrix. We show that to answer the question of the metric polytope fractional faces cutting off, it is sufficient to consider only constraints of the triangle inequalities form.

  10. Constraints from jet calculus on quark recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Lassila, K.E.; Willen, D.

    1979-01-01

    Within the QCD jet calculus formalism, we deduce an equation describing recombination of quarks and antiquarks into mesons within a quark or gluon jet. This equation relates the recombination function R(x 1 ,x 2 ,x) used in current literature to the fragmentation function for producing that same meson out of the parton initiating the jet. We submit currently used recombination functions to our consistency test, taking as input mainly the u-quark fragmentation data into π + mesons, but also s-quark fragmentation into K - mesons. The constraint is well satisfied at large Q 2 for large moments. Our results depend on one parameter, Q 0 2 , the constraint equation being satisfied for small values of this parameter

  11. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. The author discusses the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of the Sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. (Auth.)

  12. Querying metabolism under different physiological constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ali; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin; Hanson, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Metabolism is a representation of the biochemical principles that govern the production, consumption, degradation, and biosynthesis of metabolites in living cells. Organisms respond to changes in their physiological conditions or environmental perturbations (i.e. constraints) via cooperative implementation of such principles. Querying inner working principles of metabolism under different constraints provides invaluable insights for both researchers and educators. In this paper, we propose a metabolism query language (MQL) and discuss its query processing. MQL enables researchers to explore the behavior of the metabolism with a wide-range of predicates including dietary and physiological condition specifications. The query results of MQL are enriched with both textual and visual representations, and its query processing is completely tailored based on the underlying metabolic principles.

  13. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-01-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705

  14. Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-11-01

    The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.

  15. Resources for Conflict: Constraint or Wealth?

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Hwan Baik; Subhasish M. Chowdhury; Abhijit Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the availability of resources that can be expended in conflict on conflict intensity. We run a between-subjects Tullock contest in which we vary the contest budget from Low to Medium to High, while keeping the Nash equilibrium bid the same. We find an `inverted U-shaped' relationship between resource availability and conflict intensity. While standard error correction models can explain the first part of the relationship by attributing resources as constraint, th...

  16. Modeling Network Transition Constraints with Hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Discrete time dynamic graphs are frequently used to model multicommodity flows or activity paths through constrained resources, but simple graphs fail to capture the interaction effects of resource transitions. The resulting schedules are not operationally feasible, and return inflated objective...... values. A directed hypergraph formulation is derived to address railway network sequencing constraints, and an experimental problem sample solved to estimate the magnitude of objective inflation when interaction effects are ignored. The model is used to demonstrate the value of advance scheduling...

  17. Embedded System Synthesis under Memory Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm to solve the system synthesis problem of mapping a time constrained single-rate system specification onto a given heterogeneous architecture which may contain irregular interconnection structures. The synthesis is performed under memory constraints, that is......, the algorithm takes into account the memory size of processors and the size of interface buffers of communication links, and in particular the complicated interplay of these. The presented algorithm is implemented as part of the LY-COS cosynthesis system....

  18. Modeling compliant grasps exploiting environmental constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Salvietti, Gionata; Malvezzi, Monica; Gioioso, Guido; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical framework to describe the interaction between compliant hands and environmental constraints during grasping tasks. In the proposed model, we considered compliance at wrist, joint and contact level. We modeled the general case in which the hand is in contact with the object and the surrounding environment. All the other contact cases can be derived from the proposed system of equations. We performed several numerical simulation using the SynGrasp Matlab ...

  19. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  20. Coordinative constraints in bimanual tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Cristina; Sattler, Christine

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates coordinative constraints when participants execute discrete bimanual tool use actions. Participants moved two levers to targets that were either presented near the proximal parts of the levers or near the distal tips of the levers. In the first case, the tool transformation (i.e. the relationship between hand movement direction and target direction) was compatible, whereas in the second case, it was incompatible. We hypothesized that an egocentric constraint (i.e. a preference for moving the hands and tools in a mirror-symmetrical fashion) would be dominant when targets are presented near the proximal parts of the levers because in this situation, movements can be coded in terms of body-related coordinates. Furthermore, an allocentric constraint (i.e. a preference to move the hands in the same (parallel) direction in extrinsic space) was expected to be dominant when one of the targets or both are presented near the distal parts of the levers because in this condition, movements have to be coded in an external reference frame. The results show that when both targets are presented near the proximal parts of the levers, participants are faster and produce less errors with mirror-symmetrical when compared to parallel movements. Furthermore, the RT mirror-symmetry advantage is eliminated, when both targets are presented near the distal parts of the levers, and it is reversed, when the target for one lever is presented near its distal part and the target for the other lever is presented near its proximal part. These results show that the dominance of egocentric and allocentric coordinative constraints in bimanual tool use depends on whether movements are coded in terms of body-related coordinates or in an external reference frame.

  1. Tail Risk Constraints and Maximum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Geman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection in the financial literature has essentially been analyzed under two central assumptions: full knowledge of the joint probability distribution of the returns of the securities that will comprise the target portfolio; and investors’ preferences are expressed through a utility function. In the real world, operators build portfolios under risk constraints which are expressed both by their clients and regulators and which bear on the maximal loss that may be generated over a given time period at a given confidence level (the so-called Value at Risk of the position. Interestingly, in the finance literature, a serious discussion of how much or little is known from a probabilistic standpoint about the multi-dimensional density of the assets’ returns seems to be of limited relevance. Our approach in contrast is to highlight these issues and then adopt throughout a framework of entropy maximization to represent the real world ignorance of the “true” probability distributions, both univariate and multivariate, of traded securities’ returns. In this setting, we identify the optimal portfolio under a number of downside risk constraints. Two interesting results are exhibited: (i the left- tail constraints are sufficiently powerful to override all other considerations in the conventional theory; (ii the “barbell portfolio” (maximal certainty/ low risk in one set of holdings, maximal uncertainty in another, which is quite familiar to traders, naturally emerges in our construction.

  2. Games and teams with shared constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ankur A

    2017-08-13

    Energy systems of the future are envisaged to encompass multiple interacting autonomous entities. The theory of games provides the foundations for the design and analysis of such systems. This paper reviews models and results that would be of use for such analysis. Classically, games have involved players whose strategies are coupled only through the dependence of utility functions on strategies of other players. However, in many practical settings in the energy domain, system-level limitations bind the choices players can make. In 1965, Rosen ( Econometrica 33 , 520-534 (doi:10.2307/1911749)) pioneered the study of a class of games where there is a common constraint, called a shared constraint , that couples the strategies available to the players. We discuss how this seemingly benign extension has important ramifications, ranging from the very definition of an equilibrium concept, to other key issues such as existence, uniqueness and efficiency of equilibria. We show how the presence of a shared constraint naturally leads to notions of a price and forms the motivations for more recent models. Although most of the paper has the character of a survey, occasionally we also prove new results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Constraints on stellar evolution from pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Consideration of the many types of intrinsic variable stars, that is, those that pulsate, reveals that perhaps a dozen classes can indicate some constraints that affect the results of stellar evolution calculations, or some interpretations of observations. Many of these constraints are not very strong or may not even be well defined yet. In this review we discuss only the case for six classes: classical Cepheids with their measured Wesselink radii, the observed surface effective temperatures of the known eleven double-mode Cepheids, the pulsation periods and measured surface effective temperatures of three R CrB variables, the delta Scuti variable VZ Cnc with a very large ratio of its two observed periods, the nonradial oscillations of our sun, and the period ratios of the newly discovered double-mode RR Lyrae variables. Unfortunately, the present state of knowledge about the exact compositions; mass loss and its dependence on the mass, radius, luminosity, and composition; ;and internal mixing processes, as well as sometimes the more basic parameters such as luminosities and surface effective temperatures prevent us from applying strong constraints for every case where currently the possibility exists

  4. Current constraints on the cosmic growth history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2010-01-01

    We present constraints on the cosmic growth history with recent cosmological data, allowing for deviations from ΛCDM as might arise if cosmic acceleration is due to modifications to general relativity or inhomogeneous dark energy. We combine measures of the cosmic expansion history, from Type 1a supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with constraints on the growth of structure from recent galaxy, CMB, and weak lensing surveys along with integated Sachs Wolfe-galaxy cross correlations. Deviations from ΛCDM are parameterized by phenomenological modifications to the Poisson equation and the relationship between the two Newtonian potentials. We find modifications that are present at the time the CMB is formed are tightly constrained through their impact on the well-measured CMB acoustic peaks. By contrast, constraints on late-time modifications to the growth history, as might arise if modifications are related to the onset of cosmic acceleration, are far weaker, but remain consistent with ΛCDM at the 95% confidence level. For these late-time modifications we find that differences in the evolution on large and small scales could provide an interesting signature by which to search for modified growth histories with future wide angular coverage, large scale structure surveys.

  5. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisenberger, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, E a i , is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of E flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new 'causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory).A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank E< 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of E flux loops.It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (partly defined) theory substantially.Some of the new constraints are second class, leading to difficulties in quantization in the connection representation. This problem might be overcome in a very nice way by transforming to the classical loop variables, or the 'Faraday line' variables of Newman and Rovelli, and then solving the offending constraints.Note that, though motivated by quantum considerations, the present paper is classical in substance. (orig.)

  6. Architecture in Mission Integration, Choreographing Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rod

    2000-01-01

    In any building project the Architect's role and skill is to balance the client's requirements with the available technology, a site and budget. Time, place and resources set the boundaries and constraints of the project. If these boundaries are correctly understood and respected by the Architect they can be choreographed into producing a facility that abides by those constraints and successfully meets the clients needs. The design and assembly of large scale space facilities whether in orbit around or on the surface of a planet require and employs these same skills. In this case the site is the International Space Station (ISS) which operates at a nominal rendezvous altitude of 220 nautical miles. With supplies to support a 7 day mission the Shuttle nominally has a cargo capacity of 35,000 pounds to that altitude. Through the Mission Integration process the Launch Package Management Team choreographs the constraints of ascent performance, hardware design, cargo, rendezvous, mission duration and assembly time in order to meet the mission objective.

  7. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regin, J.C. [ILOG S.A., Gentilly (France)

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  8. A combined constraint handling framework: an empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Si, Chengyong; Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new combined constraint handling framework (CCHF) for solving constrained optimization problems (COPs). The framework combines promising aspects of different constraint handling techniques (CHTs) in different situations with consideration of problem characteristics. In order...

  9. The Efficiency of Constraint Based Routing in MPLS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Medvecky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the simulation results and evaluates the efficiency of constraint base routing algorithms used in MPLS network from the point of their usability in Next Generation Networks. The efficiency of constraint based routing is evaluated according following criteria: optimal path selection, routing priority of traffic flows selected for constraint routing and bandwidth allocation by MAM or RDM bandwidth constraints models.

  10. Topology Optimization of Continuum Structures with Local Stress Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duysinx, Pierre; Bendsøe, Martin P

    1998-01-01

    of topology problems are considered. To deal with the so-called 'singularity' phenomenon of stress constraints in topology design, an epsilon-constraint relaxation of the stress constraints is used. We describe the mathematical programming approach that is used to solve the numerical optimization problems...

  11. DELPHI ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS TO MAIZE PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive Delphi study was conducted to: identify constraints to maize production on SNL from the perspectives of crop researchers, extension officers and farmers; categorise the constraints; rank them in order of importance; and identify ways of addressing them. A total of 33 constraint items were identified and ...

  12. The Effects of Constraints in a Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    The dictionary definition of constraint is one-sided, solely restrictive. The problem-solving definition is two-sided. Constraints come in pairs. One retains its restrictive function, precluding something specific; the other directs search for its substitute. The paired constraint model is applied to both domain and classroom. I discuss the…

  13. Structural constraints to wilderness: Impacts on visitation and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider; Sierra L. Schroeder; Ann. Schwaller

    2011-01-01

    A significant research body on recreation constraints exists, but wilderness constraints research is limited. Like other recreationists, wilderness visitors likely experience a number of constraints, factors that limit leisure preference formation or participation and enjoyment. This project explored how visitors' experiences with and in wilderness are constrained...

  14. A comparison of debt and primary-deficit constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.P.; Beetsma, R.; Schabert, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares constraints on the public debt with constraints on the primary deficit. The analysis takes into account how an optimizing government reacts to the different constraints when deciding on a spending and borrowing plan. We find that the economy behaves similarly under both

  15. Constraint algebra of open string field theory in midpoint coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potting, R.; Taylor, C.; Velikson, B.

    1987-01-01

    We study the canonical structure of string field theory in midpoint coordinates. We find the constraint algebra, which consists of second class constraints, together with dependent first class constraints. Exploiting properties of the relevant operators, we show that the constraint algebra is the same in the interacting theory as in the free theory, at least on Fock-space states. We discuss the gauge transformations generated by the first class constraints, and show that they can be used to gauge away unphysical fields. (orig.)

  16. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with Constraint Satisfactions for a Quadcopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Ramirez-Jaime, Andres; Xu, Feng; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy combined with constraint satisfactions for a quadcopter. The full dynamics of the quadcopter describing the attitude and position are nonlinear, which are quite sensitive to changes of inputs and disturbances. By means of constraint satisfactions, partial nonlinearities and modeling errors of the control-oriented model of full dynamics can be transformed into the inequality constraints. Subsequently, the quadcopter can be controlled by an NMPC controller with the updated constraints generated by constraint satisfactions. Finally, the simulation results applied to a quadcopter simulator are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  17. [The Nature and Issues of Drug Addiction Treatment under Constraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, Bastien

    2014-01-01

    This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in

  18. Constraints on the symmetry energy from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.G.; Tsang, M.B.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Danielewicz, P.; Famiano, M.; Hodges, R.K.; Kilburn, M.; Winkelbauer, J.; Youngs, M.; Lu, F.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on the Equation of State for symmetric matter (equal neutron and proton numbers) have been extracted from energetic collisions of heavy ions over a range of energies. Collisions of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich heavy ions now provide initial constraints on the Equation of State of neutron-rich matter at sub-saturation densities from isospin diffusions and neutron proton ratios. This talk reviews the experimental constraints from heavy ion reactions on the density dependence of symmetry energy at sub-saturation density. These constraints are compared to other available constraints from nuclear structures, masses and neutron skins. (author)

  19. Constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traschen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Conditions are found for the existence of integral constraints on stress-energy perturbations in general relativity. The integral constraints can be thought of as a general-relativistic generalization of the conservation of energy and momentum of matter perturbations in special relativity. The constraints are stated in terms of a vector field V, and the Robertson-Walker spacetimes are shown to have such constraint vectors. Although in general V is not a Killing vector, in a vacuum spacetime the constraint vectors are precisely the Killing vectors

  20. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, Amol; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Ishak, Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw 0 (2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw 1 (2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy

  1. Molecular and cellular constraints on proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemme, Tanja

    Engineering proteins with new sequences, structures and functions has many exciting practical applications, and provides new ways to dissect design principles for function. Recent successes in computational protein design provide a cause for optimism. Yet many functions are currently too complex to engineer predictively, and successful design of new biological activities also requires an understanding of the functional pressures acting on proteins in the context of cells and organisms. I will present two vignettes describing our progress with dissecting both molecular and cellular constraints on protein function. In the first, we characterized the cost and benefit of protein production upon sequence perturbations in a classic system for gene regulation, the lac operon. Our results were unexpected in light of the common assumption that the dominant fitness costs are due to protein expression. Instead, we discovered a direct linear relationship between cost and lacpermease activity, not protein or mRNA production. The magnitude of the cost of permease activity, relative to protein production, has consequences for regulation. Our model predicts an advantage of direct regulation of protein activity (not just expression), providing a new explanation for the long-known mechanism of ``inducer exclusion'' that inhibits transport through the permease. Similar pressures and cost/benefit tradeoffs may be key to engineering synthetic systems with improved fitness. In the second vignette, I will describe our recent efforts to develop computational approaches that predict protein sequences consistent with multiple functional conformations. We expect such ``multi-constraint'' models to improve predictions of functional sequences determined by deep mutational scanning in bacteria, to provide insights into how the balance between functional conformations shapes sequence space, and to highlight molecular and cellular constraints that cannot be captured by the model.

  2. Constraint choice in revision knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasso, Michele; Beaufils, Philippe; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    Along with the increase in primary total knee arthroplasty, there has been an increase in the number of revisions. The aim of this study was to propose a selection algorithm for the knee revision constraint according to the state of ligaments and to the bone defects Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute Classification [AORI] classification. The hypothesis was that this algorithm would facilitate the appropriate choice of prosthesis constraint, thus providing stable components and a good long-term survivorship of the knee revisions. Sixty consecutive revision knee arthroplasties in 57 patients were prospectively evaluated. Prostheses implanted at revision included postero-stabilised, condylar constrained and rotating hinged, relative to the state of the ligaments and of the bone loss around the knee. The median follow-up was nine years (range, 4-12). The median IKS knee and function scores and HSS score were 41 (15-62), 21.5 (12-43) and 34 (23-65) points, respectively, before the operation, and 81 (48-97), 79 (56-92) and 83.5 (62-98) points (p < 0.001) at the latest follow-up evaluation. The median ROM increased from 74° (29-110°) preoperatively to 121° (98-132°) (p < 0.01) at the final follow-up. Re-revision was necessary in five (8.3%) patients. A selection algorithm for the revision implant constraint based on the state of ligaments and the bone loss AORI classification could provide stable knee reconstructions and long-term success of knee revisions.

  3. Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-09-01

    We consider how well the dark energy equation of state w as a function of redshift z will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of w on z, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achievable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the 2σ constraints on the current value of w to be Δw0(2σ)=0.20, and on dw/dz (between z=0 and z=1) to be Δw1(2σ)=0.37. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

  4. Cardy Algebras and Sewing Constraints, I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo

    2009-12-01

    This is part one of a two-part work that relates two different approaches to two-dimensional open-closed rational conformal field theory. In part one we review the definition of a Cardy algebra, which captures the necessary consistency conditions of the theory at genus 0 and 1. We investigate the properties of these algebras and prove uniqueness and existence theorems. One implication is that under certain natural assumptions, every rational closed CFT is extendable to an open-closed CFT. The relation of Cardy algebras to the solutions of the sewing constraints is the topic of part two.

  5. Variational constraints for electrical-impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Kohn, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The task of electrical-impedance tomography is to invert boundary measurements for the conductivity distribution of a body. This inverse problem can be formulated so the primary data are the measured powers dissipated across injection electrodes. Then, since these powers are minima of the pertinent (dual) variational principles, feasibility constraints can be found for the nonlinear inversion problem. When power may be measured accurately, the existence of these dual variational principles implies that any exact solution must lie at a point of intersection of the two feasibility boundaries

  6. Institutional opportunities and constraints to biomass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, R.; Finnell, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines a number of institutional opportunities and constraints applicable to biomass as well as other renewable energy technologies. Technological progress that improves performance or increases system efficiencies can open doors to deployment; however, market success depends on overcoming the institutional challenges that these technologies will face. It can be far more difficult to put into place the necessary institutional mechanisms which will drive these commercialization efforts. The keys to the successful implementation of energy technologies and, in particular, biomass power technologies, are issues that can be categorized as: (1) regulatory; (2) financial; (3) infrastructural; and (4) perceptual. (author)

  7. Mean-Reverting Portfolio With Budget Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziping; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the mean-reverting portfolio design problem arising from statistical arbitrage in the financial markets. We first propose a general problem formulation aimed at finding a portfolio of underlying component assets by optimizing a mean-reversion criterion characterizing the mean-reversion strength, taking into consideration the variance of the portfolio and an investment budget constraint. Then several specific problems are considered based on the general formulation, and efficient algorithms are proposed. Numerical results on both synthetic and market data show that our proposed mean-reverting portfolio design methods can generate consistent profits and outperform the traditional design methods and the benchmark methods in the literature.

  8. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  9. Big bang nucleosynthesis constraints on bulk neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, H.S.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the constraints imposed by the requirement of successful nucleosynthesis on models with one large extra hidden space dimension and a single bulk neutrino residing in this dimension. We solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the thermal distribution of the Kaluza-Klein modes and evaluate their contribution to the energy density at the big bang nucleosynthesis epoch to constrain the size of the extra dimension R -1 ≡μ and the parameter sin 2 2θ which characterizes the mixing between the active and bulk neutrinos

  10. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  11. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  12. IAEA '77: between politics and factual constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, A.

    1976-01-01

    The IAEA's organization of its 20th General Conference at Rio de Janeiro clearly underlined the importance of a comprehensive international transfer of nuclear technology. Despite all efforts to keep the Agency out of general political confrontations, the Conference was tinged politically by the PLO and South Africa problems. Besides the next five year program, which was agreed upon in the light of existing factual constraints, the support and control functions of the IAEA and next year's Salzburg Fuel Cycle Conference were other main topics of discussion. The 1977 IAEA budget was approved at a level of 43.5 million, the General Fund at 6.5 million. (orig.) [de

  13. On Simplification of Database Integrity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2006-01-01

    Without proper simplification techniques, database integrity checking can be prohibitively time consuming. Several methods have been developed for producing simplified incremental checks for each update but none until now of sufficient quality and generality for providing a true practical impact......, and the present paper is an attempt to fill this gap. On the theoretical side, a general characterization is introduced of the problem of simplification of integrity constraints and a natural definition is given of what it means for a simplification procedure to be ideal. We prove that ideality of simplification...

  14. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  15. Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.

  16. Constraints on Gauge Field Production during Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Sami; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum...... of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton...

  17. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  18. EWPD Constraints on Flavor Symmetric Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín; Trott, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Electroweak precision data constraints on flavor symmetric vector fields are determined. The flavor multiplets of spin one that we examine are the complete set of fields that couple to quark bi-linears at tree level while not initially breaking the quark global flavor symmetry group. Flavor safe vector masses proximate to, and in some cases below, the electroweak symmetry breaking scale are found to be allowed. Many of these fields provide a flavor safe mechanism to explain the t tbar forward backward anomaly, and can simultaneously significantly raise the allowed values of the Standard Model Higgs mass consistent with electroweak precision data.

  19. CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity

    OpenAIRE

    Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}

  20. The Propagation and Evolution of Design Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, V. V.; Howard, Thomas J.; Culley, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The research in this paper reports a case study of a design project which had two scopes for a variant and an adaptive design type. This is quite common practice where designers commonly propose short and long term solutions to design problems. In this particular case, preference was not voiced...... for an adaptive solution until the 3rd stage-gate of the project. The researcher acted as project manager of the design project using a participatory action research methodology. During the design work the researcher recorded and classified the various design constraints introduced and propagated throughout...

  1. Ghost imaging lidar via sparsity constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chengqiang; Gong, Wenlin; Chen, Mingliang; Li, Enrong; Wang, Hui; Xu, Wendong; Han, Shensheng

    2012-01-01

    For remote sensing, high-resolution imaging techniques are helpful to catch more characteristic information of the target. We extend pseudo-thermal light ghost imaging to the area of remote imaging and propose a ghost imaging lidar system. For the first time, we demonstrate experimentally that the real-space image of a target at about 1.0 km range with 20 mm resolution is achieved by ghost imaging via sparsity constraints (GISC) technique. The characters of GISC technique compared to the exis...

  2. Observational Constraints on Monomial Warm Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Warm inflation is, as of today, one of the best motivated mechanisms for explaining an early inflationary period. In this paper, we derive and analyze the current bounds on warm inflation with a monomial potential $U\\propto \\phi^p$, using the constraints from the PLANCK mission. In particular, we discuss the parameter space of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the potential coupling $\\lambda$ of the monomial warm inflation in terms of the number of e-folds. We obtain that the theoretical ten...

  3. Study of B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} decay modes with the BABAR detector and constraints from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, K{pi}, KK modes on the CKM matrix; Etude des desintegrations B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} et B{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} avec le detecteur BABAR et contraintes des modes B {yields} {pi}{pi}, K{pi}, KK sur la matrice CKM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcles, J

    2006-04-15

    The analysis of B{sup {+-}} {yields} pi{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} modes has been done with a sample of 227 millions of B pairs corresponding to 205 fb{sup -1} of data collected between october 1999 and july 2004 with the BABAR detector. The branching ratios and CP asymmetries obtained are: Br({pi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (5.57 {+-} 0.60 {+-} 0.33)*10{sup -6}; Br(K{pi}{sup 0}) (11.50 {+-} 0.65 {+-} 0.57)*10{sup -6}; A({pi}{pi}{sup 0}) = (-0.007 {+-} 0.104 {+-} 0.023); and A(K{pi}{sup 0}) = (0.066 {+-} 0.055 {+-} 0.010). The constraints on the angle alpha of the unitarity triangle have been derived from the isospin analysis of B {yields} {pi}{pi} modes. The isospin symmetry has also been used to relate B {yields} K{pi} modes in order to constraint the CKM matrix. More significant constraints have been obtained with the SU(3) symmetry for B, Bs {yields} {pi}{pi}/ K{pi}/ KK modes. They are in good agreement with the Standard CKM fit. It has been shown that such an analysis will be competitive with the Standard CKM fit in the future and will allow to determine SU(3) breaking or New Physics parameters from data. (author)

  4. Management of Constraint Generators in Fashion Store Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch Münster, Mia; Haug, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to identify the most important constraint generators, investigating the types of constraints they generate, and providing guidelines for how to deal with constraint elicitation. Design/methodology/approach: The three contributions mentioned above are developed through discussions...... is on fashion store design, the findings may, to some degree, be applicable to other types of store design projects. Practical implications: The understandings provided by this paper may help designers to deal proactively with constraints, reducing the use of resources to alter design proposals. Originality....../value: The paper: defines the most important constraint generators from the perspective of retail store designers, clarifies the types of constraints they generate, and provides guidelines for how to deal with constraint elicitation....

  5. Constraints on Cosmological Models from Cosmic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M. J.; Smith, R. J.; Lucey, J. R.; Schlegel, D. J.; Davies, R. L.

    Cosmic flows are the only probe of the large-scale mass power spectrum available at low redshift. An important statistic is the bulk flow of a peculiar velocity sample with respect to the Cosmic Microwave background. We compare the bulk flow of the SMAC cluster sample to the predictions of popular cosmological models and to other recent large-scale peculiar velocity surveys. Both analyses account for aliasing of small-scale power due to the sparse and non-uniform sampling of the surveys. We conclude that the SMAC bulk flow is in marginal conflict with flat COBE-normalized ΛCDM models which fit the cluster abundance constraint. However, power spectra which are steeper shortward of the peak are consistent with all of the above constraints. When recent large-scale peculiar velocity surveys are compared, we conclude that all measured bulk flows (with the possible exception of that of Lauer & Postman) are consistent with each other given the errors, provided the latter allow for ``cosmic covariance''. A rough estimate of the mean bulk flow of all surveys (except Lauer & Postman) is ˜400 km/s with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  6. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Matthias; Neubert, Matthias; Straub, David M

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the [Formula: see text] branching ratio and [Formula: see text]. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with "wrong-chirality" Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models.

  7. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Cornell University, Department of Physics, LEPP, Ithaca, NY (United States); Straub, David M. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipolemoment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the B→ X{sub s}γ branching ratio and ε'/ε. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and U(3){sup 3} or U(2){sup 3} flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with ''wrong-chirality'' Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models. (orig.)

  8. Legal, ethical,and economic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libassi, F.P.; Donaldson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers the legal, ethical, and economic constraints to developing a comprehensive knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. These constraints are not fixed and immutable; rather they are determined by the political process. Political issues cannot be evaded. The basic objective of developing a comprehensive knowledge about the biological effects of ionizing radiation exists as an objective not only because we wish to add to the store of human knowledge but also because we have important use for that knowledge. It will assist our decision-makers to make choices that affect us all. These choices require both hard factual information and application of political judgment. Research supplies some of the hard factual information and should be as free as possible from political influence in its execution. At the same time, the political choices that must be made influence the direction and nature of the research program as a whole. Similarly, the legal, ethical, and economic factors that constrain our ability to expand knowledge through research reflect a judgment by political agents that values other than expansion of knowledge should be recognized and given effect

  9. Movement constraints on interpersonal coordination and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.

  10. Emerging carbon constraints for corporate risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Timo; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2007-01-01

    While discussions about global sustainability challenges abound, the financial risks that they incur, albeit important, have received less attention. We suggest that corporate risk assessments should include sustainability-related aspects, especially with relation to the natural environment, and encompass the flux of critical materials within a company's value chain. Such a comprehensive risk assessment takes into account input- as well as output-related factors. With this paper, we focus on the flux of carbon and define carbon constraints that emerge due to the disposition of fossil fuels in the input dimension and due to direct and indirect climate change effects in the output dimension. We review the literature regarding the financial consequences of carbon constraints on the macroeconomic, sector, and company level. We conclude that: a) financial consequences seem to be asymmetrically distributed between and within sectors, b) the individual risk exposure of companies depends on the intensity of and dependency on carbon-based materials and energy, and c) financial markets have only started to incorporate these aspects in their valuations. This paper ends with recommendations on how to incorporate our results in an integrated carbon risk management framework. (author)

  11. Stochastic population dynamics under resource constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavane, Ajinkya S., E-mail: ajinkyagavane@gmail.com; Nigam, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.nigam@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [BITS Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Shameerpet, Hyd - 500078 (India)

    2016-06-02

    This paper investigates the population growth of a certain species in which every generation reproduces thrice over a period of predefined time, under certain constraints of resources needed for survival of population. We study the survival period of a species by randomizing the reproduction probabilities within a window at same predefined ages and the resources are being produced by the working force of the population at a variable rate. This randomness in the reproduction rate makes the population growth stochastic in nature and one cannot predict the exact form of evolution. Hence we study the growth by running simulations for such a population and taking an ensemble averaged over 500 to 5000 such simulations as per the need. While the population reproduces in a stochastic manner, we have implemented a constraint on the amount of resources available for the population. This is important to make the simulations more realistic. The rate of resource production then is tuned to find the rate which suits the survival of the species. We also compute the mean life time of the species corresponding to different resource production rate. Study for these outcomes in the parameter space defined by the reproduction probabilities and rate of resource production is carried out.

  12. Instabilities constraint and relativistic mean field parametrization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaksono, A.; Kasmudin; Buervenich, T.J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two parameter sets (Set 1 and Set 2) of the standard relativistic mean field (RMF) model plus additional vector isoscalar nonlinear term, which are constrained by a set of criteria 20 determined by symmetric nuclear matter stabilities at high densities due to longitudinal and transversal particle–hole excitation modes are investigated. In the latter parameter set, δ meson and isoscalar as well as isovector tensor contributions are included. The effects in selected finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties predicted by both parameter sets are systematically studied and compared with the ones predicted by well-known RMF parameter sets. The vector isoscalar nonlinear term addition and instability constraints have reasonably good effects in the high-density properties of the isoscalar sector of nuclear matter and certain finite nuclei properties. However, even though the δ meson and isovector tensor are included, the incompatibility with the constraints from some experimental data in certain nuclear properties at saturation point and the excessive stiffness of the isovector nuclear matter equation of state at high densities as well as the incorrect isotonic trend in binding the energies of finite nuclei are still encountered. It is shown that the problem may be remedied if we introduce additional nonlinear terms not only in the isovector but also in the isoscalar vectors. (author)

  13. Experimental constraint on quark electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons are sensitive probes of additional C P violation sources beyond the standard model to account for the baryon number asymmetry of the universe. As a fundamental quantity of the nucleon structure, tensor charge is also a bridge that relates nucleon EDMs to quark EDMs. With a combination of nucleon EDM measurements and tensor charge extractions, we investigate the experimental constraint on quark EDMs, and its sensitivity to C P violation sources from new physics beyond the electroweak scale. We obtain the current limits on quark EDMs as 1.27 ×10-24 e .cm for the up quark and 1.17 ×10-24 e .cm for the down quark at the scale of 4 GeV2 . We also study the impact of future nucleon EDM and tensor charge measurements, and show that upcoming new experiments will improve the constraint on quark EDMs by about 3 orders of magnitude leading to a much more sensitive probe of new physics models.

  14. Heat exchanger networks design with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amidpur, M.; Zoghi, A.; Nasiri, N.

    2000-01-01

    So far there have been two approaches to the problem of heat recovery system design where stream matching constraints exist. The first approach involves mathematical techniques for solving the combinational problem taking due recognition of the constraints. These methodologies are now efficient, still suffer from the problem of taking a significant amount of control and direction away from the designer. The second approach based upon so called pinch technology and involves the use of adaptation of standard problem table algorithm. Unfortunately, the proposed methodologies are not very easy to understand, therefore they fail to provide the insight and generally associated with these approaches. Here, a new pinch based methodology is presented. In this method, we modified the traditional numerical targeting procedure-problem table algorithm which is stream cascade table. Unconstrained groups are established by using of artificial intelligence method such that they have minimum utility consumption among different alternatives. Each group is an individual network, therefore, traditional optimization, used in pinch technology, should be employed. By transferring energy between groups heat recovery can be maximized, then each group designs individually and finally networks combine together. One of the advantages of using this method is simple targeting and easy networks-design. Besides the approach has the potential using of new network design methods such as dual temperature approach, flexible pinch design, pseudo pinch design. It is hoped that this methodology provides insight easy network design

  15. Observational constraints on Chaplygin quartessence: Background results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makler, Martin; Quinet de Oliveira, Sergio; Waga, Ioav

    2003-01-01

    We derive the constraints set by several experiments on the quartessence Chaplygin model (QCM). In this scenario, a single fluid component drives the Universe from a nonrelativistic matter-dominated phase to an accelerated expansion phase behaving, first, like dark matter and in a more recent epoch like dark energy. We consider current data from SNIa experiments, statistics of gravitational lensing, FR IIb radio galaxies, and x-ray gas mass fraction in galaxy clusters. We investigate the constraints from this data set on flat Chaplygin quartessence cosmologies. The observables considered here are dependent essentially on the background geometry, and not on the specific form of the QCM fluctuations. We obtain the confidence region on the two parameters of the model from a combined analysis of all the above tests. We find that the best fit occurs close to the ΛCDM limit (α=0). The standard Chaplygin quartessence (α=1) is also allowed by the data, but only at the ∼2σ level

  16. Stochastic population dynamics under resource constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavane, Ajinkya S.; Nigam, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the population growth of a certain species in which every generation reproduces thrice over a period of predefined time, under certain constraints of resources needed for survival of population. We study the survival period of a species by randomizing the reproduction probabilities within a window at same predefined ages and the resources are being produced by the working force of the population at a variable rate. This randomness in the reproduction rate makes the population growth stochastic in nature and one cannot predict the exact form of evolution. Hence we study the growth by running simulations for such a population and taking an ensemble averaged over 500 to 5000 such simulations as per the need. While the population reproduces in a stochastic manner, we have implemented a constraint on the amount of resources available for the population. This is important to make the simulations more realistic. The rate of resource production then is tuned to find the rate which suits the survival of the species. We also compute the mean life time of the species corresponding to different resource production rate. Study for these outcomes in the parameter space defined by the reproduction probabilities and rate of resource production is carried out.

  17. Energetic Constraints on Species Coexistence in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigot, Alexander L; Tobias, Joseph A; Jetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other's closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity-richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity.

  18. Planck constraints on holographic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Plank data. We find that HDE can provide a good fit to the Plank high-l (l ∼> 40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l ≅ 20-40 found in the ΛCDM model remains unsolved in the HDE model. The Plank data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At the 68% confidence level (CL), we obtain c = 0.508 ± 0.207 with Plank+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom behavior of HDE at the more than 2σ CL. By combining Plank+WP with the external astrophysical data sets, i.e. the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the direct Hubble constant measurement result (H 0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 kms −1 Mpc −1 ) from the HST, the SNLS3 supernovae data set, and Union2.1 supernovae data set, we get the 68% CL constraint results c = 0.484 ± 0.070, 0.474 ± 0.049, 0.594 ± 0.051, and 0.642 ± 0.066, respectively. The constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Plank lensing data into the analysis. Compared with the WMAP-9 results, the Plank results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher significant level. We also investigate the tension between different data sets. We find no evident tension when we combine Plank data with BAO and HST. Especially, we find that the strong correlation between Ω m h 3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between the Plank and HST measurements. The residual value of χ 2 Plank+WP+HST −χ 2 Plank+WP is 7.8 in the ΛCDM model, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch the dark energy to w model or the holographic model. When we introduce supernovae data sets into the analysis, some tension appears. We find that the SNLS3 data set is in tension with all other data sets; for example, for the Plank+WP, WMAP-9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Δχ 2 is equal to 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. As a comparison

  19. Statistical Techniques to Explore the Quality of Constraints in Constraint-Based Modeling Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Jaime; Conejo, Ricardo; Guzmán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular student modeling approaches is Constraint-Based Modeling (CBM). It is an efficient approach that can be easily applied inside an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Even with these characteristics, building new ITSs requires carefully designing the domain model to be taught because different sources of errors could affect…

  20. Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications

  1. Evolution of Neutron Stars and Observational Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and evolution of neutron stars is discussed with a view towards constraining the properties of high density matter through observations. The structure of neutron stars is illuminated through the use of several analytical solutions of Einstein’s equations which, together with the maximally compact equation of state, establish extreme limits for neutron stars and approximations for binding energies, moments of inertia and crustal properties as a function of compactness. The role of the nuclear symmetry energy is highlighted and constraints from laboratory experiments such as nuclear masses and heavy ion collisions are presented. Observed neutron star masses and radius limits from several techniques, such as thermal emissions, X-ray bursts, gammaray flares, pulsar spins and glitches, spin-orbit coupling in binary pulsars, and neutron star cooling, are discussed. The lectures conclude with a discusson of proto-neutron stars and their neutrino signatures.

  2. Constraints on gauge field production during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmi, Sami; 3-Origins, Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark))" data-affiliation=" (CP3-Origins, Centre for Cosmology and Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark))" >Sloth, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain new insights into the gauge field couplings in the early universe, we consider the constraints on gauge field production during inflation imposed by requiring that their effect on the CMB anisotropies are subdominant. In particular, we calculate systematically the bispectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation induced by the presence of vector gauge fields during inflation. Using a model independent parametrization in terms of magnetic non-linearity parameters, we calculate for the first time the contribution to the bispectrum from the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field defined by the gauge field. We then demonstrate that in a very general class of models, the bispectrum induced by the cross correlation between the inflaton and the magnetic field can be dominating compared with the non-Gaussianity induced by magnetic fields when the cross correlation between the magnetic field and the inflaton is ignored

  3. Optimal Population and Exhaustible Resource Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean

    2018-01-01

    A large literature considers the optimal size and growth rate of the human population, trading off the utility value of additional people with the costs of a larger population. In this literature, an important parameter is the social weight placed on population size; a standard result is that a planner with a larger weight on population chooses larger population levels and growth rates. We demonstrate that this result is conditionally overturned when an exhaustible resource constraint is introduced: if the discount rate is small enough, the optimal population today decreases with the welfare weight on population size. That is, a more total-utilitarian social planner could prefer a smaller population today than a more average-utilitarian social planner. We also present a numerical illustration applied to the case of climate change, where we show that under plausible real-world parameter values, our result matters for the direction and magnitude of optimal population policy.

  4. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  5. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Constraints from Cosmography in Various Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Alejandro; Gruber, Christine; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando

    2015-01-01

    We use cosmography to present constraints on the kinematics of the Universe without postulating any underlying theoretical model a priori. To this end, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to perform comparisons to the supernova Ia union 2 compilation, combined with the Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the Hubble constant, and the Hubble parameter datasets. The cosmographic approach to our analysis is revisited and extended for new notions of redshift presented as alternatives to the redshift z. Furthermore, we introduce a new set of fitting parameters describing the kinematical evolution of the Universe in terms of the equation of state of the Universe and derivatives of the total pressure. Our results are consistent with the ΛCDM model, although alternative models, with nearly constant pressure and no cosmological constant, match the results accurately as well.

  7. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  8. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...... correctness proofs. A new operational semantics for CHR is introduced that reduces notational overhead significantly and allows to consider confluence for programs with extra-logical and incomplete built-in predicates. Proofs of confluence are demonstrated for programs with redundant data representation, e.......g., sets-as-lists, for dynamic pro- gramming algorithms with pruning as well as a Union-Find program, which are not covered by previous confluence notions for CHR....

  9. White Dwarf Constraints on Dark Matter Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, B.; Biesiada, M.

    2009-11-01

    Matter budget in the Universe together with primordial nucleosynthesis bounds on baryonic density suggests that dark matter in galaxies should have non-baryonic nature. On the other hand, considerable agreement of a variety of astrophysical observations with standard physics can serve as a source of constraints on non-standard ideas. In this context we consider G117-B15A pulsating white dwarf for which the rate of period change of its fundamental mode has been accurately measured. This star has been claimed the most stable oscillator ever recorded in the optical band. Here we use this object to derive a bound on theories with large extra dimensions as well as to constrain supersymmetric dark matter.

  10. Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Edison P.

    1994-01-01

    We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.

  11. Enhancement Approachof Object Constraint Language Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Samin; Selamat, Ali

    2018-01-01

    OCL is the most prevalent language to document system constraints that are annotated in UML. Writing OCL specifications is not an easy task due to the complexity of the OCL syntax. Therefore, an approach to help and assist developers to write OCL specifications is needed. There are two approaches to do so: First, creating an OCL specifications by a tool called COPACABANA. Second, an MDA-based approach to help developers in writing OCL specification by another tool called NL2OCLviaSBVR that generates OCL specification automatically. This study presents another MDA-based approach called En2OCL, and its objective is twofold. 1- to improve the precison of the existing works. 2- to present a benchmark of these approaches. The benchmark shows that the accuracy of COPACABANA, NL2OCLviaSBVR, and En2OCL are 69.23, 84.64, and 88.40 respectively.

  12. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  13. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  14. Participation Constraints in the Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    We use a natural experiment to investigate the impact of participation constraints on individuals' decisions to invest in the stock market. Unexpected inheritance due to sudden deaths results in exogenous variation in financial wealth, and allows us to examine whether fixed entry and ongoing...... participation costs cause non-participation. We have three key findings. First, windfall wealth has a positive effect on participation. Second, the majority of households do not react to sizeable windfalls by entering the stock market, but hold on to substantial safe assets—even over longer horizons. Third......, the majority of households inheriting stock holdings actively sell the entire portfolio. Overall, these findings suggest that participation by many individuals is unlikely to be constrained by financial participation costs....

  15. Ability or Finances as Constraints to Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    windfall wealth. We compare the performance of these ventures to that of a matched sample of individuals who form businesses at the same time to test whether financial barriers to entrepreneurship are caused by market failure or low entrepreneurial ability. We find that constrained entrepreneurs’ ventures......This study exploits a natural experiment to investigate why financial constraints appear to limit firm formation. Exogenous variation in wealth results from unexpected inheritance due to sudden death and allows us to identify 304 constrained entrepreneurs, who start a business after receiving...... have significantly lower survival rates and are less profitable than are those of unconstrained entrepreneurs. Collectively, these results suggest that constrained entrepreneurs have lower entrepreneurial ability and that capital markets work sufficiently well in funding individuals who have worthy...

  16. The Betelgeuse Project: constraints from rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Nance, S.; Diaz, M.; Smith, S. G.; Hickey, J.; Zhou, L.; Koutoulaki, M.; Sullivan, J. M.; Fowler, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    In order to constrain the evolutionary state of the red supergiant Betelgeuse (α Orionis), we have produced a suite of models with zero-age main sequence masses from 15 to 25 M⊙ in intervals of 1 M⊙ including the effects of rotation. The models were computed with the stellar evolutionary code MESA. For non-rotating models, we find results that are similar to other work. It is somewhat difficult to find models that agree within 1σ of the observed values of R, Teff and L, but modestly easy within 3σ uncertainty. Incorporating the nominal observed rotational velocity, ∼15 km s-1, yields significantly different and challenging constraints. This velocity constraint is only matched when the models first approach the base of the red supergiant branch (RSB), having crossed the Hertzsprung gap, but not yet having ascended the RSB and most violate even generous error bars on R, Teff and L. Models at the tip of the RSB typically rotate at only ∼0.1 km s-1, independent of any reasonable choice of initial rotation. We discuss the possible uncertainties in our modelling and the observations, including the distance to Betelgeuse, the rotation velocity and model parameters. We summarize various options to account for the rotational velocity and suggest that one possibility is that Betelgeuse merged with a companion star of about 1 M⊙ as it ascended the RSB, in the process producing the ring structure observed at about 7 arcmin away. A past coalescence would complicate attempts to understand the evolutionary history and future of Betelgeuse.

  17. Boundary Constraints for Minimum Cost Control of Directed Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Tang, Pei; Wen, Changyun; Meng, Ziyang

    2017-12-01

    Controlling directed networks with minimum cost has become an emerging branch in the areas of complex networks and control recently. In this paper, we focus on this minimum cost control problem subject to two types of boundary constraints, namely, trace boundary constraint and orthonormal boundary constraint on the input matrices. First, the minimum cost control problem is formulated as an optimization model for each type of boundary constraint. Next, two iterative algorithms, named as trace-constraint-based projected gradient method and orthonormal-constraint-based projected gradient method, are proposed to solve the optimal problem, respectively. Then, convergence properties of both algorithms are established. Finally, extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of our methods based on detailed comparisons between the two boundary conditions. We believe the results reveal some interesting physical insights for the optimal control of directed networks.

  18. On relaxing the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kruger, A.Y.; Minchenko, L.; Outrata, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2014), s. 171-189 ISSN 1385-1292 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/12/1309 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Nonlinear programming * Regularity conditions * Constraint qualifications * Lagrange multipliers * Mangasarian–Fromovitz constraint qualification * Constant rank constraint qualification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/MTR/outrata-0426110.pdf

  19. An Extensive Evaluation of Portfolio Approaches for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amadini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Constraint Programming, a portfolio approach exploits the complementary strengths of a portfolio of different constraint solvers. The goal is to predict and run the best solver(s of the portfolio for solving a new, unseen problem. In this work we reproduce, simulate, and evaluate the performance of different portfolio approaches on extensive benchmarks of Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Empirical results clearly show the benefits of portfolio solvers in terms of both solved instances and solving time.

  20. Data-Reusing Adaptive Filtering Algorithms with Adaptive Error Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Seok Choi

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of data-reusing and affine projection algorithms. For identification of a noisy linear finite impulse response channel, a partial knowledge of a channel, especially noise, can be used to improve the performance of the adaptive filter. Motivated by this fact, the proposed scheme incorporates an estimate of a knowledge of noise. A constraint, called the adaptive noise constraint, estimates an unknown information of noise. By imposing this constraint on a...

  1. Financial constraint and R&D investment: evidence from CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, A.K.; Mohnen, P.; Palm, F.C.; Schim van der Loeff, S.

    2007-01-01

    Using direct information on financial constraints from questionnaires, rather than the commonly used balance sheet information, this paper presents evidence that, controlling for traditional factors as size, market share, cooperative arrangement, and expected profitability, financial constraints affect a firm's decision of how much to invest in R&D activities. Apart from these constraints, other hampering factors as market uncertainty and institutional bottlenecks, regulations and organizatio...

  2. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    L. Murali Krishnan; H. Philip; M. Chinnadurai; V. Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices requires strong attitude and good knowledge level. Further, the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices has put fourth many constraints. This study was conducted in The Nilgiris district to assess the constraints and suggestions to overcome the constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices. Thus, to analyse the constraints Garett ranking method was used (Garett, H.E. et al 1973). The study revealed that the constrain...

  3. Parallel Execution of Multi Set Constraint Rewrite Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Multi-set constraint rewriting allows for a highly parallel computational model and has been used in a multitude of application domains such as constraint solving, agent specification etc. Rewriting steps can be applied simultaneously as long as they do not interfere with each other.We wish...... that the underlying constraint rewrite implementation executes rewrite steps in parallel on increasingly popular becoming multi-core architectures. We design and implement efficient algorithms which allow for the parallel execution of multi-set constraint rewrite rules. Our experiments show that we obtain some...

  4. Block Pickard Models for Two-Dimensional Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    In Pickard random fields (PRF), the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy of the field can be calculated explicitly, but only very simple structures can be incorporated into such a field. Given two Markov chains describing a boundary, an algorithm is presented which determines...... for the domino tiling constraint represented by a quaternary alphabet. PRF models are also presented for higher order constraints, including the no isolated bits (n.i.b.) constraint, and a minimum distance 3 constraint by defining super symbols on blocks of binary symbols....

  5. Parallel Execution of Multi Set Constraint Rewrite Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    that the underlying constraint rewrite implementation executes rewrite steps in parallel on increasingly popular becoming multi-core architectures. We design and implement efficient algorithms which allow for the parallel execution of multi-set constraint rewrite rules. Our experiments show that we obtain some......Multi-set constraint rewriting allows for a highly parallel computational model and has been used in a multitude of application domains such as constraint solving, agent specification etc. Rewriting steps can be applied simultaneously as long as they do not interfere with each other.We wish...

  6. Costs and constraints conspire to produce honest signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Signal costs and evolutionary constraints have both been proposed as ultimate explanations for the ubiquity of honest signaling, but the interface between these two factors is unclear. Here, I propose a pluralistic interpretation, and use game theory to demonstrate that evolutionary constraints...... that endocrine-mediated trade-offs preclude dishonesty. Several lines of evidence suggest that the realized cost of pheromone production may be nontrivial, and the antagonistic effects of juvenile hormone indicate the presence of significant evolutionary constraints. I conclude that the honesty of queen...... pheromones and other signals is likely enforced by both the cost of dishonesty and a suite of evolutionary constraints....

  7. Theory of constraints: A state-of-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Orouji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints (TOC is a management tool, which considers any manageable system as being limited in reaching more of its objectives by some constraints. According to TOC, there is always, at least, one single constraint, and TOC implements a concentrating process to detect the constraint and restructure the remaining of the organization around it. This paper presents an overview of different perspectives of TOC and its implementation in different industries such as project management, quality management, outsourcing, product mix, make-to-buy, accounting, banking and health care, etc. The results indicate that the method has been extensively implemented in different areas of accounting.

  8. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language...... analysis. With a tool such as Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, to be ex- plained below, the grammar writer or programmer working with language analysis can define his or her own constraint solvers specifically tailored for the linguistic problems at hand. We concentrate on grammars and lan- guage analysis...

  9. Toward a Constraint-Oriented Pragmatist Understanding of Design Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potentials of pragmatist philosophy to enrich the discourse on design creativity in general and the concept of constraints specifically. The concept of constraints is central in vanguard creativity research, and recent contributions have begun to explore constraints...... as nuanced and situated phenomena. In this paper, we argue that pragmatism can inspire and inform the study of constraints in design creativity by offering a coherent and well-developed frame of understanding how designerly inquiry unfolds as a complex interplay between the designer and the resources at hand...

  10. Solving dynamic resource constraint project scheduling problems using new constraint programming tools

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhyari, Abdallah; Guéret, Christelle; Jussien, Narendra

    2003-01-01

    Timetabling problems have been studied a lot over the last decade. Due to the complexity and the variety of such problems, most work concern static problems in which activities to schedule and resources are known in advance, and constraints are fixed. However, every timetabling problem is subject to unexpected events (consider for example, for university timetabling problems, a missing teacher, or a slide projector breakdoawn). In such a situation, one has to quickly build a new solution whic...

  11. Structure formation cosmic rays: Identifying observational constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shocks that arise from baryonic in-fall and merger events during the structure formation are believed to be a source of cosmic rays. These "structure formation cosmic rays" (SFCRs would essentially be primordial in composition, namely, mostly made of protons and alpha particles. However, very little is known about this population of cosmic rays. One way to test the level of its presence is to look at the products of hadronic reactions between SFCRs and the ISM. A perfect probe of these reactions would be Li. The rare isotope Li is produced only by cosmic rays, dominantly in αα → 6Li fusion reactions with the ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays. Exactly because of this unique property is Li affected most by the presence of an additional cosmic ray population. In turn, this could have profound consequences for the Big-Bang nucleosynthesis: cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metalpoor halo stars. Given the already existing problem of establishing the concordance between Li observed in halo stars and primordial 7Li as predicted by the WMAP, it is crucial to set limits to the level of this "contamination". However, the history of SFCRs is not very well known. Thus we propose a few model-independent ways of testing the SFCR species and their history, as well as the existing lithium problem: 1 we establish the connection between gamma-ray and Li production, which enables us to place constraints on the SFCR-made lithium by using the observed Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGRB; 2 we propose a new site for testing the primordial and SFCR-made lithium, namely, low-metalicity High-Velocity Clouds (HVCs, which retain the pre-Galactic composition without any significant depletion. Although using one method alone may not give us strong constraints, using them in

  12. Constraints to crop production and adaptation strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smallholder farmer agricultural productivity in developing countries is limited by diverse biotic and abiotic constraints. They have, however, developed adaptive strategies to cope with some of these constraints, thereby strengthening their resilience to various stresses. The objective of this study was to establish crop ...

  13. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  14. Instructional constraints faced by learners with duchenne muscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is about the instructional constraints facing learners with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) at Salvation Army (SA) Joy Town special primary school, Thika, Kenya. Instructional constraints in this study are the academic challenges encountered by the learners that include: poor teaching methods, inappropriate ...

  15. Individuals' interpretation of constraints: a new perspective on existing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po-Ju Chen; Deborah Kerstetter; Linda Caldwell

    2001-01-01

    The travel decision-making process is influenced by a number of factors. One of the most important yet infrequently studied factors is "perceived constraints." Nearly a decade ago Crawford, Jackson and Godbey (1991) developed a framework to guide constraints research. Numerous authors have utilized this framework but results have suggested that individuals...

  16. Pairwise Constraint-Guided Sparse Learning for Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection aims to identify the most informative features for a compact and accurate data representation. As typical supervised feature selection methods, Lasso and its variants using L1-norm-based regularization terms have received much attention in recent studies, most of which use class labels as supervised information. Besides class labels, there are other types of supervised information, e.g., pairwise constraints that specify whether a pair of data samples belong to the same class (must-link constraint) or different classes (cannot-link constraint). However, most of existing L1-norm-based sparse learning methods do not take advantage of the pairwise constraints that provide us weak and more general supervised information. For addressing that problem, we propose a pairwise constraint-guided sparse (CGS) learning method for feature selection, where the must-link and the cannot-link constraints are used as discriminative regularization terms that directly concentrate on the local discriminative structure of data. Furthermore, we develop two variants of CGS, including: 1) semi-supervised CGS that utilizes labeled data, pairwise constraints, and unlabeled data and 2) ensemble CGS that uses the ensemble of pairwise constraint sets. We conduct a series of experiments on a number of data sets from University of California-Irvine machine learning repository, a gene expression data set, two real-world neuroimaging-based classification tasks, and two large-scale attribute classification tasks. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed methods, compared with several established feature selection methods.

  17. The perceived constraints, motivation, and physical activity levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was threefold; Are Korean youth physically active to promote health during leisure time? What constraints to physical active do youth experience during leisure time? Are there relationships among constraints, motivation, and physical activity level? Of 1 280 youth randomly selected by a ...

  18. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Constraints are an important notion in grammars and language analysis, and constraint programming techniques have been developed concurrently for solving a variety of complex problems. In this chapter we consider the synthesis of these branches into practical and effective methods for language an...

  19. Production constraints and perceived marketing problems of stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an endeavour to improve the livestock production and particularly the marketing of livestock in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia, this study analyses the perception of livestock farmers in this regard. The low off-take percentage is the most serious production constraint, but marketing, although a constraint, is not ...

  20. Superconformal Lagrangian without the need to introduce constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A field Lagrangian invariant under all the symmetries of the superconformal group has been constructed without the need to introduce constraints on the curvatures. We have thus generalized the action of Townsend, van Nieuwenhuizen, and Kaku. We maintain that any and all constraints on the curvatures should result as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking and not be a priori enforced. 14 refs

  1. Constraints affecting teaching and learning of indigenous language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines constraints affecting teaching and learning in indigenous languages by adult farmers in Delta State. Data were collected from 200 randomly selected respondents in the study area. Data analysis was by the use of simple descriptive statistics. The following constraints were identified as affecting the ...

  2. Educational Level and Major Constraints Faced by Farmers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Educational Level and Major Constraints Faced by Farmers and Tappers in Production and Marketing of Coconut-based Products. ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... The study identified all the major constraints that attributed to the amorphous marketing structures and lack of processing industries.

  3. Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinow, T.; Pelsser, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a

  4. Maintaining control while delegating trust: Integrity constraints in trust management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Winsborough, William H.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the use, monitoring, and enforcement of integrity constraints in trust management-style authorization systems. We consider what portions of the policy state must be monitored to detect violations of integrity constraints. Then, we address the fact that not all participants in a

  5. An efficient algorithm for a class of constraint satisfaction problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woeginger, Gerhard J.

    2002-01-01

    We define the class of the so-called monotone constraint satisfaction problems (MON-CSP). MON-CSP forms a subclass of the class of min-closed (respectively, max-closed) constraint satisfaction problems of Jeavons and Cooper (Artificial Intelligence 79 (1995) 327). We prove that for all problems in

  6. Gauge constraints and electromagnetic properties of off-shell particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagorny, S.I.; Dieperink, A.E.L.

    The consequences of the gauge constraints for off-shellness in the electromagnetic (EM) vertices have been considered, using Compton scattering as an example. We have found that even if the gauge constraint for the 3-point EM Green function allows for off-shell effects in the charge (Dirac) form

  7. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjialieva, F.G.; Jafarov, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from physical equivalent theory with trivial nonstationarity. (author). 4 refs

  8. Constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constraints to adoption of artificial insemination techniques by livestock owners in Bauchi LGA were investigated using some randomly selected respondents. Of the constraints considered, the most important among the village livestock owners was lack of artificial insemination facilities (84. 3%) while the least was the ...

  9. On Lifecycle Constraints of Artifact-Centric Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukoguz, Esra; Su, Jianwen

    Data plays a fundamental role in modeling and management of business processes and workflows. Among the recent "data-aware" workflow models, artifact-centric models are particularly interesting. (Business) artifacts are the key data entities that are used in workflows and can reflect both the business logic and the execution states of a running workflow. The notion of artifacts succinctly captures the fluidity aspect of data during workflow executions. However, much of the technical dimension concerning artifacts in workflows is not well understood. In this paper, we study a key concept of an artifact "lifecycle". In particular, we allow declarative specifications/constraints of artifact lifecycle in the spirit of DecSerFlow, and formulate the notion of lifecycle as the set of all possible paths an artifact can navigate through. We investigate two technical problems: (Compliance) does a given workflow (schema) contain only lifecycle allowed by a constraint? And (automated construction) from a given lifecycle specification (constraint), is it possible to construct a "compliant" workflow? The study is based on a new formal variant of artifact-centric workflow model called "ArtiNets" and two classes of lifecycle constraints named "regular" and "counting" constraints. We present a range of technical results concerning compliance and automated construction, including: (1) compliance is decidable when workflow is atomic or constraints are regular, (2) for each constraint, we can always construct a workflow that satisfies the constraint, and (3) sufficient conditions where atomic workflows can be constructed.

  10. Finding Deadlocks of Event-B Models by Constraint Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael

    we propose a constraint-based approach to nding deadlocks employing the ProB constraint solver to nd values for the constants and variables of formal models that describe a deadlocking state. We discuss the principles of the technique implemented in ProB's Prolog kernel and present some results...

  11. On covariant quantization of massive superparticle with first class constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M.

    1990-02-01

    We use the technique of Batalin and Fradkin to convert the second class fermionic constraints of the massive superparticle into first class constraints. Then the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism has been used to quantize covariantly the resulting theory. Appropriate gauge fixing conditions lead to a completely quadratic action. Some interesting properties of the physical space wave functions are discussed. (author). 16 refs

  12. Cost-Based Domain Filtering for Stochastic Constraint Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cost-based filtering is a novel approach that combines techniques from Operations Research and Constraint Programming to filter from decision variable domains values that do not lead to better solutions [7]. Stochastic Constraint Programming is a framework for modeling combinatorial optimization

  13. Health care input constraints and cost effectiveness analysis decision rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter); Morton, A. (Alec); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractResults of cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) studies are most useful for decision makers if they face only one constraint: the health care budget. However, in practice, decision makers wishing to use the results of CEA studies may face multiple resource constraints relating to, for

  14. Constraints to sustainable development of rubber industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings revealed that lack of inputs, lack of credit facilities, high production cost are some of the constraints to sustainable development. The study also revealed among others the causes of the constraints, which include high lending interest rate, diversion of loan by farmers, low exchange rate of the Naira and old age ...

  15. Optimizing Computation of Repairs from Active Integrity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Active integrity constraints (AICs) are a form of integrity constraints for databases that not only identify inconsistencies, but also suggest how these can be overcome. The semantics for AICs defines different types of repairs, but deciding whether an inconsistent database can be repaired...

  16. ANALYSIS OF CONSTRAINTS IN RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High lease charge (45%), problem of land fragmentation (35%), low fertility of the land (78%), distance of cultivable land (52%) and sex discrimination (100%) were constraints militating against efficiency of land use. The constraints against efficient labour use were high cost of labour, emigration, sex discrimination and ...

  17. Adjusted priors for Bayes factors involving reparameterized order constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.W.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    Many psychological theories that are instantiated as statistical models imply order constraints on the model parameters. To fit and test such restrictions, order constraints of the form θi≤θj can be reparameterized with auxiliary parameters η∈[0,1] to replace the original parameters by θi=η⋅θj. This

  18. Credit Constraints in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 17435

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints are increasingly important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, since their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  19. Constraints to Rural Women Farmers' Involvement in Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Items 1 - 7 ... Majority of women in rural areas in Nigeria are involved in food production. They face a lot of challenges and constraints, which adversely affect their level of food production. Some examples of such constraints are illiteracy, poverty, lack of application of appropriate technology. Anyakoha and. Mbanefo (2002) had ...

  20. Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-specific constraints affecting technology use and household food security in western province of Kenya. ... The problems that face women farmers are more distinct due to socio-cultural constraints that affect their access to and control over essential assets necessary for improving their livelihoods and those of their ...

  1. Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 57; Issue 4. Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer. Subhash Kak ... We show that the constraints of quantum statistics require that the entropy of the system be brought down when several independent qubits are assembled together.

  2. A focussed dynamic path finding algorithm with constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available , the authors formulated the MUPFP as a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) where path costs are minimised whilst threat and obstacle avoidance constraints are satisfied in a dynamic environment. In this paper the previous algorithm is improved by adding a...

  3. Constraints to ruminant production in East Mamprusi District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to identify species-specific constraints to ruminant production as perceived by animal owners in East Mamprusi District. The hypothesis was that the constraints to production as perceived by sheep, goat and cattle farmers were sufficiently different to warrant species-specific strategies being ...

  4. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  5. The role of constraints in expert memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Fernand; Waters, Andrew J

    2003-11-01

    A great deal of research has been devoted to developing process models of expert memory. However, K. J. Vicente and J. H. Wang (1998) proposed (a) that process theories do not provide an adequate account of expert recall in domains in which memory recall is a contrived task and (b) that a product theory, the constraint attunement hypothesis (CAH), has received a significant amount of empirical support. We compared 1 process theory (the template theory; TT; F. Gobet & H. A. Simon, 1996c) with the CAH in chess. Chess players (N=36) differing widely in skill levels were required to recall briefly presented chess positions that were randomized in various ways. Consistent with TT, but inconsistent with the CAH, there was a significant skill effect in a condition in which both the location and distribution of the pieces were randomized. These and other results suggest that process models such as TT can provide a viable account of expert memory in chess. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shiraishi, M.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-20

    We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...

  7. Phenomenological Constraints on Patterns of Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Santoso, Y; Spanos, V C

    2003-01-01

    Specific models of supersymmetry breaking predict relations between the trilinear and bilinear soft supersymmetry breaking parameters A_0 and B_0 at the input scale. In such models, the value of tan beta can be calculated as a function of the scalar masses m_0 and the gaugino masses m_{1/2}, which we assume to be universal. The experimental constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses, b to s gamma decay and the cold dark matter density Omega_{CDM} h^2 can then be used to constrain tan beta in such specific models of supersymmetry breaking. In the simplest Polonyi model with A_0 = (3 - sqrt{3})m_0 = B_0 + m_0, we find 11 0 (mu 0, and the range 1.25 < A_0/m_0 < 4.8 for mu < 0. In these models, we find no solutions in the rapid-annihilation `funnels' or in the `focus-point' region. We also discuss the allowed range of tan beta in the no-scale model with A_0 = B_0 = 0. In all these models, most of the allowed regions are in the chi - stau_1 coannihilation `tail'.

  8. Unparticle physics constraints from the hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondrak, Michael Florian; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Unparticle stuff has been proposed as an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics by including scale invariant fields. In the framework of effective field theory, it describes the low-energy limit of a so-called Banks-Zaks sector which exhibits scale invariance below an energy scale Λ{sub U}. Unparticle fields are characterized by a non-integer canonical scaling dimension d{sub U}, which leads to unusual properties like resembling a fractional number of (un)particles. The existence of unparticle stuff may be detected experimentally through the interaction with conventional matter. After a review on the unparticle theory and the static potential due to virtual unparticle exchange, we focus on its impact on hydrogen atom energy levels. We obtain the energy shift of the ground state by using Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and compare it with experimental data. In this way, bounds on the energy scale Λ{sub U} as a function of d{sub U} are derived. Finally, we offer a comparison with existing constraints in literature like the lepton magnetic anomaly. For some parameter regimes, the hydrogen bound provides competitive results.

  9. Material constraints on high-speed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  10. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Massimo; Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy); Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,No. 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wen, Congkao [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133 (Italy)

    2016-10-10

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler’s zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT’s. We explicitly test these soft theorems for N=4 sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order s{sup n}∼∂{sup 2n} are completely determined in terms of the k-point amplitudes at order s{sup k} with k≤n. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particular, the effective action is fixed up to eight derivatives in terms of just one unknown four-point coefficient and one more coefficient for ten-derivative terms. Finally, we also study the interplay between scale and conformal invariance in this context.

  11. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Daniel; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T reh  ∼< 10 2  MeV can magnetic fields of 10 −15  G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples

  12. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  13. Designing a Constraint Based Parser for Sanskrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amba; Pokar, Sheetal; Shukl, Devanand

    Verbal understanding (śā bdabodha) of any utterance requires the knowledge of how words in that utterance are related to each other. Such knowledge is usually available in the form of cognition of grammatical relations. Generative grammars describe how a language codes these relations. Thus the knowledge of what information various grammatical relations convey is available from the generation point of view and not the analysis point of view. In order to develop a parser based on any grammar one should then know precisely the semantic content of the grammatical relations expressed in a language string, the clues for extracting these relations and finally whether these relations are expressed explicitly or implicitly. Based on the design principles that emerge from this knowledge, we model the parser as finding a directed Tree, given a graph with nodes representing the words and edges representing the possible relations between them. Further, we also use the Mīmā ṃsā constraint of ākā ṅkṣā (expectancy) to rule out non-solutions and sannidhi (proximity) to prioritize the solutions. We have implemented a parser based on these principles and its performance was found to be satisfactory giving us a confidence to extend its functionality to handle the complex sentences.

  14. Aquaculture and food crisis: opportunities and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, I Chiu; Chao, Nai-Hsien

    2009-01-01

    Fish farming, now well known as aquaculture, has been well recognized since the ancient era. The first written document on fish culture was published in China in 475 BC, and the first koi pond was constructed at the Japanese Imperial Palace grounds during 71-130 AD. In recent years, aquaculture has progressively played an important role in the provision of: animal protein and gourmet cuisines, job opportunities, and foreign currency for developing countries. Asian countries produce around 91 percent of the world's total aquaculture production. Among the top ten aquaculture-producing countries, nine are from Asia. The current global population consist of more than 6.5 billion individuals; over one billion of which face hunger problem. In the highly populated Asia-Pacific region with moderately high-productivity, 642 million people are still facing hunger. Being a proficient and potential source of animal protein, aquaculture will play an increasing and important role in solving the world food problem in the future. This paper discusses both the opportunities and constraints in the aquaculture industry, specifically in the Asia-Pacific region, and its possible role in solving the current global food crisis. Strategies including promotion and adoption of traceability and HACCP systems for food safety, and marketing management for aquaculture products are also suggested. It is hoped that traditional administration of aquaculture management for survival, profit, as well as food safety will successfully match sustainability management to meet the urgent global need for food.

  15. Revisiting CMB constraints on warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Richa; Dasgupta, Arnab; Goswami, Gaurav; Prasad, Jayanti; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the constraints that Planck 2015 temperature, polarization and lensing data impose on the parameters of warm inflation. To this end, we study warm inflation driven by a single scalar field with a quartic self interaction potential in the weak dissipative regime. We analyse the effect of the parameters of warm inflation, namely, the inflaton self coupling λ and the inflaton dissipation parameter QP on the CMB angular power spectrum. We constrain λ and QP for 50 and 60 number of e-foldings with the full Planck 2015 data (TT, TE, EE + lowP and lensing) by performing a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis using the publicly available code CosmoMC and obtain the joint as well as marginalized distributions of those parameters. We present our results in the form of mean and 68 % confidence limits on the parameters and also highlight the degeneracy between λ and QP in our analysis. From this analysis we show how warm inflation parameters can be well constrained using the Planck 2015 data.

  16. Development of radiopharmaceuticals and industrial constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The development process of a diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceutical does not really differ from the development of a classical drug. Some specific properties of these nuclear medicine tools mainly linked to the ease to follow their distribution in the human body allow to save a couple of years out of the dozen of years required to bring a drug on the market. Overall development costs can be significantly reduced for the same reason. An industrial who wants to invest in such a business bases its analysis on other criteria that need to evaluate the medical, safety and regulatory environment at the time of drug launching. Competition is obviously a major decision criteria, but in order to evaluate the market potential, other data must be available such as the analysis of the medical landscape, the reimbursement issues, the technology evolution, the investment needs or the development of other imaging modalities, among others. In fact all these parameters concentrate toward a common criteria, the profitability of the project. Nuclear medicine moved from an art and crafts era towards the industrial era and hence plunged from the twentieth to the twenty first century in the economic reality with all its constraints and consequences. (author)

  17. Astronomical Constraints on Quantum Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Shane; Musielak, Z.; Fry, J.

    2012-01-01

    A model of quantum (`fuzzy') cold dark matter that accounts for both the halo core problem and the missing dwarf galaxies problem, which plague the usual cold dark matter paradigm, is developed. The model requires that a cold dark matter particle has a mass so small that its only allowed physical description is a quantum wave function. Each such particle in a galactic halo is bound to a gravitational potential that is created by luminous matter and by the halo itself, and the resulting wave function is described by a Schrödinger equation. To solve this equation on a galactic scale, we impose astronomical constraints that involve several density profiles used to fit data from simulations of dark matter galactic halos. The solutions to the Schrödinger equation are quantum waves which resemble the density profiles acquired from simulations, and they are used to determine the mass of the cold dark matter particle. The effects of adding certain types of baryonic matter to the halo, such as a dwarf elliptical galaxy or a supermassive black hole, are also discussed.

  18. Constraints on dark radiation from cosmological probes

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Graziano; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We present joint constraints on the number of effective neutrino species N_eff and the sum of neutrino masses M_nu, based on a technique which exploits the full information contained in the one-dimensional Lyman-Alpha forest flux power spectrum, complemented by additional cosmological probes. In particular, we obtain N_eff=2.91(+0.21)(-0.22) (95% CL) and M_nu<0.15 eV (95% CL) when we combine BOSS Lyman-Alpha forest data with CMB (Planck+ACT+SPT+WMAP polarization) measurements, and N_eff=2.88(+0.20)(-0.20) (95% CL) and M_nu<0.14 eV (95% CL) when we further add baryon acoustic oscillations. Our results provide evidence for the Cosmic Neutrino Background from N_eff~3 (N_eff=0 is rejected at more than 14 sigma), and rule out the possibility of a sterile neutrino thermalized with active neutrinos (i.e., N_eff=4) - or more generally any decoupled relativistic relic with Delta N_eff ~ 1 - at a significance of over 5 sigma, the strongest bound to date, implying that there is no need for exotic neutrino physics ...

  19. Constraints for the thawing and freezing potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Anna; Saka, Shogo; Tanigawa, Takuma

    2018-01-01

    We study the accelerating present universe in terms of the time evolution of the equation of state w(z) (redshift z) due to thawing and freezing scalar potentials in the quintessence model. The values of dw/da and d^2w/da^2 at a scale factor of a = 1 are associated with two parameters of each potential. For five types of scalar potentials, the scalar fields Q and w as functions of time t and/or z are numerically calculated under the fixed boundary condition of w(z=0)=-1+Δ. The observational constraint w_obs (Planck Collaboration, arXiv:1502.01590) is imposed to test whether the numerical w(z) is in w_obs. Some solutions show thawing features in the freezing potentials. Mutually exclusive allowed regions in the dw/da vs. d^2w/da^2 diagram are obtained in order to identify the likely scalar potential and even the potential parameters for future observational tests.

  20. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  1. Cosmological constraints on interacting light particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Christopher; Cui, Yanou; Sigurdson, Kris

    2017-08-01

    Cosmological observations are becoming increasingly sensitive to the effects of light particles in the form of dark radiation (DR) at the time of recombination. The conventional observable of effective neutrino number, Neff, is insufficient for probing generic, interacting models of DR. In this work, we perform likelihood analyses which allow both free-streaming effective neutrinos (parametrized by Neff) and interacting effective neutrinos (parametrized by Nfld). We motivate an alternative parametrization of DR in terms of Ntot (total effective number of neutrinos) and ffs (the fraction of effective neutrinos which are free-streaming), which is less degenerate than using Neff and Nfld. Using the Planck 2015 likelihoods in conjunction with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), we find constraints on the total amount of beyond the Standard Model effective neutrinos (both free-streaming and interacting) of Δ Ntot < 0.39 at 2σ. In addition, we consider the possibility that this scenario alleviates the tensions between early-time and late-time cosmological observations, in particular the measurements of σ8 (the amplitude of matter power fluctuations at 8h-1 Mpc), finding a mild preference for interactions among light species. We further forecast the sensitivities of a variety of future experiments, including Advanced ACTPol (a representative CMB Stage-III experiment), CMB Stage-IV, and the Euclid satellite. This study is relevant for probing non-standard neutrino physics as well as a wide variety of new particle physics models beyond the Standard Model that involve dark radiation.

  2. Constraints on probability distributions of grammatical forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the constraints on probability distribution of grammatical forms within morphological paradigms of Serbian language, where paradigm is specified as a coherent set of elements with defined criteria for inclusion. Thus, for example, in Serbian all feminine nouns that end with the suffix "a" in their nominative singular form belong to the third declension, the declension being a paradigm. The notion of a paradigm could be extended to other criteria as well, hence, we can think of noun cases, irrespective of grammatical number and gender, or noun gender, irrespective of case and grammatical number, also as paradigms. We took the relative entropy as a measure of homogeneity of probability distribution within paradigms. The analysis was performed on 116 morphological paradigms of typical Serbian and for each paradigm the relative entropy has been calculated. The obtained results indicate that for most paradigms the relative entropy values fall within a range of 0.75 - 0.9. Nonhomogeneous distribution of relative entropy values allows for estimating the relative entropy of the morphological system as a whole. This value is 0.69 and can tentatively be taken as an index of stability of the morphological system.

  3. An adaptive ES with a ranking based constraint handling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusakci Ali Osman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve a constrained optimization problem, equality constraints can be used to eliminate a problem variable. If it is not feasible, the relations imposed implicitly by the constraints can still be exploited. Most conventional constraint handling methods in Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs do not consider the correlations between problem variables imposed by the constraints. This paper relies on the idea that a proper search operator, which captures mentioned implicit correlations, can improve performance of evolutionary constrained optimization algorithms. To realize this, an Evolution Strategy (ES along with a simplified Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA based mutation operator is used with a ranking based constraint-handling method. The proposed algorithm is tested on 13 benchmark problems as well as on a real life design problem. The outperformance of the algorithm is significant when compared with conventional ES-based methods.

  4. Constraints Perceived by Students in School Vegetable Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala to identify the constraints experienced by students in the course of engaging in school vegetable gardening programme. Ten schools were selected for data enumeration. A total of 130 respondents with 100 students comprising ten students each and 30 teachers comprising three each, from each school were selected for meeting the objectives of the study. The reaction to each constraint was obtained on a four-point continuum namely most important, important, less important and least important with the score 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Mean rank cumulative index for each constraint was worked out and the constraints were ranked and catalogued. The major constraints as perceived by students in school vegetable garden projects were, high input cost followed by lack of student’s participation, lack of teacher’s involvement, non-availability of implements, high labour cost, poor storage facilities and lack of knowledge about gardening.

  5. Constraint-based deadlock checking of high-level specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    B's Prolog kernel, such as reification of membership and arithmetic constraints. ProB typically finds counter examples to deadlock-freedom constraints, a formula of about 900 partly nested conjunctions and disjunction among them 80 arithmetic and 150 set-theoretic predicates (in total a formula of 30 pages....... In this paper we propose a constraint-based approach to finding deadlocks employing the ProB constraint solver to find values for the constants and variables of formal models that describe a deadlocking state. We present the general technique, as well as various improvements that had to be performed on Pro......), in under two seconds. We also present other successful applications of this new technique, in particular to BPEL processes. Experiments using SAT and SMT solvers on these constraints were thus far unsuccessful....

  6. Cross-Modal Subspace Learning via Pairwise Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ran; Zhang, Man; Wang, Liang; Ji, Ye; Yin, Qiyue

    2015-12-01

    In multimedia applications, the text and image components in a web document form a pairwise constraint that potentially indicates the same semantic concept. This paper studies cross-modal learning via the pairwise constraint and aims to find the common structure hidden in different modalities. We first propose a compound regularization framework to address the pairwise constraint, which can be used as a general platform for developing cross-modal algorithms. For unsupervised learning, we propose a multi-modal subspace clustering method to learn a common structure for different modalities. For supervised learning, to reduce the semantic gap and the outliers in pairwise constraints, we propose a cross-modal matching method based on compound ℓ21 regularization. Extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of joint text and image modeling with semantically induced pairwise constraints, and they show that the proposed cross-modal methods can further reduce the semantic gap between different modalities and improve the clustering/matching accuracy.

  7. Overview of the use of dose constraints in occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, A.

    2013-04-01

    An overview of the use of dose constraints in occupational exposures has been carried out in this project. This was done by reviewing and analyzing some of the operational issues/challenges associated with their implementation and providing suggestions regarding operational objectives and uses of dose constraints.The role of dose constraints in the process of optimisation of radiation protection was described, and explanations provided where necessary in order to avoid the possible situations where dose constraints are misinterpreted or used as a stringent limit. Finally, the identification of potential issues that need to be considered in the implementation and setting of dose constraints for the purposes of occupational radiation protection were discussed. (author)

  8. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizel R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  9. Dimensional modeling: beyond data processing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunardzic, A

    1995-01-01

    The focus of information processing requirements is shifting from the on-line transaction processing (OLTP) issues to the on-line analytical processing (OLAP) issues. While the former serves to ensure the feasibility of the real-time on-line transaction processing (which has already exceeded a level of up to 1,000 transactions per second under normal conditions), the latter aims at enabling more sophisticated analytical manipulation of data. The OLTP requirements, or how to efficiently get data into the system, have been solved by applying the Relational theory in the form of Entity-Relation model. There is presently no theory related to OLAP that would resolve the analytical processing requirements as efficiently as Relational theory provided for the transaction processing. The "relational dogma" also provides the mathematical foundation for the Centralized Data Processing paradigm in which mission-critical information is incorporated as 'one and only one instance' of data, thus ensuring data integrity. In such surroundings, the information that supports business analysis and decision support activities is obtained by running predefined reports and queries that are provided by the IS department. In today's intensified competitive climate, businesses are finding that this traditional approach is not good enough. The only way to stay on top of things, and to survive and prosper, is to decentralize the IS services. The newly emerging Distributed Data Processing, with its increased emphasis on empowering the end user, does not seem to find enough merit in the relational database model to justify relying upon it. Relational theory proved too rigid and complex to accommodate the analytical processing needs. In order to satisfy the OLAP requirements, or how to efficiently get the data out of the system, different models, metaphors, and theories have been devised. All of them are pointing to the need for simplifying the highly non-intuitive mathematical constraints found

  10. Cosmological constraints on interacting light particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 Canada (Canada); Cui, Yanou [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 900 University Ave, Riverside, CA, 92521 (United States); Sigurdson, Kris, E-mail: cbrust@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: yanou.cui@ucr.edu, E-mail: krs@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 Canada (Canada)

    2017-08-01

    Cosmological observations are becoming increasingly sensitive to the effects of light particles in the form of dark radiation (DR) at the time of recombination. The conventional observable of effective neutrino number, N {sub eff}, is insufficient for probing generic, interacting models of DR. In this work, we perform likelihood analyses which allow both free-streaming effective neutrinos (parametrized by N {sub eff}) and interacting effective neutrinos (parametrized by N {sub fld}). We motivate an alternative parametrization of DR in terms of N {sub tot} (total effective number of neutrinos) and f {sub fs} (the fraction of effective neutrinos which are free-streaming), which is less degenerate than using N {sub eff} and N {sub fld}. Using the Planck 2015 likelihoods in conjunction with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), we find constraints on the total amount of beyond the Standard Model effective neutrinos (both free-streaming and interacting) of Δ N {sub tot} < 0.39 at 2σ. In addition, we consider the possibility that this scenario alleviates the tensions between early-time and late-time cosmological observations, in particular the measurements of σ{sub 8} (the amplitude of matter power fluctuations at 8 h {sup −1} Mpc), finding a mild preference for interactions among light species. We further forecast the sensitivities of a variety of future experiments, including Advanced ACTPol (a representative CMB Stage-III experiment), CMB Stage-IV, and the Euclid satellite. This study is relevant for probing non-standard neutrino physics as well as a wide variety of new particle physics models beyond the Standard Model that involve dark radiation.

  11. Energetic and spatial constraints of arterial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Rossitti

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The principle of minimum work (PMW is a parametric optimization model for the growth and adaptation of arterial trees. A balance between energy dissipation due to frictional resistance of laminar flow (shear stress and the minimum volume of the blood and vessel wall tissue is achieved when the vessel radii are adjusted to the cube root of the volumetric flow. The PMW is known to apply over several magnitudes of vessel calibers, and in many different organs, including the brain, in humans and in animals. Animal studies suggest that blood flow in arteries is approximately proportional to the cube of the vessel radius, and that arteries alter their caliber in response to sustained changes of blood flow according to PMW. Remodelling of the retinal arteriolar network to long-term changes in blood flow was observed in humans. Remodelling of whole arterial networks occurs in the form of increase or diminishing of vessel calibers. Shear stress induced endothelial mediation seems to be the regulating mechanism for the maintenance of this optimum blood flow/vessel diameter relation. Arterial trees are also expected to be nearly space filing. The vascular system is constructed in such a way that, while blood vessels occupy only a small percentage of the body volume leaving the bulk to tissue, they also crisscross organs so tightly that every point in the tissue lies on the boundary between an artery and a vein. This review describes how the energetic optimum principle for least energy cost for blood flow is also compatible with the spatial constraints of arterial networks according to concepts derived from fractal geometry.

  12. Design Constraints on a Synthetic Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Tugce; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A metabolism is a complex network of chemical reactions that converts sources of energy and chemical elements into biomass and other molecules. To design a metabolism from scratch and to implement it in a synthetic genome is almost within technological reach. Ideally, a synthetic metabolism should be able to synthesize a desired spectrum of molecules at a high rate, from multiple different nutrients, while using few chemical reactions, and producing little or no waste. Not all of these properties are achievable simultaneously. We here use a recently developed technique to create random metabolic networks with pre-specified properties to quantify trade-offs between these and other properties. We find that for every additional molecule to be synthesized a network needs on average three additional reactions. For every additional carbon source to be utilized, it needs on average two additional reactions. Networks able to synthesize 20 biomass molecules from each of 20 alternative sole carbon sources need to have at least 260 reactions. This number increases to 518 reactions for networks that can synthesize more than 60 molecules from each of 80 carbon sources. The maximally achievable rate of biosynthesis decreases by approximately 5 percent for every additional molecule to be synthesized. Biochemically related molecules can be synthesized at higher rates, because their synthesis produces less waste. Overall, the variables we study can explain 87 percent of variation in network size and 84 percent of the variation in synthesis rate. The constraints we identify prescribe broad boundary conditions that can help to guide synthetic metabolism design. PMID:22768162

  13. Observational constraints on generalized Proca theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    In a model of the late-time cosmic acceleration within the framework of generalized Proca theories, there exists a de Sitter attractor preceded by the dark energy equation of state wDE=-1 -s , where s is a positive constant. We run the Markov-chain-Monte Carlo code to confront the model with the observational data of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae type Ia, and local measurements of the Hubble expansion rate for the background cosmological solutions and obtain the bound s =0.254-0.097+0.118 at 95% confidence level (C.L.). Existence of the additional parameter s to those in the Λ -cold-dark-matter (Λ CDM ) model allows to reduce tensions of the Hubble constant H0 between the CMB and the low-redshift measurements. Including the cosmic growth data of redshift-space distortions in the galaxy power spectrum and taking into account no-ghost and stability conditions of cosmological perturbations, we find that the bound on s is shifted to s =0.1 6-0.08+0.08 (95% C.L.) and hence the model with s >0 is still favored over the Λ CDM model. Apart from the quantities s ,H0 and the today's matter density parameter Ωm 0, the constraints on other model parameters associated with perturbations are less stringent, reflecting the fact that there are different sets of parameters that give rise to a similar cosmic expansion and growth history.

  14. Exploring Multiple Constraints of Anthropogenic Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, A. F., Jr.; Tang, W.; Silva, S. J.; Raman, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is imperative that we provide more accurate and consistent analysis of anthropogenic pollution emissions at scales that is relevant to air quality, energy, and environmental policy. Here, we present three proof-of-concept studies that explore observational constraints from ground, aircraft, and satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric composition on bulk characteristics of anthropogenic combustion in megacities and fire regions. We focus on jointly analyzing co-emitted combustion products such as CO2, NO2, CO, SO2, and aerosols from GOSAT, OCO-2, OMI, MOPITT, and MODIS retrievals, in conjunction with USEPA AQS and NASA field campaigns. Each of these constituents exhibit distinct atmospheric signatures that depend on fuel type, combustion technology, process, practices and regulatory policies. Our results show that distinguishable patterns and relationships between the increases in concentrations across the megacity (or enhancements) due to emissions of these constituents enable us to: a) identify trends in combustion activity and efficiency, and b) reconcile discrepancies between state- to country-based emission inventories and modeled concentrations of these constituents. For example, the trends in enhancement ratios of these species reveal combustion emission pathways for China and United States that are not captured by current emission inventories and chemical reanalysis. Analysis of their joint distributions has considerable potential utility in current and future integrated constituent data assimilation and inverse modeling activities for monitoring, verifying, and reporting emissions, particularly for regions with few observations and limited information on local combustion processes. This work also motivates the need for continuous and preferably collocated satellite measurements of atmospheric composition, including CH4 and CO2, and studies related to improving the applicability and integration of these observations with ground- and aircraft- based

  15. MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA: Prospects and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Rimmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture is an important component of Indonesian fisheries and aquaculture production, directly contributing an estimated US$ 320 million in 2008. Because most mariculture production is focussed on producing for export markets, mariculture production is an important source of foreign earnings for the Indonesian economy. This paper reviews the current status and prospects for continuing development of mariculture in Indonesia. Currently the major mariculture commodity in Indonesia is seaweed for carrageenan production. Seaweed production accounts for 98% of total Indonesian mariculture production and 84% of value. The other major commodity groups are marine finfish and pearl oysters. Commodities being developed for mariculture in Indonesia include abalone and spiny lobsters. Prospects for continued development of mariculture in Indonesia appear positive. Indonesia has several advantages for mariculture development, including many potential mariculture sites, a stable tropical climate, and does not suffer from cyclonic storms. The Government of Indonesia is planning to increase aquaculture production substantially over the next four years, including mariculture production. Globally, demand for seafood products is expanding due to increasing population and increased per capita consumption of fish products. Constraints to the continued development of mariculture in Indonesia include: limited seed supply, particularly of species which cannot be economically produced in hatcheries, such as spiny lobsters; need to develop more efficient production systems for some marine finfish; the need to improve environmental sustainability by improving feeds and reducing environmental impacts; and market issues relating to environmental sustainability.

  16. Constraints on a Parity-Conserving Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    Time-reversal-invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance-odd (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (with a present upper limit of 6 × 10-26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10-4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges it can be shown that only charged rho-meson exchange and A1-meson exchange can lead to a P-even/T-odd interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). Weak decay experiments may provide limits which will possibly be comparable. All other experiments, like gamma decay experiments, detailed balance experiments, polarization-analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order of magnitude less sensitive. The question then emerges: is there room for further experimentation?

  17. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Baptista

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores–Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  18. Time constraints in the alcohol purchase task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Murphy, James G; Henley, Amy J; Reed, Florence D DiGennaro; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetical purchase tasks have advanced behavioral economic evaluations of demand by circumventing practical and ethical restrictions associated with delivering drug reinforcers to participants. Numerous studies examining the reliability and validity of purchase task methodology suggest that it is a valuable method for assessing demand that warrants continued use and evaluation. Within the literature examining purchase tasks, the alcohol purchase task (APT) has received the most investigation, and currently represents the most experimentally validated variant. However, inconsistencies in purchase task methodology between studies exist, even within APT studies, and, to date, none have assessed the influence of experimental economic constraints on responding. This study examined changes in Q0 (reported consumption when drinks are free), breakpoint (price that suppresses consumption), and α (rate of change in demand elasticity) in the presence of different hypothetical durations of access to alcohol in an APT. One hundred seventy-nine participants (94 males, 85 females) from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed 3 APTs that varied in the duration of time at a party (i.e., access to alcoholic beverages) as described in the APT instructions (i.e., vignette). The 3 durations included 5-hr (used by Murphy et al., 2013), 1-hr, and 9-hr time frames. We found that hypothetical duration of access was significantly related to Q0 and breakpoint at the individual level. Additionally, group-level mean α decreased significantly with increases in duration of access, thus indicating relatively higher demand for alcohol with longer durations of access. We discuss implications for conducting hypothetical purchase task research and alcohol misuse prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Constraint effects in heavy-section steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Theiss, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    A focal point of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is the development of technology required for accurate assessment of fracture-prevention margins in commercial nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In a series of investigations, the HSST Program is seeking to obtain an improved understanding of the relationships governing transfer of fracture toughness data from small-scale specimens to large-scale structures. This paper describes two analytical approaches to the transferability issues that are being evaluated in the HSST Program. One is a continuum correlative methodology based on two-parameter descriptions (K-T or J-Q) of the near crack-tip fields that incorporate effects of the higher-order T-stress for linear-elastic fracture mechanics conditions or the Q-stress for more general elastic-plastic fracture mechanics conditions. The second approach utilizes a micromechanical predictive methodology that relates cleavage crack initiation to the attainment of a critical volume enclosed within a selected maximum principal stress contour surrounding the crack tip. In preliminary evaluations, these methodologies were applied to experimental data taken from several intermediate- and large-scale testing programs. Results and conclusions from these applications are discussed in the paper. Applications of the methodologies to analytical studies concerning biaxial stress effects on fracture toughness and safety margin assessments of an RPV subjected to pressurized-thermal-shock transient loadings are also presented. While these fracture methodologies appear to show promise in being able to differentiate among crack-tip constraint levels, numerous issues were identified in the HSST studies that require further investigation. Recommendations are given concerning future work intended to resolve several of these issues. 42 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  1. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Matias, Luis; Omira, Rachid

    2017-07-01

    In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  2. Laboratory constraints on models of earthquake recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Nicholas M.; Tullis, Terry; Junger, Jenni; Kilgore, Brian D.; Goldsby, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, rock friction ‘stick-slip’ experiments are used to develop constraints on models of earthquake recurrence. Constant-rate loading of bare rock surfaces in high quality experiments produces stick-slip recurrence that is periodic at least to second order. When the loading rate is varied, recurrence is approximately inversely proportional to loading rate. These laboratory events initiate due to a slip rate-dependent process that also determines the size of the stress drop [Dieterich, 1979; Ruina, 1983] and as a consequence, stress drop varies weakly but systematically with loading rate [e.g., Gu and Wong, 1991; Karner and Marone, 2000; McLaskey et al., 2012]. This is especially evident in experiments where the loading rate is changed by orders of magnitude, as is thought to be the loading condition of naturally occurring, small repeating earthquakes driven by afterslip, or low-frequency earthquakes loaded by episodic slip. As follows from the previous studies referred to above, experimentally observed stress drops are well described by a logarithmic dependence on recurrence interval that can be cast as a non-linear slip-predictable model. The fault’s rate dependence of strength is the key physical parameter. Additionally, even at constant loading rate the most reproducible laboratory recurrence is not exactly periodic, unlike existing friction recurrence models. We present example laboratory catalogs that document the variance and show that in large catalogs, even at constant loading rate, stress drop and recurrence co-vary systematically. The origin of this covariance is largely consistent with variability of the dependence of fault strength on slip rate. Laboratory catalogs show aspects of both slip and time predictability and successive stress drops are strongly correlated indicating a ‘memory’ of prior slip history that extends over at least one recurrence cycle.

  3. Constraints management and value chain performance for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bitange Nyaoga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers are ever seeking for better ways of managing their constraints to improve their company’s value chain performance and competitiveness. Although previous literature explored constraint management, it was inconclusive as to how constraint management could affect the value chain performance in tea processing chains. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between constraint management and firm value chain performance of tea processing firms. This study undertook an empirical study using survey questionnaire design to collect data. The respondents were production managers who have experience in production activities. The study applied multiple correlation and regression models to test the hypothesis. The results indicate that constraints management had a significant positive impact on improvement in quality, time, flexibility, cost and resource utilization in tea firms. This study provides a broad analysis of how organizations can improve their value chain performance for sustainable development by managing various constraints in the internal value chain. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study of the relationship between constraints management and value chain performance using data from tea processing firms operating in Kenya.

  4. Implicit Motives and Men's Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children ( N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  5. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction. PMID:27933023

  6. Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.

  7. On the constraints violation in forward dynamics of multibody systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Filipe [University of Minho, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal); Souto, António P. [University of Minho, Department of Textile Engineering (Portugal); Flores, Paulo, E-mail: pflores@dem.uminho.pt [University of Minho, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    It is known that the dynamic equations of motion for constrained mechanical multibody systems are frequently formulated using the Newton–Euler’s approach, which is augmented with the acceleration constraint equations. This formulation results in the establishment of a mixed set of partial differential and algebraic equations, which are solved in order to predict the dynamic behavior of general multibody systems. The classical solution of the equations of motion is highly prone to constraints violation because the position and velocity constraint equations are not fulfilled. In this work, a general and comprehensive methodology to eliminate the constraints violation at the position and velocity levels is offered. The basic idea of the described approach is to add corrective terms to the position and velocity vectors with the intent to satisfy the corresponding kinematic constraint equations. These corrective terms are evaluated as a function of the Moore–Penrose generalized inverse of the Jacobian matrix and of the kinematic constraint equations. The described methodology is embedded in the standard method to solve the equations of motion based on the technique of Lagrange multipliers. Finally, the effectiveness of the described methodology is demonstrated through the dynamic modeling and simulation of different planar and spatial multibody systems. The outcomes in terms of constraints violation at the position and velocity levels, conservation of the total energy and computational efficiency are analyzed and compared with those obtained with the standard Lagrange multipliers method, the Baumgarte stabilization method, the augmented Lagrangian formulation, the index-1 augmented Lagrangian, and the coordinate partitioning method.

  8. GPU-enabled projectile guidance for impact area constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Guided projectile engagement scenarios often involve impact area constraints, in which it may be less desirable to incur miss distance on one side of a target or within a specified boundary near the target area. Current projectile guidance schemes such as impact point predictors cannot handle these constraints within the guidance loop, and may produce dispersion patterns that are insensitive to these constraints. In this paper, a new projectile guidance law is proposed that leverages real-time Monte Carlo impact point prediction to continually evaluate the probability of violating impact area constraints. The desired aim point is then adjusted accordingly. Real-time Monte Carlo simulation is enabled within the feedback loop through use of graphics processing units (GPU's), which provide parallel pipelines through which a dispersion pattern can routinely be predicted. The result is a guidance law that can achieve minimum miss distance while avoiding impact area constraints. The new guidance law is described and formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem which is solved in real-time through massively-parallel Monte Carlo simulation. An example simulation is shown in which impact area constraints are enforced and the methodology of stochastic guidance is demonstrated. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are shown which demonstrate the ability of the stochastic guidance scheme to avoid an arbitrary set of impact area constraints, generating an impact probability density function that optimally trades miss distance within the restricted impact area. The proposed guidance scheme has applications beyond smart weapons to include missiles, UAV's, and other autonomous systems.

  9. Conversion of dose volume constraints to dose limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Jianrong [Department of Radiological Science, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Zhu Yunping [Department of Radiological Science, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States)

    2003-12-07

    The purpose of this study is to introduce two techniques for converting dosevolume constraints to dose limits for treatment planning optimization, and to evaluate their performance. The first technique, called dose-sorting, is based on the assumption that higher dose limits should be assigned to the constraint points receiving higher doses, and vice versa. The second technique, the hybrid technique, is a hybrid of the dose-sorting technique and the mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique. Among all constraint points in an organ at risk, the dose limits for the points far from a dosevolume constraint are determined by dose-sorting, while the dose limits for the points close to a dosevolume constraint are determined by MILP. We evaluated the performance of the two new techniques for one treatment geometry by comparing them with the MILP technique. The dose-sorting technique had a high probability of finding the global optimum when no more than three organs at risk have dose-volume constraints. It was much faster than the MILP technique. The hybrid technique always found the global optimum when the MILP percentage (the percentage of constraint points for which the dose limits are determined by the MILP technique) was large enough, but its computation time increased dramatically with the MILP percentage. In conclusion, the dose-sorting technique and the hybrid technique with a low MILP percentage are clinically feasible.

  10. Financial Constraints and Exports: Evidence from Portuguese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the links between financial constraints and firm export behaviour, at the firm level, by using data on Portuguese manufacturing enterprises. Previous empirical literature has not yet reached a consensus on these subjects and there is a great heterogeneity in measuring financial constraints. In line with a very recent trend, we approximate credit constraints by using a financial score built on eight variables. In order to assess the effects of exports on the financial status of firms we apply, for the first time to these types of studies, a propensity score matching with difference in differences. We find that new exporters show significant improvements in their financial situation.

  11. Inward FDI and credit constraints in the CEEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutkowski, Aleksander

    (FDI). In theory, foreign investment may only initially bring scarce capital and the subsequent investment can be financed locally. Foreign-owned companies may appear more attractive borrowers, and crowd out domestic firms from hostcountry imperfect capital markets. Both hypotheses are rejected because......This study attempts to find out, firstly, if domestically owned firms in Central and Eastern Europe confront higher credit constraints compared with the foreign-owned enterprises, and secondly, if the domestic enterprises' financial constraints are caused by the incoming foreign direct investments......-level regression methods, a direct one using perception-based assessment of the constraints and an indirect one with financial indicators....

  12. Einstein constraints in the Yang-Mills form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, A.

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed out that constraints of Einstein's theory play a powerful role in both classical and quantum theory because they generate motions in spacetime, rather than in an internal space. New variables are then introduced on the Einstein phase space in terms of which constraints simplify considerably. In particular, the use of these variables enables one to imbed the constraint surface of Einstein's theory into that of Yang-Mills. The imbedding suggests new lines of attack to a number of problems in classical and quantum gravity and provides new concepts and tools to investigate the microscopic structure of space-time geometry

  13. Algorithms and ordering heuristics for distributed constraint satisfaction problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahbi , Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    DisCSP (Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problem) is a general framework for solving distributed problems arising in Distributed Artificial Intelligence.A wide variety of problems in artificial intelligence are solved using the constraint satisfaction problem paradigm. However, there are several applications in multi-agent coordination that are of a distributed nature. In this type of application, the knowledge about the problem, that is, variables and constraints, may be logically or geographically distributed among physical distributed agents. This distribution is mainly due to p

  14. Exact penalty results for mathematical programs with vanishing constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoheisel, T.; Kanzow, Ch.; Outrata, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 5 (2010), s. 2514-2526 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Mathematical programs with vanishing constraints * Mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints * Exact penalization * Calmness * Subdifferential calculus * Limiting normal cone Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-exact penalty results for mathematical programs with vanishing constraints.pdf

  15. Constraints on relaxation rates for N-level quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed on the population and phase relaxation rates by the physical requirement of completely positive evolution for open N-level systems. The Lindblad operators that govern the evolution of the system are expressed in terms of observable relaxation rates, explicit formulas for the decoherence rates due to population relaxation are derived, and it is shown that there are additional, nontrivial constraints on the pure dephasing rates for N>2. Explicit, experimentally testable inequality constraints for the decoherence rates are derived for three- and four-level systems, and the implications of the results are discussed for generic ladder, Λ, and V systems and transitions between degenerate energy levels

  16. Neutron star cooling constraints for color superconductivity in hybrid stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, S.; Grigoryan, Kh.; Blaschke, D.

    2005-01-01

    We apply the recently developed LogN-LogS test of compact star cooling theories for the first time to hybrid stars with a color superconducting quark matter core. While there is not yet a microscopically founded superconducting quark matter phase which would fulfill constraints from cooling phenomenology, we explore the hypothetical 2SC+X phase and show that the magnitude and density-dependence of the X-gap can be chosen to satisfy a set of tests: temperature-age (T-t), the brightness constraint, LogN-LogS, and the mass spectrum constraint. The latter test appears as a new conjecture from the present investigation

  17. White Dwarf Pulsational Constraints on Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Bart H.; Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Brien, Patrick C.; Hermes, J. J.; Fuchs, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    The complex processes that convert a protostellar cloud into a carbon/oxygen-core white dwarf star are distilled and modeled in state of the art stellar evolution codes. Many of these processes are well-constrained, but several are uncertain or must be parameterized in the models because a complete treatment would be computationally prohibitive—turbulent motions such as convective overshoot cannot, for example, be modeled in 1D. Various free parameters in the models must therefore be calibrated. We will discuss how white dwarf pulsations can inform such calibrations. The results of all prior evolution are cemented into the interiors of white dwarf stars and, so, hidden from view. However, during certain phases of their cooling, pulsations translate the star's evolutionary history into observable surface phenomena. Because the periods of a pulsating white dwarf star depend on an internal structure assembled as it evolved to its final state, white dwarf pulsation periods can be viewed as observable endpoints of stellar evolution. For example, the thickness of the helium layer in a white dwarf directly affects its pulsations; the observed periods are, therefore, a function of the number of thermal pulses during which the star converts helium into core material on the asymptotic giant branch. Because they are also a function of several other significant evolutionary processes, several pulsation modes are necessary to tease all of these apart. Unfortunately, white dwarf pulsators typically do not display enough oscillation modes to constrain stellar evolution. To avoid this limitation, we consider the pulsations of the entire collection of hot pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAVs). Though any one star may not have sufficient information to place interesting constraints on its evolutionary history, taken together, the stars show a pattern of modes that allows us to test evolutionary models. For an example set of published evolutionary models, we show a

  18. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  19. Iron Isotope Constraints on Planetesimal Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M.; Young, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of iron in both planetary cores and silicate mantles renders the element a valuable tool for understanding core formation. Magmatic iron meteorites exhibit an enrichment in 57Fe/54Fe relative to chondrites and HED meteorites. This is suggestive of heavy Fe partitioning into the cores of differentiated bodies. If iron isotope fractionation accompanies core formation, we can elucidate details about the history of accretion for planetary bodies as well as their compositions and relative core sizes. The equilibrium 57Fe/54Fe between metal and silicate is necessary for understanding observed iron isotope compositions and placing constraints on core formation. We measure this fractionation in two Aubrite meteorites, Norton County and Mount Egerton, which have known temperatures of equilibration and equilibrated silicon isotopes. Iron was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Data were collected on a ThermoFinnigan NeptuneTM multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) run in wet plasma mode. The measured fractionation Δ57Femetal-silicate is 0.08‰ ± 0.039 (2 SE) for Norton County and 0.09‰ ± 0.019 (2 SE) for Mount Egerton, indicating that the heavy isotopes of Fe partition into the metallic phase. These rocks are in isotopic equilibrium at a temperature of 1130 K and 1200 K ± 80 K, respectively. The concentration of the heavy isotopes of iron in the metallic phase is consistent with recent experimental studies. Using our measured metal-silicate Fe isotope fractionation and the resulting temperature calibration, while taking into account impurities in the metallic phase and temperatures of equilibration, determine that core formation could explain the observed difference between magmatic iron meteorites and chondrites if parent bodies have small cores. In order to verify that Rayleigh distillation during fractional crystallization was not a cause of iron isotope fractionation in iron meteorites, we measured

  20. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M. Stefanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.