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Sample records for simple visual evaluation

  1. Evaluation of sun protection factor of cosmetic formulations by a simple visual in vitro method mimicking the in vivo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Leonardo R; Parussulo, André L A; Araki, Koiti; Toma, Henrique E

    2012-02-01

    A new concept for in vitro visual evaluation of sun protection factor (SPF) of cosmetic formulations based on a supramolecular ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter was clearly demonstrated. The method closely parallels the method validated for in vivo evaluation and relies on the determination of the slightest perceptible bleaching of an iron-complex dye/nanocrystalline-titanium dioxide interface (UV dosimeter) in combination with an artificial skin substrate simulating the actual human skin in the presence and absence of a cosmetic formulation. The successful evaluation of SPF was ensured by the similarity of the erythema response of our dosimeter and human skin to UV light irradiation. A good linear correlation of in vitro and in vivo data up to SPF 40 confirmed the effectiveness of such a simple, cheap, and fast method. In short, here we unravel a convenient and accessible visual FPS evaluation method that can help improving the control on cosmetic products contributing to the reduction of skin cancer, one of the critical public health issues nowadays. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple visual aids make health risks clear

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío García-Retamero; Dafina Petrova

    2017-01-01

    Transparent risk communication is an essential component of informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand risks because they lack practical mathematical and risk literacy skills. Our research shows that well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding by encouraging more thorough deliberation and reducing biased risk representations.

  4. Simple visual aids make health risks clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Retamero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent risk communication is an essential component of informed decision making. Unfortunately, many people struggle to understand risks because they lack practical mathematical and risk literacy skills. Our research shows that well-designed visual aids improve risk understanding by encouraging more thorough deliberation and reducing biased risk representations.

  5. A simple experiment for visualizing diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helseth, L E, E-mail: Lars.Helseth@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    We propose a simple and fascinating experiment for studying diffusion in gels using a pH-sensitive dye. By doping agar with methyl red, we obtain a gel which rapidly reacts to changes in pH by changing its absorption spectrum. The pH gradients can be followed using a digital camera, and we demonstrate here that the pH-sensitive colour changes can be used to print colour patterns in the gel which due to diffusion of ions may disappear entirely.

  6. The Subjective Visual Vertical: Validation of a Simple Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Luigi; Longo, Stefano; Rota, Viviana

    2011-01-01

    The study sought to provide norms for a simple test of visual perception of verticality (subjective visual vertical). The study was designed as a cohort study with a balanced design. The setting was the Rehabilitation Department of a University Hospital. Twenty-two healthy adults, of 23-58 years, 11 men (three left handed) and 11 women (three left…

  7. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...

  8. Beyond simple charts: Design of visualizations for big health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Oluwakemi; Sedig, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Health data is often big data due to its high volume, low veracity, great variety, and high velocity. Big health data has the potential to improve productivity, eliminate waste, and support a broad range of tasks related to disease surveillance, patient care, research, and population health management. Interactive visualizations have the potential to amplify big data's utilization. Visualizations can be used to support a variety of tasks, such as tracking the geographic distribution of diseases, analyzing the prevalence of disease, triaging medical records, predicting outbreaks, and discovering at-risk populations. Currently, many health visualization tools use simple charts, such as bar charts and scatter plots, that only represent few facets of data. These tools, while beneficial for simple perceptual and cognitive tasks, are ineffective when dealing with more complex sensemaking tasks that involve exploration of various facets and elements of big data simultaneously. There is need for sophisticated and elaborate visualizations that encode many facets of data and support human-data interaction with big data and more complex tasks. When not approached systematically, design of such visualizations is labor-intensive, and the resulting designs may not facilitate big-data-driven tasks. Conceptual frameworks that guide the design of visualizations for big data can make the design process more manageable and result in more effective visualizations. In this paper, we demonstrate how a framework-based approach can help designers create novel, elaborate, non-trivial visualizations for big health data. We present four visualizations that are components of a larger tool for making sense of large-scale public health data.

  9. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shing; Lee, Cheng-Che; Chiang, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them. PMID:28608811

  10. Simple Smartphone-Based Guiding System for Visually Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shing Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Visually impaired people are often unaware of dangers in front of them, even in familiar environments. Furthermore, in unfamiliar environments, such people require guidance to reduce the risk of colliding with obstacles. This study proposes a simple smartphone-based guiding system for solving the navigation problems for visually impaired people and achieving obstacle avoidance to enable visually impaired people to travel smoothly from a beginning point to a destination with greater awareness of their surroundings. In this study, a computer image recognition system and smartphone application were integrated to form a simple assisted guiding system. Two operating modes, online mode and offline mode, can be chosen depending on network availability. When the system begins to operate, the smartphone captures the scene in front of the user and sends the captured images to the backend server to be processed. The backend server uses the faster region convolutional neural network algorithm or the you only look once algorithm to recognize multiple obstacles in every image, and it subsequently sends the results back to the smartphone. The results of obstacle recognition in this study reached 60%, which is sufficient for assisting visually impaired people in realizing the types and locations of obstacles around them.

  11. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  12. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Eksperiandova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II, Pd(II, and Rh(III as well as NO2--ions and Fe(III serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated.

  13. Applications of visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Bruce C; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Batey, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Working Group F “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) was formed over 30 years ago within the International Soil & Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) on the initiative of Tom Batey. The objectives of the Working Group are to stimulate interest in field methods of visual-tactile soil......., 2006). Ten visual and tactile methods were used to assess soil structure on the same soil. This stimulated significant ongoing cooperation between participants and several authors have since modified and developed their procedures (Mueller et al., 2009 and Shepherd, 2009). Cooperation also led...... to the re-development of the Peerlkamp numeric method of assessment of soil structure into the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) spade test (Ball et al., 2007 and Guimarães et al., 2011). The meeting also recommended further cooperation between members of the Working Group. The evaluation...

  14. The modulation of simple reaction time by the spatial probability of a visual stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreiro L.R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple reaction time (SRT in response to visual stimuli can be influenced by many stimulus features. The speed and accuracy with which observers respond to a visual stimulus may be improved by prior knowledge about the stimulus location, which can be obtained by manipulating the spatial probability of the stimulus. However, when higher spatial probability is achieved by holding constant the stimulus location throughout successive trials, the resulting improvement in performance can also be due to local sensory facilitation caused by the recurrent spatial location of a visual target (position priming. The main objective of the present investigation was to quantitatively evaluate the modulation of SRT by the spatial probability structure of a visual stimulus. In two experiments the volunteers had to respond as quickly as possible to the visual target presented on a computer screen by pressing an optic key with the index finger of the dominant hand. Experiment 1 (N = 14 investigated how SRT changed as a function of both the different levels of spatial probability and the subject's explicit knowledge about the precise probability structure of visual stimulation. We found a gradual decrease in SRT with increasing spatial probability of a visual target regardless of the observer's previous knowledge concerning the spatial probability of the stimulus. Error rates, below 2%, were independent of the spatial probability structure of the visual stimulus, suggesting the absence of a speed-accuracy trade-off. Experiment 2 (N = 12 examined whether changes in SRT in response to a spatially recurrent visual target might be accounted for simply by sensory and temporally local facilitation. The findings indicated that the decrease in SRT brought about by a spatially recurrent target was associated with its spatial predictability, and could not be accounted for solely in terms of sensory priming.

  15. A simple visual system without neurons in jellyfish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Karin; Wallén, Rita; Seymour, Jamie; Nilsson, Dan

    2003-11-22

    Earlier detailed studies of cnidarian planula larvae have revealed a simple nervous system but no eyes or identifiable light sensing structures. Here, we describe the planula of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora, and report that these larvae have an extremely simple organization with no nervous system at all. Their only advanced feature is the presence of 10-15 pigment-cup ocelli, evenly spaced across the posterior half of the larval ectoderm. The ocelli are single cell structures containing a cup of screening pigment filled with presumably photosensory microvilli. These rhabdomeric photoreceptors have no neural connections to any other cells, but each has a well-developed motor-cilium, appearing to be the only means by which light can control the behaviour of the larva. The ocelli are thus self-contained sensory-motor entities, making a nervous system superfluous.

  16. A Simple Visualization of Double Bond Properties: Chemical Reactivity and UV Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, easily visualized thin-layer chromatography (TLC) staining experiment is presented that highlights the difference in reactivity between aromatic double bonds and nonaromatic double bonds. Although the stability of aromatic systems is a major theme in organic chemistry, the concept is rarely reinforced "visually" in the undergraduate…

  17. A simple and useful solution for visualizing the care flow for patients and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Polun; Kuo, Ming Chuan

    2008-11-06

    It has been known that visualization is a user-preferred and more meaningful interface of information systems. We used the Microsoft Visio 2003 and Excel 2003 with the VBA automation tool to design a process flow of Cardiac Catheterization. The results showed the technical feasibility and potentials of using simple tool to visualize the nursing process for both patients and healthcare professionals.

  18. Visual Working Memory Modulates Rapid Eye Movements to Simple Onset Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) representations influence attention and gaze control in complex tasks, such as visual search, that require top-down selection to resolve stimulus competition. VWM and visual attention clearly interact, but the mechanism of that interaction is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that VWM representations of object features influence the spatiotemporal dynamics of extremely simple eye movements, in the absence of stimulus competition or goal-level biases. The rea...

  19. A Simple Assay for Measuring Catalase Activity: A Visual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Sugimoto, Shinya; Okuda, Ken-ichi; Hironaka, Ippei; Kamata, Yuko; Takada, Koji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an assay that combines the ease and simplicity of the qualitative approach for measuring catalase activity was developed. The assay reagents comprised only hydrogen peroxide and Triton X-100. The enzyme-generated oxygen bubbles trapped by Triton X-100 were visualized as foam, whose height was estimated. A calibration plot using the defined unit of catalase activity yielded the best linear fit over a range of 20–300 units (U) (y = 0.3794x − 2.0909, r2 = 0.993). The assay precision and reproducibility at 100 U were 4.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The applicability of the assay for measuring the catalase activity of various samples was assessed using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, catalase-deficient isogenic mutants, clinically isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and human cells. The assay generated reproducible results. In conclusion, this new assay can be used to measure the catalase activity of bacterial isolates and human cells. PMID:24170119

  20. Visualizing vowel-production mechanism using simple educational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takayuki

    2005-09-01

    To develop intuitive and effective methods for educating Acoustics to students of different ages and from varied backgrounds, Arai [J. Phonetic Soc. Jpn. 5, 31-38, (2001)] replicated Chiba and Kajiyama's physical models of the human vocal tract as educational tools and verified that the physical models and sound sources, such as an artificial larynx, yield a simple but powerful demonstration of vowel production in the classroom. We have also started exhibiting our models at the Science Museum ``Ru-Ku-Ru'' in Shizuoka City, Japan. We further extended our model to a lung model as well as several head-shaped models with visible vocal tract to demonstrate the total vowel-production mechanism from phonation to articulation. The lung model imitates the human respiratory system with a diaphragm. In the head-shaped model, the midsaggital cross section is visible from the outside. To adjust the degree of nasopharyngeal coupling, the velum may be rotated. Another head-shaped model with the manipulable tongue position was also developed. Two test results were compared before and after using these physical models, and the educational effectiveness of the models was confirmed. The homepage of the vocal-tract models is available at http://www.splab.ee.sophia.ac.jp/Vocal-Tract-Model/index-e.htm. [Work supported by KAKENHI (17500603).

  1. Evidence for unlimited capacity processing of simple features in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alex L; Runeson, Erik; Palmer, John; Ernst, Zachary R; Boynton, Geoffrey M

    2017-06-01

    Performance in many visual tasks is impaired when observers attempt to divide spatial attention across multiple visual field locations. Correspondingly, neuronal response magnitudes in visual cortex are often reduced during divided compared with focused spatial attention. This suggests that early visual cortex is the site of capacity limits, where finite processing resources must be divided among attended stimuli. However, behavioral research demonstrates that not all visual tasks suffer such capacity limits: The costs of divided attention are minimal when the task and stimulus are simple, such as when searching for a target defined by orientation or contrast. To date, however, every neuroimaging study of divided attention has used more complex tasks and found large reductions in response magnitude. We bridged that gap by using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure responses in the human visual cortex during simple feature detection. The first experiment used a visual search task: Observers detected a low-contrast Gabor patch within one or four potentially relevant locations. The second experiment used a dual-task design, in which observers made independent judgments of Gabor presence in patches of dynamic noise at two locations. In both experiments, blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the retinotopic cortex were significantly lower for ignored than attended stimuli. However, when observers divided attention between multiple stimuli, BOLD signals were not reliably reduced and behavioral performance was unimpaired. These results suggest that processing of simple features in early visual cortex has unlimited capacity.

  2. Reliability of the interpretation of coronary angiography by the simple visual method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Jorge Augusto Nunes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of inter and intraobserver reproducibility of by the visual method interpretation of cineangiogram in a clinically based context. METHODS: Five interventional cardiologists analyzed 11 segments of 8 coronary cineangiograms at a two month apart sessions. The percent luminal reduction by the lesions were analyzed by two different classifications: in one (A the lesions were graded in 0% = absent, 1-50% = mild, 51 - 69 = moderate, and > or = 70% = severe; the other classification (B was a dichotomic one : or = 70%=significant lesions. The agreement were measured by the kappa (k index. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was moderate for classification A (1st measurement, k = 0.36 -- 0.63, k m = 0.49; 2nd measurement, k = 0.39-0.68, k m = 0.52 and good for classification B (1st measurement, k = 0.55-0.73, k m = 0.63; 2nd measurement, k = 0.37-0.82, k m = 0.61. Intraobserver levels of agreement were k = 0.57-0.95 for classification A and 0.62-1.0 for classification B. CONCLUSION: The higher level of reproducibility obtained by adopting the dichotomous criteria usually considered for ischemic limits demonstrates that in the present clinical context, the reliability of the simple visual method is adequate for the identification of patients with clinically significant lesions and candidates for myocardial revascularization procedures.

  3. Prostate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with simple visual diagnostic criteria: is it reasonable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girouin, Nicolas; Tonina Senes, Alejandro [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Mege-Lechevallier, Florence [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Histopathology, Lyon (France); Bissery, Alvine; Rabilloud, Muriel [Department of Biostatistics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Lyon, F-69003, France; Universite de Lyon 1, Laboratoire Biostatistiques-Sante, Universite de Lyon, Pierre-Benite (France); Marechal, Jean-Marie [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Colombel, Marc [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urology, Lyon (France); Lyon, F-69003, France; Universite de Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Nord, Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Lyonnet, Denis; Rouviere, Olivier [Hopital Edouard Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Department of Urinary and Vascular Radiology, Lyon (France); Lyon, F-69003, France; Universite de Lyon 1, Faculte de Medecine Lyon Nord, Universite de Lyon, Lyon (France); Inserm, U556, Lyon (France)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of prostate cancer localization with simple visual diagnostic criteria using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 46 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent prostate 1.5 T MRI with pelvic phased-array coils before prostatectomy. Besides the usual T2-weighted sequences, a 30-s DCE sequence was acquired three times after gadoterate injection. On DCE images, all early enhancing lesions of the peripheral zone were considered malignant. In the central gland, only early enhancing lesions appearing homogeneous or invading the peripheral zone were considered malignant. Three readers specified the presence of cancer in 20 prostate sectors and the location of distinct tumors. Results were compared with histology; p < 0.05 was considered significant. For localization of cancer in the sectors, DCE imaging had a significantly higher sensitivity [logistic regression, odds ratio (OR): 3.9, p < 0.0001] and a slightly but significantly lower specificity (OR: 0.57, p < 0.0001). Of the tumors >0.3 cc, 50-60% and 78-81% were correctly depicted with T2-weighted and DCE imaging, respectively. For both techniques, the depiction rate of tumors >0.3 cc was significantly influenced by the Gleason score (most Gleason {<=}6 tumors were overlooked), but not by the tumor volume. DCE-MRI using pelvic phased-array coils and simple visual diagnostic criteria is more sensitive for tumor localization than T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Sniffing Position and Simple Head Extension for Visualization of Glottis During Direct Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Singhal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective randomized study comprised of 200 patients in the age group of 20 to 60 years, belonging to ASA physical status grade I or II, undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation. The aim was to compare sniffing position with simple head extension for visualization of glottis during direct laryngos-copy and ease of tracheal intubation. All the patients were randomly divided in two groups of 100 each: Group A (sniffing position and Group B (simple head extension. Direct laryngoscopy was done using Macintosh laryngo-scope (size 3 blade. Glottic visualization during laryngoscopy was assessed using modified Cormack and Lehane classification. After laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation was performed and intubation difficulty score (IDS recorded. Both groups were comparable regarding glottic visualization (P>0.05. All intubation difficulty score variables (N 1 to N 7 were comparable in the two groups except N 3 variable, which was significantly higher (P< 0.05 in simple head extension position. Total IDS was significantly better in sniffing position than simple head extension position (P< 0.05. To conclude, glottis visualization and intubation difficulty score are better in sniffing position as compared to simple head extension. It is too early to abandon this gold standard (sniffing position for direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.

  5. User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean C.

    2017-10-01

    Visual analytics systems are becoming very popular. More domains now use interactive visualizations to analyze the ever-increasing amount and heterogeneity of data. More novel visualizations are being developed for more tasks and users. We need to ensure that these systems can be evaluated to determine that they are both useful and usable. A user-centered evaluation for visual analytics needs to be developed for these systems. While many of the typical human-computer interaction (HCI) evaluation methodologies can be applied as is, others will need modification. Additionally, new functionality in visual analytics systems needs new evaluation methodologies. There is a difference between usability evaluations and user-centered evaluations. Usability looks at the efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction of users carrying out tasks with software applications. User-centered evaluation looks more specifically at the utility provided to the users by the software. This is reflected in the evaluations done and in the metrics used. In the visual analytics domain this is very challenging as users are most likely experts in a particular domain, the tasks they do are often not well defined, the software they use needs to support large amounts of different kinds of data, and often the tasks last for months. These difficulties are discussed more in the section on User-centered Evaluation. Our goal is to provide a discussion of user-centered evaluation practices for visual analytics, including existing practices that can be carried out and new methodologies and metrics that need to be developed and agreed upon by the visual analytics community. The material provided here should be of use for both researchers and practitioners in the field of visual analytics. Researchers and practitioners in HCI and interested in visual analytics will find this information useful as well as a discussion on changes that need to be made to current HCI practices to make them more suitable to

  6. Visual working memory modulates rapid eye movements to simple onset targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    Representations in visual working memory (VWM) influence attention and gaze control in complex tasks, such as visual search, that require top-down selection to resolve stimulus competition. VWM and visual attention clearly interact, but the mechanism of that interaction is not well understood. In the research reported here, we demonstrated that in the absence of stimulus competition or goal-level biases, VWM representations of object features influence the spatiotemporal dynamics of extremely simple eye movements. The influence of VWM therefore extends into the most basic operations of the oculomotor system.

  7. Simple and multiple visual symptoms of micronutrients deficiency in Anthurium andraeanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jorge De Pinho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral nutrition information of the ornamental plants still leaves great gaps on nutritional requirements and the identification of problems in the production and the product quality, due to nutritional stress, deficiencies or excesses. The objective of this work was the characterization visual symptoms of simple and multiple nutritional deficiencies, and their effects on anthurium growth. The experiment following a completely randomized design with 12 treatments and four replicates. Treatments consisted of: HOAGLAND and ARNON (1950 complete solution, with B omission (-B, with Cu omission (-Cu, with Fe omission (-Fe, with Mn omission (-Mn, with Zn omission (-Zn, with B and Cu omission (-B Cu, with B and Mn omission (-B Mn, with B and Zn omission (-B Zn, with Fe and Mn omission (-Fe Mn, with Zn and Cu omission (-Zn Cu, and with Zn, Cu and Fe omission (-Zn Cu Fe. The plants were observed verifying the changes resulted from the nutrient omissions. The symptoms in leaves, roots, and flowers were characterized and photographed. At harvest, were evaluated the number of leaves, length and width of the largest leaf. The plants were divided into leaves, stems, roots, and flowers. Were calculated the dry matter weight of plant’s parts. The obtained data were submitted to analyses of variance (ANOVA, as well as Scott e Knott test (p ≤ 0,05. In general, the simple and combined B omission caused morphological changes reflected in typical deficiency symptoms of this nutrient. There is dominance of the symptoms of B deficiency when this nutrient is omitted together with other nutrients. The omission of joint B and Mn caused the greater reductions in dry matter production of leaves. Omissions that led to major reductions in the number leaves were multiple omissions of Zn and Cu, Fe and Mn, B and Mn and omissions simple Mn and Zn led to the largest reductions in leaf number. The greater reductions in the width of leaves are always B omissions associated

  8. Attention modulates the responses of simple cells in monkey primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Carrie J; Reid, R Clay

    2005-11-23

    Spatial attention has long been postulated to act as a spotlight that increases the salience of visual stimuli at the attended location. We examined the effects of attention on the receptive fields of simple cells in primary visual cortex (V1) by training macaque monkeys to perform a task with two modes. In the attended mode, the stimuli relevant to the animal's task overlay the receptive field of the neuron being recorded. In the unattended mode, the animal was cued to attend to stimuli outside the receptive field of that neuron. The relevant stimulus, a colored pixel, was briefly presented within a white-noise stimulus, a flickering grid of black and white pixels. The receptive fields of the neurons were mapped by correlating spikes with the white-noise stimulus in both attended and unattended modes. We found that attention could cause significant modulation of the visually evoked response despite an absence of significant effects on the overall firing rates. On further examination of the relationship between the strength of the visual stimulation and the firing rate, we found that attention appears to cause multiplicative scaling of the visually evoked responses of simple cells, demonstrating that attention reaches back to the initial stages of visual cortical processing.

  9. Skeletal muscle ultrasonography: Visual versus quantitative evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillen, S.; Keimpema, M. Van; Nievelstein, R.A.; Verrips, A.; Kruijsbergen-Raijmann, W. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of visual versus quantitative evaluation of skeletal muscle ultrasound in children suspected of having a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). Ultrasonography (US) scans of four muscles (biceps brachii, forearm flexors, quadriceps femoris, anterior

  10. Item Selection, Evaluation, and Simple Structure in Personality Data.

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    Pettersson, Erik; Turkheimer, Eric

    2010-08-01

    We report an investigation of the genesis and interpretation of simple structure in personality data using two very different self-reported data sets. The first consists of a set of relatively unselected lexical descriptors, whereas the second is based on responses to a carefully constructed instrument. In both data sets, we explore the degree of simple structure by comparing factor solutions to solutions from simulated data constructed to have either strong or weak simple structure. The analysis demonstrates that there is little evidence of simple structure in the unselected items, and a moderate degree among the selected items. In both instruments, however, much of the simple structure that could be observed originated in a strong dimension of positive vs. negative evaluation.

  11. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  12. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  13. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    Following on from discussions that took place during the 19th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO) in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2012, the ISTRO working groups “Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation” (VSEE) and “Subsoil Compaction” decided...... to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... and climatic conditions, as well as in utilizing VSE methods together with qualitative methods to evaluate the impact of soil management (Munkholm et al., 2013). Soil compaction due to agricultural operations is a serious threat to soil productivity and soil ecological functions and has been a key research...

  14. Brain activity during auditory and visual phonological, spatial and simple discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-02-16

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Carbon-Dot-Based Fluorescent Nanosensor for Simple Visualization of Bacterial Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Ryu, Jea-Sung; Shin, Cheong; Chung, Hyun Jung

    2017-09-01

    A simple and facile method for sensing of nucleic acids is in great need for disease biomarker detection and diagnosis. Herein, a fluorescent nanosensor utilizing carbon dot nanoparticles is introduced that form visible precipitates in the presence of target DNA. Carbon dot nanoparticles are fabricated by microwave pyrolysis of polyethylenimine, which emits strong photoluminescence and can form precipitates when added to target DNA oligonucleotides. The precipitates can be easily visualized by UV illumination, and data can be acquired as images using a smartphone, which are analyzed for quantification. This carbon-dot-based assay allowed fluorescent sensing of target oligonucleotides with various sizes and visualization even with minimal amount of DNA (≈100 pmol). Finally, the assay can be applied as a nanosensor platform for detecting bacterial DNA for the antibiotic-resistance gene KPC-2 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. This method provides a simple technique for detecting molecular targets, showing wide applicability for diagnostics on the bedside or point-of-care testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Mamiya

    Full Text Available Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test.The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 20 healthy controls (HCs. We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs.The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82, and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42. Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%.Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB.

  17. Statistical modeling for visualization evaluation through data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Jin, Ran

    2017-11-01

    There is a high demand of data visualization providing insights to users in various applications. However, a consistent, online visualization evaluation method to quantify mental workload or user preference is lacking, which leads to an inefficient visualization and user interface design process. Recently, the advancement of interactive and sensing technologies makes the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye movements as well as visualization logs available in user-centered evaluation. This paper proposes a data fusion model and the application procedure for quantitative and online visualization evaluation. 15 participants joined the study based on three different visualization designs. The results provide a regularized regression model which can accurately predict the user's evaluation of task complexity, and indicate the significance of all three types of sensing data sets for visualization evaluation. This model can be widely applied to data visualization evaluation, and other user-centered designs evaluation and data analysis in human factors and ergonomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Masaaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Collaborative Research, Anan National College of Technology, Anan, Tokushima 774-0017 (Japan); Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukuda, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sugimoto, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Gunma, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  19. A simple and rapid method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Omichi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a simple method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.

  20. Simple device for the direct visualization of oral-cavity tissue fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Pierre M.; Gilhuly, Terence; Whitehead, Peter D.; Zeng, Haishan; Poh, Catherine; Ng, Samson; Williams, Michelle; Zhang, Lewei; Rosin, Miriam; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2006-03-01

    Early identification of high-risk disease could greatly reduce both mortality and morbidity due to oral cancer. We describe a simple handheld device that facilitates the direct visualization of oral-cavity fluorescence for the detection of high-risk precancerous and early cancerous lesions. Blue excitation light (400 to 460 nm) is employed to excite green-red fluorescence from fluorophores in the oral tissues. Tissue fluorescence is viewed directly along an optical axis collinear with the axis of excitation to reduce inter- and intraoperator variability. This robust, field-of-view device enables the direct visualization of fluorescence in the context of surrounding normal tissue. Results from a pilot study of 44 patients are presented. Using histology as the gold standard, the device achieves a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 100% when discriminating normal mucosa from severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (CIS) or invasive carcinoma. We envisage this device as a suitable adjunct for oral cancer screening, biopsy guidance, and margin delineation.

  1. A simple, fast, and repeatable survey method for underwater visual 3D benthic mapping and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Oscar; Friedman, Ariell; Bryson, Mitch; Williams, Stefan B; Madin, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    Visual 3D reconstruction techniques provide rich ecological and habitat structural information from underwater imagery. However, an unaided swimmer or diver struggles to navigate precisely over larger extents with consistent image overlap needed for visual reconstruction. While underwater robots have demonstrated systematic coverage of areas much larger than the footprint of a single image, access to suitable robotic systems is limited and requires specialized operators. Furthermore, robots are poor at navigating hydrodynamic habitats such as shallow coral reefs. We present a simple approach that constrains the motion of a swimmer using a line unwinding from a fixed central drum. The resulting motion is the involute of a circle, a spiral-like path with constant spacing between revolutions. We test this survey method at a broad range of habitats and hydrodynamic conditions encircling Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The approach generates fast, structured, repeatable, and large-extent surveys (~110 m2 in 15 min) that can be performed with two people and are superior to the commonly used "mow the lawn" method. The amount of image overlap is a design parameter, allowing for surveys that can then be reliably used in an automated processing pipeline to generate 3D reconstructions, orthographically projected mosaics, and structural complexity indices. The individual images or full mosaics can also be labeled for benthic diversity and cover estimates. The survey method we present can serve as a standard approach to repeatedly collecting underwater imagery for high-resolution 2D mosaics and 3D reconstructions covering spatial extents much larger than a single image footprint without requiring sophisticated robotic systems or lengthy deployment of visual guides. As such, it opens up cost-effective novel observations to inform studies relating habitat structure to ecological processes and biodiversity at scales and spatial resolutions not readily

  2. Simple evaluation of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, B. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Geier, J. [Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Monmouth, OR, (United States); Voss, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A simple evaluation of groundwater flux and potential for radionuclide transport at the Aespoe site, from fundamental hydrologic principles, indicates that, based upon data that are available from surface-based investigations, it is not possible to confirm that the bedrock has a high capacity to retard radionuclide release to the surface environment. This result is primarily due to the high spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, and high uncertainty regarding the relationship among hydrologic and transport parameters within conductive elements of the bedrock. A comparison between Aespoe and seven other study sites in Sweden indicates that it is difficult or impossible to discriminate among these sites in terms of the geologic barrier function, based upon the types of data that are available from present-day methods of site characterization. Groundwater flux is evaluated by a one-dimensional application of Darcy`s law to a set of simple, potential pathways for groundwater flow from the repository, which are chosen to yield an appraisal of the wide bounds of possible system behaviour. The configurations of the pathways are specified based on simple assumptions of flow-field structure, and hydraulic driving forces are specified from consideration of regional and local topographic differences. Results are expressed in terms of a parameter group that has been shown to control the barrier function. Comparisons with more detailed hydrological modelling of Aespoe show that, although a reduction in uncertainty is achieved, this reduction is not sufficient to distinguish between good and poor performance of the geologic barrier at the site. 38 refs.

  3. Evaluation of filesystem provenance visualization tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkin, Michelle A; Yeh, Chelsea S; Boyd, Madelaine; Macko, Peter; Gajos, Krzysztof Z; Seltzer, Margo; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Having effective visualizations of filesystem provenance data is valuable for understanding its complex hierarchical structure. The most common visual representation of provenance data is the node-link diagram. While effective for understanding local activity, the node-link diagram fails to offer a high-level summary of activity and inter-relationships within the data. We present a new tool, InProv, which displays filesystem provenance with an interactive radial-based tree layout. The tool also utilizes a new time-based hierarchical node grouping method for filesystem provenance data we developed to match the user's mental model and make data exploration more intuitive. We compared InProv to a conventional node-link based tool, Orbiter, in a quantitative evaluation with real users of filesystem provenance data including provenance data experts, IT professionals, and computational scientists. We also compared in the evaluation our new node grouping method to a conventional method. The results demonstrate that InProv results in higher accuracy in identifying system activity than Orbiter with large complex data sets. The results also show that our new time-based hierarchical node grouping method improves performance in both tools, and participants found both tools significantly easier to use with the new time-based node grouping method. Subjective measures show that participants found InProv to require less mental activity, less physical activity, less work, and is less stressful to use. Our study also reveals one of the first cases of gender differences in visualization; both genders had comparable performance with InProv, but women had a significantly lower average accuracy (56%) compared to men (70%) with Orbiter.

  4. Visual soil evaluation - future research requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Ball, Bruce; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    A review of Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) techniques (Emmet-Booth et al., 2016) highlighted their established utility for soil quality assessment, though some limitations were identified; (1) The examination of aggregate size, visible intra-porosity and shape forms a key assessment criterion in almost all methods, thus limiting evaluation to structural form. The addition of criteria that holistically examine structure may be desirable. For example, structural stability can be indicated using dispersion tests or examining soil surface crusting, while the assessment of soil colour may indirectly indicate soil organic matter content, a contributor to stability. Organic matter assessment may also indicate structural resilience, along with rooting, earthworm numbers or shrinkage cracking. (2) Soil texture may influence results or impeded method deployment. Modification of procedures to account for extreme texture variation is desirable. For example, evidence of compaction in sandy or single grain soils greatly differs to that in clayey soils. Some procedures incorporate separate classification systems or adjust deployment based on texture. (3) Research into impacts of soil moisture content on VSE evaluation criteria is required. Criteria such as rupture resistance and shape may be affected by moisture content. It is generally recommended that methods are deployed on moist soils and quantification of influences of moisture variation on results is necessary. (4) Robust sampling strategies for method deployment are required. Dealing with spatial variation differs between methods, but where methods can be deployed over large areas, clear instruction on sampling is required. Additionally, as emphasis has been placed on the agricultural production of soil, so the ability of VSE for exploring structural quality in terms of carbon storage, water purification and biodiversity support also requires research. References Emmet-Booth, J.P., Forristal. P.D., Fenton, O., Ball, B

  5. Automatic Affective Evaluation of Visual Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is possible that the neural mechanisms that detect symmetry are linked to those that produce positive affect. We conducted a set of behavioural and electrophysiological studies designed to investigate the nature of this putative connection. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT to measure implicit preference for visual regularity. On some trials, participants saw symmetrical or random dot patterns. On interleaved trials, they saw positive or negative words. When the same button was used to report symmetrical patterns and positive words, response times were faster than when the same button was used to report symmetrical patterns and negative words. This classic IAT effect demonstrated an implicit preference for symmetry. In further experiments, the same procedure was used to record implicit preference for reflection over other types of regularity, such as translation or rotational symmetry. Second, we simultaneously recorded EEG and EMG from the same participants while they observed reflection or random dot patterns. Contrary to previous findings, we found that early visual components (P1 and N1 were modulated by symmetry. Moreover, there was increased activity in the Zygomaticus Major (the muscle responsible for smiling when participants viewed reflectional symmetry, indicating a positive affective response. Rotational symmetry produced different ERPs, and no affective response. Together, our data suggest that, once the patterns are attended, most participants spontaneously form a preference for reflectional symmetry, even in the absence of any explicit instruction to engage in aesthetic evaluation.

  6. Evaluation of quality of life of visually impaired

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; de Araújo, Moziane Mendonça; Braga, Fernanda Cavalcante; Fernandes, Giselle Taveira; Costa, Samira Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the quality of life of visually impaired using WHOQOL-100. exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, performed between April and May 2013 with 20 visually impaired of the Blind Association of Ceará...

  7. Recognition of simple visual images using a sparse distributed memory: Some implementations and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1990-01-01

    Previously, a method was described of representing a class of simple visual images so that they could be used with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). Herein, two possible implementations are described of a SDM, for which these images, suitably encoded, will serve both as addresses to the memory and as data to be stored in the memory. A key feature of both implementations is that a pattern that is represented as an unordered set with a variable number of members can be used as an address to the memory. In the 1st model, an image is encoded as a 9072 bit string to be used as a read or write address; the bit string may also be used as data to be stored in the memory. Another representation, in which an image is encoded as a 256 bit string, may be used with either model as data to be stored in the memory, but not as an address. In the 2nd model, an image is not represented as a vector of fixed length to be used as an address. Instead, a rule is given for determining which memory locations are to be activated in response to an encoded image. This activation rule treats the pieces of an image as an unordered set. With this model, the memory can be simulated, based on a method of computing the approximate result of a read operation.

  8. A simple and rapid method for optical visualization and quantification of bacteria on textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Philipp; Schneider, Jana; Amberg, Caroline; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To prevent bacterial contamination on textiles and the associated undesired effects different biocidal coatings have been investigated and applied. However, due to health and environmental concerns anti-adhesive coatings preventing the binding of bacteria would be favored. To develop such anti-adhesive coatings simple assays for reliable and fast screening are beneficial. Here an easy-to-handle, robust and rapid assay to assess bacteria on textiles utilizing a tetrazolium salt was reported. The assay allowed direct eye visualization of the color change of the textiles containing bacteria, facilitating fast screening. Quantification of the adhered bacteria could be done by generating standard curves which correlate the staining intensity to cell numbers. An additional advantage of the described assay is that with the same detection method anti-adhesive and biocidal effects can be investigated. The method was applied to different coatings, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. The detection limit was found to be between 2.5 * 106 and 9.4 * 108 for P. aeruginosa and between 1 * 106 and 3.3 * 108 for S. aureus. The anti-adhesive coating PLUMA was demonstrated to reduce bacterial adhesion without killing them, whereas the biocidal coating TH22-27 caused a clear reduction in the number of viable cells. PMID:28004762

  9. A simple, reliable and sensitive colorimetric visualization of melamine in milk by unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hong; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Zhang, Zhongping; Han, Ming-Yong

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report a simple, reliable and sensitive colourimetric visualization of melamine in milk products using citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Upon exposure to ppb-level melamine, gold nanoparticle solution exhibits a highly sensitive colour change from red to blue and rapid aggregation kinetics within the initial 5 min, which can directly be seen with the naked eye and monitored by UV-vis absorbance spectra. As confirmed by the comparison with six other typical amino compounds, the melamine molecule itself contains multiple strong-binding sites to the surface of Au NPs and thus plays a role of molecular linker to efficiently crosslink Au NPs. Further evidence is that the sensitivity is significantly improved when NaHSO(4) is added to promote the ligand exchange between citrate and melamine at the surface of Au NPs. The NaHSO(4)-optimized Au NPs system provides a rapid colourimetric assay for the rapid detection of melamine down to approximately 25 ppb in real milk products.

  10. A Simple Demonstration in the Classroom: Intuitive Visualization of Relative Circular Motion in a Two-Body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Object A is in circular motion relative to object B if object B is in circular motion relative to object A. A way of visualizing the relative circular motion of two objects is presented with a simple procedure for a classroom demonstration. (Contains 7 figures.)

  11. A simple capacitive method to evaluate ethanol fuel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vello, Tatiana P.; de Oliveira, Rafael F.; Silva, Gustavo O.; de Camargo, Davi H. S.; Bufon, Carlos C. B.

    2017-02-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel used worldwide. However, the presence of excessive water either during the distillation process or by fraudulent adulteration is a major concern in the use of ethanol fuel. High water levels may cause engine malfunction, in addition to being considered illegal. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fast and accurate platform based on nanostructured sensors to evaluate ethanol samples. The device fabrication is facile, based on standard microfabrication and thin-film deposition methods. The sensor operation relies on capacitance measurements employing a parallel plate capacitor containing a conformational aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin layer (15 nm). The sensor operates over the full range water concentration, i.e., from approximately 0% to 100% vol. of water in ethanol, with water traces being detectable down to 0.5% vol. These characteristics make the proposed device unique with respect to other platforms. Finally, the good agreement between the sensor response and analyses performed by gas chromatography of ethanol biofuel endorses the accuracy of the proposed method. Due to the full operation range, the reported sensor has the technological potential for use as a point-of-care analytical tool at gas stations or in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries, to mention a few.

  12. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  13. Automated Comprehensive Evaluation of mTBI Visual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0049 TITLE: Automated Comprehensive Evaluation of mTBI Visual Dysfunction PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: LTC Jose E. Capo...Comprehensive Evaluation of mTBI Visual Dysfunction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC Jose E...order visual processing dysfunctions on a large population of Warfighters with acute mTBI as compared to healthy age-matched controls. This study also

  14. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF LIDAR DATA VISUALIZATION SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging has attained the status of an industry standard method of data collection for gathering three dimensional topographic information. Datasets captured through LiDAR are dense, redundant and are perceivable from multiple directions, which is unlike other geospatial datasets collected through conventional methods. This three dimensional information has triggered an interest in the scientific community to develop methods for visualizing LiDAR datasets and value added products. Elementary schemes of visualization use point clouds with intensity or colour, triangulation and tetrahedralization based terrain models draped with texture. Newer methods use feature extraction either through the process of classification or segmentation. In this paper, the authors have conducted a visualization experience survey where 60 participants respond to a questionnaire. The questionnaire poses six different questions on the qualities of feature perception and depth for 12 visualization schemes. The answers to these questions are obtained on a scale of 1 to 10. Results are thus presented using the non-parametric Friedman's test, using post-hoc analysis for hypothetically ranking the visualization schemes based on the rating received and finally confirming the rankings through the Page's trend test. Results show that a heuristic based visualization scheme, which has been developed by Ghosh and Lohani (2011 performs the best in terms of feature and depth perception.

  15. Modeling and evaluating user behavior in exploratory visual analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, Khairi; Johnson, Andrew E.; Papka, Michael E.; Leigh, Jason

    2016-07-25

    Empirical evaluation methods for visualizations have traditionally focused on assessing the outcome of the visual analytic process as opposed to characterizing how that process unfolds. There are only a handful of methods that can be used to systematically study how people use visualizations, making it difficult for researchers to capture and characterize the subtlety of cognitive and interaction behaviors users exhibit during visual analysis. To validate and improve visualization design, however, it is important for researchers to be able to assess and understand how users interact with visualization systems under realistic scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for modeling and evaluating the behavior of users in exploratory visual analysis. We model visual exploration using a Markov chain process comprising transitions between mental, interaction, and computational states. These states and the transitions between them can be deduced from a variety of sources, including verbal transcripts, videos and audio recordings, and log files. This model enables the evaluator to characterize the cognitive and computational processes that are essential to insight acquisition in exploratory visual analysis, and reconstruct the dynamics of interaction between the user and the visualization system. We illustrate this model with two exemplar user studies, and demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative analytical tools it affords.

  16. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Kuswandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min. The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ to study the characteristics of the biosensor’s response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  17. Evaluation of genetic diversity in rice using simple sequence repeats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram revealed 8 major distinct clusters. Higher range of similarity values for related genotypes using simple sequence repeats (SSR) provides greater confidence for the assessment of genetic diversity and relationships. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value for the SSR loci ranged from 0.36 to 0.98.

  18. Simple synthesis and biological evaluation of flocoumafen and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    MS received 13 January 2010; revised 22 March 2010; accepted 22 June 2010. Abstract. Simple synthesis ... tion, and the coupling reaction with the 4-hydroxy- coumarin moiety. The scheme 1 reveals representative retrosyn- thetic approach for syntheses of 1 and 2. The major .... 1⋅95–1⋅80 (m, 1H, CH2); LC–MS (ESI. +. ) ...

  19. A fast and simple method for the visual enhancement of microcalcifications in digital mammograms based on mathematical morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Tomislav M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast and simple method for the visual enhancement of small bright details in digital mam- mograms based on mathematical morphology is proposed. By a proper choice of the shape and size of the structuring element, an algorithm for a particular processing task - in this case, for the visual enhancement of microcalcifications in digital mammograms - was designed. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was tested on publicly available mammograms from the mammographic image analysis society database. In all tested cases (23 mammograms, the proposed method successfully segmented and enhanced the existing microcalcifications, in- dependently verified by medical experts. The proposed procedure may be used both as a visual aid in clinical mammogram analysis or as a preprocessing step for further processing, such as segmentation, classification and detection of microcalcifications. Moreover, the algorithm is very fast and robust, thus applicable to real-time mammogram processing.

  20. A simple and rapid visual method for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters using thymol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Fujinaga, K.; Seike, Y.; Honda, S. [Dept. of Material Science, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Simple visual and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in water are proposed, based on the color development of indothymol blue formed between ammonia and thymol. The color development was accelerated by nitroprusside to complete in 3 min. This color development is remarkably rapid compared with that of the other conventional methods with indothymol blue and indophenol blue. The concentration range of ammonia nitrogen spectrophotometrically determined was 0.04-1.2 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The absorbance per 1 {mu}g NH{sub 4}-N was 0.0215 (molar absorptivity = 1.51 x 10{sup 4}) at 690 nm. The visual method not using any instrument as an in situ method in field works was developed based on the optimum conditions for the established spectrophotometric method. This visual method was successfully applied to the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of the 'sniffing the morning air' position and simple head extension for glottic visualization during direct laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hafiizhoh, A H; Choy, Choy Yin

    2014-02-01

    This was a prospective randomized single-blinded clinical trial comparing the glottic views obtained during direct laryngoscopy between the 'sniffing the morning air' position and simple head extension. A sample of 378 patients, aged 18 to 75 years old with ASA physical status I or II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation, were randomized into 2 groups. Group A used the sniffing position during the first laryngoscopy while Group B was put in simple head extension position. Positions were then interchanged for the second laryngoscopy. Sniffing position was obtained by placing a 7 cm height non-compressible cushion under the patient's head. In simple head extension, patient's head was placed flat. Glottic visualization was assessed based on the Cormack & Lehane scale. Intubation was performed after second laryngoscopy and success rate of first attempt intubation was compared. The distribution of patients with different Cormack & Lehane scores between the two intubation positions were significantly different (p Cormack & Lehane scores in 109 (57.7%) patients, no change in 75 (39.7%) or worsening in 5 (4.8%) patients. Successful intubation at first attempt was better (p < 0.05) with Group A: 156 (83.5%) while Group B: 121 (64.0%). Sniffing position provided better glottic visualization score and increased the successful rate of intubation as compared to simple head extension.

  2. Comprehensive visual impairment evaluation for cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.

  3. Visual impairment registration: evaluation of agreement among ophthalmologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, E; Bouliotis, G; King, A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate consistency among consultant ophthalmologists in registration of visual impairment of patients with glaucoma who had a significant visual field component to their visual loss. Thirty UK NHS consultant ophthalmologists were asked to grade data sets comprising both visual acuity and visual fields as severely sight impaired, partially sight impaired, or neither. To assess intra-consultant agreement, a group of graders agreed to repeat the process. Kappa for inter-consultant agreement (n=30) for meeting the eligibility criteria for visual impairment registration was 0.232 (95% CI 0.142-0.345), the corresponding inter-class correlation score was 0.2 (95% CI 0.172 to 0.344). Kappa for intra-consultant agreement (n=16) ranged from 0.007 to 0.9118. When presented with the clinical data necessary to decide whether patients with severe visual field loss are eligible for vision impairment registration, there is very poor intra- and inter-observer agreement among consultant ophthalmologists with regard to eligibility. The poor agreement indicates that these criteria are open to significant subjective interpretation that may be a source of either under- or over-registration of visual impairment in this group of patients in the UK. This inconsistency will affect the access of visually impaired glaucoma patients to support services and may result in inaccurate recording of the prevalence of registerable visual disability among glaucoma patients with severe visual field loss. More objective criteria with less potential for misclassification should be introduced.

  4. RADBIOMOD: A simple program for utilising biological modelling in radiotherapy plan evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joe H; Gehrke, Christopher; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Gill, Suki; Wada, Morikatsu; Lim Joon, Daryl; Khoo, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy plan evaluation is currently performed by assessing physical parameters, which has many limitations. Biological modelling can potentially allow plan evaluation that is more reflective of clinical outcomes, however further research is required into this field before it can be used clinically. A simple program, RADBIOMOD, has been developed using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) for Microsoft Excel that incorporates multiple different biological models for radiotherapy plan evaluation, including modified Poisson tumour control probability (TCP), modified Zaider-Minerbo TCP, Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), EUD-based TCP, EUD-based NTCP, and uncomplicated tumour control probability (UTCP). RADBIOMOD was compared to existing biological modelling calculators for 15 sample cases. Comparing RADBIOMOD to the existing biological modelling calculators, all models tested had mean absolute errors and root mean square errors less than 1%. RADBIOMOD produces results that are non-significantly different from existing biological modelling calculators for the models tested. It is hoped that this freely available, user-friendly program will aid future research into biological modelling. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of optical coherence tomography to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Taek Kwan; Han, Jung Il

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and affects humans. In rare cases, dengue fever can cause visual impairment, which usually occurs within 1 month after contracting dengue fever and ranges from mild blurring of vision to severe blindness. Visual impairment due to dengue fever can be detected through angiography, retinography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, electroretinography, event electroencephalography (visually evoked potentials), and visual field analysis. The purpose of this study is to report changes in the eye captured using fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green, and OCT in 3 cases of dengue fever visual impairment associated with consistent visual symptoms and similar retinochoroidopathic changes. The OCT results of the three patients with dengue fever showed thinning of the outer retinal layer and disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. While thinning of the retina outer layer is an irreversible process, disruption of IS/OS junction is reported to be reversible. Follow-up examination of individuals with dengue fever and associated visual impairment should involve the use of OCT to evaluate visual acuity and visual field changes in patients with acute choroidal ischemia.

  6. 78 FR 25521 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Visual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Visual Disorders AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document in the...

  7. Work Evaluation of the Visually Impaired: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Lawrence E.

    1975-01-01

    Work evaluation of the visually impaired is discussed in terms of available assessment tools such as the Clawson Work Sample Test, the needs and differences of individual clients, and the techniques of situational assessment and transitional employment. (SB)

  8. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  9. A systematic review on the practice of evaluating visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Tobias; Isenberg, Petra; Chen, Jian; Sedlmair, Michael; Möller, Torsten

    2013-12-01

    We present an assessment of the state and historic development of evaluation practices as reported in papers published at the IEEE Visualization conference. Our goal is to reflect on a meta-level about evaluation in our community through a systematic understanding of the characteristics and goals of presented evaluations. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of ten years of evaluations in the published papers using and extending a coding scheme previously established by Lam et al. [2012]. The results of our review include an overview of the most common evaluation goals in the community, how they evolved over time, and how they contrast or align to those of the IEEE Information Visualization conference. In particular, we found that evaluations specific to assessing resulting images and algorithm performance are the most prevalent (with consistently 80-90% of all papers since 1997). However, especially over the last six years there is a steady increase in evaluation methods that include participants, either by evaluating their performances and subjective feedback or by evaluating their work practices and their improved analysis and reasoning capabilities using visual tools. Up to 2010, this trend in the IEEE Visualization conference was much more pronounced than in the IEEE Information Visualization conference which only showed an increasing percentage of evaluation through user performance and experience testing. Since 2011, however, also papers in IEEE Information Visualization show such an increase of evaluations of work practices and analysis as well as reasoning using visual tools. Further, we found that generally the studies reporting requirements analyses and domain-specific work practices are too informally reported which hinders cross-comparison and lowers external validity.

  10. Prey capture behavior evoked by simple visual stimuli in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Isaac H; Kampff, Adam R; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how the nervous system recognizes salient stimuli in the environment and selects and executes the appropriate behavioral responses is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. To facilitate the neuroethological study of visually guided behavior in larval zebrafish, we developed "virtual reality" assays in which precisely controlled visual cues can be presented to larvae whilst their behavior is automatically monitored using machine vision algorithms. Freely swimming larvae responded to moving stimuli in a size-dependent manner: they directed multiple low amplitude orienting turns (∼20°) toward small moving spots (1°) but reacted to larger spots (10°) with high-amplitude aversive turns (∼60°). The tracking of small spots led us to examine how larvae respond to prey during hunting routines. By analyzing movie sequences of larvae hunting paramecia, we discovered that all prey capture routines commence with eye convergence and larvae maintain their eyes in a highly converged position for the duration of the prey-tracking and capture swim phases. We adapted our virtual reality assay to deliver artificial visual cues to partially restrained larvae and found that small moving spots evoked convergent eye movements and J-turns of the tail, which are defining features of natural hunting. We propose that eye convergence represents the engagement of a predatory mode of behavior in larval fish and serves to increase the region of binocular visual space to enable stereoscopic targeting of prey.

  11. The subtlety of simple eyes: the tuning of visual fields to perceptual challenges in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Birds show interspecific variation both in the size of the fields of individual eyes and in the ways that these fields are brought together to produce the total visual field. Variation is found in the dimensions of all main parameters: binocular region, cyclopean field and blind areas. There is a phylogenetic signal with respect to maximum width of the binocular field in that passerine species have significantly broader field widths than non-passerines; broadest fields are found among crows (Corvidae). Among non-passerines, visual fields show considerable variation within families and even within some genera. It is argued that (i) the main drivers of differences in visual fields are associated with perceptual challenges that arise through different modes of foraging, and (ii) the primary function of binocularity in birds lies in the control of bill position rather than in the control of locomotion. The informational function of binocular vision does not lie in binocularity per se (two eyes receiving slightly different information simultaneously about the same objects from which higher-order depth information is extracted), but in the contralateral projection of the visual field of each eye. Contralateral projection ensures that each eye receives information from a symmetrically expanding optic flow-field from which direction of travel and time to contact targets can be extracted, particularly with respect to the control of bill position. PMID:24395967

  12. Selecting One Among the Many: A Simple Network Implementing Shifts in Selective Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Francis Crick , Ellen Hildreth, James Mahoney and Tomaso Poggio for their enlightening comments. Gady Geiger pointed out...the visual field -- (Atkinson, Campbell & Francis 1976). Consider next the problem of performing a conjunctive search task (Treisman & Gelade, 1080...central representation. Interestingly, Crick proposed recently (1984; see also Yingling & Skinner, 1977) - - that the attentional searchlight is controlled

  13. Prey capture behaviour evoked by simple visual stimuli in larval zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Henry Bianco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the nervous system recognises salient stimuli in the environ- ment and selects and executes the appropriate behavioural responses is a fundamen- tal question in systems neuroscience. To facilitate the neuroethological study of visually-guided behaviour in larval zebrafish, we developed virtual reality assays in which precisely controlled visual cues can be presented to larvae whilst their behaviour is automatically monitored using machine-vision algorithms. Freely swimming larvae responded to moving stimuli in a size-dependent manner: they directed multiple low amplitude orienting turns (∼ 20◦ towards small moving spots (1◦ but reacted to larger spots (10◦ with high-amplitude aversive turns (∼ 60◦. The tracking of small spots led us to examine how larvae respond to prey during hunting routines. By analysing movie sequences of larvae hunting parame- cia, we discovered that all prey capture routines commence with eye convergence and larvae maintain their eyes in a highly converged position for the duration of the prey-tracking and capture swim phases. We adapted our virtual reality assay to deliver artificial visual cues to partially restrained larvae and found that small moving spots evoked convergent eye movements and J-turns of the tail, which are defining features of natural hunting. We propose that eye convergence represents the engagement of a predatory mode of behaviour in larval fish and serves to increase the region of binocular visual space to enable stereoscopic targeting of prey.

  14. The subtlety of simple eyes: the tuning of visual fields to perceptual challenges in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham R

    2014-01-01

    Birds show interspecific variation both in the size of the fields of individual eyes and in the ways that these fields are brought together to produce the total visual field. Variation is found in the dimensions of all main parameters: binocular region, cyclopean field and blind areas. There is a phylogenetic signal with respect to maximum width of the binocular field in that passerine species have significantly broader field widths than non-passerines; broadest fields are found among crows (Corvidae). Among non-passerines, visual fields show considerable variation within families and even within some genera. It is argued that (i) the main drivers of differences in visual fields are associated with perceptual challenges that arise through different modes of foraging, and (ii) the primary function of binocularity in birds lies in the control of bill position rather than in the control of locomotion. The informational function of binocular vision does not lie in binocularity per se (two eyes receiving slightly different information simultaneously about the same objects from which higher-order depth information is extracted), but in the contralateral projection of the visual field of each eye. Contralateral projection ensures that each eye receives information from a symmetrically expanding optic flow-field from which direction of travel and time to contact targets can be extracted, particularly with respect to the control of bill position.

  15. Visual Short-Term Memory Capacity for Simple and Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Roy; Sessa, Paola; Gotler, Alex; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Does the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on the complexity of the objects represented in memory? Although some previous findings indicated lower capacity for more complex stimuli, other results suggest that complexity effects arise during retrieval (due to errors in the comparison process with what is in memory) that is not…

  16. A Simple Model-Based Approach to Inferring and Visualizing Cancer Mutation Signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Shiraishi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled the production of massive amounts of data on somatic mutations from cancer genomes. These data have led to the detection of characteristic patterns of somatic mutations or "mutation signatures" at an unprecedented resolution, with the potential for new insights into the causes and mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Here we present new methods for modelling, identifying and visualizing such mutation signatures. Our methods greatly simplify mutation signature models compared with existing approaches, reducing the number of parameters by orders of magnitude even while increasing the contextual factors (e.g. the number of flanking bases that are accounted for. This improves both sensitivity and robustness of inferred signatures. We also provide a new intuitive way to visualize the signatures, analogous to the use of sequence logos to visualize transcription factor binding sites. We illustrate our new method on somatic mutation data from urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract, and a larger dataset from 30 diverse cancer types. The results illustrate several important features of our methods, including the ability of our new visualization tool to clearly highlight the key features of each signature, the improved robustness of signature inferences from small sample sizes, and more detailed inference of signature characteristics such as strand biases and sequence context effects at the base two positions 5' to the mutated site. The overall framework of our work is based on probabilistic models that are closely connected with "mixed-membership models" which are widely used in population genetic admixture analysis, and in machine learning for document clustering. We argue that recognizing these relationships should help improve understanding of mutation signature extraction problems, and suggests ways to further improve the statistical methods. Our methods are implemented in an R package

  17. Evaluation of current visualization tools for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, John T.; Newey, Brent

    2010-04-01

    Visualization tools for cyber security often overlook related research from the information visualization domain. Cyber security data sets are notoriously large, yet many of the popular analysis tools use 3D techniques and parallel coordinates which have been shown to suffer issues of occlusion when applied to large data sets1,2. While techniques exist to ameliorate these issues they are typically not used. In this paper we evaluate several cyber security visualization tools based on established design principles and human-computer interaction research. We conclude by enumerating challenges, requirements, and recommendations for future work.

  18. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  19. A visualization framework for design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Benjamin J.; Ng, Gary; Pettifer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The creation of compelling visualisation paradigms is a craft often dominated by intuition and issues of aesthetics, with relatively few models to support good design. The majority of problem cases are approached by simply applying a previously evaluated visualisation technique. A large body of work exists covering the individual aspects of visualisation design such as the human cognition aspects visualisation methods for specific problem areas, psychology studies and so forth, yet most frameworks regarding visualisation are applied after-the-fact as an evaluation measure. We present an extensible framework for visualisation aimed at structuring the design process, increasing decision traceability and delineating the notions of function, aesthetics and usability. The framework can be used to derive a set of requirements for good visualisation design and evaluating existing visualisations, presenting possible improvements. Our framework achieves this by being both broad and general, built on top of existing works, with hooks for extensions and customizations. This paper shows how existing theories of information visualisation fit into the scheme, presents our experience in the application of this framework on several designs, and offers our evaluation of the framework and the designs studied.

  20. 38 CFR 4.75 - General considerations for evaluating visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating visual impairment. 4.75 Section 4.75 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... § 4.75 General considerations for evaluating visual impairment. (a) Visual impairment. The evaluation of visual impairment is based on impairment of visual acuity (excluding developmental errors of...

  1. Thinking Inside the Box: Simple Methods to Evaluate Complex Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Menke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We risk ignoring cheaper and safer medical treatments because they cannot be patented, lack profit potential, require too much patient-contact time, or do not have scientific results. Novel medical treatments may be difficult to evaluate for a variety of reasons such as patient selection bias, the effect of the package of care, or the lack of identifying the active elements of treatment. Whole Systems Research (WSR is an approach designed to assess the performance of complete packages of clinical management. While the WSR method is compelling, there is no standard procedure for WSR, and its implementation may be intimidating. The truth is that WSR methodological tools are neither new nor complicated. There are two sequential steps, or boxes, that guide WSR methodology: establishing system predictability, followed by an audit of system element effectiveness. We describe the implementation of WSR with a particular attention to threats to validity (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002; Shadish & Heinsman, 1997. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12365

  2. A simple red-ox titrimetric method for the evaluation of photo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A simple red-ox titrimetry method has been developed for rapid evaluation of the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 based photo-catalysts. The analytical procedure employs monitoring the kinetics of a simple one electron transfer reduction reaction of conversion of Ce4+ to Ce3+ in dilute aqueous solution in presence ...

  3. VISUAL ART AND REGULATORY FIT MESSAGES ON CONSUMER EVALUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate that the art infusion effect, in which the presence of visual art causes a positive impact on consumers’ perceptions of products and advertising messages, might have a moderation effect on regulatory fit and non-fit messages. We investigate the impact of visual art on advertisement evaluations in regulatory (non- fit conditions. Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers rely on their motivational focus (prevention vs. promotion for their evaluations and decisions. Usually, consumers prefer products that fit with their personal motivational focus. In the present study, the results of three experiments indicate that using visual art with a promotion or prevention fit message is recommended, while non-art images increase message persuasiveness when non-fit messages are presented. Therefore, not all information compatible with the consumer’s motivational focus are best evaluated. When non-art images are presented, non-fit messages might be more persuasive.

  4. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. Radiosity methodology is used...... to derive the daylight levels for different sky conditions on an hourly basis. The daylight levels are fed into an existing simple thermal simulation program capable of calculating energy demand and the indoor environment. Straightforward control systems for general and task lighting systems have been...... that the accuracy of this approach is adequate for predicting the energy implications of photoresponsive lighting control....

  5. A simple quality assurance test tool for the visual verification of light and radiation field congruent using electronic portal images device and computed radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njeh Christopher F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The radiation field on most megavoltage radiation therapy units are shown by a light field projected through the collimator by a light source mounted inside the collimator. The light field is traditionally used for patient alignment. Hence it is imperative that the light field is congruent with the radiation field. Method A simple quality assurance tool has been designed for rapid and simple test of the light field and radiation field using electronic portal images device (EPID or computed radiography (CR. We tested this QA tool using Varian PortalVision and Elekta iViewGT EPID systems and Kodak CR system. Results Both the single and double exposure techniques were evaluated, with double exposure technique providing a better visualization of the light-radiation field markers. The light and radiation congruency could be detected within 1 mm. This will satisfy the American Association of Physicists in Medicine task group report number 142 recommendation of 2 mm tolerance. Conclusion The QA tool can be used with either an EPID or CR to provide a simple and rapid method to verify light and radiation field congruence.

  6. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order ...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  7. On a New Simple Method for Evaluation of Certain Multiple Definite Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, I.; Debnath, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a simple method of evaluation of certain multiple definite integrals. This is followed by two main theorems concerning multiple definite integrals. Some examples of applications are given.

  8. Detection of light images by simple tissues as visualized by photosensitized magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tempel-Brami

    Full Text Available In this study, we show how light can be absorbed by the body of a living rat due to an injected pigment circulating in the blood stream. This process is then physiologically translated in the tissue into a chemical signature that can be perceived as an image by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We previously reported that illumination of an injected photosynthetic bacteriochlorophyll-derived pigment leads to a generation of reactive oxygen species, upon oxygen consumption in the blood stream. Consequently, paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin accumulating in the illuminated area induces changes in image contrast, detectable by a Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD-MRI protocol, termed photosensitized (psMRI. Here, we show that laser beam pulses synchronously trigger BOLD-contrast transients in the tissue, allowing representation of the luminous spatiotemporal profile, as a contrast map, on the MR monitor. Regions with enhanced BOLD-contrast (7-61 fold were deduced as illuminated, and were found to overlap with the anatomical location of the incident light. Thus, we conclude that luminous information can be captured and translated by typical oxygen exchange processes in the blood of ordinary tissues, and made visible by psMRI (Fig. 1. This process represents a new channel for communicating environmental light into the body in certain analogy to light absorption by visual pigments in the retina where image perception takes place in the central nervous system. Potential applications of this finding may include: non-invasive intra-operative light guidance and follow-up of photodynamic interventions, determination of light diffusion in opaque tissues for optical imaging and possible assistance to the blind.

  9. ASCI visualization tool evaluation, Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, P. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Computational Engineering

    1997-04-01

    The charter of the ASCI Visualization Common Tools subgroup was to investigate and evaluate 3D scientific visualization tools. As part of that effort, a Tri-Lab evaluation effort was launched in February of 1996. The first step was to agree on a thoroughly documented list of 32 features against which all tool candidates would be evaluated. These evaluation criteria were both gleaned from a user survey and determined from informed extrapolation into the future, particularly as concerns the 3D nature and extremely large size of ASCI data sets. The second step was to winnow a field of 41 candidate tools down to 11. The selection principle was to be as inclusive as practical, retaining every tool that seemed to hold any promise of fulfilling all of ASCI`s visualization needs. These 11 tools were then closely investigated by volunteer evaluators distributed across LANL, LLNL, and SNL. This report contains the results of those evaluations, as well as a discussion of the evaluation philosophy and criteria.

  10. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The steaks were evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity by a 10-member trained panel. Colour was also measured by the CIE L*, a*, b* system using a Minolta meter, and tenderness was measured by means of Warner-Bratzler shear force. High negative ...

  11. Evaluating the Effect of Program Visualization on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Paredes-Velasco, Maximiliano

    An increase in student motivation is often cited as an expected effect of software visualization, but, as far as the authors are aware, no controlled experiments have yet demonstrated this. This paper therefore presents a controlled evaluation of this effect, conducted within the framework of self-determination theory. Students were tasked with…

  12. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... The steaks were evaluated by visual analysis for colour, marbling, fibre separation, surface texture and structure integrity by a 10-member trained panel. Colour was also measured by the CIE L*, a*, b* system using a Minolta meter, and tenderness was measured by means of Warner-Bratzler shear force.

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Program Visualization on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Ángel; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Paredes-Velasco, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    An increase in student motivation is often cited as an expected effect of software visualization, but, as far as the authors are aware, no controlled experiments have yet demonstrated this. This paper therefore presents a controlled evaluation of this effect, conducted within the framework of self-determination theory. Students were tasked with…

  14. Morphological Texture Manipulation for The Evaluation of Human Visual Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Chie Muraki; Asano, Akira; Li, Liang; Fujimoto, Takako

    Since the surface texture of materials often affects human visual impressions as much as or more than the design, shape, or color properties, texture characteristics have been studied as features of object identification. We have been investigating the effect of texture on visual impression and objective identification using black fabrics that do not exhibit any effects of color. Our studies showed that visual impressions of texture correspond to complex micro-components and global structures of image features of those textures. Our results also showed that some important elements influence human visual impressions and identification of textures. Because of a variety of fibrous structures, it is not easy to provide a systematic analysis of clothing materials. Nevertheless, developing the method and collecting data on these elements and their effects using these image features will be important. To make this research applicable for wider use, we have been studying precisely what it is about an arbitrary texture that influences human visual impressions and sensibility. As a new step, in this paper, a texture is altered and transformed using the parameter estimation method of texture based on mathematical morphology, which is often used for extracting image components that are useful for representation and description. A texture is decomposed into a primitive and grain arrangement which correspond to local and global characteristics, respectively. Different textures are created by modifying the primitive and the arrangement to investigate the effects of modifications of local and global features. The relationship between the parameters and visual impressions of the modified textures were evaluated. This study shows that influence of both local and global structures of the texture along with their combinations and mutual interactions are important for identification of human visual impression.

  15. A simple red-ox titrimetric method for the evaluation of photo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ox titrimetric method for the evaluation of photo-catalytic activity of titania based catalysts ... Abstract. A simple red-ox titrimetry method has been developed for rapid evaluation of the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 based photo-catalysts.

  16. Toward Mixed Method Evaluations of Scientific Visualizations and Design Process as an Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bret; Coffey, Dane; Thorson, Lauren; Schroeder, David; Ellingson, Arin M.; Nuckley, David J.

    2017-01-01

    In this position paper we discuss successes and limitations of current evaluation strategies for scientific visualizations and argue for embracing a mixed methods strategy of evaluation. The most novel contribution of the approach that we advocate is a new emphasis on employing design processes as practiced in related fields (e.g., graphic design, illustration, architecture) as a formalized mode of evaluation for data visualizations. To motivate this position we describe a series of recent evaluations of scientific visualization interfaces and computer graphics strategies conducted within our research group. Complementing these more traditional evaluations our visualization research group also regularly employs sketching, critique, and other design methods that have been formalized over years of practice in design fields. Our experience has convinced us that these activities are invaluable, often providing much more detailed evaluative feedback about our visualization systems than that obtained via more traditional user studies and the like. We believe that if design-based evaluation methodologies (e.g., ideation, sketching, critique) can be taught and embraced within the visualization community then these may become one of the most effective future strategies for both formative and summative evaluations. PMID:28944349

  17. Evaluation of visual skills in sedentary and active work environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor skills. Visual-motor skills encompass three essential ocular motor skills, namely focusing, eye-hand coordination and tracking. The aspects of the visual perceptual process include visual memory and visualization. This study aims to ...

  18. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural observations and its relationship to meat colour. K.Y. Modika1,2#, L. Frylinck1, K.W. Moloto1, P.E. Strydom1,. P.H. Heinze1 & E.C. Webb2. 1 Department of Meat Science, Agricultural Research Council – Animal Production Institute, Private Bag ...

  19. Simple tool to evaluate the impact of daylight on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple building simulation tool for integrated daylight and thermal analysis. The tool is capable of importing the thermal and visual properties for different glazings and shading positions from the Window Information System (WIS) program. A coupled ray-tracing and radiosity...... simulation program capable of calculating energy demand and the indoor environment. Straightforward control systems for general and task lighting systems have been implemented together with a shading control strategy that adjusts the shading according to the indoor operative temperature, the risk of glare...... implications of photoresponsive lighting control. The amount of input is small, which makes the tool useful for integrated daylight optimisation in the early design process....

  20. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  1. Thoracic ROM measurement system with visual bio-feedback: system design and biofeedback evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujitani, Junko; Koike, Tomokazu; Fujimoto, Masashi; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need to improve their thorax mobility. Thoracic ROM is one of the simplest and most useful indexes to evaluate the respiratory function. In this paper, we have proposed the prototype of a simple thoracic ROM measurement system with real-time visual bio-feedback in the chest expansion test. In this system, the thoracic ROM is measured using a wire-type linear encoder whose wire is wrapped around the thorax. In this paper, firstly, the repeatability and reliability of measured thoracic ROM was confirmed as a first report of the developed prototype. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of the bio-feedback system on the respiratory function. The result of the experiment showed that it was easier to maintain a large and stable thoracic ROM during deep breathing by using the real-time visual biofeedback system of the thoracic ROM.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Style in Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Moere, A; Tomitsch, M; Wimmer, C; Christoph, B; Grechenig, T

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on a between-subject, comparative online study of three information visualization demonstrators that each displayed the same dataset by way of an identical scatterplot technique, yet were different in style in terms of visual and interactive embellishment. We validated stylistic adherence and integrity through a separate experiment in which a small cohort of participants assigned our three demonstrators to predefined groups of stylistic examples, after which they described the styles with their own words. From the online study, we discovered significant differences in how participants execute specific interaction operations, and the types of insights that followed from them. However, in spite of significant differences in apparent usability, enjoyability and usefulness between the style demonstrators, no variation was found on the self-reported depth, expert-rated depth, confidence or difficulty of the resulting insights. Three different methods of insight analysis have been applied, revealing how style impacts the creation of insights, ranging from higher-level pattern seeking to a more reflective and interpretative engagement with content, which is what underlies the patterns. As this study only forms the first step in determining how the impact of style in information visualization could be best evaluated, we propose several guidelines and tips on how to gather, compare and categorize insights through an online evaluation study, particularly in terms of analyzing the concise, yet wide variety of insights and observations in a trustworthy and reproducable manner.

  3. Using Visualization Science to Evaluate Effective Communication of Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Wolfinger, F.; Lloyd, A.

    2015-12-01

    Indicators are observations or calculations that are used to track social and environmental conditions over time. For a large coupled system such as the economy and environment, the choice of indicators requires a structured process that involves co-production among facilitators, subject-matter experts, decision-makers, and the general public. This co-production is needed in part because such indicators serve a duel role of scientifically tracking change and of communicating to non-scientists important changes and information that may be useful in decision contexts. Because the goal is to communicate and inform decisions it is critical that indicators be understood by non-scientific audiences, which may require different visualization techniques than for scientific audiences. Here we describe a process of rigorously evaluating visual communication efficacy by using a simplified taxonomy of visualization design problems and trade-offs to assess existing and redesigned indicator images. The experimental design is three-part. It involves testing non-scientific audiences' understandability of scientific images found in the literature along with similar information shaped by a partial co-production process that informed the U.S. Global Change Research Program prototype indicators system, released in Spring 2015. These recommendations for physical, natural, and societal indicators of changes and impacts involved input from over 200 subject-matter experts, organized into 13 technical teams. Using results from the first two parts, we then explore visualization design improvements that may increase understandability to non-scientific audiences. We anticipate that this work will highlight important trade-offs in visualization design when moving between audiences that will be of great use to scientists who wish to communicate their results broader audiences.

  4. Use of a simple pain model to evaluate analgesic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the analgesic activity of ibuprofen against paracetamol using a simple pain model. Design: A double-blind study. Setting: Twenty general practitioners in Harare, Zimbabwe. Patients: Adults with acute sore throat of a maximum of two days' duration. Interventions: One hundred and thirteen patients with ...

  5. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P.; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G.

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat

  6. Evaluation of quality of life of visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; de Araújo, Moziane Mendonça; Braga, Fernanda Cavalcante; Fernandes, Giselle Taveira; Costa, Samira Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the quality of life of visually impaired using WHOQOL-100. exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, performed between April and May 2013 with 20 visually impaired of the Blind Association of Ceará, through interviews. the analysis showed that males predominated (80%), 41-55 years (40%), students (50%) and personal income than the minimum wage (70%). Participants were self-rated with good quality of life (68.75%). The facets with the highest rates were personal relationships (74.06%), sexual activity (66.88%) and spirituality/religion/personal beliefs (65%). With lower rates were financial (43.44%), physical environment: pollution/noise/traffic/climate (46.88%), physical security and protection (37.19%), transport (35.63%) and medication or treatment dependency (8.25%). these results reflect the importance of the nurse to perform health education actions promoting the empowerment, autonomy and guaranteed of access in society for this clientele.

  7. Should product innovations look simple or complex? The effects of visual complexity on consumers' comprehension of product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Mugge, R.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers often have difficulty understanding the really new functions of product innovations. This study explores the potential role of product appearance, and more specifically visual complexity, to improve consumers’ comprehension of product innovations. Because visual complexity is directly

  8. Benchmarking Spike-Based Visual Recognition: A Dataset and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Pineda-García, Garibaldi; Stromatias, Evangelos; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Furber, Steve B

    2016-01-01

    Today, increasing attention is being paid to research into spike-based neural computation both to gain a better understanding of the brain and to explore biologically-inspired computation. Within this field, the primate visual pathway and its hierarchical organization have been extensively studied. Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs), inspired by the understanding of observed biological structure and function, have been successfully applied to visual recognition and classification tasks. In addition, implementations on neuromorphic hardware have enabled large-scale networks to run in (or even faster than) real time, making spike-based neural vision processing accessible on mobile robots. Neuromorphic sensors such as silicon retinas are able to feed such mobile systems with real-time visual stimuli. A new set of vision benchmarks for spike-based neural processing are now needed to measure progress quantitatively within this rapidly advancing field. We propose that a large dataset of spike-based visual stimuli is needed to provide meaningful comparisons between different systems, and a corresponding evaluation methodology is also required to measure the performance of SNN models and their hardware implementations. In this paper we first propose an initial NE (Neuromorphic Engineering) dataset based on standard computer vision benchmarksand that uses digits from the MNIST database. This dataset is compatible with the state of current research on spike-based image recognition. The corresponding spike trains are produced using a range of techniques: rate-based Poisson spike generation, rank order encoding, and recorded output from a silicon retina with both flashing and oscillating input stimuli. In addition, a complementary evaluation methodology is presented to assess both model-level and hardware-level performance. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the dataset and the evaluation methodology using two SNN models to validate the performance of the models and their hardware

  9. A Simple, Visually Oriented Communication System to Improve Postoperative Care Following Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer: Development, Results, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter W; Landford, Wilmina; Gardenier, Jason; Otterburn, David M; Rohde, Christine H; Spector, Jason A

    2016-07-01

    Background Communication, particularly transmission of information between the surgical and nursing teams, has been identified as one of the most crucial determinants of patient outcomes. Nonetheless, transfer of information among and between the physician and nursing teams in the immediate postoperative period is often informal, verbal, and inconsistent. Methods An iterative process of multidisciplinary information gathering was undertaken to create a novel postoperative communication system (the "Pop-form"). Once developed, nurses were surveyed on multiple measures regarding the perceived likelihood that it would improve their ability to provide directed patient care. Data were quantified using a Likert scale (0-10), and statistically analyzed. Results The Pop-form records and transfers operative details, specific anatomic monitoring parameters, and senior physician contact information. Sixty-eight nurses completed surveys. The perceived usefulness of different components of the Pop-form system was as follows: 8.9 for the description of the procedure; 9.3 for the operative diagram; 9.4 for the monitoring details and parameters; and 9.4 for the direct contact information for the appropriate surgical team member. All respondents were in favor of widespread adoption of the Pop-form. Conclusion This uniform, visual communication system requires less than 1 minute to compose, yet formalizes and standardizes inter-team communication, and therefore shows promise for improving outcomes following microvascular free tissue transfer. We believe that this simple, innovative communication tool has the potential to be more broadly applied to many other health care settings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. 20 CFR 416.985 - How we evaluate other visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate other visual impairments. 416... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.985 How we evaluate other visual impairments. If you are not blind as defined in the law, we will evaluate a visual...

  11. Simple evaluation method for osteoinductive capacity of cells or scaffolds using ceramic cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Hwan; Dennis, James E

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are good candidates for the clinical application of bone repair because of their osteogenic differentiation potential, but in vivo osteoinduction potential should be verified for culture expanded cells before clinical application. This study analyzed in vivo bone formation by MSCs quantitatively after implantation of MSCs planted porous biphasic ceramic cubes into athymic mice. MSCs were divided into osteogenic differentiation-induced and normal groups and also tested in vitro to evaluate the degree of differentiation into osteoblasts. The osteogenic induced group showed higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium level in vitro and corresponding higher level of bone formation in vivo compared to control group. Whereas there was no bone formation observed in fibroblast-implanted negative control group. In critical sized bone defect models, commonly used for evaluation of bone regeneration ability, it is difficult to distinguish between osteoinduction and osteoconduction, and quantitative analysis is not simple. However, this method for evaluating osteoinduction is both accurate and simple. In conclusion, the analysis of in vivo bone formation using porous ceramic cubes is a powerful and simple method for evaluating the osteoinduction ability of target cells and, furthermore, can be applied for evaluation of scaffolds for their osteoinductive properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Visual and optical evaluation of bank notes in circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Sara; Lacelle, Martine; Garanzotis, Theodoros

    2006-02-01

    A method for comparing quality of bank notes in circulation based on both a subjective visual sorting technique and on quantitative wear evaluations is described and applied to circulated Canadian bank notes. The sample notes, which were part of a $5 circulation trial, issued over a 4 to 6 week period, had been in circulation for roughly 6 months. Notes were first sorted visually into four defined substrate categories (No Edge Wear, Corner Folds, Minimal Edge Wear and Edge Wear) and four surface wear categories (None, Low, Medium and High). Samples of each category were tested at Crane and Co. using a range of physical and optical techniques: air resistance, air permeability, stiffness deflection, double folds, gray scale, brightness, perimeter length, and top/bottom mean and maximum deviations. The visual sort showed that neither soiling nor ink loss are the major wear problems for bank notes in Canada. However, the substrate does become tattered and worn. The mechanical and optical wear tests show that most of the parameters change logically as the soil level increases. The changes for other parameters are less clear as a function of wear categories, but are relatively consistent in distinguishing between the No Edge Wear and Edge Wear. Impact of wear on the effectiveness of security features will also be described.

  13. Evaluation of Diagnostic Visual Findings at Laparoscopy in Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis has been widely implicated as one of the causes of chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility. The purpose of our study was to define the presumed correlation between visual and histologic diagnostic features of endometriosis based on the peritoneal findings identified in laparoscopy as a diagnostic trial with a standardized technique. So, all the specimens including complete excised lesions suggestive of endometriosis and systematic biopsies of normal appearing pelvic peritoneum were analyzed. This study was performed in Mahdieh hospital and IRHRC1 between 2004 and 2005.Materials and Methods: A diagnostic study of 30 patients (14 to 45 years undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy for the evaluation of chronic pelvic pain, infertility, dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia was carried out (average age was 28.6±5.14.All areas suggestive of endometriosis were excised and examined pathologically. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were obtained from areas of normal appearing peritoneum to rule out microscopic endometriosis.The positive predictive value, sensitivity, negative predictive value and specificity were determined for identified endometriosis versus the histological findings.Results: The mean prevalence of abnormalities visually consistent with endometriosis was 63% while 42% confirmed histologically. The positive predictive value was 42.1%, sensitivity 88.8%, negative predictive 90.9% and specificity 47.6% for visual versus histological diagnosis of endometriosis.Conclusion: A diagnosis of endometriosis should be established only after histologic confirmation.

  14. New procedures to evaluate visually lossless compression for display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolitzka, Dale F.; Schelkens, Peter; Bruylants, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Visually lossless image coding in isochronous display streaming or plesiochronous networks reduces link complexity and power consumption and increases available link bandwidth. A new set of codecs developed within the last four years promise a new level of coding quality, but require new techniques that are sufficiently sensitive to the small artifacts or color variations induced by this new breed of codecs. This paper begins with a summary of the new ISO/IEC 29170-2, a procedure for evaluation of lossless coding and reports the new work by JPEG to extend the procedure in two important ways, for HDR content and for evaluating the differences between still images, panning images and image sequences. ISO/IEC 29170-2 relies on processing test images through a well-defined process chain for subjective, forced-choice psychophysical experiments. The procedure sets an acceptable quality level equal to one just noticeable difference. Traditional image and video coding evaluation techniques, such as, those used for television evaluation have not proven sufficiently sensitive to the small artifacts that may be induced by this breed of codecs. In 2015, JPEG received new requirements to expand evaluation of visually lossless coding for high dynamic range images, slowly moving images, i.e., panning, and image sequences. These requirements are the basis for new amendments of the ISO/IEC 29170-2 procedures described in this paper. These amendments promise to be highly useful for the new content in television and cinema mezzanine networks. The amendments passed the final ballot in April 2017 and are on track to be published in 2018.

  15. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial stress and strain states under non-proportional loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method of determining stresses and strains and a severity of loading history under non-proportional loadings with defining the rotation angles of the maximum principal stress and strain in a three dimensional stress and strain space. Based on the method, non-proportional stress and strain ranges are derived and applicability of the range to the life evaluation for low carbon steel under non-proportional random strain paths are discussed. The strain range taking account of intensity of loading path reducing life can be suitable parameter for multiaxial fatigue life evaluation under multiaxial non-proportional loading. This paper also shows a method of visually presenting the principal stress and strain that assists designers to understand the loading mode whether proportional or non-proportional under 3 dimensional (6 stress/strain components multiaxial loading.

  16. Subsoil compaction assessed by visual evaluation and laboratory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Schjønning, Per; Peng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is one of the major causes of land degradationworldwide and therefore a major threat to future crop productivity. The objective of this contribution was to evaluate the effects of compaction treatments on soil structure based on the numerical visual evaluation of subsoil...... we used i) non-compacted reference, ii) Treatment M3, where soil was subjected to multiple passes (five wheel passes per compaction event annually) of a tractor-trailer combination with max. wheel load of 3 Mg, and iii) M8, with multiple passes (four wheel passes per compaction event annually......) of a tractor-trailer combination with max. wheel load of 8 Mg. The tire inflation pressure was generally above the recommended pressure in order to mimic the inflation pressures commonly used inpractice. The treatments were applied track-by-track in the spring of 2010–2013 when the soil water content was close...

  17. A simple, rapid method to isolate salt glands for three-dimensional visualization, fluorescence imaging and cytological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tit-Meng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some plants inhabiting saline environment remove salts via the salt glands embedded in the epidermal tissues. Cytological studies of salt glands will provide valuable information to our understanding of the secretory process. Previous studies on salt gland histology relied mainly on two-dimensional microscopic observations of microtome sections. Optical sectioning properties of confocal laser scanning microscope offer alternative approach for obtaining three-dimensional structural information of salt glands. Difficulty in light penetration through intact leaves and interference from neighbouring leaf cells, however, impede the acquiring of good optical salt gland sections and limit its applications in salt gland imaging. Freeing the glands from adjacent leaf tissues will allow better manipulations for three-dimensional imaging through confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results Here, we present a simple and fast method for the isolation of individual salt glands released from the interference of neighbouring cells. About 100-200 salt glands could be isolated from just one cm2 of Avicennia officinalis leaf within hours and microscopic visualization of isolated salt glands was made possible within a day. Using these isolated glands, confocal laser scanning microscopic techniques could be applied and better resolution salt gland images could be achieved. By making use of their intrinsic fluorescent properties, optical sections of the gland cells could be acquired without the use of fluorescent probes and the corresponding three-dimensional images constructed. Useful cytological information of the salt gland cells could also be obtained through the applications of fluorescent dyes (e.g., LysoTracker® Red, FM®4-64, Texas Red®. Conclusions The study of salt glands directly at the glandular level are made possible with the successful isolation of these specialized structures. Preparation of materials for subsequent microscopic

  18. Correlation-based evaluation of visual performance to reduce the statistical error of visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülep, Csilla; Kovács, Illés; Kránitz, Kinga; Erdei, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    Ophthalmologists evaluate visual acuity tests by the number of correctly recognized optotypes (usually letters) in the different lines of an eye chart. This probability-based scoring results in significant statistical error that can only be decreased by the time-consuming analysis of a larger number of optotypes. In this paper, we present a new, more precise correlation-based scoring method that takes the degree of misidentification into consideration too, rather than the mere fact of it. According to our experimental results, this new method decreases the uncertainty error by 28% if using the same number of optotypes at a given letter size or requires half the optotype number to produce the same error as that of probability-based scoring.

  19. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  20. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  1. Perceptual evaluation of visual alerts in surveillance videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Topkara, Mercan; Pfeiffer, William; Hampapur, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Visual alerts are commonly used in video monitoring and surveillance systems to mark events, presumably making them more salient to human observers. Surprisingly, the effectiveness of computer-generated alerts in improving human performance has not been widely studied. To address this gap, we have developed a tool for simulating different alert parameters in a realistic visual monitoring situation, and have measured human detection performance under conditions that emulated different set-points in a surveillance algorithm. In the High-Sensitivity condition, the simulated alerts identified 100% of the events with many false alarms. In the Lower-Sensitivity condition, the simulated alerts correctly identified 70% of the targets, with fewer false alarms. In the control condition, no simulated alerts were provided. To explore the effects of learning, subjects performed these tasks in three sessions, on separate days, in a counterbalanced, within subject design. We explore these results within the context of cognitive models of human attention and learning. We found that human observers were more likely to respond to events when marked by a visual alert. Learning played a major role in the two alert conditions. In the first session, observers generated almost twice as many False Alarms as in the No-Alert condition, as the observers responded pre-attentively to the computer-generated false alarms. However, this rate dropped equally dramatically in later sessions, as observers learned to discount the false cues. Highest observer Precision, Hits/(Hits + False Alarms), was achieved in the High Sensitivity condition, but only after training. The successful evaluation of surveillance systems depends on understanding human attention and performance.

  2. Spatial Visualization Ability and Laparoscopic Skills in Novice Learners: Evaluating Stereoscopic versus Monoscopic Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A.; Mistry, Manisha R.; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated spatial visualization ability (Vz) is thought to influence surgical skill acquisition and performance. Current research suggests that stereo visualization technology and its association with skill performance may confer perceptual advantages. This is of particular interest in laparoscopic skill training, where stereo visualization may…

  3. Conceptual uncertainty in crystalline bedrock: Is simple evaluation the only practical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J.; Voss, C.I.; Dverstorp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple evaluation can be used to characterise the capacity of crystalline bedrock to act as a barrier to releases of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository. Physically plausible bounds on groundwater flow and an effective transport-resistance parameter are estimated based on fundamental principles and idealised models of pore geometry. Application to an intensively characterised site in Sweden shows that, due to high spatial variability and uncertainty regarding properties of transport paths, the uncertainty associated with the geological barrier is too high to allow meaningful discrimination between good and poor performance. Application of more complex (stochastic-continuum and discrete-fracture-network) models does not yield a significant improvement in the resolution of geologic-barrier performance. Comparison with seven other less intensively characterised crystalline study sites in Sweden leads to similar results, raising a question as to what extent the geological barrier function can be characterised by state-of-the art site investigation methods prior to repository construction. A simple evaluation provides a simple and robust practical approach for inclusion in performance assessment.

  4. Continuously variable rating: a new, simple and logical procedure to evaluate original scientific publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Impact Factors (IF are widely used surrogates to evaluate single articles, in spite of known shortcomings imposed by cite distribution skewness. We quantify this asymmetry and propose a simple computer-based procedure for evaluating individual articles. METHOD: (a Analysis of symmetry. Journals clustered around nine Impact Factor points were selected from the medical ‘‘Subject Categories’’ in Journal Citation Reports 2010. Citable items published in 2008 were retrieved and ranked by granted citations over the Jan/2008 - Jun/2011 period. Frequency distribution of cites, normalized cumulative cites and absolute cites/decile were determined for each journal cluster. (b Positive Predictive Value. Three arbitrarily established evaluation classes were generated: LOW (1.33.9. Positive Predictive Value for journal clusters within each class range was estimated. (c Continuously Variable Rating. An alternative evaluation procedure is proposed to allow the rating of individually published articles in comparison to all articles published in the same journal within the same year of publication. The general guiding lines for the construction of a totally dedicated software program are delineated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Skewness followed the Pareto Distribution for (1simple computer based procedure capable of accurately providing a valid rating for each article within the journal and time frame in which it was published.

  5. C-DEVA: Detection, evaluation, visualization and annotation of clusters from biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Tang, Yu; Wu, Xuehong; Wang, Jianxin; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

    2016-12-01

    With the progress of studies and researches on the biological networks, plenty of excellent clustering algorithms have been proposed. Nevertheless, not only different algorithms but also the same algorithms with different characteristics result in different performances on the same biological networks. Therefore, it might be difficult for researchers to choose an appropriate clustering algorithm to use for a specific network. Here we present C-DEVA, a comprehensive platform for Detecting clusters from biological networks and its Evaluation, Visualization and Annotation analysis. Ten clustering methods are provided in C-DEVA, covering different types of clustering algorithms, with a discrepancy in principle of each type. For the identified complexes, there are over ten popular and traditional bio-statistical measurements to assess them. And multi-source biological information has been integrated in C-DEVA, such as biology-functional annotations, and gold standard complex sets, which are collected from latest datasets in major databases or related papers. Furthermore, visualization analyses are available throughout the whole workflow, which endows C-DEVA with good usability and simple manipulation. To assure extensibility, development interfaces are offered in C-DEVA, for integrating new clustering as well as evaluating methods. Additionally, operations to the network as for example network randomization are also supported. C-DEVA provides a complete tool for identifying clusters from biological networks. Multiple options are offered during the analysis process, including detection methods, evaluation metrics and visualization modules. In addition, researchers could customize C-DEVA for the workflow according to the properties of their networks, and find the most ideal results. C-DEVA is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL), and the source code and binaries are freely available at https://github.com/cici333/c-deva. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland

  6. Advanced Visualization and Interactive Display Rapid Innovation and Discovery Evaluation Research (VISRIDER) Program Task 6: Point Cloud Visualization Techniques for Desktop and Web Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ADVANCED VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTIVE DISPLAY RAPID INNOVATION AND DISCOVERY EVALUATION RESEARCH (VISRIDER) PROGRAM TASK 6: POINT CLOUD...To) OCT 2013 – SEP 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTIVE DISPLAY RAPID INNOVATION AND DISCOVERY EVALUATION RESEARCH

  7. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  8. Simple evaluation of CT findings in the paranasal sinuses for chronic sinusitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Makoto [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Ritto (Japan); Dejima, Kenji; Hama, Takemitsu; Ishizaka, Shigeyasu; Yasuda, Shigenobu; Fukushima, Kazuto; Murakami, Yasushi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2000-02-01

    The CT scores and scoring for improvement based on them, which we proposed previously, is a simple and highly reproducible method of evaluation of sinus units before and after an operation for chronic sinusitis. We compared this evaluation method with the results of quantitative assay and showed its advantages and disadvantages. The subjects were 258 sinuses in patients who underwent endonasal sinus surgery (ESS) in the department of otolaryngology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Hospital from April 1996 to April 1997. The subjects were evaluated according to the following 4 grades negligible shadow in the paranasal sinus CT scored 0, less than 50% shadow scored 1, more than 50% of shadow scored 2, and mostly filled with shadow scored 3. Furthermore, the preoperative and postoperative CT scores were compared and the rate of improvement was rated in the following 3 grades: score 0 for unchanged or aggravated subjects, score 1 for subjects showing improved CT score by 1 grade, and score 2 for those showing improved CT score by 2 grades or a postoperative CT score of 0. Quantitative image analysis was input into a personal computer and the ratio occupied by the shadow was calculated, as the shadow ratio. While some discrepancies were seen in parts in the comparison of the quantitative image analysis and CT scores as the former captures minute shadows, a positive correlation was obtained overall. Attention is needed to accurately evaluate small paranasal sinuses such as the frontal sinus, and small amounts of shadow, which are areas where errors may occur. A satisfactory correlation was obtained between the score for the improvement rate and the difference in the shadow ratios before and after surgery. The CT scores and the scores for the improvement rate showed no difference from the results of other evaluation methods reported in the past, and evaluation of similar precision was possible. It was thought that this simple evaluation method of CT findings in

  9. Facial paralysis grading system: a new and simple smile excursion score for evaluating facial reanimation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Chen, Hsin-Hung

    2015-02-01

    Various facial paralysis grading systems have been introduced to evaluate the results of both spontaneous recovery and facial palsy reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to introduce and evaluate an objective new and quick Smile Excursion Score system which is readily applicable and easy to follow. It has been applied over the past 25 years for preoperative and postoperative result evaluation of smile reconstruction at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A standardized evaluation method was described for the assessment of the upper lip movement preoperatively and postoperatively with at least 1 year follow-up after functioning muscle transplantation. The evaluation was scored by the number of maxillary teeth exposed when smiling with teeth showing. Reliability of this technique was assessed by using 3 independent examiners who each evaluated the smiles of 34 unilateral facial paralysis patients 4 times, creating 408 sets of measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and intrarater reliability exceeded 0.94, which is considered as excellent and reliable. Chuang's Smile Excursion Score system is simple, quick, and accurate in evaluating smile after reanimation of paralyzed face effecting free functional muscle transplantation with no additional tools.

  10. Avaliação da acuidade visual Snellen Snellen visual acuity evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Zapparoli

    2009-12-01

    âncias diversas, mantém a razão de proporcionalidade dos optotipos baseada no ângulo visual e se aproxima em muito ao padrão teórico preconizado por Herman Snellen em 1862.PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual acuity (VA measurement by Snellen chart at three main Ophthalmology centers in Curitiba, compare these measurements with a computerized method for calibrating VA and also with the standard theory developed by Hermann Snellen. METHODS: Descriptive study including 15 Ophthalmology clinics and a computerized method to measure the VA. Using a tape measure and a caliper, measurement of the distance was obtained from the sitting patients' eye to VA optotypes projection on the wall. At the same time, measurement of the size of the letters of 4 lines of the VA projection on the wall was performed. RESULTS: To analyze the results, it was opted to compare the angles presented by each clinic for each measurement. It was not surprising that no clinic presented an exact angle of 5 arch minutes. Comparing clinics results with computerized method, we observed that only 2 clinics obtained better results if compared with the angles obtained from optotypes projection, but the data is very similar and with no statistical significance. In relation to the other clinics, the superiority of the computerized method is very relevant. All had differences in comparison to the gold standard. Individually, comparing computerized method to standard Snellen theory, it was observed that a condition very close to the ideal was obtained, in other words, results very similar to 5 arch minutes were noted in all the visual acuities analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that there is a great heterogeneity in the evaluation of VA in different Ophthalmology centers. Also, the same patient, evaluated in different clinics, can obtain different VA measurements. The computerized method is practical, portable, adjustable for different distances, and maintains optotypes proportionality ratio based on visual angle

  11. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.

    in the calculations, the one box model needs to be evaluated in relation to a more complete solution of the differential equations for diffusion. General guidelines that are based on the system parameters are set up in order to establish the importance of diffusion and deposition respectively. These define the range......It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included...

  12. Evaluating the mind's eye: the metacognition of visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Joel; Rademaker, Rosanne L; Tong, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Can people evaluate phenomenal qualities of internally generated experiences, such as whether a mental image is vivid or detailed? This question exemplifies a problem of metacognition: How well do people know their own thoughts? In the study reported here, participants were instructed to imagine a specific visual pattern and rate its vividness, after which they were presented with an ambiguous rivalry display that consisted of the previously imagined pattern plus an orthogonal pattern. On individual trials, higher ratings of vividness predicted a greater likelihood that the imagined pattern would appear dominant when the participant was subsequently presented with the binocular rivalry display. Off-line self-report questionnaires measuring imagery vividness also predicted individual differences in the strength of imagery bias over the entire study. Perceptual bias due to mental imagery could not be attributed to demand characteristics, as no bias was observed on catch-trial presentations of mock rivalry displays. Our findings provide novel evidence that people have a good metacognitive understanding of their own mental imagery and can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of imagination.

  13. Full-length axon regeneration in the adult mouse optic nerve and partial recovery of simple visual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Silmara; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kurimoto, Takuji; Oliveira, Julia Teixeira; Yin, Yuqin; Li, Yiqing; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Fagiolini, Michela; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Benowitz, Larry

    2012-06-05

    The mature optic nerve cannot regenerate when injured, leaving victims of traumatic nerve damage or diseases such as glaucoma with irreversible visual losses. Recent studies have identified ways to stimulate retinal ganglion cells to regenerate axons part-way through the optic nerve, but it remains unknown whether mature axons can reenter the brain, navigate to appropriate target areas, or restore vision. We show here that with adequate stimulation, retinal ganglion cells are able to regenerate axons the full length of the visual pathway and on into the lateral geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, and other visual centers. Regeneration partially restores the optomotor response, depth perception, and circadian photoentrainment, demonstrating the feasibility of reconstructing central circuitry for vision after optic nerve damage in mature mammals.

  14. Evaluation of contrast visual acuity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oomachi K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Kazumi Oomachi1, Kazuha Ogata2, Takeshi Sugawara2, Akira Hagiwara2, Akira Hata1, Shuichi Yamamoto21Department of Public Health; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine visual acuity at different contrast levels under photopic and mesopic conditions in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.Methods: Sixty eyes of 31 normal controls, 92 eyes of 52 patients with retinitis pigmentosa without other ocular disorders (RP-1 group, and 20 eyes of 14 patients with retinitis pigmentosa with cataracts and without other ocular disorders (RP-2 group were studied. Conventional visual acuity was measured using a conventional Landolt ring chart with 100% contrast and luminance of 150 cd/m2. All of the patients with retinitis pigmentosa had a decimal visual acuity better than 1.0. Contrast visual acuity was measured with the same Landolt ring chart with contrasts of 100% and 10% and under photopic (200 cd/m2 and mesopic (10 cd/m2 conditions. Decimal visual acuities were converted to logMAR units for the analyses.Results: The 100% contrast visual acuity and the 10% contrast visual acuity determined under both photopic and mesopic conditions were significantly poorer in both the RP-1 and RP-2 groups than in the controls. The differences between the conventional visual acuity and the 100% contrast visual acuity were significantly greater in the RP-1 and RP-2 groups than in the controls under both photopic and mesopic conditions. The differences between the 100% contrast visual acuity and the 10% contrast visual acuity were not significant among the three groups under photopic and mesopic conditions.Conclusion: Contrast visual acuities were greatly reduced in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with relatively well preserved conventional visual acuity, and the contrast visual acuity was largely influenced by ambient light levels in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

  15. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

  16. Using Concrete and Realistic Data in Evaluating Initial Visualization Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Pedersen, Jeppe Gerner; Herdal, Thor

    2016-01-01

    to span a range of factors, such as the role of the person doing the data collection and the type of instrumentation used. The three cases relate to visualizing sports, construction, and cooking domain data, and use primarily time-domain data and visualizations. For each case, we briefly describe...

  17. Evaluation of Software for Introducing Protein Structure: Visualization and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Kahriman, Azmin; Luberice, Lois; Idleh, Farhia

    2010-01-01

    Communicating an understanding of the forces and factors that determine a protein's structure is an important goal of many biology and biochemistry courses at a variety of levels. Many educators use computer software that allows visualization of these complex molecules for this purpose. Although visualization is in wide use and has been associated…

  18. Evaluating the Graph-based Visualization Technique: A Controlled Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Oswaldo Cárdenas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have highlighted the scarcity of empirical studies that systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of the use of visualization techniques for software understanding activities. Such studies are crucial for gathering and analyzing objective and quantifiable evidence about the usefulness of proposed visualization techniques and tools, and ultimately, for guiding the research in software visualization. This paper presents a controlled experiment aimed at assessing the impact of a graph-based visualization technique on comprehension tasks. Six common comprehension tasks were performed by 20 undergraduate software engineering students. The completion time and the accuracy of the participants’ responses were measured. The results indicate that on one hand the use of the graph-based visualization increases the correctness (by 21.45% in average but on the other hand it does not reduce the completion time in program comprehension tasks.

  19. Simple neck pain questions used in surveys, evaluated in relation to health outcomes: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimby-Ekman Anna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.

  20. Uniting Evidence-Based Evaluation with the ACGME Plastic Surgery Milestones: A Simple and Reliable Assessment of Resident Operative Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobraei, Edward M; Bohnen, Jordan D; George, Brian C; Mullen, John T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    Milestones evaluations in plastic surgery reflect a shift toward competency-based training but have created a number of challenges. The authors have incorporated the smartphone application evaluation tool, System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning (SIMPL), that was recently developed by a multi-institutional research collaborative. In this pilot study, the authors hypothesize that SIMPL can improve resident evaluation and also collect granular performance data to simplify compliance with the plastic surgery Milestones. SIMPL was prospectively piloted with a plastic surgery resident and faculty surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital in this institutional review board-approved study. The study period was a 2-month interval corresponding to the resident's rotation. The resident-faculty combination performed 20 cases together. All cases were evaluated with SIMPL. SIMPL evaluations uniformly took under 1 minute to submit. The average time to completed evaluation from surgery completion was 5 hours (plastic surgery resident participates. SIMPL's competency-based framework can be easily scaled to facilitate data collection and reporting of mandatory Milestones evaluations at the program and national levels. This technology will support a shared vocabulary between residents and faculty to enhance intraoperative education.

  1. A simple integrated assessment approach to global change simulation and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Keroboto; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We formulate and study the Coupled Climate-Economy-Biosphere (CoCEB) model, which constitutes the basis of our idealized integrated assessment approach to simulating and evaluating global change. CoCEB is composed of a physical climate module, based on Earth's energy balance, and an economy module that uses endogenous economic growth with physical and human capital accumulation. A biosphere model is likewise under study and will be coupled to the existing two modules. We concentrate on the interactions between the two subsystems: the effect of climate on the economy, via damage functions, and the effect of the economy on climate, via a control of the greenhouse gas emissions. Simple functional forms of the relation between the two subsystems permit simple interpretations of the coupled effects. The CoCEB model is used to make hypotheses on the long-term effect of investment in emission abatement, and on the comparative efficacy of different approaches to abatement, in particular by investing in low carbon technology, in deforestation reduction or in carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CoCEB model is very flexible and transparent, and it allows one to easily formulate and compare different functional representations of climate change mitigation policies. Using different mitigation measures and their cost estimates, as found in the literature, one is able to compare these measures in a coherent way.

  2. DIGITIZING RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS: A SIMPLE WAY TO EVALUATE INDIRECT DIGITAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer; Escarpinati, Maurício Cunha; Schiabel, Homero; Vieira, Marcelo Andrade da Costa; Rubira, Cássia Maria Fischer; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study applied a simple method to evaluate the performance of three digital devices (two scanners and one digital camera) using the reproducibility of pixel values attributed to the same radiographic image. Methods: Using the same capture parameters, a radiographic image was repeatedly digitized in order to determine the variability of pixel values given to the image throughout the digitization process. One coefficient value was obtained and was called pixel value reproducibility. Results: A significant difference in pixel values was observed among the three devices for the digitized images (ANOVA, pdigitization conditions for one scanner and the digital camera. Conclusions: Digital devices may assign pixel values differently in consecutive digitization depending on the optical density of the radiographic image and the equipment. The pixel value reproducibility was not satisfactory as tested for two devices. It is maybe advisable knowing the digitization variations regarding pixel values whenever using digital radiography images in longitudinal clinical examinations. PMID:19089093

  3. A simple gamma spectrometry method for evaluating the burnup of MTR-type HEU fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makmal, T. [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Nuclear Physics and Engineering Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Aviv, O. [Radiation Safety Division, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of The Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-10-21

    A simple method for the evaluation of the burnup of a materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel element by gamma spectrometry is presented. The method was applied to a highly enriched uranium MTR nuclear fuel element that was irradiated in a 5 MW pool-type research reactor for a total period of 34 years. The experimental approach is based on in-situ measurements of the MTR fuel element in the reactor pool by a portable high-purity germanium detector located in a gamma cell. To corroborate the method, analytical calculations (based on the irradiation history of the fuel element) and computer simulations using a dedicated fuel cycle burnup code ORIGEN2 were performed. The burnup of the MTR fuel element was found to be 52.4±8.8%, which is in good agreement with the analytical calculations and the computer simulations. The method presented here is suitable for research reactors with either a regular or an irregular irradiation regime and for reactors with limited infrastructure and/or resources. In addition, its simplicity and the enhanced safety it confers may render this method suitable for IAEA inspectors in fuel element burnup assessments during on-site inspections. - Highlights: • Simple, inexpensive, safe and flexible experimental setup that can be quickly deployed. • Experimental results are thoroughly corroborated against ORIGEN2 burnup code. • Experimental uncertainty of 9% and 5% deviation between measurements and simulations. • Very high burnup MTR fuel element is examined, with 60% depletion of {sup 235}U. • Impact of highly irregular irradiation regime on burnup evaluation is studied.

  4. Evaluation of Visual Alerts in the Maritime Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Shelley; Foster-Hunt, Tara

    2008-01-01

    .... As the auditory modality is overloaded in the current alerting system, one method of potentially reducing perceptual overload is to replace auditory alerts with alerts presented in the visual domain...

  5. Evaluation of an emotional support service for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Keziah

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a facilitated peer group emotional support service on visual quality of life (VQoL). Consecutive participants in an emotional support service delivered to groups of up to six and facilitated by trained counselors were recruited (n = 29). The VCM1 (Vision Quality-of-life Core Measure) instrument was administered to participants at the start of the service, at the end of the service, and 6 months after completion of the service. For the group as a whole, VQoL significantly improved between the beginning of the service and the end (F(1,23) = 16.43, p = 0.000) but was no better than at the start 6 months later (F(1,23) = 3.60, p = 0.07). However, those with poorer initial VQoL showed significantly greater improvements after 6 months (1.74 ± 2.21 logits) than those with higher initial VQoL (-0.12 ± 0.71 logits) (t23 = 2.89, p = 0.008). The effect size of the intervention for those with poor initial VQoL was 1.10 at the end of service and 0.92 after 6 months. The items that became and remained easier were "feeling lonely or isolated due to eyesight," "feeling sad or low due to eyesight," and "feeling worried about general safety outside the home." This facilitated peer group emotional support service significantly improves VQoL as assessed with the VCM1 over at least 6 months for those with poorer initial VQoL. Different interventions may be needed for those with initially good VQoL and to improve other aspects of QoL not influenced by the service.

  6. Strength in the lower limbs, visual contrast sensitivity, and simple reaction time predict cognition in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, K J; Lord, S R; Williams, P

    1997-03-01

    The authors investigated the association between sensorimotor variables indicative of biological aging and cognition. A community sample of 202 women ages 60-86 was assessed on 5 measures of lower limb strength, visual contrast sensitivity (VisCS), and reaction time (RT). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the sensorimotor variables explained age-related variance in measures of reasoning and total variance in measures of reasoning after education, health, mood, and physical activity were controlled for. It is concluded that in addition to better known predictors of cognitive aging, such as RT and VisCS, lower limb strength is an important predictor of performance on cognitive tests.

  7. Texas lignite and the visual resource: an objective approach to visual resource evaluation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow C. Landphair

    1979-01-01

    This paper relates the evolution of an empirical model used to predict public response to scenic quality objectively. The text relates the methods used to develop the visual quality index model, explains the terms used in the equation and briefly illustrates how the model is applied and how it is tested. While the technical application of the model relies heavily on...

  8. The benefits of synchronous collaborative information visualization: evidence from an experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Sabrina; Eppler, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    A great corpus of studies reports empirical evidence of how information visualization supports comprehension and analysis of data. The benefits of visualization for synchronous group knowledge work, however, have not been addressed extensively. Anecdotal evidence and use cases illustrate the benefits of synchronous collaborative information visualization, but very few empirical studies have rigorously examined the impact of visualization on group knowledge work. We have consequently designed and conducted an experiment in which we have analyzed the impact of visualization on knowledge sharing in situated work groups. Our experimental study consists of evaluating the performance of 131 subjects (all experienced managers) in groups of 5 (for a total of 26 groups), working together on a real-life knowledge sharing task. We compare (1) the control condition (no visualization provided), with two visualization supports: (2) optimal and (3) suboptimal visualization (based on a previous survey). The facilitator of each group was asked to populate the provided interactive visual template with insights from the group, and to organize the contributions according to the group consensus. We have evaluated the results through both objective and subjective measures. Our statistical analysis clearly shows that interactive visualization has a statistically significant, objective and positive impact on the outcomes of knowledge sharing, but that the subjects seem not to be aware of this. In particular, groups supported by visualization achieved higher productivity, higher quality of outcome and greater knowledge gains. No statistically significant results could be found between an optimal and a suboptimal visualization though (as classified by the pre-experiment survey). Subjects also did not seem to be aware of the benefits that the visualizations provided as no difference between the visualization and the control conditions was found for the self-reported measures of satisfaction

  9. Living Liquid: Design and Evaluation of an Exploratory Visualization Tool for Museum Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Liao, I; Ma, Kwan-Liu; Frazier, J

    2012-12-01

    Interactive visualizations can allow science museum visitors to explore new worlds by seeing and interacting with scientific data. However, designing interactive visualizations for informal learning environments, such as museums, presents several challenges. First, visualizations must engage visitors on a personal level. Second, visitors often lack the background to interpret visualizations of scientific data. Third, visitors have very limited time at individual exhibits in museums. This paper examines these design considerations through the iterative development and evaluation of an interactive exhibit as a visualization tool that gives museumgoers access to scientific data generated and used by researchers. The exhibit prototype, Living Liquid, encourages visitors to ask and answer their own questions while exploring the time-varying global distribution of simulated marine microbes using a touchscreen interface. Iterative development proceeded through three rounds of formative evaluations using think-aloud protocols and interviews, each round informing a key visualization design decision: (1) what to visualize to initiate inquiry, (2) how to link data at the microscopic scale to global patterns, and (3) how to include additional data that allows visitors to pursue their own questions. Data from visitor evaluations suggests that, when designing visualizations for public audiences, one should (1) avoid distracting visitors from data that they should explore, (2) incorporate background information into the visualization, (3) favor understandability over scientific accuracy, and (4) layer data accessibility to structure inquiry. Lessons learned from this case study add to our growing understanding of how to use visualizations to actively engage learners with scientific data.

  10. Evaluation of radiation shielding performance in sea transport of radioactive material by using simple calculation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N.; Ohnishi, S. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Sawamura, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishimura, K. [Computer Software Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A modified code system based on the point kernel method was developed to use in evaluation of shielding performance for maritime transport of radioactive material. For evaluation of shielding performance accurately in the case of accident, it is required to preciously model the structure of transport casks and shipping vessel, and source term. To achieve accurate modelling of the geometry and source term condition, we aimed to develop the code system by using equivalent information regarding structure and source term used in the Monte Carlo calculation code, MCNP. Therefore, adding an option to use point kernel method to the existing Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, the code system was developed. To verify the developed code system, dose rate distribution in an exclusive shipping vessel to transport the low level radioactive wastes were calculated by the developed code and the calculated results were compared with measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that the developed simple calculation method can obtain calculation results very quickly with enough accuracy comparing with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP4C.

  11. A Simple Microbiological Tool to Evaluate the Effect of Environmental Health Interventions on Hand Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Devamani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interventions such as sanitation or hand hygiene on hand contamination are difficult to evaluate. We explored the ability of a simple microbiological test to: (1 detect recontamination after handwashing; (2 reflect risk factors for microbial contamination and (3 be applicable to large populations. The study was done in rural Andhra Pradesh, India, and Maputo, Mozambique. Participants placed all 10 fingertips on a chromogenic agar that stains Enterococcus spp. and E. coli spp. Outcomes were the number of colonies and the number of fingertips with colonies. In the recontamination study, participants were randomised to handwashing with soap and no handwashing, and tested at 30 min intervals afterwards. In two cross sectional studies, risk factors for hand contamination were explored. Recontamination of hands after washing with soap was fast, with baseline levels reached after 1 h. Child care was associated with higher Enterococcus spp. counts, whereas agricultural activities increased E. coli spp. counts. Food preparation was associated with higher counts for both organisms. In Maputo, counts were not strongly associated with water access, latrine type, education or diarrhoea. The method seems unsuitable for the evaluation of handwashing promotion. It may reflect immediately preceding risk practices but not household-level risk factors.

  12. Prediction of further residual ridge resorption by a simple biochemical and radiographic evaluation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kheur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The success of a removable denture is measured by its retention and stability which rely on the structural integrity exhibited by the underlying residual ridge. However the residual ridge undergoes a progressive resorption, causing a reduction in its size. The multifactorial etiology of the reduction of residual ridges makes it significant for the operator to try and understand as well as to predict the rate of resorption prior to fabrication of dentures. The objective of the study was to evaluate a simple, fast and cost effective diagnostic tool to study and anticipate ridge resorption. Materials and Methods: 17 completely edentulous male patients were selected for the study. Standardized orthopantomographs were made for all the subjects and measurements were made on them. The resorption index was calculated for each patient. A random urine sample was taken from each patient to investigate the 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio. Results: A direct relation was seen between patients with lower resorption index and lower 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio. Clinically these cases had undergone a marked amount of reduction in the residual alveolar ridges with respect to the width and height. Also, a direct relation was seen when the patients presented with higher 24 hours urinary calcium-creatnine ratio and greater resorption index. These patients presented with good height and width of the residual ridges. Conclusion: Our study shows a direct relation between the resorption of the bone and the calcium-creatinine levels of the edentulous subjects. The calcium-creatnine ratio in conjunction with the resorption index can be used as a simple and cost effective diagnostic tool.

  13. Evaluation of Sports Visualization Based on Wearable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to visualize the physical education classroom in school, we create a visualized movement management system, which records the student's exercise data efficiently and stores data in the database that enables virtual reality client to call. Each individual's exercise data are gathered as the source material to study the law of group movement, playing a strategic role in managing physical education. Through the combination of wearable devices, virtual reality and network technology, the student movement data (time, space, rate, etc. are collected in real time to drive the role model in virtual scenes, which visualizes the movement data. Moreover, the Markov chain based algorithm is used to predict the movement state. The test results show that this method can quantize the student movement data. Therefore, the application of this system in PE classes can help teacher to observe the students’ real-time movement amount and state, so as to improve the teaching quality.

  14. New simple evaluation method of the monosyllable /sa/ using a psychoacoustic system in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nafees Uddin; Otomaru, Takafumi; Murase, Mai; Inohara, Ken; Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    An objective assessment of speech would benefit the prosthetic rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. This study aimed to establish a simple, objective evaluation of monosyllable /sa/ utterances in maxillectomy patients by using a psychoacoustic system typically used in industry. This study comprised two experiments. Experiment 1 involved analysis of the psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, sharpness and roughness) in monosyllable /sa/ utterances by 18 healthy subjects (9 males, 9 females). The utterances were recorded in a sound-treated room. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each parameter was compared to identify the most suitable parameter for objective evaluation of speech. Experiment 2 involved analysis of /sa/ utterances by 18 maxillectomy patients (9 males, 9 females) with and without prosthesis, and comparisons of the psychoacoustic data between the healthy subjects and maxillectomy patients without prosthesis, between the maxillectomy patients with and without prosthesis, and between the healthy subjects and maxillectomy patients with prosthesis. The CV for sharpness was the lowest among the three psychoacoustic parameters in both the healthy males and females. There were significant differences in the sharpness of /sa/ between the healthy subjects and the maxillectomy patients without prosthesis (but not with prosthesis), and between the maxillectomy patients with and without prosthesis. We found that the psychoacoustic parameters typically adopted in industrial research could also be applied to evaluate the psychoacoustics of the monosyllable /sa/ utterance, and distinguished the monosyllable /sa/ in maxillectomy patients with an obturator from that without an obturator using the system. Copyright © 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated Comprehensive Evaluation of mTBI Visual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    primarily because of the lack of objective assessment tools, overlap of symptoms in co- morbid conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder...studies have identified oculomotor dysfunctions (OMDs) (i.e., version, vergence , and accommodation) to be the most common visual deficits associated

  16. 78 FR 18837 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Visual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... (counts fingers), HM (hand motion only), LP or LPO (light perception or light perception only), or NLP (no... visual acuity in an eye is recorded as CF, HM, LP or LPO, or NLP, we will determine that your best... light perception only), or NLP (no light perception) indicates that no optical correction will improve...

  17. Evaluating automatic warning cues for visual search in vascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schooten, B.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reiber, Johan H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search is a task that is performed in various application areas. Search can be aided by an automatic warning system, which highlights the sections that may contain targets and require the user’s attention. The effect of imperfect automatic warnings on overall performance ultimately depends on

  18. Evaluation of the visual prostate symptom score in a male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for patients with low education levels, and elderly patients with visual impairment may find it difficult to read the small print.[2-4]. Illiteracy is a major problem with administration of the IPSS in developing countries.[5] Translating the IPSS into various languages requires extensive validation studies and constant surveillance to.

  19. Visual elements of packaging shaping healthiness evaluations of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, Carla; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Visual elements of food products can play an important role in determining food choice through shaping the attributes perception of consumers. Symbols and logos have the role of conveying information, but they can be interpreted in different ways. The product used as a case study is Extra-Virgin

  20. Some methods of encoding simple visual images for use with a sparse distributed memory, with applications to character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    To study the problems of encoding visual images for use with a Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM), I consider a specific class of images- those that consist of several pieces, each of which is a line segment or an arc of a circle. This class includes line drawings of characters such as letters of the alphabet. I give a method of representing a segment of an arc by five numbers in a continuous way; that is, similar arcs have similar representations. I also give methods for encoding these numbers as bit strings in an approximately continuous way. The set of possible segments and arcs may be viewed as a five-dimensional manifold M, whose structure is like a Mobious strip. An image, considered to be an unordered set of segments and arcs, is therefore represented by a set of points in M - one for each piece. I then discuss the problem of constructing a preprocessor to find the segments and arcs in these images, although a preprocessor has not been developed. I also describe a possible extension of the representation.

  1. A simple photoactivation and image analysis module for visualizing and analyzing axonal transport with high temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhojit; Yang, Ge; Tang, Yong; Scott, David A

    2011-12-15

    We describe a strategy for analyzing axonal transport of cytosolic proteins (CPs) using photoactivatable GFP-PAGFP-with modifications of standard imaging components that can be retroactively fitted to a conventional epifluorescence microscope. The photoactivation and visualization are nearly simultaneous, allowing studies of proteins with rapidly mobile fractions. Cultured hippocampal neurons are transfected with PAGFP-tagged constructs, a discrete protein population within axons is photoactivated, and then the activated population is tracked by live imaging. We show the utility of this method in analyzing axonal transport of CPs that have inherent diffusible pools and distinguish this transport modality from passive diffusion and vesicle transport. The analytical tools used to quantify the motion are also described. Aside from the time needed for preparation of neuronal cultures/transfection, the experiment takes 2-3 h, during which time several axons can be imaged and analyzed. These methods should be easy to adopt by most laboratories and may also be useful for monitoring CP movement in other cell types.

  2. Digitizing radiographic films: a simple way to evaluate indirect digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina Fischer Rubia-Bullen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study applied a simple method to evaluate the performance of three digital devices (two scanners and one digital camera using the reproducibility of pixel values attributed to the same radiographic image. METHODS: Using the same capture parameters, a radiographic image was repeatedly digitized in order to determine the variability of pixel values given to the image throughout the digitization process. One coefficient value was obtained and was called pixel value reproducibility. RESULTS: A significant difference in pixel values was observed among the three devices for the digitized images (ANOVA, p<0.00001. There was significant pixel value variability at the same digitization conditions for one scanner and the digital camera. CONCLUSIONS: Digital devices may assign pixel values differently in consecutive digitization depending on the optical density of the radiographic image and the equipment. The pixel value reproducibility was not satisfactory as tested for two devices. It is maybe advisable knowing the digitization variations regarding pixel values whenever using digital radiography images in longitudinal clinical examinations.

  3. Hydrodynamic Voltammetry as a Rapid and Simple Method for Evaluating Soil Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Sazawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzymes play essential roles in catalyzing reactions necessary for nutrient cycling in the biosphere. They are also sensitive indicators of ecosystem stress, therefore their evaluation is very important in assessing soil health and quality. The standard soil enzyme assay method based on spectroscopic detection is a complicated operation that requires the removal of soil particles. The purpose of this study was to develop a new soil enzyme assay based on hydrodynamic electrochemical detection using a rotating disk electrode in a microliter droplet. The activities of enzymes were determined by measuring the electrochemical oxidation of p-aminophenol (PAP, following the enzymatic conversion of substrate-conjugated PAP. The calibration curves of β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-glucosidase (β-glu and acid phosphatase (AcP showed good linear correlation after being spiked in soils using chronoamperometry. We also performed electrochemical detection using real soils. Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry can be used to assess the AcP in soils, with a detection time of only 90 s. Linear sweep voltammetry was used to measure the amount of PAP released from β-gal and β-glu by enzymatic reaction after 60 min. For the assessment of soil enzymes, the results of hydrodynamic voltammetry assay compared favorably to those using a standard assay procedure, but this new procedure is more user-friendly, rapid and simple.

  4. A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic assay for evaluation of potentially counterfeit Tamiflu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegårdh, N; Hien, T T; Farrar, J; Singhasivanon, P; White, N J; Day, N P J

    2006-10-11

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic assay for the evaluation of potentially counterfeit oseltamivir (Tamiflu has been developed and assessed. The assay uses approximately 1mg Tamiflu powder when used for authentication and content estimate. The procedure was validated using 50 replicates analysed during five independent series with a total R.S.D. of 11.2%. The assay can also be used to monitor the exact content of oseltamivir in Tamiflu capsules. One Tamiflu capsule was transferred to a 250mL volumetric flask and 150mL water was added. The flask was placed in an ultrasonic bath at 40 degrees C for 20min to dissolve the capsule. The solution was allowed to cool to room temperature before the flask was filled up to the mark (250mL). A small aliquot was centrifuged and then directly injected into the LC-system for quantification. Oseltamivir was analysed by liquid chromatography with UV detection on a Hypersil Gold column (150mmx4.6mm) using a mobile phase containing methanol-phosphate buffer (pH 2.5; 0.1M) (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The assay was implemented for the analysis of Tamiflu purchased over the Internet and at local pharmacies in Thailand and Vietnam.

  5. Short report: evaluation of a simple and inexpensive photometric device for the measurement of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrmann, Steffen; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Esser, Gilbert; Trinkle, Cordula; Issifou, Saadou; Grobusch, Martin P; Krishna, Sanjeev; Kremsner, Peter G

    2004-11-01

    We have evaluated the accuracy of a simple and inexpensive photometric device (DHT) for the estimation of the blood concentration of hemoglobin by comparison with an automated, high-resolution, flow cytometry-based hematology analyzer (CellDyn 3000) and a centrifugal quantitative buffy coat hematology system (QBC I). We have analyzed the hemoglobin values of 163 individual blood samples. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the methods agreed only poorly: mean differences were 1.0 g/dL with limits of agreement (LOA) of -1.2 g/dL to 3.2 g/dL for the comparison of DHT and CellDyn measurements, 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -2.0 g/dL to 3.0 g/dL for the comparison of DHT with QBC measurements, and 0.5 g/dL with LOA of -1.1 g/dL to 2.1 g/dL for the comparison of QBC with CellDyn measurements. We conclude that the poor agreement of the DHT with the CellDyn does not permit the use of the DHT for critical hemoglobin measurements, particularly in transfusion services.

  6. A Simple Procedure for the Evaluation of Bone Vitality by Staining with a Tetrazolium Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schiffner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently, no intra-operative method for a direct assessment of bone vitality exists. Therefore, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium-based staining on bone samples. The explanted femoral heads of 37 patients were used to obtain either cancellous bone fragments or bone slices. Samples were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC or 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (thiazolyl blue, MTT at different times (one to twelve hours after explantation. Staining was quantified either spectrophotometrically after extraction of the dyes or by densitometric image analysis. TTC-staining of cancellous bone fragments and bone slices, respectively, indicated the detectability of vital cells in both types of samples in a window of up to six hours after explantation. Staining intensity at later time-points was indistinguishable from the staining of untreated samples or sodium azide treated samples, which represent dead cells. In contrast, MTT-staining of bone slices revealed intense unspecific staining, which obscured the evaluation of the vitality of the samples. The lack of a detectable increase of colour intensity in TTC-stained bone samples, which were treated more than six hours after explantation, corresponds to reduced fracture healing. The described simple procedure could provide a basis for an intraoperative decision by the orthopaedic surgeon.

  7. Evolution of a visual impact model to evaluate nuclear plant siting and design option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian A. Gray; John Ady; Grant R. Jones

    1979-01-01

    The development of a visual impact method- elegy is reviewed from first concepts (1973) to application.3/ The method can be used to train evaluators to use explicit criteria (vividness, intactness and unity) to assess change in a setting's visual quality as the result of construction of a nuclear facility, or any other visible alteration. Slides of "before...

  8. Videotaped evaluation of eyedrop instillation in glaucoma patients with visual impairment or moderate to severe visual field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Amy L; Katz, Joanne; Covert, David; Protzko, Colleen; Robin, Alan L

    2010-12-01

    Objectively evaluate the ability of visually disabled glaucoma patients to successfully administer a single drop onto their eye. Prospective, observational study. Experienced glaucoma patients with Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA) of ≤ 6/18 (≤ 20/60) ≥ 1 eye, or moderate or severe visual field damage in ≥ 1 eye. Subjects were "low vision" (20/60 ≤ VA 6 months. Subjects used a mean of 1.9 ± 1.1 bottles of intraocular pressure-lowering medications to treat their glaucoma. Seventy-six percent (155/204) of subjects had severe visual field damage, with a mean deviation of -14.5 ± 8.0. Twenty-six percent (54/204) had acuity of ≤ 20/200 in ≥ 1 eye, and subjects had a mean logarithm of minimal angle of resolution acuity of 0.8 ± 0.9. Seventy-one percent of subjects were able to get a drop onto the eye; only 39% instilled 1 drop onto the eye without touching the ocular surface, instilling a mean 1.4 ± 1.0 drops, using 1.2 ± 0.6 attempts. Of the 142 subjects who denied touching the bottle to the ocular surface, 24% did touch the bottle to the eye. Multiple factors were tested for ability to predict successful application of an eyedrop; however, only age (visually impaired glaucoma patients, we evaluated the difficulty this population has instilling eyedrops, most important, the use of multiple drops per instillation, potential contamination of a chronically used bottle, and poor patient understanding of the situation. Ability to self-administer eyedrops and cost considerations of wasted drops must be thought out before institution of glaucoma therapy. Efforts to determine better methods of eyedrop administration need to be undertaken. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Historical perspective on the use of visual grading scales in evaluating skin irritation and sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard I; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    Visual assessment of skin reactions has long been used to evaluate the safety of chemicals and preparations that contact the skin, and to meet regulatory requirements. This article reviews the history of visual grading scales, and the results of investigations into the reliability of the method...... quality in comparison with current testing methods that rely on visual assessment. In addition, such measuring techniques can add considerably to the complexity of testing protocols. When benefits and cost are weighed in the balance, the visual assessment scales popularized by Draize and others remain...

  10. No Evidence for a Saccadic Range Effect for Visually Guided and Memory-Guided Saccades in Simple Saccade-Targeting Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitu, Françoise; Engbert, Ralf; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Saccades to single targets in peripheral vision are typically characterized by an undershoot bias. Putting this bias to a test, Kapoula [1] used a paradigm in which observers were presented with two different sets of target eccentricities that partially overlapped each other. Her data were suggestive of a saccadic range effect (SRE): There was a tendency for saccades to overshoot close targets and undershoot far targets in a block, suggesting that there was a response bias towards the center of eccentricities in a given block. Our Experiment 1 was a close replication of the original study by Kapoula [1]. In addition, we tested whether the SRE is sensitive to top-down requirements associated with the task, and we also varied the target presentation duration. In Experiments 1 and 2, we expected to replicate the SRE for a visual discrimination task. The simple visual saccade-targeting task in Experiment 3, entailing minimal top-down influence, was expected to elicit a weaker SRE. Voluntary saccades to remembered target locations in Experiment 3 were expected to elicit the strongest SRE. Contrary to these predictions, we did not observe a SRE in any of the tasks. Our findings complement the results reported by Gillen et al. [2] who failed to find the effect in a saccade-targeting task with a very brief target presentation. Together, these results suggest that unlike arm movements, saccadic eye movements are not biased towards making saccades of a constant, optimal amplitude for the task. PMID:27658191

  11. CLEF 2012: information access evaluation meets multilinguality, multimodality, and visual analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catarci, Tiziana; Ferro, Nicola; Forner, Pamela; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Karlgren, Jussi; Peñas, Anselmo; Santucci, Giuseppe; Womser-Hacker, Christa

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the results of the CLEF 2012 Conference on Information Access Evaluation meets Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Visual Analytics that was held at the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, September 17–20, 2012.

  12. Work-Centered Design and Evaluation of a C2 Visualization Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Emilie; Scott, Ronald; Kazmierczak, Tom; Whitaker, Randall; Stilson, Mona; Thomas-Meyers, Gina; Wampler, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    .... We have been developing and applying work-centered design and evaluation methodologies to design advanced visualization and support tools intended to more effectively support C2 cognitive and collaborative work...

  13. Evaluation of a simple method for determining muscle volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Challis, John H

    2016-06-14

    The quantification in vivo of muscle volume is important, for example, to understand how muscles change with aging, and respond to rehabilitation. Albracht et al. (2008) suggested that muscle volume can be estimated in vivo from the measurement of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle belly length only. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this proposed relationship for determining muscle volume for both the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) using ultrasound imaging. The cross-sectional area and length of 22 cadaver FDI and 6 VL muscles in cadavers were imaged using ultrasound, these muscles were then dissected and muscle volumes measured directly using the water displacement technique. Estimated muscle volumes were compared with their direct measurement, and for the VL the percentage root mean square error in the estimation of muscle volume was 5.0%, and the Bland-Altman analysis had all volume estimates within the 95% confidence interval, with no evidence of bias (proportional or constant) in the volume estimates. In contrast, percentage root mean square error for the FDI was 18.8%, with the Bland-Altman analysis showing volume estimates outside of the 95% confidence interval and proportional bias. These results indicate that the simple method proposed by Albracht et al. (2008) for the estimation of muscle volume is appropriate the VL but not the FDI using ultrasound imaging. Morphological disparities likely account for these differences, if accurate and fast measures of the volume of the FDI are required other approaches should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of SimpleTreat 4.0: Simulations of pharmaceutical removal in wastewater treatment plant facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L S; Struijs, J; Nolte, T M; Breure, A M; van der Grinten, E; van de Meent, D; van Zelm, R

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater as predicted by SimpleTreat 4.0 was evaluated. Field data obtained from literature of 43 pharmaceuticals, measured in 51 different activated sludge WWTPs were used. Based on reported influent concentrations, the effluent concentrations were calculated with SimpleTreat 4.0 and compared to measured effluent concentrations. The model predicts effluent concentrations mostly within a factor of 10, using the specific WWTP parameters as well as SimpleTreat default parameters, while it systematically underestimates concentrations in secondary sludge. This may be caused by unexpected sorption, resulting from variability in WWTP operating conditions, and/or QSAR applicability domain mismatch and background concentrations prior to measurements. Moreover, variability in detection techniques and sampling methods can cause uncertainty in measured concentration levels. To find possible structural improvements, we also evaluated SimpleTreat 4.0 using several specific datasets with different degrees of uncertainty and variability. This evaluation verified that the most influencing parameters for water effluent predictions were biodegradation and the hydraulic retention time. Results showed that model performance is highly dependent on the nature and quality, i.e. degree of uncertainty, of the data. The default values for reactor settings in SimpleTreat result in realistic predictions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  16. Joint evaluation of communication quality and user experience in an audio-visual virtual reality meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Carrozzino, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    The state-of-the-art speech intelligibility tests are created with the purpose of evaluating acoustic communication devices and not for evaluating audio-visual virtual reality systems. This paper present a novel method to evaluate a communication situation based on both the speech intelligibility...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools in the EIOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin; Dalton, Angela C.

    2009-12-01

    The present study follows an initial human factors evaluation of four electric power grid visualization tools and reports on an empirical evaluation of two of the four tools: Graphical Contingency Analysis, and Phasor State Estimator. The evaluation was conducted within specific experimental studies designed to measure the impact on decision making performance.

  18. Overview of the Visual Arts Curriculum, and Its Relationship with Evaluation and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imonikebe, Manasseh Emamoke

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and instruction play very important roles in curriculum implementation. As a result, the two concepts are often enshrined in the curriculum document. This article therefore examined the Visual Arts curriculum and its relationship with evaluation and instruction. Furthermore, the roles of Evaluation and Instruction in curriculum planning…

  19. Simple and efficient technique for evaluating the optical losses from surface scattering and volume attenuation in a thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Jing; Fan, Xi-Zhi; Wang, Hui-Tian; He, Jing-Liang; Ming, N

    2002-12-16

    We present a simple and efficient technique for evaluating the optical losses of a planar film by use of a quasi-waveguide configuration and a prism film coupler configuration. The technique can separate two contributions to optical loss: that from the surface scattering caused by the roughness of surface and that from volume losses including volume scattering and volume absorption.

  20. Evaluating System Parameters on a Dragonfly using Simulation and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatele, Abhinav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jain, Nikhil [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Livnat, Yarden [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bremer, Peer-Timo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-04-24

    The dragon y topology is becoming a popular choice for build- ing high-radix, low-diameter networks with high-bandwidth links. Even with a powerful network, preliminary experi- ments on Edison at NERSC have shown that for communica- tion heavy applications, job interference and thus presumably job placement remains an important factor. In this paper, we explore the e ects of job placement, job sizes, parallel workloads and network con gurations on network through- put to better understand inter-job interference. We use a simulation tool called Damsel y to model the network be- havior of Edison and study the impact of various system parameters on network throughput. Parallel workloads based on ve representative communication patters are used and the simulation studies on up to 131,072 cores are aided by a new visualization of the dragon y network.

  1. Evaluation of simple deployment mechanism of multiple rovers by microgravity experiments using a drop tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo; Yano, Hajime; Kubota, Takashi; Adachi, Tadashi; Ishigami, Genya

    2012-07-01

    Introduction, Japan has announced the official development of ``Hayabusa-2'', the second sample return mission to a Near-Earth asteroid. When the development is made smoothly, Hayabusa-2 will be launched in 2014. The predecessor spacecraft ``Hayabusa'' made a great success when it returned to the Earth in June 2010 with a capsule containing some particles obtained from S-type asteroid ``Itokawa.'' Rover system, The authors installed a tiny hopping rover called ``MINERVA'' into Hayabusa spacecraft. MINERVA weights only 591[g] but has an autonomous exploration capability on the microgravity environment on the small solar system bodies. MINERVA was successfully deployed from the mother spacecraft on 12 Nov 2005 at the vicinity of the target asteroid. But unfortunately it became a solar orbiting satellite since the relative position and the speed of the mother spacecraft around the target asteroid were worst. Nevertheless it worked well, demonstrating an autnomous capability and had survived until the comunication link was lost. The authors plan to install some rovers also into Hayabusa-2. The total concept is the same but this time multiple rovers are considered. Deployment mechanism, Two rovers are installed in one container and are developed at the same time. The maximum allowed weight for the container including two rovers is 2.5[kg] and we have to seek for a simple and a light-weighted deployment system. We developed a new deployment system drastically sophisticated from the one used for MINERVA in Hayabusa mission. Both the cover and the rovers are pushed by the springs after the tightly winded wire has been cut by the deployment trigger form the spacecraft. The new deployment system enables the following things. The cover and the rovers are deployed in different directions in one action. The uncertainty of the deployment speed is decreased. Microgravity experiment, Thanks to the courtesy of DLR (German Aerospace Center) based on the international cooperation

  2. A new system for quantitative evaluation of infant gaze capabilities in a wide visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Andrea; Cecchi, Francesca; Beani, Elena; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Cioni, Giovanni; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2015-09-07

    The visual assessment of infants poses specific challenges: many techniques that are used on adults are based on the patient's response, and are not suitable for infants. Significant advances in the eye-tracking have made this assessment of infant visual capabilities easier, however, eye-tracking still requires the subject's collaboration, in most cases and thus limiting the application in infant research. Moreover, there is a lack of transferability to clinical practice, and thus it emerges the need for a new tool to measure the paradigms and explore the most common visual competences in a wide visual field. This work presents the design, development and preliminary testing of a new system for measuring infant's gaze in the wide visual field called CareToy C: CareToy for Clinics. The system is based on a commercial eye tracker (SmartEye) with six cameras running at 60 Hz, suitable for measuring an infant's gaze. In order to stimulate the infant visually and audibly, a mechanical structure has been designed to support five speakers and five screens at a specific distance (60 cm) and angle: one in the centre, two on the right-hand side and two on the left (at 30° and 60° respectively). Different tasks have been designed in order to evaluate the system capability to assess the infant's gaze movements during different conditions (such as gap, overlap or audio-visual paradigms). Nine healthy infants aged 4-10 months were assessed as they performed the visual tasks at random. We developed a system able to measure infant's gaze in a wide visual field covering a total visual range of ±60° from the centre with an intermediate evaluation at ±30°. Moreover, the same system, thanks to different integrated software, was able to provide different visual paradigms (as gap, overlap and audio-visual) assessing and comparing different visual and multisensory sub-competencies. The proposed system endowed the integration of a commercial eye-tracker into a purposive setup in

  3. An Evaluation of a Non-Visual Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginnis, George H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a nonvisual tactual and auditory tutorial method to teach initial reading skills to 16 reading disabled children (ages 7 to 14) was evaluated. The method was shown to be less effective than sighted methods. (DB)

  4. Evaluation of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents' Operative Skills: Feasibility and Engagement Study Using SIMPL Software for a Mobile Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Leonard B; Cappetta, Alyssa; George, Brian C; Lahey, Edward T; Bohnen, Jordan D; Troulis, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    There are no universally accepted tools to evaluate operative skills of surgical residents in a timely fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a smartphone application, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), developed by a multi-institutional research collaborative, to achieve a high rate of timely operative evaluations and resident communication and to collect performance data. The authors hypothesized that these goals would be achieved because the process is convenient and efficient. This was a prospective feasibility and engagement study using SIMPL to evaluate residents' operative skills. SIMPL requires the attending surgeon to answer 3 multiple-choice questions: 1) What level of help (Zwisch Scale) was required by the trainee? 2) What was the level of performance? 3) How complex was the case? The evaluator also can dictate a narrative. The sample was composed of 3 faculty members and 3 volunteer senior residents. Predictor variables were the surgeons, trainees, and procedures performed. Outcome variables included number and percentage of procedures performed by faculty-and-resident pairs assessed, time required to complete assessments, time lapsed to submission, percentage of assessments with narratives, and residents' response rates. From March through June 2016, 151 procedures were performed in the operating room by the faculty-and-resident teams. There were 107 assessments submitted (71%). Resident response (self-assessment) to faculty evaluations was 81%. Recorded time to complete assessments (n = 75 of 107) was shorter than 2 minutes. The time lapsed to submission was shorter than 72 hours (100%). Dictations were submitted for 35 evaluations (33%). Data for the type of help, performance, and complexity of cases were collected for each resident. SIMPL facilitates timely intraoperative evaluations of surgical skills, engagement by faculty and residents, and collection of detailed procedural

  5. Design and evaluation of a kitchen for persons with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutintara, Benjamas; Somboon, Pornpun; Buasri, Virajada; Srettananurak, Metinee; Jedeeyod, Piyanooch; Pornpratoom, Kittikan; Iam-cham, Veraya

    2013-03-01

    Visually impaired people need skills on daily living, such as cooking, and Ratchasuda College offers independent living training for them. In order to fulfill their needs, a suitable kitchen should be designed with the consideration of their limitations. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a kitchen for persons with visual impairments. Before designing the kitchen, interviews and an observation were carried out to obtain information on the needs of blind and low vision persons. Consequently, a kitchen model was developed, and it was evaluated by 10 persons with visual impairments. After the design improvement, the kitchen was built and has been routinely used for training persons with visual impairments to prepare meals. Finally, a post-occupancy evaluation of the kitchen was conducted by observing and interviewing both trainers and those with visual impairments during the food preparation training. The results of the study indicated that kitchens for persons with visual impairments should have safety and usability features. The results of the post-occupancy evaluation showed that those who attended cooking courses were able to cook safely in the kitchen. However, the kitchen still had limitations in some features.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Drag Coefficient of Water Rockets by a Simple Free-Fall Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E. Arguelles-Diaz, K.; Fernandez-Oro, J.

    2009-01-01

    The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag…

  7. Evaluation of stresses in a combined plane strain-simple shear test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; van Riel, M.; Huetink, Han

    2005-01-01

    A biaxial testing device for sheet metal has been developed that can impose a combination of plane strain and simple shear deformation. The specimen has a large width to height ratio and a small height to thickness ratio. The forces in tensile and shear direction are easily measured and the tensile

  8. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers in the evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA samples of six hybrids of Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens were analyzed with ten inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers, which produced 52 polymorphic bands out of 87 bands with polymorphism average of 60%. ISSR patterns scored five distinguishable species-specific bands; two for C.

  9. Evaluation of tablet computers for visual function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodduluri, Lakshmi; Boon, Mei Ying; Dain, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in technology and the increased use of tablet computers for mobile health applications such as vision testing necessitate an understanding of the behavior of the displays of such devices, to facilitate the reproduction of existing or the development of new vision assessment tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical characteristics of one model of tablet computer (iPad mini Retina display) with regard to display consistency across a set of devices (15) and their potential application as clinical vision assessment tools. Once the tablet computer was switched on, it required about 13 min to reach luminance stability, while chromaticity remained constant. The luminance output of the device remained stable until a battery level of 5%. Luminance varied from center to peripheral locations of the display and with viewing angle, whereas the chromaticity did not vary. A minimal (1%) variation in luminance was observed due to temperature, and once again chromaticity remained constant. Also, these devices showed good temporal stability of luminance and chromaticity. All 15 tablet computers showed gamma functions approximating the standard gamma (2.20) and showed similar color gamut sizes, except for the blue primary, which displayed minimal variations. The physical characteristics across the 15 devices were similar and are known, thereby facilitating the use of this model of tablet computer as visual stimulus displays.

  10. Interaction Junk: User Interaction-Based Evaluation of Visual Analytic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endert, Alexander; North, Chris

    2012-10-14

    With the growing need for visualization to aid users in understanding large, complex datasets, the ability for users to interact and explore these datasets is critical. As visual analytic systems have advanced to leverage powerful computational models and data analytics capabilities, the modes by which users engage and interact with the information are limited. Often, users are taxed with directly manipulating parameters of these models through traditional GUIs (e.g., using sliders to directly manipulate the value of a parameter). However, the purpose of user interaction in visual analytic systems is to enable visual data exploration – where users can focus on their task, as opposed to the tool or system. As a result, users can engage freely in data exploration and decision-making, for the purpose of gaining insight. In this position paper, we discuss how evaluating visual analytic systems can be approached through user interaction analysis, where the goal is to minimize the cognitive translation between the visual metaphor and the mode of interaction (i.e., reducing the “Interactionjunk”). We motivate this concept through a discussion of traditional GUIs used in visual analytics for direct manipulation of model parameters, and the importance of designing interactions the support visual data exploration.

  11. Evaluation of headache intensity in migrainous patients with visual handicap through the tactile analogical scale (TAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piovesan Elcio Juliato

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The tactile analogue scale (TAS was elaborated to be used in blind subjects or those who can not use the vision during their crises. The objective of this study was to characterize, from TAS, the architecture of migraine attacks in subjects with visual disability. For that, 11 migrainous with visual disturb (MVD subjects were studied and 22 migrainous subjects with no visual disability as a control group. All patients fulfilled the criteria for migraine and the patients of the group studied showed visual acuteness less than 20/200. To evaluate the results, the patients of the group MVD were subdivide within two groups, according to their visual acuteness: subgroup A subjects with subnormal vision and subgroup B amaurotic ones. In subgroup A measurement 46 attacks with average of the migraine attacks of the 56.50 mm, in the subgroup B 45 attacks with average of the 59.58mm and in the control group 92 attacks with average of the 49.88mm. When subgroup B and control group were compared there was a significant statistic difference (p=0.022. Through these outcomes we can observe that the migrainous subjects with no visual afference show a higher pain intensity during the migraine crises comparing to those subjects with no visual handicap. The study suggests that, as in other forms of sensibility, the total visual loss can also interfere in the nociceptive control of the pain during the migraine attacks.

  12. Visualization of Tooth for Non-Destructive Evaluation from CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hui; Chae, Ok Sam [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This paper reports an effort to develop 3D tooth visualization system from CT sequence images as a part of the non-destructive evaluation suitable for the simulation of endodontics, orthodontics and other dental treatments. We focus on the segmentation and visualization for the individual tooth. In dental CT images teeth are touching the adjacent teeth or surrounded by the alveolar bones with similar intensity. We propose an improved level set method with shape prior to separate a tooth from other teeth as well as the alveolar bones. Reconstructed 3D model of individual tooth based on the segmentation results indicates that our technique is a very conducive tool for tooth visualization, evaluation and diagnosis. Some comparative visualization results validate the non-destructive function of our method.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces.

  14. Evaluating rehabilitation goals of visually impaired children in multidisciplinary care according to ICF-CY guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van Rens, Ger

    2014-11-01

    To gain qualitative insight into the rehabilitation goals of visually impaired children and how these goals relate to the structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and patient characteristics. A patient record study was conducted, analysing rehabilitation goals and characteristics of children with a suspected visual impairment in the Netherlands (evaluate progress and potential new or other important goals. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. SPECT imaging evaluation in movement disorders: far beyond visual assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiavas, Kosmas [General Hospital, Medical Physics Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Molyvda, Elisavet; Psarrakos, Kyriakos [Medical Physics Dept., General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Iakovou, Ioannis; Karatzas, Nikolaos [Medical Physical Dept., Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsolaki, Magdalini [3. Neurology Clinic, Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with {sup 123}I-FP-CIT is of great value in differentiating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) from those suffering from essential tremor (ET). Moreover, SPECT with {sup 123}I-IBZM can differentiate PD from Parkinson's ''plus'' syndromes. Diagnosis is still mainly based on experienced observers' visual assessment of the resulting images while many quantitative methods have been developed in order to assist diagnosis since the early days of neuroimaging. The aim of this work is to attempt to categorize, briefly present and comment on a number of semi-quantification methods used in nuclear medicine neuroimaging. Various arithmetic indices have been introduced with region of interest (ROI) manual drawing methods giving their place to automated procedures, while advancing computer technology has allowed automated image registration, fusion and segmentation to bring quantification closer to the final diagnosis based on the whole of the patient's examinations results, clinical condition and response to therapy. The search for absolute quantification has passed through neuroreceptor quantification models, which are invasive methods that involve tracer kinetic modelling and arterial blood sampling, a practice that is not commonly used in a clinical environment. On the other hand, semi-quantification methods relying on computers and dedicated software try to elicit numerical information out of SPECT images. The application of semi-quantification methods aims at separating the different patient categories solving the main problem of finding the uptake in the structures of interest. The semi-quantification methods which were studied fall roughly into three categories, which are described as classic methods, advanced automated methods and pixel-based statistical analysis methods. All these methods can be further divided into various subcategories. The plethora of

  16. Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire: evaluation in visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Vijaya K; Sumalini, Rebecca; Irfan, Shaik Mohammad; Giridhar, Avula; Bharani, Seelam

    2013-08-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) in children with visual impairment (VI) using Rasch analysis. One hundred fifty Indian children with VI between 8 and 16 years (mean age, 11.6 years; 69% male; mean acuity in the better eye of 0.80 logMAR [Snellen, 20/126]) were administered the revised OBVQ. The 40-item revised OBVQ was developed to assess victimization (i.e., being bullied) and bullying (bullying others) in normally sighted schoolchildren. Only 16 items are used for Rasch analysis and are divided into two parts: I (victimization, eight items) and II (bullying others, eight items). Separate Rasch analysis was conducted for both parts, and the psychometric properties investigated included behavior of rating scale, extent to which the items measured a single construct (unidimensionality by fit statistics and principal component analysis [PCA] of residuals); ability to discriminate among participants' victimization and bullying behaviors (measurement precision as assessed by person separation reliability [PSR] minimum recommended value, 0.80); and targeting of items to participants' victimization and bullying. Response categories were misused for both parts I and II, which required repair before further analysis. Measurement precision was inadequate for both parts (PSR, 0.64 for part I and 0.19 for part II), indicating poor discriminatory ability. All items fit the Rasch model well in part I, indicating unidimensionality that was further confirmed using PCA of residuals. However, an item misfit in part II that required deletion following which the remaining items fit and PCA of residuals also supported unidimensionality. Targeting was -0.58 logits for part I, indicating that the items were matched well with the participants' victimization. By comparison, targeting was suboptimal for part II (-1.97 logits). In its current state, the revised OBVQ is not a valid psychometric instrument to assess victimization

  17. Dominant visual frames in climate change news stories: implications for formative evaluation in climate change campaigns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebich-Hespanha, Stacy; Rice, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    ..., science and climate change communication, and the role of formative evaluation in communication campaigns in general and climate change campaigns in particular. We then describe dominant climate change visual frames identified through previous research, suggest possible considerations in formative evaluation of each dominant frame, and outlin...

  18. A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Fuentes, Jaime; Velazquez-Iturbide, J. Angel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews successful educational experiences in using program and algorithm visualizations (PAVs). First, we survey a total of 18 PAV systems that were subject to 33 evaluations. We found that half of the systems have only been tested for usability, and those were shallow inspections. The rest were evaluated with respect to their…

  19. 77 FR 7549 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Visual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ..., such as counts fingers (CF) or no light perception (NLP), to evaluate your vision loss. This guidance... fingers), HM (hand motion only), LP or LPO (light perception or light perception only), or NLP (no light... acuity in an eye is recorded as CF, HM, LP or LPO, or NLP, we will determine that your best-corrected...

  20. Convergent validity of the measures of attention and impulsivity in the Trees: simple Visual Discrimination Test (DiViSA-UAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José H. Lozano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trees: Simple Visual Discrimination Test (DiViSA-UAM is an objective test to assess attention and impulsivity in children aged between 6 and 12 years. The aim of this study was to supplement the validity data obtained in prior research, analyzing the evidence of convergent validity of the measures of the DiViSA-UAM in relation to other, already well-established, instruments for assessing attention and inhibitory control in children: the 'Faces', Differences Perception Test and the d2 Test of Attention. To this end, the instruments were administered to a sample of 111 students from primary education (46 girls and 65 boys between the ages of 8 and 12 years. The correlation analysis showed values in line with expectations among the indices of the three tests. Similarly to what has been observed in prior research, the three tests coincided in identifying a progressive increase in attention performance between the ages of 8 and 12, as well as stability in impulsivity control and the absence of sex-related differences. We discuss the potential advantages of the DiViSA-UAM derived from its application format and its greater ease of execution.

  1. System evaluation of a fiber optic guided missile with a simple guidance addition to improve system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, A. J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on lessons learned during the accomplishment of a National Technology Project in the Netherlands, a simple and low cost Fiber Optic Guided Weapon (FOGW) concept was contrived. The main characteristics of the concept are the short range of 10 km, the simple strapdown television CCD-camera, and the solid fuel rocket propulsion. This low cost concept is more closely examined. The concept was evaluated by conducting flight trajectory simulations. An already existing six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) trajectory simulation program was modified. The program and especially the relatively simple target sensor system model are described. The problem of choosing an appropriate target configuration for system evaluation is attended to. A target configuration consists of various target positions, various target maneuvers, and various target speeds. The probability of hit is calculated for a chosen target configuration base-case. Miscellaneous model parameters are varied, especially the target sensor system is investigated. The probability of hit is determined as a function of the sensor resolution, the sensor field of view, and the modeled characteristics of the image processing algorithm. Another investigation concerns a simple addition to the normal guidance commands trying to reduce target-lost situations. The effect of two different implementations of this addition is calculated for the same situation as the basic guidance configuration.

  2. Evaluation of Simple Causal Message Logging for Large-Scale Fault Tolerant HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronevetsky, G; Meneses, E; Kale, L V

    2011-02-25

    The era of petascale computing brought machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. The next generation of exascale supercomputers will make available clusters with millions of processors. In those machines, mean time between failures will range from a few minutes to few tens of minutes, making the crash of a processor the common case, instead of a rarity. Parallel applications running on those large machines will need to simultaneously survive crashes and maintain high productivity. To achieve that, fault tolerance techniques will have to go beyond checkpoint/restart, which requires all processors to roll back in case of a failure. Incorporating some form of message logging will provide a framework where only a subset of processors are rolled back after a crash. In this paper, we discuss why a simple causal message logging protocol seems a promising alternative to provide fault tolerance in large supercomputers. As opposed to pessimistic message logging, it has low latency overhead, especially in collective communication operations. Besides, it saves messages when more than one thread is running per processor. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple causal message logging protocol has a faster recovery and a low performance penalty when compared to checkpoint/restart. Running NAS Parallel Benchmarks (CG, MG and BT) on 1024 processors, simple causal message logging has a latency overhead below 5%.

  3. Simple ultraviolet and high-performance liquid chromatography methods for the evaluation of sunscreen efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw, Khin Lay; Caton-Williams, Julianne; Salon, Jozef; Huang, Zhen

    2011-08-01

    To prevent DNA damage caused by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of sunlight, sunscreens are commonly used to protect human skin. Current analysis of sunscreens' effectiveness is done through complicated procedures, including human exposure. We sought to design a simple system using thymidine-thymidine (TT) dinucleotides to analyze the effectiveness of sunscreens. We can directly analyze sunscreen effectiveness and the formation of TT photolesions simply by using UV spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Efficient sunscreen has protective effects against UV irradiation damage. We have developed a simple method using TT dinucleotide, UV, and HPLC for the analysis of sunscreen effectiveness. Our research indicates that the analytical results from UV are consistent with those of HPLC, which is used to monitor the formation of the TT photolesions. Moreover, both UV and HPLC analyses indicate that TT dinucleotides are better protected against UV damage, using the sunscreens with higher UVB sun protection factor (SPF) value, and that sunscreens with higher SPF lead to reduced photolesion formation. Our UV and HPLC analyses confirm the SPF grading of commercial sunscreens. In this experiment, only sunscreens were tested. The experiment, therefore, does not apply to other commercial products, such as cosmetic materials that claim UV protection as a secondary benefit. In conclusion, we have established a simple strategy to analyze the effectiveness of sunscreens and the quality of these potential cancer-preventive products. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the safety and usability of touch gestures in operating in-vehicle information systems with visual occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huhn; Song, Haewon

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, many automobile manufacturers are interested in applying the touch gestures that are used in smart phones to operate their in-vehicle information systems (IVISs). In this study, an experiment was performed to verify the applicability of touch gestures in the operation of IVISs from the viewpoints of both driving safety and usability. In the experiment, two devices were used: one was the Apple iPad, with which various touch gestures such as flicking, panning, and pinching were enabled; the other was the SK EnNavi, which only allowed tapping touch gestures. The participants performed the touch operations using the two devices under visually occluded situations, which is a well-known technique for estimating load of visual attention while driving. In scrolling through a list, the flicking gestures required more time than the tapping gestures. Interestingly, both the flicking and simple tapping gestures required slightly higher visual attention. In moving a map, the average time taken per operation and the visual attention load required for the panning gestures did not differ from those of the simple tapping gestures that are used in existing car navigation systems. In zooming in/out of a map, the average time taken per pinching gesture was similar to that of the tapping gesture but required higher visual attention. Moreover, pinching gestures at a display angle of 75° required that the participants severely bend their wrists. Because the display angles of many car navigation systems tends to be more than 75°, pinching gestures can cause severe fatigue on users' wrists. Furthermore, contrary to participants' evaluation of other gestures, several participants answered that the pinching gesture was not necessary when operating IVISs. It was found that the panning gesture is the only touch gesture that can be used without negative consequences when operating IVISs while driving. The flicking gesture is likely to be used if the screen moving speed is slower or

  5. Semiquantitative slab view display for visual evaluation of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchert, Ralph; Hutton, Chloe; Lange, Catharina; Hoppe, Peter; Makowski, Marcus; Bamousa, Thamer; Platsch, Günther; Brenner, Winfried; Declerck, Jerome

    2016-05-01

    Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with I-FP-CIT is used widely in the diagnosis of clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes. In terms of the evaluation of FP-CIT SPECT, some practice guidelines state that visual interpretation alone is generally sufficient in clinical patient care, whereas other guidelines consider semiquantitative analysis of striatal dopamine transporter availability mandatory. This discrepancy might be because of a relative lack of widely available display tools for FP-CIT SPECT. In this study, we evaluate a semiquantitative slab view display optimized for visual evaluation of FP-CIT SPECT that might resolve the discrepancy. The reconstructed FP-CIT SPECT image was stereotactically normalized and scaled voxel by voxel to the mean uptake in the entire brain without striata. From the resulting distribution volume ratio image, a 12-mm-thick transversal slice (slab) through the striata was displayed with a standard colour table with predefined fixed thresholds on the distribution volume ratio. Visual scoring of the semiquantitative slab view was performed twice by four independent readers in 235 unselected patients. The specific binding ratio in the caudate and putamen was computed by fully automated semiquantitative analysis with predefined standard regions of interest in template space. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement of binary visual categorization as 'normal' or 'reduced' was excellent (mean Cohen's κ=0.88 and 0.83, respectively). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of the specific putamen-binding ratio for differentiation between visually normal and visually reduced (majority read) was 0.96. Visual interpretation of FP-CIT SPECT on the basis of the semiquantitative slab view display provides excellent stability within and between readers as well as very high agreement with semiquantitative analysis. This suggests that the slab view display enables reliable visual

  6. Simple evaluations of fluid-induced vibrations for steam generator tube arrays in advanced marine reactors (MRX, DRX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishida, Toshihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-06-01

    Advanced Marine Reactor (MRX) and Deep Sea Research Reactor (DRX) are the integral-type PWR, and the steam generators are installed in the reactor vessels. Steam generators are of the once-through, helical-coil tube types. Heat transfer tubes surround inner shroud in annular space of the reactor vessel. Flow-induced vibrations are calculated by simple methods, and the arrangement of tube support structures are evaluated. (author)

  7. Custom Visualization without Real Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas

    Information Visualization tools have simplified visualization development. Some tools help simple users construct standard visualizations; others help programmers develop custom visualizations. This thesis contributes to the field of Information Visualization and End-User Development. The first c...

  8. Evaluating the performance of simple estimators for probit models with two dummy endogenous regressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jacob Arendt

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the small sample performance of approximate but simple two-stage estimators for probit models with two endogenous binary covariates. Monte Carlo simulations showthat all the considered estimators, including the simulated maximum-likelihood (SML) estimation, of the trivariate ...... for testing the exogeneity of binary covariates. The methods are used to estimate the impact of employment-based health insurance and health care (HC) on HC use, where the approximations seem to work at least as well as the SML and in some cases better....

  9. Biological evaluation and simple method for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthenes-11-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthenes-11-one derivatives in the presence of BF3.SiO2, and its antibacterial activity was assessed against Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas citi and Pectobacterium carotovorum. The structure of the isolated compounds has been determined by means of 1H/13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The reactions were carried out in water at room temperature for 5 h. This method has some advantages such as good to excellent yield, mild reaction condition, ease of operation and workup, high product purity and green process.

  10. Visual display aid for orbital maneuvering - Experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multiburn maneuvers in a potential multispacecraft environment, has been experimentally evaluated. An experiment has been carried out in which nonastronaut operators with brief initial training were required to plan a trajectory to retrieve an object accidentally separated from a dual-keel Space Station, for a variety of different orbital situations. The experiments have shown that these operators were able to plan workable trajectories, satisfying a number of operational constraints. Fuel use and planning time were strongly correlated, both with the angle at which the object was separated and with the existence of spatial constraints. Planning behavior was found to be strongly operator-dependent. This finding calls for the need for standardizing planning strategies through operator training or the use of semiautomated planning schemes.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Secure Socket Layer Visualization Tool with Packet Capturing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure Socket Layer (SSL has become a fundamental technology that secures browser-processed personal details sent to the server. As a result, communication and computer engineers are advised to learn the protocol. However, understanding SSL is very difficult because of its intricate communication procedure. To solve this problem, we developed a visualization tool for understanding SSL. This paper describes the design, implementation methods, and evaluation of the tool. The evaluation results show that the visualization tool is effective for learning SSL.

  12. A statistical method for evaluation of the experimental phase equilibrium data of simple clathrate hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Mohammadi, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    We, herein, present a statistical method for diagnostics of the outliers in phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) of simple clathrate hydrates. The applied algorithm is performed on the basis of the Leverage mathematical approach, in which the statistical Hat matrix, Williams Plot, and the r......We, herein, present a statistical method for diagnostics of the outliers in phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) of simple clathrate hydrates. The applied algorithm is performed on the basis of the Leverage mathematical approach, in which the statistical Hat matrix, Williams Plot......, and the residuals of a selected correlation results lead to define the probable outliers. This method not only contributes to outliers diagnostics but also identifies the range of applicability of the applied model and quality of the existing experimental data. The available correlation in the literature...... in exponential form is used to represent/predict the hydrate dissociation pressures for three-phase equilibrium conditions (liquid water/ice–vapor-hydrate). The investigated hydrate formers are methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is interpreted from the obtained results...

  13. Evaluation of Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Sex Hormones in Simple and Complex Breast Cysts’ Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Madej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between levels of adipokines in the breast cyst fluid and in the circulation in relation to the type of cysts. Material and Measurements. A cross-sectional study involved 86 women with breast cysts (42 with simple cysts and 44 with complex cysts. Plasma and breast cyst fluid leptin, adiponectin, visfatin/NAMPT, resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels, in addition to serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and prolactin, and anthropometric parameters and body composition (by bioimpedance method, were measured. Results. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin were significantly lower in breast cyst fluid than in plasma regardless of the cyst type. Contrarily, the levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α were significantly increased, and IL-6 levels were similar in the breast cyst fluid and plasma in both study groups. There was no correlation between corresponding levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin/NAMPT, TNF-α, and IL-6 in breast cyst fluid and plasma. Conclusions. Higher levels of visfatin/NAMPT and TNF-α in the fluid from simple and complex breast cysts than in plasma suggest that their local production is related to inflammation.

  14. A simple and rapid approach for screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes: an evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yongjie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS was a newly emerged infectious disease which caused a global epidemic in 2002–2003. Sequence analysis of SARS-coronavirus isolates revealed that specific genotypes predominated at different periods of the epidemic. This information can be used as a footprint for tracing the epidemiology of infections and monitor viral evolution. However, direct sequencing analysis of a large number of clinical samples is cumbersome and time consuming. We present here a simple and rapid assay for the screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes based on the use of fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes for allelic discrimination. Methods Thirty SARS patients were recruited. Allelic discrimination assays were developed based on the use of fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes (TaqMan. Genotyping of the SARS-coronavirus isolates obtained from these patients were carried out by the allelic discrimination assays and confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genotyping based on the allelic discrimination assays were fully concordant with direct sequencing. All of the 30 SARS-coronavirus genotypes studied were characteristic of genotypes previously documented to be associated with the latter part of the epidemic. Seven of the isolates contained a previously reported major deletion but in patients not epidemiologically related to the previously studied cohort. Conclusion We have developed a simple and accurate method for the characterization and screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes. It is a promising tool for the study of epidemiological relationships between documented cases during an outbreak.

  15. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D.M.; Hasselby, J.P.; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis...... stripping. Inoculation under occlusion showed no advantage in the establishment of experimental infections. Infection severity showed some association with the inoculum concentration and subtype of T. mentagrophytes but not in studies involving M. canis. The establishment of dermatophytosis was confirmed...

  16. Enhancing needle visualization during parasagittal approach in paravertebral block for patients undergoing simple mastectomy using in-plane, multiangle ultrasound needle guidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M A; Sonbaty, M E

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided paravertebral blocks during breast surgeries with in-plane needle approaches can be challenging due to difficult needle visualization. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of using a needle guide while performing in-plane parasagittal approach paravertebral block for breast surgery. Eighty patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-III, aged 20-40 years with breast mass scheduled for simple mastectomy surgery, were involved in prospective, controlled, randomized study, and were randomly divided by closed envelope method into two groups: Group I (n = 40): Scheduled for ultrasound-guided paravertebral block or group II (n = 40): Scheduled for ultrasound-guided paravertebral block using the needle guide. Both techniques compared as regards: (i) Needle visibility and block performance time; (ii) number of needle passes; (iii) duration of the block; (iv) doctor and patient satisfaction; and (v) incidence of complications. Needle visibility score was better in group II (2.92 ± 0.26 vs. 1.9 ± 0.44, P < 0.0001). Block performance time was shorter in group II (90.92 ± 15 vs. 128.25 ± 16s, P < 0.0001). A number of needle passes were less in group II (1.27 ± 0.45 vs. 2.2 ± 0.68, P < 0.0001). Doctor and patient satisfaction were better in group II (P = 0.015). No differences were found regarding the duration of the block and incidence of complications between groups. A needle guide can help reduce the time needed to perform a parasagittal in-plane thoracic paravertebral block, with a significant reduction in the block performance time, the number of needle passes, better needle visibility and better doctor and patient's satisfaction. However, there was no significant difference regarding the duration of the block or incidence of complications.

  17. A simple visual analog scale for pain is as responsive as the WOMAC, the SF-36, and the EQ-5D in measuring outcomes of revision hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampelis, Vasilis; Ornstein, Ewald; Franzén, Herbert; Atroshi, Isam

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the comparative performance of patient-reported outcome measures in revision hip arthroplasty. We compared the performance of the WOMAC, the SF-36, the EQ-5D, and a pain-related visual analog scale (VAS) in revision hip arthroplasty. 45 patients with aseptic prosthetic loosening following primary hip arthroplasty completed the WOMAC, the SF-36, the EQ-5D, and a VAS for pain-at baseline and 2 years after revision. Responsiveness of the measures was compared with the effect size (with ≥ 0.8 being considered large). Agreement between scales measuring the same type of outcome (pain or physical function) was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. The mean preoperative scores for the pain and physical function scales of WOMAC and SF-36, EQ-5D index, and VAS for pain improved statistically significantly 2 years after revision. The effect size for the WOMAC pain was 1.7, that for SF-36 pain was 1.4, that for WOMAC physical function was 1.6, that for SF-36 physical function was 0.8, and that for EQ-5D index was 1.2. The VAS for pain had an effect size of 2.1, which was larger than that for SF-36 pain and for the EQ-5D index (p ≤ 0.03) but not for WOMAC pain (p = 0.2). The limits of agreement between WOMAC pain, SF-36 pain, and the VAS scale measuring pain-and between the WOMAC and SF-36 scales measuring physical function-were wide. Internal-consistency reliability was high for the WOMAC and SF-36 scales but low for the EQ-5D. In patients with first-time revision hip arthroplasty done for aseptic loosening, the WOMAC, SF-36, and EQ-5D showed high responsiveness in measuring patient-reported outcomes and the simple VAS for pain performed equally well.

  18. Performance evaluation of simple linear iterative clustering algorithm on medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Jinyu; Wei, Benzheng; Yin, Yilong; Xi, Xiaoming; Zheng, Yuanjie

    2014-01-01

    Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) algorithm is increasingly applied to different kinds of image processing because of its excellent perceptually meaningful characteristics. In order to better meet the needs of medical image processing and provide technical reference for SLIC on the application of medical image segmentation, two indicators of boundary accuracy and superpixel uniformity are introduced with other indicators to systematically analyze the performance of SLIC algorithm, compared with Normalized cuts and Turbopixels algorithm. The extensive experimental results show that SLIC is faster and less sensitive to the image type and the setting superpixel number than other similar algorithms such as Turbopixels and Normalized cuts algorithms. And it also has a great benefit to the boundary recall, the robustness of fuzzy boundary, the setting superpixel size and the segmentation performance on medical image segmentation.

  19. Commercial glucometer as signal transducer for simple evaluation of DNA methyltransferase activity and inhibitors screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yi, Hongchao; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo

    2018-02-25

    DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in many biological processes and has been recognized as a predictive cancer biomarker far before other signs of malignancy and a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Thus simple and sensitive determination of DNA MTase activity is urgently required. The commercially available glucometer is considered as the most successful point-of-care (POC) sensor up to date, and researchers extend its application in monitoring different types of targets rather than only glucose. Here, we developed a simple strategy for the sensitive detection of the DNA MTase (using M.SssI as an example) activity by using a glucometer as the signal transducer. A S1/S2 hybrid probe was designed including a specific recognition sequence for both DNA MTase and restriction endonuclease, and a complementary sequence for biotin-S3. Firstly, the S1/S2 hybrid probe was self-assembled on the gold electrode and methylated by M.SssI MTase to form the methylated dsDNA. Then, HpaII endonuclease specifically cleaved the residue of the unmethylated dsDNA. Subsequently, biotin-S3 hybridized with the overhang sequence of the methylated dsDNA. Finally, the biotin tag was successively combined with streptavidin (STV) and biotin-invertase. The invertase efficiently catalyzed the hydrolysis of sucrose to generate abundant glucose, which led to an amplified response of glucometer. This strategy could detect DNA MTase activity as low as 0.3 U mL-1 with good selectivity against other two cytosine MTases (HaeIII MTase and AluI MTase), and be successfully applied for screening the DNA MTase inhibitors (5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine), implying our proposed method holds great promising application in early cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose volume uniformity index: a simple tool for treatment plan evaluation in brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Prabhakar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In radiotherapy treatment planning, dose homogeneity inside the target volume plays a significant role in the final treatment outcome. Especially in brachytherapy where there is a steep dose gradient in the dose distribution inside the target volume, comparing the plans based on the dose homogeneity helps in assessing the high dose volume inside the final treatment plan. In brachytherapy, the dose inhomogeneity inside the target volume depends on many factors such as the type of sources, placement of these radioactive sources, distance between the applicators/implanttubes, dwell time of the source, etc. In this study, a simple index, the dose volume uniformity index (DVUI, has been proposed to study the dose homogeneity inside the target volume. This index gives the total dose volume inhomogeneity inside a given prescription isoline.Material and methods: To demonstrate the proposed DVUI in this study, a single plane implant (breast: 6 catheters, a double plane implant (breast: 9 catheters and a tongue implant (5 catheters were selected. The catheters were reconstructed from the CT image datasets in the Plato treatment planning system. The doses for the single, double and tongue implants were prescribed to the reference dose rate as per the Paris technique. DVUI was computed from the cumulative dose volume histogram.Results: For a volume receiving a uniform dose inside the prescription isoline, the DVUI is 1. Any value of DVUI > 1 shows the presence of a relatively high dose volume inside the prescription isoline. In addition to the concept of DVUI, a simple conformality index, the dose volume conformality index (DVCI, has also been proposed in this study based on the DVUI.Conclusion: The DVUI and the proposed DVCI in this study provide an easy way of comparing the rival plans in brachytherapy.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Auditory Cognition's Effects on Visual Cognition of Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Tatsuo; Haruki, Kazuhito; Matsuda, Minoru

    This paper presents the experimental evaluation of auditory cognition's effects on visual cognition of video. The influences of seven auditory stimuli on visual recognition are investigated based on experimental data of key-down operations. The key-down operations for locating a moving target by visual and auditory images are monitored by an experiment system originally made by devices including VTR, CRT, Data Recorder, etc.. Regression analysis and EM algorithm are applied to analyzing the experiment data of 350 key-down operations, made with 50 people and 7 auditory stimulus types. The following characteristic results about the influence of auditory stimulus on visual recognition are derived. Firstly, seven people responded too early for every experiment. The average of and the standard deviation of their response times are 439[ms] and 231[ms] respectively. Secondly, the other forty three people responded about 10[ms] after at cases, in which auditory images were presented 30[ms] or 60[ms] before visual images. Also they responded about 10[ms] early at the other cases. Thirdly, as the visual image was dominant information used for the key-down decision making, apparent effects of auditory images on the key-down operation were not measured. Averages and standard deviations of distributions measured by EM algorithm, regarding to 7 auditory stimulus types, are considered and verified with the Card's MHP model of human response.

  2. Perceptual visual skills in young highly skilled basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillero Quintana, Manuel; Refoyo Román, Ignacio; Lorenzo Calvo, Alberto; Sampedro Molinuevo, Javier

    2007-04-01

    A simple method was designed to evaluate visual abilities such as disance visual acuity, binocular horizontal visual field, simple and choice visual reaction times, and stereoscopic vision in skilled 11- to 13-yr.-old basketball players participating in a 15-day summer training camp. On a test battery, visual abilities were monitored in 473 players of the Spanish Basketball Federation over a 5-yr. period. The players showed outstanding scores on distance visual acuity and stereoscopic vision, and good visual reaction times and horizontal visual fields. When scores were compared by sex and age, significant differences on certain visual measures were observed. Many layers showed crossed eye-hand dominance. Visual screening programs may help promote visual health among junior basketball players and could be used for performance training.

  3. An investigation of how design managers in organisations in Bahrain manage and evaluate visual communication design for strategic advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Lilian Issa Anton

    2015-01-01

    The role of visual communication design continues to increase in importance around the world. In Bahrain, organisations are increasingly considering visual communication design as a means of accomplishing organisational goals. The research aims to understand the process by which design managers in organisations in Bahrain manage and evaluate visual communication designs to gain strategic advantage. Even though the management of visual communication design has not yet been recognised as a ...

  4. Evaluating the Interactive Learning Tool Simreal+ for Visualizing and Simulating Mathematical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjerrouit, Said

    2015-01-01

    This research study aims at evaluating the suitability of SimReal+ for effective use in teacher education. SimReal+ was originally developed to teach mathematics in universities, but it is has been recently improved to include school mathematics. The basic idea of SimReal+ is that the visualization of mathematical concepts is a powerful technique…

  5. Holistic and Individualistic Evaluations of Digital Visual Art Portfolios: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavill, William D., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The high-stakes nature of portfolio evaluation makes it necessary to perform such assessments in the fairest and most equitable manner possible. Determining whether or not there is a difference between holistically and individualistically derived scores for digital visual art portfolios and how those differences can be explained was the focus of…

  6. Users' Evaluations of Four Electronic Travel Aids Aimed at Navigation for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P.

    2011-01-01

    Eighteen persons with visual impairments evaluated four systematically selected navigation systems. Their performance on 11 tasks, provided ratings, satisfaction on seven aspects of the assistive devices, and explanatory comments show generally valuable functionality and usability, as well as individual marked preferences for various features of…

  7. Evaluation of Visual Materials in Social Studies Coursebooks by Teachers' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the visual elements (picture, photograph, map, table, caricature, etc.) included in the 7th grade Social Studies coursebooks prepared by the Ministry of National Education and taught in 2014-2015 academic year by several variables in accordance with the opinions of Social Studies teachers, with a critical point…

  8. A combined pulmonary-radiology workshop for visual evaluation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barr, R Graham; Berkowitz, Eugene A; Bigazzi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: to describe chest CT findings in normal non-smoking controls and cigarette smokers with and without COPD; to compare the prevalence of CT abnormalities with severity of COPD; and to evaluate concordance between visual and quantitative chest CT (QCT) scoring....

  9. Visual versus Automated Evaluation of Chest Computed Tomography for the Presence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.; Smit, E.J.; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.; Gietema, H.A.; Bokkers, R.P.; Attrach, M.; Amelsvoort-van de Vorst, S. van; Scholten, E.T.; Buckens, C.F.; Oudkerk, M.; Lammers, J.W.; Prokop, M.; Jong, P.A. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incidental CT findings may provide an opportunity for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which may prove important in CT-based lung cancer screening setting. We aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of human observers to visually evaluate COPD

  10. The "visual dilator system": initial experimental evaluation of an optical tract dilation technique in percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Arvind K; Xu, Kewei; Liu, Hao; Lin, Tianxin; Xie, Kun; Huang, Hai; Han, Jinli; Fan, Xinxiang; Chen, Jia; Huang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    Ascertaining the optimal depth of dilator progression is a crucial factor during tract dilation in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Dilation is generally guided under fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, or combination of both techniques, and it is still difficult to prevent overdilation causing perforation and vascular injury or underdilation causing difficulty in establishment of access. Thus, improvements in dilation technique bears clinical significance. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility in an animal model of using the "visual dilator system" for optimal percutaneous tract dilation under real-time visual guidance. The visual dilator system consisted of a transparent hollow dilator made of polyvinyl chloride and a rigid ureteroscope inserted within its lumen. The ureteroscope was connected to a standard endoscopic camera system. The dilator system backloaded with an access sheath was passed over a guidewire to dilate the tract and position the access sheath under visual guidance. Saline was used as irrigation to maintain clarity during dilation. The dilation technique was implemented to establish percutaneous access tract in six PCNL simulator models made from fresh porcine kidney placed inside an eviscerated chicken carcass and four female swine (eight kidneys) to experimentally evaluate its feasibility and efficacy. All tracts were successfully established with dilation through the intervening tissue layers, approach into the target calix, as well as access sheath placement being visually monitored through the dilator wall to confirm accuracy. All procedures were free of dilation-related complications such as collecting system perforation, excessive bleeding (in-vivo model), or loss of access. The limited number of animal models and lack of randomized comparative study with other dilator modalities were major drawbacks of the study. The study demonstrates feasibility of percutaneous access tract dilation using a Visual dilator system. This technique can provide

  11. AN EVALUATION OF TIMELINE VISUALIZATION AND TREE VIEWER IN CRIME NEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAZLENA MOHAMAD ALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding good and relevant information in crime news is one of the most challenging tasks faced by users. An increase in the amount of information from news media has caused difficulties for users in obtaining relevant information. Hence, visualization is one of the important aspects to enhance user’s understanding when browsing or searching for news. Crime news requires a proper approach to visualize a variety of important information such as suspect, victim, location, time and evidence. Visual navigation is more interactive than linear. This has motivated us to develop a prototype called Crime News Visualization (CNV, which mplements a timeline and tree viewer to assist users when browsing crime news chronologically. The prototype follows several phases of development starting with design concept, implementation and evaluation. News corpus used in this study is from the Bernama Library & Infolink Service (BLIS resource, with a sample of 247 crime news documents from year 1997 to 2012. A user experiment was conducted with 20 undergraduate students from the Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia in order to evaluate the acceptance and perception of interactive browsing of crime news using news portal (baseline and CNV (experimental. Findings revealed that more than 90% of the respondents indicated that the use of timeline visualization and tree viewer was helpful and had potential to improve the way users browse for crime news content.

  12. Evaluation of quality of experience in interactive 3D visualization: methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourancheau, Sylvain; Sjöström, Mårten; Olsson, Roger; Persson, Anders; Ericson, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Human factors are of high importance in 3D visualization, but subjective evaluation of 3D displays is not easy because of a high variability among users. This study aimed to evaluate and compare two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of user performance and quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive visualization. An adapted methodology has been designed in order to focus on 3D differences and to reduce the influence of all other factors. Thirty-six subjects took part in an experiment during which they were asked to judge the quality of their experience, according to specific features. Results showed that a scene understanding and precision was significantly better on the multi-view display. Concerning the quality of experience, visual comfort was judged significantly better on the multi-view display and visual fatigue was reported by 52% of the subjects on the stereoscopic display. This study has permitted to identify some factors influencing QoE such as prior experience and stereopsis threshold.

  13. Clinical evaluation of rigid gas permeable contact lenses and visual outcome after repaired corneal laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Shen, Lijun; Walker, Maria K; Zhang, Zongduan; Zheng, Jingwei; She, Xiangjun; Zhou, Jing; Xu, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCLs) in patients with traumatic corneal scarring and address implications of primary corneal repair. Eighteen subjects with a history of corneal laceration were fit with RGPCLs. Scar locations were divided into two zones; each patient was examined using Pentacam. Entering data included uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SVA), time between injury and RGPCL fitting, location and size of scar, and amount of corneal astigmatism. Follow-up data included RGPCL visual acuity (RGPCLVA), RGPCL-related complications, and dropout characteristics. Visual acuity values were converted to logMAR for analysis. No serious complications occurred. The average time between suture removal and RGPCL fitting was 5.7±5.5 months. Average corneal astigmatism was -3.44±2.09 diopters. One subject had developed corneal ectasia. RGPCLVA was more than 0.1 in three subjects: one experienced primary corneal repair complications, and two subjects (contact lens is an ideal method for evaluating visual potential in patients with traumatic corneal astigmatism. Pentacam examinations of those patients with poor RGPCLVA can help an ophthalmologist find and understand existing problems in suture techniques.

  14. Evaluation of gastric emptying by a simple isotope technique. A methodological study in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawaetz, O; Olesen, H P; Andreasen, R

    1981-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a fluid standard meal labelled with 99mTc-DTPA has been studied in dogs, using a scintillation detector. The method was assessed in a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments. The gastric emptying patterns were visualized as time-activity curves. In the initial phase, the typical curves showed a rapid emptying within 2-5 min after start of the meal, followed by a more varied emptying and a subsequent steady emptying in the basic phase. Duplicate tests showed acceptable reproducibility. The initial emptying varied among individuals, whereas the basic emptying did not vary significantly. Combined evacuation/isotope gastric emptying studies showed that the external counting technique produced results comparable to those obtained by evacuation. Short-lasting spikes and plateau-like dislocations were observed in the curves, indicating peristalsis and duodenogastric reflux, respectively. The observed data are comparable with those obtained in man when using a gamma camera. Gastric emptying tests, carried out during continuous infusion of distilled water, 20% soya bean oil, or 25% glucose into various parts of the proximal gastrointestinal tract, showed that in dogs inhibitory 'receptors' for fat and glucose were located in the small intestine distal to the ligament of Treitz.

  15. Development of a rapid, simple method for detecting Naegleria fowleri visually in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aongart Mahittikorn

    Full Text Available Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, while molecular techniques, such as PCR, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. We developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results is about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxy naphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The assay was then evaluated with a set of 80 water samples collected during the flooding crisis in Thailand in 2011, and 30 natural water samples from border areas of northern, eastern, western, and southern Thailand. N. fowleri was detected in 13 and 10 samples using LAMP and PCR, respectively, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.855. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LAMP assay for N. fowleri. Due to its simplicity, speed, and high sensitivity, the LAMP method described here might be useful for quickly detecting and diagnosing N. fowleri in water and clinical samples, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  16. Development of a rapid, simple method for detecting Naegleria fowleri visually in water samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahittikorn, Aongart; Mori, Hirotake; Popruk, Supaluk; Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Koompapong, Khuanchai; Siri, Sukhontha; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Nacapunchai, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Detection of N. fowleri using conventional culture and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, while molecular techniques, such as PCR, require laboratory skills and expensive equipment. We developed and evaluated a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the virulence-related gene for N. fowleri. Time to results is about 90 min and amplification products were easily detected visually using hydroxy naphthol blue. The LAMP was highly specific after testing against related microorganisms and able to detect one trophozoite, as determined with spiked water and cerebrospinal fluid samples. The assay was then evaluated with a set of 80 water samples collected during the flooding crisis in Thailand in 2011, and 30 natural water samples from border areas of northern, eastern, western, and southern Thailand. N. fowleri was detected in 13 and 10 samples using LAMP and PCR, respectively, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.855. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LAMP assay for N. fowleri. Due to its simplicity, speed, and high sensitivity, the LAMP method described here might be useful for quickly detecting and diagnosing N. fowleri in water and clinical samples, particularly in resource-poor settings.

  17. Multivariate Gradient Analysis for Evaluating and Visualizing a Learning System Platform for Computer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Mather

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the application of canonical gradient analysis to evaluate and visualize student performance and acceptance of a learning system platform. The subject of evaluation is a first year BSc module for computer programming. This uses ‘Ceebot’, an animated and immersive game-like development environment. Multivariate ordination approaches are widely used in ecology to explore species distribution along environmental gradients. Environmental factors are represented here by three ‘...

  18. Evaluation study for a multi-user oriented medical data visualization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    The chosen evaluation concept is based the Guideline for Good Evaluation Practice in Health Informatics (GEP-HI). The stages of the study were identified. Each stage got a detailed description. We also identified the participants and their required qualifications and responsibilities. The developed evaluation concept was used for the evaluation study of the developed medical data visualization method. The study was performed in Tomsk, Russia. This helped to involve more doctors and patients to the study. This also facilitated the involvement of patients, because they have already the experience of using patients' portal.

  19. A comparison of methods used to evaluate mobility performance in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrian, Kevin J; Katz, L Jay; Myers, Jonathan S; Moster, Marlene R; Pro, Michael J; Wizov, Sheryl S; Spaeth, George L

    2015-01-01

    To compare three different approaches to measuring mobility performance when evaluating the visually impaired. 488 participants, including 192 glaucoma, 112 age-related macular degeneration, 91 diabetic retinopathy and 93 healthy volunteers, completed the Assessment of Disability Related to Vision (ADREV) mobility course. The performance of participants on the mobility course was evaluated by noting errors made and time required for completion. Errors noted and time taken were compared using multivariate logistic regression to determine which measurement better differentiated patients with visual disease from healthy volunteers. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to evaluate the combined metric of ADREV errors divided by time to determine its ability to discriminate participants with visual disease from healthy volunteers. Errors noted and time taken while ambulating through the standardised mobility course shared a weak but statistically significant association (Pearson's r=0.36, p<0.05). After controlling for demographic and medical comorbidities, logistic regression analysis revealed that errors noted were better at discriminating individuals with visual disease from healthy volunteers (OR 2.8-4.9, 95% CI 1.5 to 10.3) compared with the time taken for mobility course completion (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2). These findings were consistent across all comparisons between healthy volunteers and participants with each type of visual impairment. Finally, the combined metric of ADREV errors divided by time was far more predictive of visual disease compared with either time taken or errors noted during mobility testing (OR 11.0-17.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 77.1). A validated scoring system based on errors is more effective when assessing visual disability during mobility testing than recording the time taken for course completion. The combined metric of ADREV errors noted divided by time taken was most predictive of all the methods used to evaluate visual disability

  20. Evaluation of a Simple Method to Screen Soybean Genotypes for Salt Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive salt can reduce soybean yield in grower fields. Salt tolerant cultivars are needed to prevent field yield losses where excess salt is a problem. Soybean genotypes have primarily been evaluated for reaction to salt in the greenhouse using a labor intensive and costly hydroponics method. ...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vis, J B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/39133378X; Zwanenburg, J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290473683; van der Kleij, L A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413752291; Spijkerman, J M; Biessels, G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; Hendrikse, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266590268; Petersen, E T

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were

  2. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.; Jensen, Wyatt

    2015-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the “displacement” measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant (p light rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services. PMID:26543329

  3. A Framework for Advanced Video Traces: Evaluating Visual Quality for Video Transmission Over Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisslein Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional video traces (which characterize the video encoding frame sizes in bits and frame quality in PSNR are limited to evaluating loss-free video transmission. To evaluate robust video transmission schemes for lossy network transport, generally experiments with actual video are required. To circumvent the need for experiments with actual videos, we propose in this paper an advanced video trace framework. The two main components of this framework are (i advanced video traces which combine the conventional video traces with a parsimonious set of visual content descriptors, and (ii quality prediction schemes that based on the visual content descriptors provide an accurate prediction of the quality of the reconstructed video after lossy network transport. We conduct extensive evaluations using a perceptual video quality metric as well as the PSNR in which we compare the visual quality predicted based on the advanced video traces with the visual quality determined from experiments with actual video. We find that the advanced video trace methodology accurately predicts the quality of the reconstructed video after frame losses.

  4. A simple method to evaluate the optimal size of nanoparticles for endocytosis based on kinetic diffusion of receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlei; Xing, Da

    2010-10-01

    We have presented an analytic thermodynamic model to elucidate the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis of nanoparticles (NPs) and provided a simple method to evaluate the optimal size of NPs by minimizing the kinetic diffusion time of the free receptors around the bound region toward the contact surface with NPs. It is found that the average density of receptors and chemical energy release upon the binding of a ligand-receptor pair determine the optimal size of NPs if the bending modulus of membranes and the cross-sectional area of the receptor are constants. The optimal radius of NPs can be calculated based on our model.

  5. Understanding the Influence from Web-shop Design on Consumers’ Visual Attention and Product Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kokkoli, Maria

    of the product package together with pictures of the pills are used as eye-catcher on-line. The market for e-health is increasing (Usher and Skinner, 2010) and distribution of consumers purchasing on-line health products looks similar to the distribution in average populations. As the on-line drug store goes...... in studying relations between human visual attention and intention to purchase (Clement, 2013). Several companies have found an additional market place on-line, whereas the appearance of the products is often very similar to the physical shop. This goes especially for pharmaceutical products, where pictures...... across culture and national borders it also challenges marketer to make the right set-up for a web-shop. In this paper customers’ visual attention during search for drugs on-line is investigated, relating visual attention and evaluation to a particular web-design....

  6. A simple in vitro method for evaluating dendritic cell-based vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phuc Van Pham, Nhung Thi Nguyen, Hoang Minh Nguyen, Lam Tan Khuat, Phong Minh Le, Viet Quoc Pham, Sinh Truong Nguyen, Ngoc Kim Phan Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: Dendritic cell (DC therapy is a promising therapy for cancer-targeting treatments. Recently, DCs have been used for treatment of some cancers. We aimed to develop an in vitro assay to evaluate DC therapy in cancer treatment using a breast cancer model. Methods: DCs were induced from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (20 ng/mL and IL-4 (20 ng/mL. Immature DCs were primed with breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-derived antigens. BCSCs were sorted from 4T1 cell lines based on aldehyde dehydrogenase expression. A mixture of DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of antigen-primed DCs on BCSCs. BCSC proliferation and doubling time were recorded based on impedance-based cell analysis using the xCELLigence system. The specification of inhibitory effects of DCs and CTLs was also evaluated using the same system. Results: The results showed that impedance-based analysis of BCSCs reflected cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of DCs and CTLs at 72 hours. Differences in ratios of DC:CTL changed the cytotoxicity of DCs and CTLs. Conclusion: This study successfully used impedance-based cell analysis as a new in vitro assay to evaluate DC efficacy in cancer immunotherapy. We hope this technique will contribute to the development and improvement of immunotherapies in the near future. Keywords: CTLs, cytotoxicity assay, dendritic cells, immunotherapy, targeting therapy

  7. A simple but highly effective approach to evaluate the prognostic performance of gene expression signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud H W Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly parallel analysis of gene expression has recently been used to identify gene sets or 'signatures' to improve patient diagnosis and risk stratification. Once a signature is generated, traditional statistical testing is used to evaluate its prognostic performance. However, due to the dimensionality of microarrays, this can lead to false interpretation of these signatures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A method was developed to test batches of a user-specified number of randomly chosen signatures in patient microarray datasets. The percentage of random generated signatures yielding prognostic value was assessed using ROC analysis by calculating the area under the curve (AUC in six public available cancer patient microarray datasets. We found that a signature consisting of randomly selected genes has an average 10% chance of reaching significance when assessed in a single dataset, but can range from 1% to ∼40% depending on the dataset in question. Increasing the number of validation datasets markedly reduces this number. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the use of an arbitrary cut-off value for evaluation of signature significance is not suitable for this type of research, but should be defined for each dataset separately. Our method can be used to establish and evaluate signature performance of any derived gene signature in a dataset by comparing its performance to thousands of randomly generated signatures. It will be of most interest for cases where few data are available and testing in multiple datasets is limited.

  8. Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anjaneyulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H

  9. On the Efficiency of Image Metrics for Evaluating the Visual Quality of 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoue, Guillaume; Larabi, Mohamed Chaker; Vasa, Libor

    2016-08-01

    3D meshes are deployed in a wide range of application processes (e.g., transmission, compression, simplification, watermarking and so on) which inevitably introduce geometric distortions that may alter the visual quality of the rendered data. Hence, efficient model-based perceptual metrics, operating on the geometry of the meshes being compared, have been recently introduced to control and predict these visual artifacts. However, since the 3D models are ultimately visualized on 2D screens, it seems legitimate to use images of the models (i.e., snapshots from different viewpoints) to evaluate their visual fidelity. In this work we investigate the use of image metrics to assess the visual quality of 3D models. For this goal, we conduct a wide-ranging study involving several 2D metrics, rendering algorithms, lighting conditions and pooling algorithms, as well as several mean opinion score databases. The collected data allow (1) to determine the best set of parameters to use for this image-based quality assessment approach and (2) to compare this approach to the best performing model-based metrics and determine for which use-case they are respectively adapted. We conclude by exploring several applications that illustrate the benefits of image-based quality assessment.

  10. [Issues in psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents with visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.

  11. Self-Evaluation and Recruitment of Feedback for Enhanced Social Interaction by a Student with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2005-01-01

    A student who is visually impaired was trained to evaluate his social behavior and to recruit feedback from his sighted peers, who were trained by him to provide the feedback. The self-recruitment of feedback improved the student's accuracy in evaluating social skills requiring visual cues. In addition, the peers extended their feedback to other…

  12. Visualized Evaluation of Blood Flow to the Gastric Conduit and Complications in Esophageal Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Okada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of the blood supply to gastric conduits is critically important to avoid complications after esophagectomy. We began visual evaluation of blood flow using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging in July 2015, to reduce reconstructive complications. In this study, we aimed to statistically verify the efficacy of blood flow evaluation using our simplified ICG method. A total of 285 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy and gastric conduit reconstruction were reviewed and divided into 2 groups: before and after introduction of ICG evaluation. The entire cohort and 68 patient pairs after propensity score matching (PS-M) were evaluated for clinical outcomes and the effect of visualized evaluation on reducing the risk of complication. The leakage rate in the ICG group was significantly lower than in the non-ICG group for each severity grade, both in the entire cohort (285 subjects) and after PS-M; the rates of other major complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and pneumonia, were not different. The duration of postoperative ICU stay was approximately 1 day shorter in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group in the entire cohort, and approximately 2 days shorter after PS-M. Visualized evaluation of blood flow with ICG methods significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic complications of all Clavien-Dindo (CD) grades. Odds ratios for ICG evaluation decreased with CD grade (0.3419 for CD ≥ 1; 0.241 for CD ≥ 2; and 0.2153 for CD ≥ 3). Objective evaluation of blood supply to the reconstructed conduit using ICG fluorescent imaging reduces the risk and degree of anastomotic complication. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vis, J.B. de; Zwanenburg, J.J.; Kleij, L.A. van der; Spijkerman, J.M.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Biessels, G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Petersen, E.T. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T{sub 2} of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T{sub 1}-weighted and CSF MRI were performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (V{sub CSF}) and the T{sub 2} of CSF (T{sub 2,CSF}) was calculated. The correlation between V{sub CSF} / T{sub 2,CSF} and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA)] was evaluated. Relative total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular V{sub CSF} increased significantly with increased scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.83, 0.78 and 0.78 and R = 0.72, 0.62 and 0.86). Total, peripheral subarachnoidal, and ventricular T{sub 2} of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T{sub 2} of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus be a marker of neurodegenerative disease. (orig.)

  14. Inhalation performance of physically mixed dry powders evaluated with a simple simulator for human inspiratory flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Daiki; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Kito, Daisuke; Ishizeki, Kazunori; Okada, Toyoko; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2010-10-01

    To construct a simple simulator reproducing human inspiratory flow patterns and use it to evaluate the inhalation performance of active ingredient particle-carrier particle systems (physically mixed dry powders). Inspiratory flow patterns were collected and analyzed using a flow recorder. The simulator was constructed using an airtight container, a valve, and a connecting tube. Several of the patterns reproduced by the simulator were compared with those recorded. In addition, the influence of inspiratory flow on the inhalation performance of physically mixed dry powders composed of salbutamol sulfate (SS) and coarse lactose monohydrate was investigated using a twin-stage liquid impinger (TSLI) equipped with the simulator. Human inspiratory flow patterns could be characterized by three parameters: inspiratory flow volume (area under the flow rate-time curve (AUC)), flow increase rate (FIR), and peak flow rate (PFR). The patterns could be reproduced using the simulator. Testing with the simulator in vitro revealed that PFR, but not FIR or AUC, greatly affected the inhalation performance of physically mixed dry powders. The simulator is simple to construct and can schematically reproduce human inspiratory flow patterns. Testing with a TSLI and the simulator is useful to evaluate dry powder formulations for clinical application.

  15. Response mode, compatibility, and dual-processes in the evaluation of simple gambles: An eye-tracking investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Slovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We employed simple gambles to investigate information processing in relation to the compatibility effect. Subjects should be more likely to engage in a deliberative thinking strategy when completing a pricing task rather than a rating task. We used eye-tracking methodology to measure information acquisition and processing in order to test the above hypothesis as well as to show that losses and alternatives with uncertain outcomes are more likely than gains and alternatives with sure outcomes to be processed through a deliberative thinking process. Results showed that pupil dilations, fixation duration and number of fixations increased when subjects evaluated the gambles with a pricing task. Additionally, the number of fixations increased as the gamble outcome became increasingly negative and when the outcome was uncertain (vs. sure. Fixations were also predictive of subjects' final evaluations of the gambles. We discuss our results in light of the cognitive processes underlying different response modes in economic preferences.

  16. Evaluation of nonlinear chromatographic performance by frontal analysis using a simple multi-plate mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Junde

    2005-01-21

    A multi-plate (MP) mathematical model was proposed by frontal analysis to evaluate nonlinear chromatographic performance. One of its advantages is that the parameters may be easily calculated from experimental data. Moreover, there is a good correlation between it and the equilibrium-dispersive (E-D) or Thomas models. This shows that it can well accommodate both types of band broadening that is comprised of either diffusion-dominated processes or kinetic sorption processes. The MP model can well describe experimental breakthrough curves that were obtained from membrane affinity chromatography and column reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the coefficients of mass transfer may be calculated according to the relationship between the MP model and the E-D or Thomas models.

  17. Do Visual Aids Really Matter? A Comparison of Student Evaluations before and after Embedding Visuals into Video Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Kristine; Mun, Jungwon; A'Jontue, RoseAnn

    2016-01-01

    Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This…

  18. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by simple urine analysis after oral administration of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropp, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weyenberg, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); McPherson, D.W. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ambrose, K.R. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Callahan, A.P. [Nuclear Medicine Group, Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bergmann, K. von [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Biersack, H.J. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    A new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue called ``MIPAG`` [1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl) pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol] has been prepared in which 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is attached to position-3. MIPAG has been developed for the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function by simple urine analysis and has been evaluated in rats and humans. After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and the principal IPPA metabolite (p-iodobenzoic acid. IBA) is primarily excreted in the urine. Excretion in the urine and feces was evaluated in rats, as well as the biodistribution in various organs over 21 days. Twenty patients without pancreatic disease (normals) and four patients with pancreatic insufficiency were also investigated. Following oral administration of 30 {mu}Ci of MIPAG, urine was collected for two successive 24-h periods. Blood samples were drawn and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. Urine from normals contained 44.9%{+-}7.7% and 61.8%{+-}8.4% of the administered activity after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The patients with pancreatic insufficiency excreted 13.1%{+-}5.6% and 18.9%{+-}6.2%, respectively, which was significantly decreased (P<0.001) compared with normals. The TLC profiles showed an increasing proportion of IBA with time. Urine analysis after oral administration of MIPAG thus appears to be an attractive new technique for the evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by a simple urine analysis. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of a simple and sensitive sensory method for measuring rancidity in soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo, O.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 2 Alternative Forced Choice (2-AFC sensory method in detecting rancidity in soybean oils. Additionally, correlations between the physico-chemical quality and the sensory attributes of edible soybean oils were studied. Soybean oil samples from four different plants were analyzed for their fatty acid profile, Free fatty acid (FFA, Anisidine Value (AV, Peroxide Value (PV, Conjugated Dienes (CD, Colour, Rancimat and TOTOX. The sensory attributes of the oils were measured using The American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS sensory method and additionally, rancidity was assessed using the 2-AFC sensory method. All oil samples fit the quality control criteria for edible soybean oil. The 2-AFC  method was sensitive to small differences in rancidity. Differences in anisidine value and Rancimat were correlated to the difference in rancidity (d' among oilsEl propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de la prueba de selección forzada de dos alternativas (2-AFC para determinar la rancidez en aceite de soja. La correlación entre la calidad química y los atributos sensoriales de los aceites fue el segundo objetivo del trabajo. El perfil de ácidos grasos

  20. A simple procedure to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A standard procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures, taking the advantages provided by the Rancimat apparatus, i. e., standard vessels, temperature correction and temperature homogenity in all vessels resulting from the particular characteristics of the heating block. The results obtained in oil samples of 8 g heated at 180° C for 10 h in triplicate gave coefficients of variation lower than 6% for total polar compounds and polymers. In case of limited amount of oil, it is additionally proposed to use only 2 g of sample provided that a similar surface-to-oil volume ratio is maintained, and coefficients of variation of the same order than those for 8 g samples were thus obtained. Advantages of the procedure as well as potential applications for evaluation of frying fats and oils are Included. As an example, the effect of α-tocopherol on performance of sunflower oils was analyzed.

    Se propone un procedimiento estándar para evaluar el comportamiento de aceites y grasas a temperaturas de fritura. En este procedimiento se utilizan las ventajas del aparato Rancimat, que permite el uso de tubos estándar, la corrección de la temperatura, en su caso, y la igualdad de temperatura en todos los tubos dadas las características del bloque de calentamiento. De los resultados obtenidos en muestras de 8 g de aceite calentadas a 180° C durante 10 h, analizadas por triplicado, se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación inferiores al 6% para la determinación de compuestos polares y polímeros. En caso de limitación en la cantidad de aceite, se propone utilizar 2 g de muestra, manteniendo similares valores para la relación superficie a volumen de aceite, lo que permite obtener valores de alteración y coeficientes de variación del mismo orden. Se analizan finalmente las ventajas globales del procedimiento y sus distintas posibilidades en la evaluación de grasas de fritura. Como ejemplo, se aplica el

  1. Pregabalin and Tranexamic Acid Evaluation by Two Simple and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawab Sher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates colorimetric visible spectrophotometric quantification methods for amino acid, namely, tranexamic acid and pregabalin. Both drugs contain the amino group, and when they are reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, they give rise to yellow colored complexes showing absorption maximum at 418 nm and 425 nm, respectively, based on the Lewis acid base reaction. Detailed optimization process and stoichiometric studies were conducted along with investigation of thermodynamic features, that is, association constant and standard free energy changes. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–200 µgmL−1 with correlation coefficient of more than 0.9990 in all of the cases. Limit of detection was in range from 0.0041 to 0.0094 µgmL−1 and limit of quantification was in the range from 0.0137 to 0.0302 µgmL−1. Excellent recovery in Placebo spiked samples indicated that there is no interference from common excipients. The analytical methods under proposal were successfully applied to determine tranexamic acid and pregabalin in commercial products. t-test and F ratio were evaluated without noticeable difference between the proposed and reference methods.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid volumetric MRI mapping as a simple measurement for evaluating brain atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vis, J B; Zwanenburg, J J; van der Kleij, L A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether volumetric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI can be used as a surrogate for brain atrophy assessment and to evaluate how the T2 of the CSF relates to brain atrophy. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects [mean age 64 (sd 2) years] were included; T1-weighted and CSF MRI were...... performed. The first echo data of the CSF MRI sequence was used to obtain intracranial volume, CSF partial volume was measured voxel-wise to obtain CSF volume (VCSF) and the T2 of CSF (T2,CSF) was calculated. The correlation between VCSF/T2,CSF and brain atrophy scores [global cortical atrophy (GCA...... of the CSF increased significantly with higher scores on the GCA and MTA (R = 0.72, 0.70 and 0.49 and R = 0.60, 0.57 and 0.41). CONCLUSION: A fast, fully automated CSF MRI volumetric sequence is an alternative for qualitative atrophy scales. The T2 of the CSF is related to brain atrophy and could thus...

  3. Diagnosis of unilateral telencephalic hearing disorders. Evaluation of a simple psychoacoustic pattern discrimination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaettner, U; Scherg, M; von Cramon, D

    1989-02-01

    A new psychoacoustic pattern discrimination test (PPDT) has been validated for the diagnosis of telencephalic hearing disorders. In this test, regular sequences of noise bursts or click trains are presented dichotically, and randomly occurring monaural changes in intensity or click pattern have to be discriminated. The PPDT was administered to 48 control subjects and to 62 patients with circumscribed cerebrovascular lesions. Involvement of telencephalic auditory structures (TAS) was assessed from CT scans. Abnormality in the PPDT was highly correlated with the incidence of a TAS lesion. The most prominent abnormality consisted of an increased error rate (missed discriminations) on the ear contralateral to the TAS lesion, comparable to the ear effect described for former dichotic tests. In normals, no ear dominance, which might have confounded the interpretation of lesion effects in patients, was observed for our test material. Also, the influence of peripheral hearing loss on test results was small. Criteria for the clinical evaluation of the PPDT were developed and yielded a good sensitivity (76.1%) when related to the CT scan data. Abnormality in the PPDT was also confirmed by reduced auditory evoked dipole source potentials in the lesioned hemisphere. Disturbances in auditory language comprehension in aphasic patients were not significantly related to a positive PPDT result, but a questionnaire about hearing difficulties revealed a close association of PPDT abnormality and auditory perceptual disturbances. These occurred only in difficult hearing environments, for example, the cocktail party situation. It must be concluded that unilateral TAS lesions lead to auditory perceptual impairment and communication problems, which should be given adequate attention during neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  4. Comparing a simple methodology to evaluate hydrodynamic parameters with rainfall simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi; Iovino, Massimo; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Studying soil hydraulic properties is necessary for interpreting and simulating many hydrological processes having environmental and economic importance, such as rainfall partition into infiltration and runoff. The saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, exerts a dominating influence on the partitioning of rainfall in vertical and lateral flow paths. Therefore, estimates of Ks are essential for describing and modeling hydrological processes (Zimmermann et al., 2013). According to several investigations, Ks data collected by ponded infiltration tests could be expected to be unusable for interpreting field hydrological processes, and particularly infiltration. In fact, infiltration measured by ponding give us information about the soil maximum or potential infiltration rate (Cerdà, 1996). Moreover, especially for the hydrodynamic parameters, many replicated measurements have to be carried out to characterize an area of interest since they are known to vary widely both in space and time (Logsdon and Jaynes, 1996; Prieksat et al., 1994). Therefore, the technique to be applied at the near point scale should be simple and rapid. Bagarello et al. (2014) and Alagna et al. (2015) suggested that the Ks values determined by an infiltration experiment carried applying water at a relatively large distance from the soil surface could be more appropriate than those obtained with a low height of water pouring to explain surface runoff generation phenomena during intense rainfall events. These authors used the Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters (BEST) procedure for complete soil hydraulic characterization (Lassabatère et al., 2006) to analyze the field infiltration experiment. This methodology, combining low and high height of water pouring, seems appropriate to test the effect of intense and prolonged rainfall events on the hydraulic characteristics of the surface soil layer. In fact, an intense and prolonged rainfall event has a perturbing effect on the soil surface

  5. Recommendations on a Test Infrastructure for Evaluation of Touchscreen Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Users

    OpenAIRE

    Smaradottir, Berglind; Håland, Jarle; Martinez, Santiago; Somdal, Åsmund Rodvig; Fensli, Rune Werner

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies’ touchscreen allows the use of choreography of gestures to interact with the user interface. Relevant aspects in mobile technology design become crucial when targeting users with disabilities. For instance, when assistive technology is designed to support speech interaction between visually impaired users and a system, accessibility and ease-of-use of such technology should be included in the usability and technical evaluation of their effectiveness. This paper presents th...

  6. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Mayo, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Statistical DVH offers an easy-to-read, detailed, and comprehensive way to visualize the quantitative comparison with historical experiences and among institutions. WES and GEM metrics offer a flexible means of incorporating discrete threshold-prioritizations and historic context into a set of standardized scoring metrics. Together, they provide a practical approach for incorporating big data into clinical practice for treatment plan evaluations.

  7. Evaluating aged mice in three touchscreen tests that differ in visual demands: Impaired cognitive function and impaired visual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Nathalie; van Dorsselaer, Pascal; Steckler, Thomas; Talpos, John C

    2017-08-30

    Normal aging is often accompanied by reductions in cognitive abilities as well as impairments in visual acuity in men and mice. In preclinical models of human cognition this concomitance can make it difficult to assess the relative contributions of declined vision and cognitive ability on behavioral measures of cognition. To assess the influence of age on cognition and the impact of visual decline on the performance of touchscreen-based behavioral paradigms in mice, aged (11, 12, 16, 17, 19 and 21 months old) male C57BL/6J mice were compared to young (3 or 4 months old) male C57BL/6J mice using three tests of cognition as well as an assessment of visual acuity. Performance of a Visual Discrimination, Spatial Reversal, and an Automated Search Task were all affected by age. However, there was no relationship between reduced visual acuity and the observed performance impairments. Moreover, the visual acuity of animals with profound cognitive impairments overlapped with those showing normal cognitive ability. Despite the potential confound of impaired visual ability, it appears that the touchscreen approach might be particularly effective in studying age-related cognitive decline. This approach will increase the utility of aged mice as a model of decreased cognitive flexibility and may be particularly important for the study of age-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visual avoidance in phobia: particularities in neural activity, autonomic responding, and cognitive risk evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana eAue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neural mechanisms and the autonomic and cognitive responses associated with visual avoidance behavior in spider phobia. Spider phobic and control participants imagined visiting different forest locations with the possibility of encountering spiders, snakes, or birds (neutral reference category. In each experimental trial, participants saw a picture of a forest location followed by a picture of a spider, snake, or bird, and then rated their personal risk of encountering these animals in this context, as well as their fear. The greater the visual avoidance of spiders that a phobic participant demonstrated (as measured by eye tracking, the higher were her autonomic arousal and neural activity in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and precuneus at picture onset. Visual avoidance of spiders in phobics also went hand in hand with subsequently reduced cognitive risk of encounters. Control participants, in contrast, displayed a positive relationship between gaze duration toward spiders, on the one hand, and autonomic responding, as well as OFC, ACC, and precuneus activity, on the other hand. In addition, they showed reduced encounter risk estimates when they looked longer at the animal pictures. Our data are consistent with the idea that one reason for phobics to avoid phobic information may be grounded in heightened activity in the fear circuit, which signals potential threat. Because of the absence of alternative efficient regulation strategies, visual avoidance may then function to down-regulate cognitive risk evaluations for threatening information about the phobic stimuli. Control participants, in contrast, may be characterized by a different coping style, whereby paying visual attention to potentially threatening information may help them to actively down-regulate cognitive evaluations of risk.

  9. How Can Visual Analytics Assist Investigative Analysis? Design Implications from an Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn-Ah Kang; Görg, Carsten; Stasko, John

    2011-05-01

    Despite the growing number of systems providing visual analytic support for investigative analysis, few empirical studies of the potential benefits of such systems have been conducted, particularly controlled, comparative evaluations. Determining how such systems foster insight and sensemaking is important for their continued growth and study, however. Furthermore, studies that identify how people use such systems and why they benefit (or not) can help inform the design of new systems in this area. We conducted an evaluation of the visual analytics system Jigsaw employed in a small investigative sensemaking exercise, and compared its use to three other more traditional methods of analysis. Sixteen participants performed a simulated intelligence analysis task under one of the four conditions. Experimental results suggest that Jigsaw assisted participants to analyze the data and identify an embedded threat. We describe different analysis strategies used by study participants and how computational support (or the lack thereof) influenced the strategies. We then illustrate several characteristics of the sensemaking process identified in the study and provide design implications for investigative analysis tools based thereon. We conclude with recommendations on metrics and techniques for evaluating visual analytics systems for investigative analysis.

  10. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran ...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  11. Comparative Study for Evaluation of Mass Flow Rate for Simple Solar Still and Active with Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidouri Khaoula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In isolated and arid areas, especially in the almost Maghreb regions, the abundant solar radiation intensity along the year and the available brackish water resources are the two favorable conditions for using solar desalination technology to produce fresh water. The present study is based on the use of three groups of correlation, for evaluating mass transfer. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally for a Simple Solar Distiller (SSD and a Simple Solar Distiller Hybrid with a Heat Pump (SSDHP stills. Experimental results and those calculated by Lewis number correlation show good agreements. Results obtained by Dunkle, Kumar and Tiwari correlations are not satisfactory with the experimental ones. Theoretical results, as well as statistical analysis, are presented. The model with heat pump ( for two configurations (111 and (001 give more output compared with the model without heat pump ((000 and (110. This results where agree for the use of the statistic results, the error it less with Lewis number as compared with the different correlation.

  12. ESTEEM: A Novel Framework for Qualitatively Evaluating and Visualizing Spatiotemporal Embeddings in Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Dustin L.; Volkova, Svitlana

    2017-07-30

    Analyzing and visualizing large amounts of social media communications and contrasting short-term conversation changes over time and geo-locations is extremely important for commercial and government applications. Earlier approaches for large-scale text stream summarization used dynamic topic models and trending words. Instead, we rely on text embeddings – low-dimensional word representations in a continuous vector space where similar words are embedded nearby each other. This paper presents ESTEEM,1 a novel tool for visualizing and evaluating spatiotemporal embeddings learned from streaming social media texts. Our tool allows users to monitor and analyze query words and their closest neighbors with an interactive interface. We used state-of- the-art techniques to learn embeddings and developed a visualization to represent dynamically changing relations between words in social media over time and other dimensions. This is the first interactive visualization of streaming text representations learned from social media texts that also allows users to contrast differences across multiple dimensions of the data.

  13. Clinical evaluation of semiautonomous smart wheelchair architecture (Drive-Safe System) with visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.

  14. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  15. Development, implementation and evaluation of an information model for archetype based user responsive medical data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy; Veseli, Hasan; Yampolsky, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    When medical data have been successfully recorded or exchanged between systems there appear a need to present the data consistently to ensure that it is clearly understood and interpreted. A standard based user interface can provide interoperability on the visual level. The goal of this research was to develop, implement and evaluate an information model for building user interfaces for archetype based medical data. The following types of knowledge were identified as important elements and were included in the information model: medical content related attributes, data type related attributes, user-related attributes, device-related attributes. In order to support flexible and efficient user interfaces an approach that represents different types of knowledge with different models separating the medical concept from a visual concept and interface realization was chosen. We evaluated the developed approach using Guideline for Good Evaluation Practice in Health Informatics (GEP-HI). We developed a higher level information model to complement the ISO 13606 archetype model. This enabled the specification of the presentation properties at the moment of the archetypes' definition. The model allows realizing different users' perspectives on the data. The approach was implemented and evaluated within a functioning EHR system. The evaluation involved 30 patients of different age and IT experience and 5 doctors. One month of testing showed that the time required reading electronic health records decreased for both doctors (from average 310 to 220s) and patients (from average 95 to 39s). Users reported a high level of satisfaction and motivation to use the presented data visualization approach especially in comparison with their previous experience. The introduced information model allows separating medical knowledge and presentation knowledge. The additional presentation layer will enrich the graphical user interface's flexibility and will allow an optimal presentation of

  16. A Simple and Inexpensive Method for Evaluating the Photovoltaic Potential: Its Validation in Buenos Aires and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Cabezas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies requires a precise and detailed quantification of the resource available. Because of the cost of solar stations or limited availability of skilled human resources, in most emerging countries, this assessment is made only on a few points scattered over large areas. We report here a simple and inexpensive method to evaluate the photovoltaic (PV potential for a specific geographic region and a given PV capture technology. The system allows for a direct evaluation of the energy actually obtainable by scaling the measurement array of photovoltaic cells. The proposed measurement system can be installed as a stand-alone unit, or as part of a measurement network, connected to a more sophisticated central hub. The measurement station consists of said PV array (or similar PV array, a resistor, and a portable data logger. The system is calibrated with a device composed of a small array of PV cells, a resistor load bank, and two multimeters. Due to its low cost, this system can be replicated as many times as required with minimal investment. This would make it possible to evaluate the available photovoltaic potential of large regions with accurate and detailed data. Measurements carried out in Buenos Aires and in Antarctica confirm the consistency of the method.

  17. Método para avaliação da conduta visual de lactentes A method to evaluate visual ability in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa G.R. Gardon Gagliardo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar um método para avaliação de funções visuais em lactentes no primeiro trimestre de vida. Utilizou-se o Roteiro de Avaliação da Conduta Visual em Lactentes, modificado de Gagliardo (1997. O material foi aro suspenso por cordão. Realizou-se estudo piloto com 33 lactentes, segundo os critérios de inclusão: neonatos assintomáticos, sem necessidade de cuidados especiais nas primeiras 48 horas; idade cronológica variando entre 1 e 3 meses; avaliação mensal sem nenhuma falta; procedência da região de Campinas/SP. No 1º mês destacaram-se as provas: fixação visual-93,9%; contato de olho-90,9%; seguimento visual horizontal-72,7% e exploração visual do ambiente-97,0%. No 3º mês: exploração visual da mão-42,4% e aumento da movimentação de braços-36,4%. Este Roteiro permitiu observar a função visual segundo a idade cronológica; desvio dessa função possibilitará pronto encaminhamento a serviços médicos para diagnóstico.The purpose of this study is to introduce a method to evaluate visual functions in infants in the first three months of life. An adaptation of the Guide for the Assessment of Visual Ability in Infants (Gagliardo, 1997 was used. The instrument was a ring with string. It was implemented a pilot study with 33 infants, selected according to the following criteria: neonates well enough to go home within two days of birth; 1 to 3 months of chronological age; monthly evaluation with no absence; subjects living in Campinas/SP metropolitan area. In the first month we observed: visual fixation (93,9%; eye contact (90,9%; horizontal tracking (72,7%; inspects surroundings (97,0%. In the third month, we observed: inspects own hands (42,4% and increased movements of arms (36,4%. This method allowed the evaluation of visual functions in infants, according to the chronological age. Alterations in this function will facilitate immediate referral to medical services for diagnoses.

  18. Visual ergonomic evaluations on four different designs of LED traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Ting-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the legibility and visual comfort of LED traffic signs, an ergonomic experiment is performed on four custom-designed LED traffic signs, including three self-luminous ones as LED lightbox, LED backlight and regional LED backlight, and one non-self-luminous sign with external LED lighting. The four signs are hanged side-by-side and evaluated by observers through questionnaires. The signage dimension is one-sixth of the real freeway traffic signs, and the observation distance is 25 m. The luminance of three self-luminous signs is 216 cd/m2. The illuminance of external LED lighting is 400 lux on the traffic sign. The ambient illuminance is 2.8 and 6.0 lux in two rounds. The results show that self-luminous traffic signs provide superior legibility, visual comfort and user preference than the non-self-luminous one. Among the three self-luminous signs, regional LED backlight is most susceptible to the ambient illumination. LED lightbox has significantly better preference score than LED backlight under darker ambient lighting. Only LED lightbox has significantly better visual comfort than external LED lighting in the brighter environment. Based on the four LED traffic signs evaluated in this study, we suggest LED lightbox as the prior choice. Further investigations on the effect of ambient illumination and other designs of self-luminous traffic signs are in progress.

  19. Evaluation of Interactive Visualization on Mobile Computing Platforms for Selection of Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butson, Christopher R; Tamm, Georg; Jain, Sanket; Fogal, Thomas; Krüger, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant growth in the use of patient-specific models to predict the effects of neuromodulation therapies such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, translating these models from a research environment to the everyday clinical workflow has been a challenge, primarily due to the complexity of the models and the expertise required in specialized visualization software. In this paper, we deploy the interactive visualization system ImageVis3D Mobile, which has been designed for mobile computing devices such as the iPhone or iPad, in an evaluation environment to visualize models of Parkinson's disease patients who received DBS therapy. Selection of DBS settings is a significant clinical challenge that requires repeated revisions to achieve optimal therapeutic response, and is often performed without any visual representation of the stimulation system in the patient. We used ImageVis3D Mobile to provide models to movement disorders clinicians and asked them to use the software to determine: 1) which of the four DBS electrode contacts they would select for therapy; and 2) what stimulation settings they would choose. We compared the stimulation protocol chosen from the software versus the stimulation protocol that was chosen via clinical practice (independent of the study). Lastly, we compared the amount of time required to reach these settings using the software versus the time required through standard practice. We found that the stimulation settings chosen using ImageVis3D Mobile were similar to those used in standard of care, but were selected in drastically less time. We show how our visualization system, available directly at the point of care on a device familiar to the clinician, can be used to guide clinical decision making for selection of DBS settings. In our view, the positive impact of the system could also translate to areas other than DBS.

  20. Interobserver variability in visual evaluation of thoracic CT scans and comparison with automatic computer measurements of CT lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Dirksen, Asger

    2012-01-01

    in emphysema grading. However, the agreement with the CT lung density measurement was poor, indicating that the two types of evaluation represent different aspects of emphysema. Most likely, they should be seen as complementary rather than competitive evaluations. Future comparison with physiological tests......Introduction – Emphysema is defined by pathology, but is most precisely evaluated in vivo by computed tomography (CT). Aims – were to determine the reproducibility of visual evaluation of emphysema, i.e. the observer variability, and furthermore to compare the visual evaluations to automatic CT...... might elucidate the reason for differences and demonstrate the usefulness of these evaluations....

  1. Design and Evaluation of a Protocol to Assess Electronic Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Else M.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; van der Velde, Hanneke; Pinkster, J. Christiaan; Kooijman, Aart C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a protocol that was developed to assess how beneficial electronic travel aids are for persons who are visually impaired. Twenty persons with visual impairments used an electronic travel device (Trekker) for six weeks to conform to the protocol, which proved useful in identifying successful users of the device. (Contains 2…

  2. Design and Evaluation of a Protocol to Assess Electronic Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, Else A.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.; van der Velde, Hanneke; Pinkster, J. Christiaan; Kooijman, Aart C.

    This study evaluated a protocol that was developed to assess how beneficial electronic travel aids are for persons who are visually impaired. Twenty persons with visual impairments used an electronic travel device (Trekker) for six weeks to conform to the protocol, which proved useful in identifying

  3. An Evaluation of Inclusive Education of Students with Visual Impairment in Schools and University in Beira, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhemachena, Lawrence; Kusangaya, Samuel; Gwitira, Isaiah

    2012-01-01

    Education of the visually impaired is associated with problems throughout the world. This problem is more pronounced in developing countries characterized by limited support, material, inadequate specialist teachers and negative attitudes towards people with visual impairment. The study sought to evaluate the implementation of inclusive education…

  4. Evaluation Study of Short-Term Programs at a Residential School for Students Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, Rona L.; Darst, Shannon; Boland, Teryl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The results of a 2009-2010 program evaluation study that examined parents, teachers of students with visual impairments, administrators, and students regarding overall satisfaction with and effectiveness of the short-term programs at a residential school for students who are blind and visually impaired are described. The findings are…

  5. Computerized evaluation of deambulatory pattern before and after visual rehabilitation treatment performed with biofeedback in visually impaired patients suffering from macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pacella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was double: the primary endpoint was to evaluate the efficacy of visual rehabilitation of visually impaired patients with macular degeneration (AMD. The secondary endpoint was to assess the effect of rehabilitation treatment on the ambulatory pattern using a computerized evaluation of walking, focusing the attention on space-time parameters that are influenced in patients with visual impairment. Methods: 10 patients with AMD were enrolled, 6 males and 4 females, and examined 15 eyes, at Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Visual rehabilitation was carried out with the use of a microperimeter MP1 using the examination of biofeedback. Patients are asked to move their eyes in coordination with an audible feedback that alerts the patient when he is setting properly the fixation target previously selected. All patients were subjected to 10 sessions lasting 15 minutes each for each eye, 1 time per week. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was assessed by far with the ETDRS optotype IN LOG MAR, and by close to 25 cm by adding + 4 ball (addition to near to the BCVA. For each eye the PB ( print body on the distance of 25 cm was measured; It fixation stability for 30 seconds was examined by microperimeter. Gait Analysis was performed with system ELITE BTS SpA (Milan, Italy. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation treatment with biofeedback it was found a marked improvement in BCVA. The BCVA before the rehabilitation treatment was ETDRS 12 LETTERS = 0.86 logMAR. At the end of the visual rehabilitation 16 LETTERS = 0.78 logMAR. The near visual acuity presented a decrease of the printer body measurement (PB and a statistically significant improvement in the fixation stability. Analysis of the spatial and temporal parameters of gait cycle, aimed at assessing the global aspects of gait (speed, rhythm, symmetry, fluidity, dynamic balance showed no significant changes

  6. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  7. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Pulmonary Pressures and Right Ventricular Function after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Simple Approach for the Intensivist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Beghetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is diagnosed using cardiac catheterization and is defined as an elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP greater than 25 mmHg. Although invasive hemodynamics remains the gold standard and is mandatory for disease confirmation, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE is an extremely useful non-invasive and widely available tool that allows for screening and follow-up, in particular, in the acute setting. TTE may be a valuable alternative, allowing for direct measurement and/or indirect assessment of PAP. Because of the complex geometric shape and pattern of contraction of the right ventricle (RV, as well as the inherent complexity of cardiac repair, no single view or measurement can provide definite information on RV function and PAP and/or pulmonary vascular resistance. In addition, specific training and expertise may be necessary to obtain the views and measurements required. Some simple measurements may be of help when rapid evaluation is mandatory and potentially life saving: the assessment of tricuspid and/or pulmonary valve regurgitant jet and the use of the Bernoulli equation allow for measurement of PAP. Measurements such as the analysis of the pulmonary Doppler wave flow, the septal curvature, or the eccentricity index, assessing ventricular interdependence, are useful for indirect assessment. A four-chamber view of the RV gives information on its size, hypertrophy, function (fractional area change, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion as an evaluation of the longitudinal function. Based on these simple measurements, TTE can provide detection of PH, measurement or estimation of PAP, and assessment of cardiac function. TTE is also of importance in follow up of PH as well as providing an assessment of therapeutic strategies in the postoperative setting of cardiac surgery. However, PAP may be misleading as it is dependent on cardiac output and requires accurate measurements. In the presence of

  8. Simple and fast PO-CL method for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Ghayeb, Yousef; Azmoon, Behnaz; Qandalee, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    A simple and fast procedure is described for evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds by using the peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence (PO-CL) reaction of Bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of di(tert-butyl)2-(tert-butylamino)-5-[(E)-2-phenyl-1-ethenyl]3,4-furandicarboxylate as a highly fluorescent fluorophore. The IC50 values of the well-known antioxidants were calculated and the results were expressed as gallic equivalent antioxidant capacity (GEAC). It was found that the proposed method is free of physical quenching and oxidant interference, for this reason, proposed method is able to determine the accurate scavenging activity of the antioxidants to the free radicals. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the evaluation of antioxidant activity of complex real samples such as soybean oil and sunflower oil (as hydrophobic samples) and honey (as hydrophilic sample). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that total antioxidant activity can be determined directly in soybean oil, sunflower oil and honey (not in their extracts) using PO-CL reactions.

  9. Evaluation and recommendations concerning the visual resource inventory and evaluation systems used within the forest service and the bureau of land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise George Grden

    1979-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the Visual Management System (VMS) and the Visual Resource Inventory and Evaluation Process (VRIEP). Questionnaires were developed and sent to persons who were experienced with VMS and/or VRIEP. VMS has been found easier to under-stand and apply than VRIEP. The methodology of VRIEP has been found to he a more complete approach than...

  10. Visual evaluation of cattle cleanliness and correlation to carcass microbial contamination during slaughtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, Andrea; Bardasi, Lia; Riu, Raffaela; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Liuzzo, Gaetano; Galletti, Giorgio; Giacometti, Federica; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether the visual cleanliness of cattle slaughtered was correlated to hide and carcass contamination as indicated by aerobic colony count (ACC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) and Escherichia coli count (ECC). Cattle in a slaughterhouse were visually inspected and assigned to a category from 1 (very clean) to 5 (very dirty) based on cleanliness. Fifteen animals for each category were randomly selected, hide and carcass sampled and analyzed for ACC, EC and ECC. Results showed that increasing dirt on cattle was associated with higher ACC, EC and ECC on hide and carcasses. Carcass ACC and ECC belonging to animals classified in cleanliness categories 3, 4 or 5 have a higher probability of exceeding the limits set by the Reg. EU 2073/2005. The study supports the conclusion that the pre-slaughter visual evaluation of animal cleanliness and application of corrective actions can be an effective aid to reduce carcass contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  12. COPD assessment test (CAT): simple tool for evaluating quality of life of chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Let's Stop Trying to Quantify Household Vulnerability: The Problem With Simple Scales for Targeting and Evaluating Economic Strengthening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Whitney M

    2018-03-01

    Economic strengthening practitioners are increasingly seeking data collection tools that will help them target households vulnerable to HIV and poor child well-being outcomes, match households to appropriate interventions, monitor their status, and determine readiness for graduation from project support. This article discusses efforts in 3 countries to develop simple, valid tools to quantify and classify economic vulnerability status. In Côte d'Ivoire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 3,749 households to develop a scale based on the definition of HIV-related economic vulnerability from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) for the purpose of targeting vulnerable households for PEPFAR-funded programs for orphans and vulnerable children. The vulnerability measures examined did not cluster in ways that would allow for the creation of a small number of composite measures, and thus we were unable to develop a scale. In Uganda, we assessed the validity of a vulnerability index developed to classify households according to donor classifications of economic status by measuring its association with a validated poverty measure, finding only a modest correlation. In South Africa, we developed monitoring and evaluation tools to assess economic status of individual adolescent girls and their households. We found no significant correlation with our validation measures, which included a validated measure of girls' vulnerability to HIV, a validated poverty measure, and subjective classifications generated by the community, data collector, and respondent. Overall, none of the measures of economic vulnerability used in the 3 countries varied significantly with their proposed validation items. Our findings suggest that broad constructs of economic vulnerability cannot be readily captured using simple scales to classify households and individuals in a way that accounts for a substantial amount of variance at locally defined vulnerability levels. We

  14. Evaluation of visual impact of solar hermal systems on urban landscape; Metodo de evaluacion del impacto visual de las instalaciones de energia solar termica en el paisaje urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Martinez, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article proposes a methodology and systematics for the valuation and evaluation of the visual impact produced by solar thermal systems on urban landscapes. On the one hand, from the characteristics of solar thermal systems capable of producing a visual impact and, on the second hand, from the analysis of the urban landscape (character and perception; classification in three subtypes), an interrelationship of the system and the urban landscape parameters is established by means of matrixes. The result shall be the visual impact of a solar thermal system on an urban landscape, which may range from a minimum (Nonexistent) to a maximum (Unacceptable), including other categories like Acceptable, Compatible, Compatible with Corrections, and Incompatible. (Author)

  15. Experimental Study on Subjective Evaluation for Visual Information by Event-Related Potential: Evaluation of Food and its Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoshi Tanaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.

  16. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón; Diego Fuentes-García; Luis Falcón-Araña; Antonio Rodríguez-Ribó; Carlos García-Palenciano; María José Roca-Calvo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitu...

  17. Development and evaluation of a simple and effective real time PCR assay for mitochondrial quantification in racing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Soja Saghar; Tinson, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Camel racing is a popular sport in the Middle East region, where the demand is high for racing camels with higher stamina and endurance. Devising a technique to measure oxidative capacity and endurance in camels should be useful. Mitochondria are highly specialized organelles involved in metabolism in all higher organisms for sustaining life and providing energy for physical functions. The ratio of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA (nDNA) is often used as an estimate for the metabolic status of the tissue. A greater quantity of mitochondria per unit of tissue translates into greater oxidative capacity and endurance. In this report, we describe a simple, sensitive and efficient real-time PCR assay for the quantification of blood mitochondria in racing camels. The primer sequences selected for the SYBR green-based PCR assay included mitochondrial D-loop region, mitochondrial ATP6ase gene and the nuclear β-actin gene. The assay was validated using two groups of camels comprising racing and dairy camels. The racing camels demonstrated a higher mtDNA/nDNA ratio compared with dairy camels based on the ΔΔCt values, with a higher variability among racing camels. The mean ΔΔCt values of adult and young racing camels did not vary considerably. The findings show that the present assay can be used as an evaluative tool for racing camels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Web tools for effective retrieval, visualization, and evaluation of cardiology medical images and records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroli, Marco; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2000-12-01

    To provide easy retrieval, integration and evaluation of multimodal cardiology images and data in a web browser environment, distributed application technologies and java programming were used to implement a client-server architecture based on software agents. The server side manages secure connections and queries to heterogeneous remote databases and file systems containing patient personal and clinical data. The client side is a Java applet running in a web browser and providing a friendly medical user interface to perform queries on patient and medical test dat and integrate and visualize properly the various query results. A set of tools based on Java Advanced Imaging API enables to process and analyze the retrieved cardiology images, and quantify their features in different regions of interest. The platform-independence Java technology makes the developed prototype easy to be managed in a centralized form and provided in each site where an intranet or internet connection can be located. Giving the healthcare providers effective tools for querying, visualizing and evaluating comprehensively cardiology medical images and records in all locations where they can need them- i.e. emergency, operating theaters, ward, or even outpatient clinics- the developed prototype represents an important aid in providing more efficient diagnoses and medical treatments.

  19. Visualization of non-propagating Lamb wave modes for fatigue crack evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This article develops a non-propagating Lamb wave mode (NPL) imaging technique for fatigue crack visualization. NPL has a great potential for crack evaluation in that it significantly contributes local mode amplitudes in the vicinity of a crack without spatial propagation. Such unique physical phenomenon is theoretically proven and experimentally measured through laser scanning. Although its measurement is a quite challenging work due to the fact that it is quite localized and coexists with complex propagating Lamb wave modes, a NPL filter proposed in this article overcomes the technical challenge by eliminating all propagating Lamb modes from laser scanned full Lamb wavefields. Through the NPL filtering process, only fatigue crack-induced NPLs can be measured and retained. To verify such physical observation and the corresponding NPL filter, a real micro fatigue crack is created by applying repeated tensile loading, and its detectability is tested using a surface-mounted piezoelectric transducer for generating Lamb waves and a laser Doppler vibrometer for measuring the corresponding responses. The experimental results confirm that even an invisible fatigue crack can be instantaneously visualized and effectively evaluated through the proposed NPL measurement and filtering processes.

  20. Proposal and evaluation of FASDIM, a Fast And Simple De-Identification Method for unstructured free-text clinical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazard, Emmanuel; Mouret, Capucine; Ficheur, Grégoire; Schaffar, Aurélien; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Beuscart, Régis

    2014-04-01

    Medical free-text records enable to get rich information about the patients, but often need to be de-identified by removing the Protected Health Information (PHI), each time the identification of the patient is not mandatory. Pattern matching techniques require pre-defined dictionaries, and machine learning techniques require an extensive training set. Methods exist in French, but either bring weak results or are not freely available. The objective is to define and evaluate FASDIM, a Fast And Simple De-Identification Method for French medical free-text records. FASDIM consists in removing all the words that are not present in the authorized word list, and in removing all the numbers except those that match a list of protection patterns. The corresponding lists are incremented in the course of the iterations of the method. For the evaluation, the workload is estimated in the course of records de-identification. The efficiency of the de-identification is assessed by independent medical experts on 508 discharge letters that are randomly selected and de-identified by FASDIM. Finally, the letters are encoded after and before de-identification according to 3 terminologies (ATC, ICD10, CCAM) and the codes are compared. The construction of the list of authorized words is progressive: 12h for the first 7000 letters, 16 additional hours for 20,000 additional letters. The Recall (proportion of removed Protected Health Information, PHI) is 98.1%, the Precision (proportion of PHI within the removed token) is 79.6% and the F-measure (harmonic mean) is 87.9%. In average 30.6 terminology codes are encoded per letter, and 99.02% of those codes are preserved despite the de-identification. FASDIM gets good results in French and is freely available. It is easy to implement and does not require any predefined dictionary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J.G.; Humbla, O.; McAlindon, M.E.; Davison, C.; Seitz, U.; Fraser, C.; Hagenmüller, F.; Noetzel, E.; Spada, C.; Riccioni, M.E.; Barnert, J.; Filmann, N.; Keuchel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse. Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course. Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P endoscopy may be useful before attending an SBCE course. PMID:26512623

  2. Evaluation of simple microbiol tests for detection of fecal coliforms directly at 44.5 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Suman; Ramteke, P W; Garg, S K

    2003-06-01

    Simple microbial test comprising H2S paper strip test, presence-absence (PA) test, and fluorogenic brila broth (BB) test performed directly at 44.5 degrees C were evaluated and compared with the standard most probable number (MPN) method for detection of fecal coliforms in 173 drinking water sources. BB and PA test were comparable with standard MPN method, whereas, poor compliance was noted for H2S test. PA test when compared with standard MPN test only 15% disagreement was detected, whereas, highest disagreement of 40% was observed in case of H2S test. BB test was found to be highly sensitive as only 7.8% disagreement with that of standard MPN test was found. Three hundred cultures obtained from positive tests were identified in order to evaluate the specificities of test used in detection of fecal indicator Escherichia coli. BB test was also found highly specific in detection of indicator organism as compared to PA and H2S test. Among the organisms isolated from BB test 84.4% of them were identified as E. coli as compared to 43.4 and 33.3 in PA and H2S test, respectively. The low incidence of recovery of E. coli (18.1%) for the standard MPN method places doubt on the validity of its application in tropical areas. The result of this investigation suggest that BB performed directly at 44.5 degrees C could be suitable cost effective test to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in India and other tropical countries.

  3. Substantial interobserver variation of thyroid volume and function by visual evaluation of thyroid (99m)Tc scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram.......(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram....

  4. Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-08-01

    A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  5. User evaluations of design complexity: the impact of visual perceptions for effective online health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison; Mackert, Michael

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights the influential role of design complexity for users' first impressions of health websites. An experimental design was utilized to investigate whether a website's level of design complexity impacts user evaluations. An online questionnaire measured the hypothesized impact of design complexity on predictors of message effectiveness. Findings reveal that increased design complexity was positively associated with higher levels of perceived design esthetics, attitude toward the website, perceived message comprehensibility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived message quality, perceived informativeness, and perceived visual informativeness. This research gives further evidence that design complexity should be considered an influential variable for health communicators to effectively reach their audiences, as it embodies the critical first step for message evaluation via electronic platforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of visual quality of spherical and aspherical intraocular lenses by Optical Quality Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the impact of spherical and aspherical intraocular lenses on the postoperative visual quality of age-related cataract patients using Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS. METHODS: Seventy-four eyes with age-related cataracts were randomly divided into spherical and aspherical lens implantation groups. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was measured preoperatively, one day, one week, two weeks, one month and two months after surgery. A biometric systems analysis using the OQAS objective scattering index (OSI was performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in visual acuity (P>0.05 before and after spherical and aspheric lens implantation. There was a negative linear correction between the OSI value and BCVA (r=-0.634, P=0.000, and positive corrections between the OSI value and the lens LOCUS III value of nucleus color (NC, nucleus opacity (NO, cortex (C and posterior lens capsular (P (r=0.704, P=0.000; r=0.514, P=0.000; r=0.276, P=0.020; r=0.417, P=0.000, respectively. OSI values of spherical vs aspherical lenses were 11.5±3.6 vs 11.8±3.4, 4.1±0.9 vs 3.3±0.8, 3.5±0.9 vs 2.7±0.7, 3.3±0.8 vs 2.6±0.7, 3.2±0.7 vs 2.5±0.8, and 3.2±0.8 vs 2.5±0.8 before and 1d, 1, 2wk, 1 and 2mo after surgery, respectively. All time points varied significantly (P<0.01 between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Aspherical IOLs does not significantly affect visual acuity compared with spherical IOLs. The OSI value, was significantly lower in the aspherical lens group compared with the spherical lens. This study shows that objective visual quality of aspheric IOLs is better than that of the spherical lens by means of OQAS biological measurement method.

  7. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  8. Multivariate Gradient Analysis for Evaluating and Visualizing a Learning System Platform for Computer Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mather

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of canonical gradient analysis to evaluate and visualize student performance and acceptance of a learning system platform. The subject of evaluation is a first year BSc module for computer programming. This uses ‘Ceebot’, an animated and immersive game-like development environment. Multivariate ordination approaches are widely used in ecology to explore species distribution along environmental gradients. Environmental factors are represented here by three ‘assessment’ gradients; one for the overall module mark and two independent tests of programming knowledge and skill. Response data included Likert expressions for behavioral, acceptance and opinion traits. Behavioral characteristics (such as attendance, collaboration and independent study were regarded to be indicative of learning activity. Acceptance and opinion factors (such as perceived enjoyment and effectiveness of Ceebot were treated as expressions of motivation to engage with the learning environment. Ordination diagrams and summary statistics for canonical analyses suggested that logbook grades (the basis for module assessment and code understanding were weakly correlated. Thus strong module performance was not a reliable predictor of programming ability. The three assessment indices were correlated with behaviors of independent study and peer collaboration, but were only weakly associated with attendance. Results were useful for informing teaching practice and suggested: (1 realigning assessments to more fully capture code-level skills (important in the workplace; (2 re-evaluating attendance-based elements of module design; and (3 the overall merit of multivariate canonical gradient approaches for evaluating and visualizing the effectiveness of a learning system platform.

  9. Data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Do you communicate data and information to stakeholders? In Part 1, we introduce recent developments in the quantitative and qualitative data visualization field and provide a historical perspective on data visualization, its potential role in evaluation practice, and future directions. Part 2 delivers concrete suggestions for optimally using data visualization in evaluation, as well as suggestions for best practices in data visualization design. It focuses on specific quantitative and qualitative data visualization approaches that include data dashboards, graphic recording, and geographic information systems (GIS). Readers will get a step-by-step process for designing an effective data dashboard system for programs and organizations, and various suggestions to improve their utility.

  10. Evaluation of the Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale in a medical and non-medical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Mirella; Sheehan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Comorbid depression and medical illness is associated with a number of adverse health outcomes such as lower medication adherence and higher rates of subsequent mortality. Reliable and valid psychological measures capable of detecting a range of depressive symptoms found in medical settings are needed. The Cardiac Depression Visual Analogue Scale (CDVAS) is a recently developed, brief six-item measure originally designed to assess the range and severity of depressive symptoms within a cardiac population. The current study aimed to further investigate the psychometric properties of the CDVAS in a general and medical sample. The sample consisted of 117 participants, whose mean age was 40.0 years (SD = 19.0, range 18-84). Participants completed the CDVAS, the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and a demographic and health questionnaire. The CDVAS was found to have adequate internal reliability (α = .76), strong concurrent validity with the CDS (r = .89) and the depression sub-scale of the DASS (r = .70), strong discriminant validity and strong predictive validity. The principal components analysis revealed that the CDVAS measured only one component, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. Results of the current study indicate that the CDVAS is a short, simple, valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms suitable for use in a general and medical sample.

  11. FE-ANN based modeling of 3D simple reinforced concrete girders for objective structural health evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The structural deterioration of aging infrastructure systems and the costs of repairing these systems is an increasingly important issue worldwide. Structural health monitoring (SHM), most commonly visual inspection and condition rating, has proven t...

  12. A Software Developer’s Guide to Informal Evaluation of Visual Analytics Environments Using VAST Challenge Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kris A.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2015-12-07

    The VAST Challenge has been a popular venue for academic and industry participants for over ten years. Many participants comment that the majority of their time in preparing VAST Challenge entries is discovering elements in their software environments that need to be redesigned in order to solve the given task. Fortunately, there is no need to wait until the VAST Challenge is announced to test out software systems. The Visual Analytics Benchmark Repository contains all past VAST Challenge tasks, data, solutions and submissions. This paper details the various types of evaluations that may be conducted using the Repository information. In this paper we describe how developers can do informal evaluations of various aspects of their visual analytics environments using VAST Challenge information. Aspects that can be evaluated include the appropriateness of the software for various tasks, the various data types and formats that can be accommodated, the effectiveness and efficiency of the process supported by the software, and the intuitiveness of the visualizations and interactions. Researchers can compare their visualizations and interactions to those submitted to determine novelty. In addition, the paper provides pointers to various guidelines that software teams can use to evaluate the usability of their software. While these evaluations are not a replacement for formal evaluation methods, this information can be extremely useful during the development of visual analytics environments.

  13. Clinical evaluation of the plaque-removing ability of four different toothbrushes in visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asmita; Arora, Ruchi; Kenchappa, Mallikarjun; Bhayya, Deepak P; Singh, Deepesh

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of plaque removal of four different toothbrushes in visually disabled children. Three manual toothbrushes with different bristle designs (Oral-B CrossAction 40-regular, Oral-B ShinyClean 40-soft, Oral-B Advantage 40-soft) were compared with an electric toothbrush with an oscillating rotating head (Colgate Motion). Forty visually impaired children in a professional education center participated in the study and were divided into 4 groups of 10 participants each. To obtain a plaque-free condition at baseline, professional toothcleaning was performed on each participant. After instructions on how to use the toothbrushes, each group started the experiment using a differently designed toothbrush. After 1 week of application, the Quigley Hein plaque index (QHI) was used to assess the oral hygiene status of each participant. Student's t-test was chosen for comparing brushes. P < 0.01 was considered as the significance level. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation. The QHI values obtained with the electric Colgate Motion brush were the lowest (0.088 ± 0.051) and Advantage (0.801 ± 0.132) the highest. Although the QHI values with the manual Oral-B CrossAction (0.439 ± 0.094) were lower than those with the Oral-B shiny clean (0.503 ± 0.098), there was no statistical difference between the two. The electric toothbrushes are still the most effective in the visually disabled group. However, because of cheaper cost, easier availability and use, the Oral-B CrossAction toothbrush with criss-cross bristles could be a suitable alternative.

  14. Does visual impairment affect mobility over time? The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenor, Bonnielin K; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K

    2013-11-19

    To determine if the odds of mobility disability increases at a different rate among visually impaired (VI) as compared with nonvisually impaired (NVI) over an 8-year period. A total of 2520 Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study participants were followed 2, 6, and 8 years after baseline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40, or visual field of approximately less than 20°. Self-reported difficulty with three tasks was assessed at each visit: walking up 10 steps, walking down 10 steps, and walking 150 feet. Generalized estimating equation models included a 6-year spline, and explored differences in mobility difficulty trajectories by including an interaction between VI status and the spline terms. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared mobility difficulty for each task by VI status. At baseline, the VI were significantly more likely to report difficulty mobility tasks than the NVI (OR(difficultywalkingup10steps) = 1.37, CI: 1.02-1.80; OR(difficultywalkingdown10steps) = 1.55, CI: 1.16-2.08; OR(difficultywalking150feet) = 1.50, CI: 1.10-2.04). The trajectory of mobility disability did not differ by VI status from baseline to the 6-year visit. However, the difference between the VI and NVI declined at the 8-year visit, which may be due to loss of VI participants at risk of developing mobility difficulty. The VI were more likely to report mobility disability than the NVI, but the trajectory of mobility disability was not steeper among the VI as compared to the NVI over the study period.

  15. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  16. Design and evaluation of an Internet based data repository and visualization system for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalphond, James M.

    In modern classrooms, scientific probes are often used in science labs to engage students in inquiry-based learning. Many of these probes will never leave the classroom, closing the door on real world experimentation that may engage students. Also, these tools do not encourage students to share data across classrooms or schools. To address these limitations, we have developed a web-based system for collecting, storing, and visualizing sensor data, as well as a hardware package to interface existing classroom probes. This system, The Internet System for Networked Sensor Experimentation (iSENSE), was created to address these limitations. Development of the system began in 2007 and has proceeded through four phases: proof-of-concept prototype, technology demonstration, initial classroom deployment, and classroom testing. User testing and feedback during these phases guided development of the system. This thesis includes lessons learned during development and evaluation of the system in the hands of teachers and students. We developed three evaluations of this practical use. The first evaluation involved working closely with teachers to encourage them to integrate activities using the iSENSE system into their existing curriculum. We were looking for strengths of the approach and ease of integration. Second, we developed three "Activity Labs," which teachers used as embedded assessments. In these activities, students were asked to answer questions based on experiments or visualizations already entered into the iSENSE website. Lastly, teachers were interviewed after using the system to determine what they found valuable. This thesis makes contributions in two areas. It shows how an iterative design process was used to develop a system used in a science classroom, and it presents an analysis of the educational impact of the system on teachers and students.

  17. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was

  18. A longitudinal study of the association between visual impairment and mobility performance in older adults: the salisbury eye evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenor, Bonnielin K; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K

    2014-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined how visual impairment affects mobility as people age. Data from the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study, a population-based sample of 2,520 adults aged 65 years and older, were used to investigate the longitudinal association between visual impairment and mobility. Baseline, 2-year, 6-year, and 8-year visits occurred between 1993 and 2001. Mobility was assessed by measuring speeds on the following 3 tasks: walking up 7 steps, walking down 7 steps, and walking 4 m. Random-effects linear regression was used to model factors affecting speed. For each year of observation, speeds declined, and the visually impaired had significantly slower speeds than the non--visually impaired on all 3 tests after accounting for other covariates (βwalking up steps = -0.08 steps/second, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, -0.06; βwalking down steps = -0.11 steps/second, 95% CI: -0.14, -0.08; and βwalking 4 m = -0.08 m/second, 95% CI: -0.10, -0.06). However, the interaction between years since baseline and visual impairment status was not significant, indicating that mobility speeds declined at a similar rate in the visually impaired and the non--visually impaired. These results suggest that the impact of visual impairment on speed is significant but does not change as people age.

  19. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoh, L N; Shepherd, M D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, culturally sensitive visual aids designed to help convey drug information to nonliterate female adults who had a prescription for a solid oral dosage form of antibiotic medications were developed and evaluated. The researchers conceptualized the educational messages while a local artist produced the visual aids. Seventy-eight female ambulatory patients were evaluated for comprehension and compliance with antibiotic prescription instructions. The study was conducted in three health centers in Cameroon, West Africa and followed a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up format for three groups: two experimental, and one control. All participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups, 26 patients to each group. Subjects in the experimental groups received visual aids alone or visual aids plus an Advanced Organizer. A comparison of the three groups showed that subjects in the experimental groups scored significantly higher than the control group in both the comprehension and compliance measures.

  20. Evaluation of a simple test of reaction time for baseline concussion testing in a population of high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Wilson, Julie; Young, Julie; Duerson, Drew; Swisher, Gail; Collins, Christy L; Meehan, William P

    2015-01-01

    A common sequela of concussions is impaired reaction time. Computerized neurocognitive tests commonly measure reaction time. A simple clinical test for reaction time has been studied previously in college athletes; whether this test is valid and reliable when assessing younger athletes remains unknown. Our study examines the reliability and validity of this test in a population of high school athletes. Cross-sectional study. Two American High Schools. High school athletes (N = 448) participating in American football or soccer during the academic years 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013. All study participants completed a computerized baseline neurocognitive assessment that included a measure of reaction time (RT comp), in addition to a clinical measure of reaction time that assessed how far a standard measuring device would fall prior to the athlete catching it (RT clin). Validity was assessed by determining the correlation between RT clin and RT comp. Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between the repeated measures of RT clin and RT comp taken 1 year apart. In the first year of study, RT clin and RT comp were positively but weakly correlated (rs = 0.229, P Reaction time impairment commonly results from concussion and is among the most clinically important measures of the condition. The device evaluated in this study has previously been investigated as a reaction time measure in college athletes. This study investigates the clinical generalizability of the device in a younger population. A video abstract showing how the RT clin device is used in practice is available as Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JSM/A43.

  1. Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) at Clod scale (ClodVESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil structure evaluation in the field is very popular. It is fast, easy and inexpensive to perform. It opens exciting perspectives in terms of soil quality diagnosis and rapid survey. Some studies attempted to compare the scorings with measured physical properties, but most physical methods do not operate at the same scale. Visual evaluation is performed on a whole soil pit or layers, while physical measurements are usually performed on undisturbed soil samples collected in a layer. The match between the pit or layer VESS scores and the measured physical property can be poor due to short scale variability, even with numerous sample characterizations. This is particularly true with tilled soils. Moreover the field water content is heterogeneous, which introduces additional sources of variability. How far what we see matches with physical properties should be tested on the same sample, prior to handle the variability issue. Therefore, we adapted the VESS method to score soil cores of approximatively 150 cm3 in the laboratory, on which we performed also the physical characterization using shrinkage analysis. We collected 150 samples in a large area from the Swiss plateau (120 km long) in different land management (permanent pasture, no-till, conventional tillage), different seasons. The clay contents ranged from 10 to 30%. The samples were scored after performing shrinkage analysis according to the following criteria. The samples were equilibrated at -100 hPa to standardize the moisture conditions. Some criteria of the original method had to be discarded due to the small size of the soil core, namely (i) the indication on aggregate size over a few centimetres, (ii) rooting was found not consistent enough to be used, especially in cultivated soils where sampling season is determinant for root density. Three criteria could consistently be observed on all samples and were retained: (i) breaking difficulty, (ii) aggregate shape, (iii) visible porosity, and the

  2. CONTINUOUS EVALUATION OF THE LITERACY AND LEARNING MEDIA OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata T. PANDUREVIKJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The procedure for determining an adequate literacy and learning method among students with visual impairments consists two components: an initial choice of mode of literacy, to be conducted during the early childhood and continuing evaluation of the literacy and learning method, which is carried out over students who have already been involved in the educational process for a certain period and with whom a mediums for literacy and learning has already been determined.PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to conduct a re-evaluation of the initial decision regarding the choice of media through which education is conducted among students with visual impairment.DISCUSSION: The speed of reading is substantially below the predicted minimum level both with students who read Braille and with students who read regular print. It should be mentioned that only 3 respondents out of 15 Braille readers were cooperative in this part of the research, so they obtained results regarding them should not be taken as reliable ones. 100% of the respondents who are educated using the Braille alphabet independently read unfamiliar formal and also familiar educational material. Among the students who use regular print, 62.5% read independently and the other 37.5% need additional instruction. 45.5% of them successfully completed their school assignments using their initially chosen medium for literacy and learning, but only 18.2% of them do it in an acceptable time period. 53.6% of respondents know how to use available resources and facilities that exist within the school, while the other 46, 4% need additional training and instructions.CONCLUSION: Continuous evaluation should be implemented consistently throughout the schooling of the child, or at least once a year, for a relevant "justification" for any change, addition or selection of another sensory channel for learning and literacy of the child, as a result of certain changes in visual functioning of

  3. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  4. Planning a greenway based on an evaluation of visual landscape attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarnowski Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential for using a standardized landscape evaluation method for planning a greenway in a young glacial area in northern Poland is evaluated in this paper. In the evaluation of visual landscape attractiveness (VLA, we took into account not only its natural but also its cultural components. The cultural components were divided into two groups, i.e. increasing and decreasing VLA scores. The sources of data needed for the evaluation included a Vector Smart Map level 2 (VMap L2, aerial photographs and a field survey. The newly-designated greenway links two landscape parks (which play the role of greenspaces and runs along numerous lakes, forests, rivers, and objects of cultural heritage. The greenway is composed of existing local roads, allowing a more optimal utilisation of natural and cultural resources of the landscape, primarily those located between the selected greenspaces. Using this application, the idea of sustainable development can be implemented, and the overlapping protected areas will not be subject to devitalisation. The VLA method can facilitate multiple greenway designations in other areas.

  5. EVALUATING A SEGMENTATION-RESISTANT CAPTCHA INSPIRED BY THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Moez Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual CAPTCHAs are widely used these days on the Internet as a means of distinguishing between humans and computers. They help protect servers from being flooded by requests from malicious scripts. However, they are not very secure. Numerous image processing algorithms are able to discern the characters used in the CAPTCHAs. It has been suggested that CAPTCHAs can be made more secure if they are distorted in ways that makes segmentation difficult. However, out of all the reviewed distortions present in current CAPTCHAs there are none that allow for a high level of segmentation difficulty. Furthermore, CAPTCHAs also need to be used by humans who may not find certain distortions tolerable. Thus, the problem of selecting a good distortion becomes a tradeoff between user acceptability and computer solvability. It is hypothesized in this paper that rather than use low-level image distortions, optical distortions based on the Gestalt laws of perception that govern human visual system models should be applied. These distortions would ensure widespread user acceptability (as they are based on the internal workings of the HVS, and be very difficult for computers to solve (as HVS perception models have been difficult to implement in computers. This paper aims to explore the feasibility of employing Gestalt-inspired distortion in CAPTCHAs by first implementing a CAPTCHA cracker and then evaluating the performance of some manually generated Gestalt CAPTCHA’s against some existing CAPTCHAs.

  6. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  7. Cupping reversal in pediatric glaucoma--evaluation of the retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Amanda L; El-Dairi, Mays A; Freedman, Sharon F

    2014-11-01

    To identify optic nerve head (ONH) cupping reversal and associated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Humphrey visual field changes in pediatric glaucoma. Retrospective observational case series. Sequential surgical cases of juvenile open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) with sustained postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Group 1 had preoperative and postoperative ONH photographs and OCT; Group 2 had preoperative clinical ONH assessment and postoperative imaging. Cupping evaluation was confirmed by masked glaucoma and neuro-ophthalmology specialists. Of 80 cases, 9 eyes (9 children) met criteria for Group 1; 24 eyes (19 children) met criteria for Group 2. Group 1: Five of 9 eyes (56%) demonstrated cupping reversal, with preoperative vs postoperative mean IOP 34.2 ± 6.6 mm Hg vs 10.6 ± 4.1 mm Hg (P cupping reversal, with preoperative vs postoperative mean IOP 36.1 ± 8.9 mm Hg vs 13.3 ± 2.1 mm Hg (P cup-to-disc ratio. Limitations include small numbers, few reliable Humphrey visual fields, and absent preoperative imaging (Group 2). Some eyes with IOP reduction and ONH cupping reversal show continued RNFL thinning postoperatively. The preoperative ONH cup-to-disc ratio predicted the postoperative RNFL better than the postoperative "reversed and smaller" cup-to-disc ratio. Cupping reversal in pediatric glaucoma may not predict improved ONH health and deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, Petr

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  9. Evaluation of non-medical costs associated with visual impairment in four European countries: France, Italy, Germany and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brézin, Antoine; Lopatriello, Stefania; Hieke, Klaus; Hutchinson, Julia; Mimaud, Viviane; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is a severe disability that puts a heavy burden on individuals, families and society. In developed countries, the two major diseases leading to irreversible visual impairment are glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Their prevalence will increase dramatically with population aging. The economic consequences of visual impairment are considerable, but have rarely been documented, apart from some 'top-down' estimates based on national statistics. We estimated the non-medical costs related to visual impairment in four European countries: France, Italy, Germany and the UK. Prevalence rates of visual impairment, defined according to local regulations, were taken from national registers and, for France, from two recent nationwide surveys conducted by the French Institute for National Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE]). Estimates of the number of non-registered persons were obtained from the literature and expert opinion. Estimates of non-medical costs included institutional care, non-medical devices, residential adaptations, burden on carer, paid home help, loss of income and social allowances related to visual impairment. Unit costs (year 2004) were extracted from national databases and manufacturers. Healthcare professionals were interviewed to estimate the duration of assistance required by visually impaired persons. These durations were used to evaluate the cost of paid assistance at home in the four countries. The numbers of visually impaired persons were 1.27 million in France, 0.73 million in Germany, 1.03 million in Italy and 1.11 million in the UK, including, respectively, 56%, 11%, 80% and 72% non-registered persons. The frequency of institutionalisation for visually impaired persons were, respectively, 7.8%, 9.6%, 10.9% and 10%. Total annual costs for visually impaired persons were estimated at euro 10,749 million in France, euro 9214 million in Germany, euro 12

  10. Generalization and Maintenance of Social Skills of Children with Visual Impairments: Self-Evaluation and the Role of Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal-Snape, Divya

    2004-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used with two visually impaired girls to establish the effectiveness of self-evaluation and the role of feedback. In both cases, self-evaluation was effective in increasing the girls' social skills and social interaction. Implications of the role of significant others in providing feedback are…

  11. An Evaluation of Instruction in Visual Imagining on the Written Spelling Performance of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Angelica A.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has evaluated the utility of teaching potentially covert strategies to mediate overt performance. As an extension of this developing literature, the current study used a multiple-probe design to evaluate the effects of instructing in a visual imagining strategy on correct written spelling responses with three adolescents with…

  12. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  13. Droids Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Mazo, Gary

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  14. Visual privacy by context: proposal and evaluation of a level-based visualisation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-López, José Ramón; Chaaraoui, Alexandros Andre; Gu, Feng; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2015-06-04

    Privacy in image and video data has become an important subject since cameras are being installed in an increasing number of public and private spaces. Specifically, in assisted living, intelligent monitoring based on computer vision can allow one to provide risk detection and support services that increase people's autonomy at home. In the present work, a level-based visualisation scheme is proposed to provide visual privacy when human intervention is necessary, such as at telerehabilitation and safety assessment applications. Visualisation levels are dynamically selected based on the previously modelled context. In this way, different levels of protection can be provided, maintaining the necessary intelligibility required for the applications. Furthermore, a case study of a living room, where a top-view camera is installed, is presented. Finally, the performed survey-based evaluation indicates the degree of protection provided by the different visualisation models, as well as the personal privacy preferences and valuations of the users.

  15. Opportunities and future directions for visual soil evaluation methods in soil structure research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes, R.M.L.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    As the use of visual soil evaluation (VSE) methods has spread globally, they have been exposed to different climatic and pedological scenarios, resulting in the need to elucidate limitations, encourage refinements and open up new avenues of research. The main objective of this paper is to outline...... to provide spatial information for soil process models, e.g. compaction models. VSE could be combined with sensing techniques at the field or landscape scale for better management of fields in the context of precision farming. Further work should be done to integrate plant vigour, roots and soil fauna...... the potential of VSE methods to develop novel soil structure research and how this potential could be developed and integrated within existing research. We provide a brief overview of VSE methods in order to summarize the soil information that is obtained by VSE. More detailed VSE methods could be developed...

  16. Complex for monitoring visual acuity and its application for evaluation of human psycho-physiological state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokoumov, P. S.; Khabibullin, T. R.; Tolstaya, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The existing psychological theories associate the movement of a human eye with its reactions to external change: what we see, hear and feel. By analyzing the glance, we can compare the external human response (which shows the behavior of a person), and the natural reaction (that they actually feels). This article describes the complex for detection of visual activity and its application for evaluation of the psycho-physiological state of a person. The glasses with a camera capture all the movements of the human eye in real time. The data recorded by the camera are transmitted to the computer for processing implemented with the help of the software developed by the authors. The result is given in an informative and an understandable report, which can be used for further analysis. The complex shows a high efficiency and stable operation and can be used both, for the pedagogic personnel recruitment and for testing students during the educational process.

  17. Investigating the visual inspection subjectivity on the contrast-detail evaluation in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Medeiros, Regina B.; Schiabel, Homero

    2014-03-01

    A major difficulty in the interpretation of mammographic images is the low contrast and, in the case of early detection of breast cancer, the reduced size of the features of malignancy on findings such as microcalcifications. Furthermore, image assessment is subject to significant reliance of the capacity of observation of the expert that will perform it, compromising the final diagnosis accuracy. Thinking about this aspect, this study evaluated the subjectivity of visual inspection to assess the contrast-detail in mammographic images. For this, we compared the human readings of images generated with the CDMAM phantom performed by four observers, enabling to determining a threshold of contrast visibility in each diameter disks present in the phantom. These thresholds were compared graphically and by statistical measures allowing us to build a strategy for use of contrast and detail (dimensions) as parameters of quality in mammography.

  18. Does Visual Impairment Affect Mobility Over Time? The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Muñoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila K.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal analyses found visually impaired older adults were more likely to report mobility disability than their nonvisually impaired counterparts. But mobility disability trajectories were not steeper in the visually impaired than in the nonvisually impaired over the 8-year study.

  19. Representing Uncertainty in Graph Edges: An Evaluation of Paired Visual Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Huang, Jeff; Laidlaw, David H

    2015-10-01

    When visualizing data with uncertainty, a common approach is to treat uncertainty as an additional dimension and encode it using a visual variable. The effectiveness of this approach depends on how the visual variables chosen for representing uncertainty and other attributes interact to influence the user's perception of each variable. We report a user study on the perception of graph edge attributes when uncertainty associated with each edge and the main edge attribute are visualized simultaneously using two separate visual variables. The study covers four visual variables that are commonly used for visualizing uncertainty on line graphical primitives: lightness, grain, fuzziness, and transparency. We select width, hue, and saturation for visualizing the main edge attribute and hypothesize that we can observe interference between the visual variable chosen to encode the main edge attribute and that to encode uncertainty, as suggested by the concept of dimensional integrality. Grouping the seven visual variables as color-based, focus-based, or geometry-based, we further hypothesize that the degree of interference is affected by the groups to which the two visual variables belong. We consider two further factors in the study: discriminability level for each visual variable as a factor intrinsic to the visual variables and graph-task type (visual search versus comparison) as a factor extrinsic to the visual variables. Our results show that the effectiveness of a visual variable in depicting uncertainty is strongly mediated by all the factors examined here. Focus-based visual variables (fuzziness, grain, and transparency) are robust to the choice of visual variables for encoding the main edge attribute, though fuzziness has stronger negative impact on the perception of width and transparency has stronger negative impact on the perception of hue than the other uncertainty visual variables. We found that interference between hue and lightness is much greater than that

  20. A comprehensive evaluation of SAM, the SAM R-package and a simple modification to improve its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shunpu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM is a popular method for detecting significantly expressed genes and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR. Recently, it has been reported in the literature that the FDR is not well controlled by SAM. Due to the vast application of SAM in microarray data analysis, it is of great importance to have an extensive evaluation of SAM and its associated R-package (sam2.20. Results Our study has identified several discrepancies between SAM and sam2.20. One major difference is that SAM and sam2.20 use different methods for estimating FDR. Such discrepancies may cause confusion among the researchers who are using SAM or are developing the SAM-like methods. We have also shown that SAM provides no meaningful estimates of FDR and this problem has been corrected in sam2.20 by using a different formula for estimating FDR. However, we have found that, even with the improvement sam2.20 has made over SAM, sam2.20 may still produce erroneous and even conflicting results under certain situations. Using an example, we show that the problem of sam2.20 is caused by its use of asymmetric cutoffs which are due to the large variability of null scores at both ends of the order statistics. An obvious approach without the complication of the order statistics is the conventional symmetric cutoff method. For this reason, we have carried out extensive simulations to compare the performance of sam2.20 and the symmetric cutoff method. Finally, a simple modification is proposed to improve the FDR estimation of sam2.20 and the symmetric cutoff method. Conclusion Our study shows that the most serious drawback of SAM is its poor estimation of FDR. Although this drawback has been corrected in sam2.20, the control of FDR by sam2.20 is still not satisfactory. The comparison between sam2.20 and the symmetric cutoff method reveals that the relative performance of sam2.20 to the symmetric cutff method depends on the

  1. [Evaluation of the sibutramine effect on satiety with a visual analogue scale in obese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Lívia L; Platt, Monique W; Carraro, Lucia; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Faria Júnior, Raul; Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Póvoa, Luiz César; Appolinário, José C; Coutinho, Walmir F

    2005-04-01

    Initially used to measure algic symptoms, visual analogue scales (VAS) can also be useful for the evaluation of satiety. The antiobesity agent sibutramine, unlike anorectic agents, decreases food intake mainly by stimulating satiety. To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on satiety, we used a VAS in obese adolescents participating in a double-blind, randomized trial comparing 10 mg of sibutramine to placebo. Each patient received 13 scales to be checked at hourly intervals, in a single day, from 9 am to 9 pm. A 500 kcal deficit diet was divided into 3 meals, with previously fixed times: 9:30 h, 12:30 h, 18:30 h. Using the scores obtained from each scale, a line graph was designed to represent the average satiety score throughout the day. Comparing the area under the curve for the 2 groups, we found 4.609 +/- 1.309 for the group treated with sibutramine and 4.141 +/- 1.432 for the placebo group, not reaching statistical significance (p= NS). Therefore, sibutramine does not seem do have an effect on satiety of obese adolescents, at least when satiety is evaluated by a VAS.

  2. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial fatigue behavior under random non-proportional loading condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Morishita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyclic multiaxial stress/strain condition under nonproportional loading in which principal direction of stress/strain are changed in a cycle, it becomes difficult to analyze stress/strain ranges because of complexity of multiaxial stress/strain states depending on time in cycles. In order to evaluate stress/strain simply and suitably under non-proportional loading, Itoh and Sakane have proposed a method called as IS-method and a strain parameter for life evaluation under non-proportional loading NP. In the method, 6-components of stress/strain are converted to an equivalent stress/strain indicating the amplitude and the direction of principal stress/strain as a function of time as well as an intensity of loading nonproportionality fNP. Based on IS-method, the authors also have developed a tool which enables to analyze multiaxial stress/strain condition with the nonproportionality of loading history and evaluate failure life under nonproportional multiaxial loading. The tool indicates the analyzed results on monitor and users can understand visually not only variation of the stress/strain conditions but also non-proportionality during the cycle, which helps the design of material strength.

  3. Evaluating the use of gas discharge visualization to measure massage therapy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie; Patel, Nitin; Schwartz, Gary; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of massage therapy using gas discharge visualization (GDV), a computerized biophysical electrophoton capture (EPC), in tandem with traditional self-report measures to evaluate the use of GDV measurement to assess the bioenergetic whole-person effects of massage therapy. This study used a single treatment group, pre-post-repeated measures design with a sample of 23 healthy adults. This study utilized a single 50-min full-body relaxation massage with participants. GDV measurement method, an EPC, and traditional paper-based measures evaluating pain, stress, muscle tension, and well-being were used to assess intervention outcomes. Significant differences were found between pre- and post-measures of well-being, pain, stress, muscle tension, and GDV parameters. Pearson correlations indicate the GDV measure is correlated with pain and stress, variables that impact the whole person. This study demonstrates that GDV parameters may be used to indicate significant bioenergetic change from pre- to post-massage. Findings warrant further investigation with a larger diverse sample size and control group to further explore GDV as a measure of whole-person bioenergetic effects associated with massage.

  4. Evaluation of a fast and simple sample preparation method for PBDE flame retardants and DDT pesticides in fish for analysis by ELISA compared with GC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, fast, and cost-effective sample preparation method, previously developed and validated for the analysis of organic contaminants in fish using low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), was evaluated for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dich...

  5. Direct comparison of the thermal lenses of diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 lasers using a simple evaluation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the thermal lenses generated in diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 and Nd:GdVO4 lasers were evaluated and compared using a simple technique based on the stability criteria of a plane-parallel laser resonator [example 1], as shown in the top...

  6. Effect of Gaze Direction on Evaluation of Visually Impaired Children by Informed Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver-Lampman, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concerned adults (N=50) in continual interaction with visually impaired individuals were randomly assigned to view videotapes of visually impaired children either with or without gaze direction. Results indicated that the visually impaired children were judged more intelligent and socially competent when utilizing gaze direction toward the…

  7. Evaluation of Post-Operative Visual Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was compiled on demographic characteristics, pre- and postoperative visual acuities and surgical complications. The preoperative and postoperative visual status was classified using the World Health Organization (WHO) category of Visual Impairment and Blindness. The standard parameters of assessing outcome of ...

  8. Hydride generation coupled with thioglycolic acid coated gold nanoparticles as simple and sensitive headspace colorimetric assay for visual detection of Sb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Tesfaye; Tan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2018-04-03

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element which causes different health problems including cardiac problems and lung cancer in humans, and its levels in surface water can be noticeably increased to 100 μg/L typically in the proximity of anthropogenic sources. Thus, besides instrumental techniques, it is of great significance to develop a simple, sensitive and selective analytical method for direct analysis of Sb(III) at trace level without the need of any expensive and/or complicated instrumentations and sample preparation processes. Herein, a simple and sensitive headspace colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of Sb(III) by hydride generation coupled with thioglycolic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles (TGA-AuNPs). Sb(III) in the 30 mL sample solution was converted into its volatile form (SbH3) through hydride generation reaction and headspace extracted into 100 μL chromogenic reagent, which contains methanol as extractant and TGA-AuNPs as nanosensors, leading to aggregation of TGA-AuNPs and therefore a red-to-blue color change. Parameters influencing the chromogenic and hydride generation reactions were optimized. Addition of 300 μM ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as masking agent largely suppressed the inferences from mercury and arsenic. The proposed method can tolerate at least 10-fold As(III) and 100-fold other metal ions including Hg(II). The detection limits were 6.0 and 1.2 μg/L Sb(III) by naked-eye and UV-Vis spectrometer, respectively, which meet the maximum admissible level in drinking water (6 μg/L) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by rapid detection of Sb(III) in river water, lake water, ground water and sea water samples by naked-eye at a spiking level of 6 μg/L Sb(III). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. One simple DNA extraction device and its combination with modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid on-field detection of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Yinan; Chen, Lili; Quan, Sheng; Jiang, Shimeng; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-02

    Quickness, simplicity, and effectiveness are the three major criteria for establishing a good molecular diagnosis method in many fields. Herein we report a novel detection system for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be utilized to perform both on-field quick screening and routine laboratory diagnosis. In this system, a newly designed inexpensive DNA extraction device was used in combination with a modified visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) assay. The main parts of the DNA extraction device included a silica gel membrane filtration column and a modified syringe. The DNA extraction device could be easily operated without using other laboratory instruments, making it applicable to an on-field GMO test. High-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isothermal amplification could be quickly isolated from plant tissues using this device within 15 min. In the modified vLAMP assay, a microcrystalline wax encapsulated detection bead containing SYBR green fluorescent dye was introduced to avoid dye inhibition and cross-contaminations from post-LAMP operation. The system was successfully applied and validated in screening and identification of GM rice, soybean, and maize samples collected from both field testing and the Grain Inspection, Packers, and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency test program, which demonstrated that it was well-adapted to both on-field testing and/or routine laboratory analysis of GMOs.

  10. Visual and instrumental evaluation of color match ability of 2 shade guides on a ceramic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngül, Değer; Şermet, Bülent; Balkaya, Mehmet Cudi

    2012-07-01

    There is limited information on the visual and instrumental evaluation of color match between a natural tooth and a ceramic crown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2 shade guides on color match, and to evaluate the relationship between color difference (ΔE) values and examiners' assessments of the color match in ceramic crowns. Thirty-three subjects were selected for a ceramic crown restoration of the maxillary central incisor. Two crowns were fabricated with selected shades from Vitapan Classical and Vita Toothguide 3D-Master shade guides for each subject. The color values of maxillary central incisors, selected shade tabs, and corresponding crowns were measured with a spectrophotometer. The ΔE values between the natural teeth and the crowns and between the selected shade tabs and the corresponding crowns were calculated for each subject and compared with the Student's t test (α=.05). In addition, 3 examiners visually evaluated the clinical acceptability of each crown on a scale from 1 to 6. The agreement among the examiners was assessed with the Kappa test. The scores of examiners for both shade guides were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test (α=.05). The results revealed that the color difference values between the teeth and the crowns fabricated with the selected shades from the Vita Toothguide 3D-Master shade guide were significantly smaller than those of the Vitapan Classical guide (P=.003). Similarly, the color difference values between the selected shade tabs from the Vita Toothguide 3D-Master guide and the corresponding crowns were significantly smaller than those of the Vitapan Classical guide (P=.001). However, the ΔE values obtained for both shade guides were within the clinically acceptable range (ΔE3D-Master shade guide resulted in a closer color match to the natural teeth than those of the Vitapan Classical guide. However, the ΔE values and the examiners' scores were within the clinically acceptable range for

  11. Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety Scale Provide a Simple and Reliable Measurement of Preoperative Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Hernández-Palazón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.

  12. Evaluation of local field potential signals in decoding of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Zahra; Daliri, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    In the field of brain research, attention as one of the main issues in cognitive neuroscience is an important mechanism to be studied. The complicated structure of the brain cannot process all the information it receives at any moment. Attention, in fact, is considered as a possible useful mechanism in which brain concentrates on the processing of important information which is required at any certain moment. The main goal of this study is decoding the location of visual attention from local field potential signals recorded from medial temporal (MT) area of a macaque monkey. To this end, feature extraction and feature selection are applied in both the time and the frequency domains. After applying feature extraction methods such as the short time Fourier transform, continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and wavelet energy (scalogram), feature selection methods are evaluated. Feature selection methods used here are T-test, Entropy, receiver operating characteristic, and Bhattacharyya. Subsequently, different classifiers are utilized in order to decode the location of visual attention. At last, the performances of the employed classifiers are compared. The results show that the maximum information about the visual attention in area MT exists in the low frequency features. Interestingly, low frequency features over all the time-axis and all of the frequency features at the initial time interval in the spectrogram domain contain the most valuable information related to the decoding of spatial attention. In the CWT and scalogram domains, this information exists in the low frequency features at the initial time interval. Furthermore, high performances are obtained for these features in both the time and the frequency domains. Among different employed classifiers, the best achieved performance which is about 84.5 % belongs to the K-nearest neighbor classifier combined with the T-test method for feature selection in the time domain. Additionally, the best achieved result (82

  13. Evaluation of changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and visual functions in cases of optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thinning has been demonstrated in cases of optic neuritis (ON and multiple sclerosis (MS in Caucasian eyes, but no definite RNFL loss pattern or association with visual functions is known in Indian eyes. Aim : To evaluate RNFL thickness in cases of ON and MS, and to correlate it with visual function changes in Indian patients. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional case-control study at a tertiary level institution . Materials and Methods: Cases consisted of patients of (i typical ON without a recent episode (n = 30:39 ON eyes and 21 fellow eyes, (ii MS without ON (n = 15;30 eyes while the controls were age-matched (n = 15; 30 eyes. RNFL thickness was measured using the Stratus 3 °CT. The visual functions tested included the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, visual evoked responses, and visual fields. Statistical analysis used: Intergroup analysis was done using ANOVA and Pearson′s correlation coefficient used for associations. Results: RNFL thickness was reduced significantly in the ON and MS patients compared to the controls (P-0.001. Maximum loss is in the temporal quadrant. Lower visual function scores are associated with reduced average overall RNFL thickness. In ON group, RNFL thinning is associated with severe visual field defects while contrast sensitivity has strongest correlation with RNFL in the MS group. Conclusions:RNFL thickness is reduced in ON and MS cases in a pattern similar to Caucasians and is associated with the magnitude of impairment of other visual parameters. Contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity are useful tests to identify subclinical optic nerve involvement in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Evaluating interception of larval pallid sturgeon on the Lower Missouri River- data acquisition, interpolation, and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A., IV; Erwin, S. O.; Anderson, B. J.; Wilson, H.; Jacobson, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    The transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding is an important life-stage transition for many riverine fish larvae. On the Missouri River, U.S., riverine alteration has decreased connectivity between the navigation channel and complex, food-producing and foraging areas on the channel margins, namely shallow side channels and sandbar complexes. A favored hypothesis, the interception hypothesis, for recruitment failure of pallid sturgeon is that drifting larvae are not able to exit the highly engineered navigation channel, and therefore starve. We present work exploring measures of hydraulic connectivity between the navigation channel and channel margins using multiple data-collection protocols with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). As ADCP datasets alone often do not have high enough spatial resolution to characterize interception and connectivity sufficiently at the scale of drifting sturgeon larvae, they are often supplemented with physical and empirical models. Using boat-mounted ADCPs, we collected 3-dimensional current velocities with a variety of driving techniques (specifically, regularly spaced transects, reciprocal transects, and irregular patterns) around areas of potential larval interception. We then used toolkits based in Python to interpolate 3-dimensional velocity fields at spatial scales finer than the original measurements, and visualized resultant velocity vectors and flowlines in the software package Paraview. Using these visualizations, we investigated the necessary resolution of field measurements required to model connectivity with channel margin areas on large, highly engineered river ecosystems such as the Missouri River. We anticipate that results from this work will be used to help inform models of larval interception under current conditions. Furthermore, results from this work will be useful in developing monitoring strategies to evaluate the restoration of channel complexity to support ecological functions.

  15. Simple technique to evaluate the thermal lens strength of a laser material. SAIP 2005 Talk C-20

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The presentation is about the simple technique to measure the thermal lens; Same pumping conditions as real laser; Same cooling configuration as real laser; Comparative experiment made; Nd:YVO4 has smaller thermal lens than Nd:GdVO4; Nd:GdVO4 has...

  16. An evaluation of interagency monitoring of protected visual environments (IMPROVE) collocated precision and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Nicole P.; White, Warren H.

    The Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program is a cooperative measurement effort in the United States designed to characterize current visibility and aerosol conditions in scenic areas (primarily National Parks and Forests) and to identify chemical species and emission sources responsible for existing man-made visibility impairment. In 2003 and 2004, the IMPROVE network began operating collocated samplers at several sites to evaluate the precision of its aerosol measurements. This paper presents the precisions calculated from the collocated data according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines Code of Federal Regulations [CFR, 1997. Revised requirements for designation of reference and equivalent methods for PM 2.5 and ambient air quality surveillance for particulate matter: final rule, 1997. Code of Federal Regulations. Part IV: Environmental Protection Agency, vol. 40 CFR Parts 53 and 58, pp. 71-72. Available from pdf>]. These values range from 4% for sulfate to 115% for the third elemental carbon fraction. Collocated precision tends to improve with increasing detection rates, is typically better when the analysis is performed on the whole filter instead of just a fraction of the filter, and is better for species that are predominantly in the smaller size fractions. The collocated precisions are also used to evaluate the accuracy of the uncertainty estimates that are routinely reported with the concentrations. For most species, the collocated precisions are worse than the precisions predicted by the reported uncertainties. These discrepancies suggest that some sources of uncertainty are not accounted for or have been underestimated.

  17. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F.; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P.; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. Methods VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), ‘ANSWERS’ and ‘PoPLR’, and one based on VFs and RNFLT: ‘sANSWERS’. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. Results The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (−0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, Pstatistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Conclusions Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms. PMID:29085257

  18. Interobserver variability in visual evaluation of thoracic CT scans and comparison with automatic computer measurements of CT lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Dirksen, Asger

    2012-01-01

    Introduction – Emphysema is defined by pathology, but is most precisely evaluated in vivo by computed tomography (CT). Aims – were to determine the reproducibility of visual evaluation of emphysema, i.e. the observer variability, and furthermore to compare the visual evaluations to automatic CT...... information. The lung was segmented automatically by in-house developed computer software, and the percentage of pixels below -950 HU was used as a surrogate marker for emphysema. The observer variability, as well as the correlation with the lung density measurements, was analysed using Spearman’s rank...... in emphysema grading. However, the agreement with the CT lung density measurement was poor, indicating that the two types of evaluation represent different aspects of emphysema. Most likely, they should be seen as complementary rather than competitive evaluations. Future comparison with physiological tests...

  19. Esverdeamento em cultivares de batata avaliado pela escala visual e índice spad Greening of potato cultivars evaluated through visual scale and spad index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Feltran

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o esverdeamento em tubérculos de cultivares de batata utilizando dois métodos de determinação (escala visual de notas e índice spad. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 18 x 5, constituído por cultivares (Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana e Solide e tempo de armazenamento (5; 10; 15; 20 e 25 dias. Todas as cultivares apresentaram desempenho linear e crescente pelo índice spad, com excecão da Bintje, com spad médio de 1,23. Pela escala visual, as cultivares apresentaram desempenho quadrático e linear. A cultivar Bintje é resistente ao esverdeamento determinado pelos dois métodos. O índice spad pode ser utilizado para determinação do esverdeamento do 10º ao 25º dia de armazenamento.The occurrence of greening in potato tubers was evaluated through two evaluation methods (visual scale of notes and spad index. The experimental design was a completely randomized, with four replications. Treatments were disposed in the factorial sceme 18x5, constituted of potato cultivars (Agata, Apuã (IAC-5977, Aracy (IAC-2, IAC Aracy Ruiva, Asterix, Bintje, Dali, Clone IAC-6090, Itararé (IAC-5986, Laguna, Remarka, Liseta, Mondial, Novita, Oscar, Picasso, Santana and Solide and storage time (5; 10; 15; 20 and 25 days. All potato cultivars presented positive linear effects when evaluated through the spad index, except 'Bintje', with average spad index of 1,23. For the visual scale, quadratic and linear effects were verified. 'Bintje' is resistant to the greening when evaluated by both methods. The spad index can be used for determining of the greening from 10º to the 25º day of storage.

  20. Comparison of visual analogue and Likert scales in evaluation of an emergency department bedside teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenza, Antonio; Rogers, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    The present study compares visual analogue scale (VAS) to Likert-type scale (LTS) instruments in evaluating perceptions of an ED bedside clinical teaching programme. A prospective study was conducted in the ED of an urban, adult tertiary hospital. Prospective pairing occurred of a teaching consultant and registrar who were relatively quarantined from normal clinical duties. Registrars received 3 months of the teaching intervention, and 3 months without the intervention in a cross-over fashion. Evaluation questionnaires were completed using both the LTS and 100 mm horizontal VAS for each question. Correlation between VAS and LTS gave a measure of validity, and test-retest stability and internal consistency gave measures of reliability. Registrar perceptions of the teaching programme were positive, but no differences were found between the pre- and post-intervention groups. The test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the questionnaires were 0.51 and 0.54 for the VAS, and 0.58 and 0.58 for the LTS. Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.79 and 0.91 for the VAS, and 0.79 and 0.81 for the LTS. Correlations between the two methods varied from 0.35 to 0.94 for each question. A linear regression equation describing the relationship approximated VAS = 19.5 × LTS-9 with overall r= 0.89. An ED bedside teaching programme is perceived to be a beneficial educational intervention. The VAS is a reliable and valid alternative to the LTS for educational evaluation and might provide advantages in educational measurement. Further research into the significance of extreme values and educationally important changes in scores is required. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  1. How art changes your brain: differential effects of visual art production and cognitive art evaluation on functional brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Anne; Mack-Andrick, Jessica; Lang, Frieder R; Dörfler, Arnd; Maihöfner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Visual art represents a powerful resource for mental and physical well-being. However, little is known about the underlying effects at a neural level. A critical question is whether visual art production and cognitive art evaluation may have different effects on the functional interplay of the brain's default mode network (DMN). We used fMRI to investigate the DMN of a non-clinical sample of 28 post-retirement adults (63.71 years ±3.52 SD) before (T0) and after (T1) weekly participation in two different 10-week-long art interventions. Participants were randomly assigned to groups stratified by gender and age. In the visual art production group 14 participants actively produced art in an art class. In the cognitive art evaluation group 14 participants cognitively evaluated artwork at a museum. The DMN of both groups was identified by using a seed voxel correlation analysis (SCA) in the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC/preCUN). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to relate fMRI data to psychological resilience which was measured with the brief German counterpart of the Resilience Scale (RS-11). We observed that the visual art production group showed greater spatial improvement in functional connectivity of PCC/preCUN to the frontal and parietal cortices from T0 to T1 than the cognitive art evaluation group. Moreover, the functional connectivity in the visual art production group was related to psychological resilience (i.e., stress resistance) at T1. Our findings are the first to demonstrate the neural effects of visual art production on psychological resilience in adulthood.

  2. Investigation of optic neuritis related examination for evaluating visual function and efficacy detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the reliability of visual electrophysiological examination(pattern visual evoked potentials, P-VEP,visual field,fundus photography and optical coherence tomography(OCTto patients with optic neuritis.METHODS: Visualelectrophysiological examination, visual field, fundus photography and OCT were used in 75 cases(103 eyes. The results of the positive rate of P-VEP, visual field examination,fundus photography and OCT were used to analyze the correlation.RESULTS: In 75 cases(103 eyes, the P-VEP successfully acquired positive case images in 78 eyes(75.7%, no obvious abnormal in 25 eyes(24.3%. Fundus photography successfully acquired positive case images in 89 eyes(86.4%, no obvious abnormal in 14 eyes(13.6%. Visual field examination successfully acquired positive case images in 85 eyes(82.5%, no obvious abnormal in 18 eyes(17.5%. OCT successfully acquired positive case images in 97 eyes(94.2%, no obvious abnormal in 6 eyes(5.8%. CONCLUSION: Visual electrophysiological detection, visual field examination, fundus photography and OCT can predict the visual acuity in patients with optic neuritis.

  3. Evaluation of Visual Evoked Potentials in Patient with Angelmans Syndrome - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Knezevic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angelman syndrome (AS is a genetic disorder with varying degrees of neurological impairment. It is often associated with ocular involvement. Case Report: We present a child diagnosed with AS who had a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 15. The child seemed to be happy, with developmental delay, speech problem, and altering strabismus. To assess the potential presence and degree of damage in the visual pathway, we recorded monocular flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs. Our results revealed the presence of severe central afferent dysfunction in both optical pathways. Conclusion: VEPs can be used in patients with AS and visual disturbances to assess the integrity of the visual system.

  4. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, P.

    2016-03-11

    A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

  5. Modeling human comprehension of data visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Divis, Kristin Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This project was inspired by two needs. The first is a need for tools to help scientists and engineers to design effective data visualizations for communicating information, whether to the user of a system, an analyst who must make decisions based on complex data, or in the context of a technical report or publication. Most scientists and engineers are not trained in visualization design, and they could benefit from simple metrics to assess how well their visualization's design conveys the intended message. In other words, will the most important information draw the viewer's attention? The second is the need for cognition-based metrics for evaluating new types of visualizations created by researchers in the information visualization and visual analytics communities. Evaluating visualizations is difficult even for experts. However, all visualization methods and techniques are intended to exploit the properties of the human visual system to convey information efficiently to a viewer. Thus, developing evaluation methods that are rooted in the scientific knowledge of the human visual system could be a useful approach. In this project, we conducted fundamental research on how humans make sense of abstract data visualizations, and how this process is influenced by their goals and prior experience. We then used that research to develop a new model, the Data Visualization Saliency Model, that can make accurate predictions about which features in an abstract visualization will draw a viewer's attention. The model is an evaluation tool that can address both of the needs described above, supporting both visualization research and Sandia mission needs.

  6. The Development of an Indoor Mobility Course for the Evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; de Witte, Luc P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a suitable mobility course for the assessment of mobility performance as part of a user evaluation of Electronic Mobility Aids (EMA) aimed at obstacle detection and orientation. Method: A review of the literature led to a list of critical factors for the assessment of mobility performance of persons who are visually impaired.…

  7. Evaluation of a Technology for Teaching Complex Social Skills to Young Adults with Visual and Cognitive Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P.; Nativ-Ari-Am, Hagit

    2001-01-01

    Two multiple baseline designs were used to evaluate a two-stage model for training four young adults with visual and cognitive impairments to grocery shop. A task-analytical flow chart of the behavioral skills involved in grocery shopping was used to increase completed skill steps and the number of correct items purchased. (Contains references.)…

  8. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  9. Psychometric evaluation of a visual analog scale for the assessment of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morlock Robert J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast-acting medications for the management of anxiety are important to patients and society. Measuring early onset, however, requires a sensitive and clinically responsive tool. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of a patient-reported Global Anxiety - Visual Analog Scale (GA-VAS. Methods Data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of lorazepam and paroxetine in patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder were analyzed to assess the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and utility of the GA-VAS. The GA-VAS was completed at clinic visits and at home during the first week of treatment. Targeted psychometric analyses—test-retest reliabilities, validity correlations, responsiveness statistics, and minimum important differences—were conducted. Results The GA-VAS correlates well with other anxiety measures, at Week 4, r = 0.60 (p r = 0.74 (p p p p Conclusions The GA-VAS is capable of validly and effectively capturing a reduction in anxiety as quickly as 24 hours post-dose.

  10. Evaluation of the User Strategy on 2d and 3d City Maps Based on Novel Scanpath Comparison Method and Graph Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with scanpath comparison of eye-tracking data recorded during case study focused on the evaluation of 2D and 3D city maps. The experiment contained screenshots from three map portals. Two types of maps were used - standard map and 3D visualization. Respondents' task was to find particular point symbol on the map as fast as possible. Scanpath comparison is one group of the eye-tracking data analyses methods used for revealing the strategy of the respondents. In cartographic studies, the most commonly used application for scanpath comparison is eyePatterns that output is hierarchical clustering and a tree graph representing the relationships between analysed sequences. During an analysis of the algorithm generating a tree graph, it was found that the outputs do not correspond to the reality. We proceeded to the creation of a new tool called ScanGraph. This tool uses visualization of cliques in simple graphs and is freely available at eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph"target="_blank">www.eyetracking.upol.cz/scangraph. Results of the study proved the functionality of the tool and its suitability for analyses of different strategies of map readers. Based on the results of the tool, similar scanpaths were selected, and groups of respondents with similar strategies were identified. With this knowledge, it is possible to analyse the relationship between belonging to the group with similar strategy and data gathered from the questionnaire (age, sex, cartographic knowledge, etc.) or type of stimuli (2D, 3D map).

  11. Tempo de reação simples auditivo e visual em surfistas com diferentes níveis de habilidade: comparação entre atletas profissionais, amadores e praticantes Auditory and visual single reaction span in surfers with different ability levels: comparison of professional, amateur athletes and surf practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Otero Vaghetti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de reação simples (TRS representa o nível de coordenação neuromuscular, no qual os estímulos visuais, auditivos ou táteis são decodificados pelo corpo através de diferentes processos físico-químicos e mecânicos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar os TRS auditivo e visual em surfistas profissionais, amadores e praticantes, verificar se existem diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos de surfistas e correlacionar os tempos de reação com a performance dos atletas. Participaram deste estudo 103 surfistas: 42 atletas profissionais do sexo masculino (brasileiros e estrangeiros, 11 atletas profissionais do sexo feminino, 25 atletas amadores universitários e 25 praticantes de surfe. A coleta de dados foi realizada nas praias onde aconteceram os respectivos eventos, WQS (World Qualifyng Series, etapa do circuito mundial, Superfsurf (etapa do campeonato brasileiro de surfe profissional, CCSU (etapa do circuito catarinense de surfe universitário. Foram utilizados como instrumentação um interruptor com uma tecla de sensibilidade de 0,8N, um LED para estímulo visual, duas caixas acústicas, com 315Hz de freqüência e 81dB de pressão sonora, para estímulo auditivo e um dispositivo eletrônico com a finalidade de gerar o sinal auditivo, visual e de sincronismo. A aquisição dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software SAD versão 32. Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas para os TRS auditivo e visual entre os profissionais (masculinos versus praticantes, profissionais (femininos versus praticantes. Entre os amadores versus praticantes foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas apenas para o TRS visual, com TRS menores para os mais experientes. Uma correlação positiva foi encontrada para o TRS visual entre os profissionais (femininos versus no ranking.The reaction span RS (RTS represents the level of neuromuscular coordination in which the visual, auditory or touch stimuli are

  12. Design and evaluation of tiled parallel coordinate visualization of multichannel EEG data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Maurits, Natasha M.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The field of visualization assists data interpretation in many areas, but does not manage all types of data equally well. This holds, in particular, for time-varying multichannel EEG data. No existing method can successfully visualize simultaneous information from all channels in use at all time

  13. Design and Evaluation of Tiled Parallel Coordinate Visualization of Multichannel EEG Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Maurits, Natasha M.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    The field of visualization assists data interpretation in many areas, but does not manage all types of data equally well. This holds in particular for time-varying multichannel EEG data. No existing method can successfully visualize simultaneous information from all channels in use at all time

  14. A Formative Evaluation of an Instructional Program Designed to Teach Visually Impaired Students to Use Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, LaRhea

    1984-01-01

    Ten visually impaired students (12-18 years old) were instructed via a two-module instructional kit to use microcomputers and to learn the programing language, BASIC. Results indicated that the visually impaired students learned the major components of the microcomputer and were able to use the cassette braille access device. (CL)

  15. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), 'ANSWERS' and 'PoPLR', and one based on VFs and RNFLT: 'sANSWERS'. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (-0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, P <.001); the rate of RNFLT change was not different (-1.7 vs -1.1 dB/year, P =.14). After 18 months and at 95% specificity, the sensitivity of ANSWERS and PoPLR was similar (35%); sANSWERS achieved a sensitivity of 70%. GPA, ANSWERS and PoPLR discriminated treatment groups with similar statistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms.

  16. Visual evaluation of I-123-betamethyliodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial SPECT findings in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-03-01

    I-123-betamethyliodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a branched fatty acid analogue for the imaging of myocardial metabolism. Seventeen patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 17 patients with ischemic or valvular heart diseases (non-HCMs) were studied to evaluate the characteristic findings of the BMIPP myocardial images in HCM. Early (20 min) and delayed (3 hr) images were obtained after intravenous injection of 111 MBq of BMIPP with 3-headed SPECT. Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was also obtained within a week of BMIPP SPECT. Regional myocardial uptake of BMIPP relative to Tl-201 and its serial change from early to delayed images were visually evaluated in patient basis as well as segmental basis. Decreased uptake of BMIPP in HCM was frequently seen in anterior, septal, apical and inferior wall. Relatively decreased myocardial uptake of BMIPP (type H+B) was seen in 14 patients (82%) of HCM which was significantly higher than non-HCMs (12%, p<0.001). Number of segments with type H+B was higher in HCM than non-HCMs (mean: 4.59 vs 0.53, p<0.001). This relative decrease of BMIPP uptake was frequently seen in hypertrophied segments of HCM (71%, p<0.01). Serial decrease of regional BMIPP uptake was also frequently seen in HCM especially in hypertrophied myocardium than non-HCMs (76% vs 41%, p<0.01). This was concordant with segmental analysis (mean: 3.41 vs 1.06, p<0.01). Significant decrease in BMIPP image quality in HCM was concordant with higher frequency of serial decrease of BMIPP in HCM. In conclusion, HCM patients frequently showed abnormality of BMIPP uptake and retention which indicated the presence of metabolic abnormality in hypertrophied myocardium. (author).

  17. Empirical Evaluation of Visual Fatigue from Display Alignment Errors Using Cerebral Hemodynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanniebey D. Wiyor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stereoscopic display alignment errors on visual fatigue and prefrontal cortical tissue hemodynamic responses. We collected hemodynamic data and perceptual ratings of visual fatigue while participants performed visual display tasks on 8 ft × 6 ft NEC LT silver screen with NEC LT 245 DLP projectors. There was statistical significant difference between subjective measures of visual fatigue before air traffic control task (BATC and after air traffic control task (ATC 3, (P<0.05. Statistical significance was observed between left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (l DLPFC-HbO2, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex deoxygenated hemoglobin (l DLPFC-Hbb, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex deoxygenated hemoglobin (r DLPFC-Hbb on stereoscopic alignment errors (P<0.05. Thus, cortical tissue oxygenation requirement in the left hemisphere indicates that the effect of visual fatigue is more pronounced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  18. Evaluation of genetic diversity amongst Descurainia sophia L. genotypes by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker

    OpenAIRE

    Saki, Sahar; Bagheri, Hedayat; Deljou, Ali; Zeinalabedini, Mehrshad

    2015-01-01

    Descurainia sophia is a valuable medicinal plant in family of Brassicaceae. To determine the range of diversity amongst D. sophia in Iran, 32 naturally distributed plants belonging to six natural populations of the Iranian plateau were investigated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The average percentage of polymorphism produced by 12 ISSR primers was 86 %. The PIC values for primers ranged from 0.22 to 0.40 and Rp values ranged between 6.5 and 19.9. The relative genetic diversi...

  19. How information visualization novices construct visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Lars; Tory, Melanie; Storey, Margaret-Anne

    2010-01-01

    It remains challenging for information visualization novices to rapidly construct visualizations during exploratory data analysis. We conducted an exploratory laboratory study in which information visualization novices explored fictitious sales data by communicating visualization specifications to a human mediator, who rapidly constructed the visualizations using commercial visualization software. We found that three activities were central to the iterative visualization construction process: data attribute selection, visual template selection, and visual mapping specification. The major barriers faced by the participants were translating questions into data attributes, designing visual mappings, and interpreting the visualizations. Partial specification was common, and the participants used simple heuristics and preferred visualizations they were already familiar with, such as bar, line and pie charts. We derived abstract models from our observations that describe barriers in the data exploration process and uncovered how information visualization novices think about visualization specifications. Our findings support the need for tools that suggest potential visualizations and support iterative refinement, that provide explanations and help with learning, and that are tightly integrated into tool support for the overall visual analytics process.

  20. 10 Data Visualization Tips

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    1. 10 Data Visualization Tips. Data visualizations are an effective tool to communicate research. But to realize their potential, designers should follow these tips to help readers decode their visualizations. 1. Keep it simple! This is the golden rule. Always choose the simplest way to convey your information. 2. Have a specific ...

  1. Interobserver variability in visual evaluation of thoracic CT scans and comparison with automatic computer measurements of CT lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü; Dirksen, Asger

    2012-01-01

    Introduction – Emphysema is defined by pathology, but is most precisely evaluated in vivo by computed tomography (CT). Aims – were to determine the reproducibility of visual evaluation of emphysema, i.e. the observer variability, and furthermore to compare the visual evaluations to automatic CT...... lung density measurements, i.e. densitometry. Methods – In a pilot study 60 CT scans were selected from a sample of 3980 CT scans from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST). The amount of emphysema in these scans was scored independently by two observers, who were blinded regarding clinical...... information. The lung was segmented automatically by in-house developed computer software, and the percentage of pixels below -950 HU was used as a surrogate marker for emphysema. The observer variability, as well as the correlation with the lung density measurements, was analysed using Spearman’s rank...

  2. EVALUATION OF POSTOPERATIVE VISUAL OUTCOME IN TRAUMATIC CATARACT AND A STUDY OF POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS IN SUCH CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Bhattacharjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cataract formation is commonly observed as a result of blunt or penetrating ocular injury and constitutes one of major causes of acute or longstanding visual loss. The surgical technique, timing of surgery and postoperative complications have all been considered to be significant factors in determining the final visual outcome. The aim of the present study is to evaluate postoperative visual outcome in a series of patients with traumatic cataract and to assess the postoperative complications conducted at IQ City Medical College, Durgapur, West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A consecutive series of 45 patients with traumatic cataract were carefully selected from outpatient department between May 2015 and April 2017. All the patients had undergone manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with IOL implantation. Postoperative visual outcome and postoperative complications were assessed. RESULTS Corrected Visual Acuity (VA at the end of 6th week in 45 cases ranged between 6/6 and 6/60. Subjective correction with glasses ranged from -2 dioptre spherical to +1.5 dioptre spherical. 25 cases (55.5% had VA 6/6-6/9, 15 cases (33.3% had VA of 6/12 to 6/18, 4 cases (8.9% had VA between 6/24 and 6/36 and 1 case had VA 6/60. The group which had VA between 6/12 and 6/18 was due to the presence of posterior capsular opacification. CONCLUSION The present study reveals most of the traumatic cataract cases had favourable visual outcome. Considering the fact that a good number of paediatric patients were treated in this study, it assumes more significance with the favourable visual outcome that could be achieved, thus preventing deprivation amblyopia and blindness.

  3. Robot-assisted shopping for the visually impaired: proof-of-concept design and feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyukin, Vladimir; Gharpure, Chaitanya; Coster, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article presents RoboCart, a proof-of-concept prototype of a robotic shopping cart for the visually impaired in supermarkets. RoboCart autonomously leads shoppers to required locations and cues them through synthetic speech and a portable barcode reader to the salient features of the environment sufficient for product retrieval. In a longitudinal pilot feasibility study, visually impaired shoppers (n = 10) used the device to retrieve products in Lee's MarketPlace, a supermarket in Logan, Utah. The main finding is that RoboCart enables visually impaired shoppers to reliably and independently navigate to and retrieve products in a real supermarket.

  4. Evaluation of visual acuity and color vision in normal human eyes with a sutureless temporary amniotic membrane patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Akira; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate how sutureless amniotic membrane patches may affect visual functions in normal human eyes. Prospective intervention study. Ten sets of sutureless amniotic membrane patch manufactured as PROKERA were inserted in one eye of six normal patients. Four sets (one each) were inserted in four patients, while six sets (three each) were inserted in two patients. Uncorrected distant and near visual acuities, color vision, amniotic membrane thickness measured by pachymetry, and total symptom scores were compared before and after insertion. Within 30 minutes after insertion, mean distant visual acuities decreased from -0.22 +/- 0.06 to 0.92 +/- 0.45 logarithmic minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). Among 10 sets of PROKERA inserted, the largest optotype (1.0 logMAR) of the near vision chart could not be recognized in five, but color vision evaluated by Panel D-15 was still preserved in all. Total symptom scores increased to 47.8 +/- 9.1 points (maximum, 100 points). Among symptoms, total scores for foreign body sensation (17.8 +/- 3.6) and blurred vision (17.8 +/- 4.4) were high. Loss of distant visual acuity and increases of symptom scores were not correlated with amniotic membrane thickness, of which the mean was 67.6 +/- 25.2 mum. However, amniotic membrane that was less opaque tended to provide relatively good visual acuities. Because of the relative non-transparency of sutureless amniotic membrane patches in PROKERA, distant and near visual acuities decreased in normal human eyes. The foreign body sensation noted after insertion is primarily derived from the rigid supporting skirt.

  5. To evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Vyom; Goyal, Chinu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative status of oral health practices, oral hygiene, and periodontal status amongst visually impaired and sighted students. In this study, 142 visually impaired children from a blind school in the age group of 6-18 years were enrolled with a similar number of age and sex matched sighted students studying in different schools of Chandigarh. The outcome variables were oral hygiene practices, oral hygiene status, and periodontal status. The visually impaired had been found to have better oral hygiene practices, a nonsignificant difference of oral hygiene scores but a significantly high value for bleeding scores as compared to sighted students. Age wise comparisons showed that bleeding scores were highly significant in 9-11 years and 12-14 years age group as compared to 6-8 years and 15-18 years age group. It could be related that the increased prevalence of bleeding sites despite of better oral hygiene practices in visually impaired group might be the result of their handicap to visualize plaque. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visagie, Lisa; Loxton, Helene; Silverman, Wendy K

    2015-01-01

    ... and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9-13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a rando...

  7. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  8. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations...

  9. Development of Experimental Protocol for Visual Cognitive Function Evaluation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereverzeva D.S.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to present experimental protocol for investigation of visual cognitive function in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Description of experimental design is introduced by theoretical review of visual attention, perception and visual-motor control development in children with idiopathic autism and those with Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Research method presented in the article is based on recent studies of visual cognitive function development under normal and pathological condition. The protocol includes three experimental paradigms: “antisaccade test”, “big/ figures”, and “photos test” performed by making use of eye tracking recording. This work was supported by grant RFBR 14-06-31284

  10. An evaluation of the cross-check principle using visual reinforcement audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, and tympanometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Stacey M; Gajewski, Byron J; Widen, Judith E

    2010-03-01

    Early intervention to reduce the effects of congenital hearing loss requires accurate description of hearing loss. In pediatric audiology, a cross-check principle is used to compare behavioral and physiological tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correspondence of visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) minimal response levels (MRLs), otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), tympanometry, and VRA test reliability to determine the odds of obtaining the expected cross-check results. We hypothesized that (1) when MRLs were within normal limits (WNL), OAEs would be present; (2) in the event of normal MRLs and absent OAEs, tympanograms would be abnormal; and (3) in the event of elevated MRLs and present OAEs, the tester's confidence in the MRLs would be judged to be only fair, rather than good. This was a retrospective study. A previous study provided data from 993 infants who had diagnostic audiologic evaluations at 8-12 mo of age. The data were analyzed to compare VRA MRLs with OAE signal-to-noise ratios at 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to test the three hypotheses related to the correspondence among MRLs, OAEs, tympanometry, and the reliability of MRLs. The probability that OAEs would be present when MRLs were WNL varied from 12 to 26 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When OAEs were absent in the presence of normal MRLs, the odds of abnormal tympanometry varied from 5 to 10 to 1, depending on the test frequency. When MRLs were elevated (>20 dB HL), the odds suggested that examiners judged the MRLs at 1 and 2 kHz to lack reliability. The results suggest that the cross-check principle is effective when employing VRA, OAE, and tympanometry to rule out or determine the degree, type, and configuration of hearing loss in infants. American Academy of Audiology.

  11. Evaluation of self shade matching ability of dental students using visual and instrumental means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Samar; Labban, Manal; AlHariri, Morouj; Tashkandi, Esam

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of dental students to match the shade of their own teeth. Fifty female dental students in the College of Dentistry at King Saud University, who had not received any formal dental training in color science or shade matching procedures, were screened for color deficiencies and selected to participate in the study. Each subject and three clinicians selected independently the closest match for the subjects' own right or left sound maxillary central incisors under controlled viewing conditions, using VITA classical shade guide (VITA Zahnfabrik GmbH, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Each examined central incisor and the 16 samples of VITA classical shade guide were measured with the VITA Easy Shade (VES) spectrophotometer to determine the CIELAB color parameters. The color differences (ΔE) between each examined tooth and the 16 samples of the shade guide were calculated. The minimum ΔE values were compared to ΔE values of the shade obtained by VES, subjects and clinicians. The results showed a significant difference in the accuracy of shade selection between the instrumental and visual means. ΔE value of shade selected by clinicians was significantly lower than those selected by the subjects. It was concluded that, spectrophotometric shade analysis was more accurate compared to human shade assessment. A reliable self-perception of the subjects' own tooth color, may aid in the shade matching procedures. It might lead to increased patients' satisfaction at the finalization of the restorative procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then given a test of verbal semantic knowledge that presented them with the names of car models, to which they were to match the manufacturer. Lastly, they were given a test of visual recognition, presenting them with images of cars to which they were to provide information at three levels of specificity: model, manufacturer and decade of make. In controls, while self-ratings were only moderately correlated with either visual recognition or verbal semantic knowledge, verbal semantic knowledge was highly correlated with visual recognition, particularly for more specific levels of information. Item concordance showed that less-expert subjects were more likely to provide the most specific information (model name) for the image when they could also match the manufacturer to its name. Prosopagnosic subjects showed reduced visual recognition of cars after adjusting for verbal semantic scores. We conclude that visual recognition is highly correlated with verbal semantic knowledge, that formal measures of verbal semantic knowledge are a more accurate gauge of expertise than self-ratings, and that verbal semantic knowledge can be used to adjust tests of visual recognition for pre-morbid expertise in prosopagnosia. PMID:19805494

  13. The Mental Workload Evaluation in Visualizing Telehealth Indicators on Three-Dimensional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Filho, Amadeu S; Novaes, Magdala A; Gomes, Alex S

    2017-10-27

    As Internet bandwidth has risen, resulting in an exponential increase in the amount of data, one of the challenges is to transform large amounts of unstructured health data into legible information through visualization techniques to facilitate the decision-making between the telehealth managers. Traditionally, data visualization has been two-dimensional (2D), but it is often difficult to visualize and interpret when making decisions with multidimensional data. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization techniques are emerging to address this issue. This study aims to investigate and demonstrate the hypothesis that the use of 3D techniques for information visualization is more effective than some 2D visualization techniques. Hypothesis validation was performed with a usability methodology analyzing of the time, efficiency, effectiveness, and mental workload required in the execution of a task with a developed prototype. A random sample of telehealth professionals was used. Data were collected through observation and usability questionnaires, including the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) mental workload protocol. Data analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study showed that mental workload, despite the time of task execution and effectiveness of the prototype, with 3D technique was less than the 2D technique. The 3D technique required less mental effort than the 2D technique. The 3D environment supports the service manager to verify the telehealth quality of service toward the features provided by 3D environment, especially, its capability to identify trends, clusters of interest, and perform indicators comparison.

  14. Feasibility and performance evaluation of generating and recording visual evoked potentials using ambulatory Bluetooth based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Roger M; Oken, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Report contains the design overview and key performance measurements demonstrating the feasibility of generating and recording ambulatory visual stimulus evoked potentials using the previously reported custom Complementary and Alternative Medicine physiologic data collection and monitoring system, CAMAS. The methods used to generate visual stimuli on a PDA device and the design of an optical coupling device to convert the display to an electrical waveform which is recorded by the CAMAS base unit are presented. The optical sensor signal, synchronized to the visual stimulus emulates the brain's synchronized EEG signal input to CAMAS normally reviewed for the evoked potential response. Most importantly, the PDA also sends a marker message over the wireless Bluetooth connection to the CAMAS base unit synchronized to the visual stimulus which is the critical averaging reference component to obtain VEP results. Results show the variance in the latency of the wireless marker messaging link is consistent enough to support the generation and recording of visual evoked potentials. The averaged sensor waveforms at multiple CPU speeds are presented and demonstrate suitability of the Bluetooth interface for portable ambulatory visual evoked potential implementation on our CAMAS platform.

  15. Visual cognition in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Deisig, Nina; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Visual learning admits different levels of complexity, from the formation of a simple associative link between a visual stimulus and its outcome, to more sophisticated performances, such as object categorization or rules learning, that allow flexible responses beyond simple forms of learning. Not surprisingly, higher-order forms of visual learning have been studied primarily in vertebrates with larger brains, while simple visual learning has been the focus in animals with small brains such as insects. This dichotomy has recently changed as studies on visual learning in social insects have shown that these animals can master extremely sophisticated tasks. Here we review a spectrum of visual learning forms in social insects, from color and pattern learning, visual attention, and top-down image recognition, to interindividual recognition, conditional discrimination, category learning, and rule extraction. We analyze the necessity and sufficiency of simple associations to account for complex visual learning in Hymenoptera and discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying these visual performances.

  16. Evaluation of the Home Environment Assessment for the Visually Impaired (HEAVI): an instrument designed to quantify fall-related hazards in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenor, Bonnielin K; Yonge, Andrea V; Goldhammer, Victoria; Miller, Rhonda; Gitlin, Laura N; Ramulu, Pradeep

    2016-12-09

    To (1) develop and refine the Home Environment Assessment for the Visually Impaired (HEAVI), and (2) determine the interrater reliability of this instrument, which was designed to quantify the number of fall-related hazards in the homes of individuals with visual impairment. Twenty homes of community-dwelling adults were included in this study. Each home was graded by an occupational therapist (OT) and two non-expert (NE) graders. Seventy-three HEAVI items were evaluated in eight rooms, for a total of 185 potential hazards per home (some items were assessed in multiple rooms). Pairwise and three-way agreement between graders was evaluated at the item, room, and home level using Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Additionally, the most hazardous home locations and items were determined by comparing the mean and standard deviation of the number of hazards by room and grader. Of the 73 items, 45 (62%) demonstrated at least moderate agreement overall and for each OT/NE pair (Krippendorff's alpha >0.4), and remained in the final instrument (a total of 119 potential hazards per home as some items were assessed in multiple rooms). Of these 119 potential hazards, an average of 35.7, 33.2, and 33.3 hazards per home were identified by the OT and NE graders, respectively. Moderate to almost perfect agreement on the number of hazards per home and number of hazards per room, except the dining room, was found (ICCs of 0.58 to 0.93). Bathroom items were most often classified as hazards (>40% of items for all graders). The item classes most commonly graded as hazardous were handrails and lighting (>30% of items). Our results indicate that NE graders can accurately administer the HEAVI tool to identify fall-related hazards. Items in the bathroom and those related to handrails and lighting were most often identified as hazards, making these areas and items important targets for interventions when addressing falls.

  17. Avaliação da vertical visual subjetiva em indivíduos brasileiros normais Subjective visual vertical evaluation in normal Brazilian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. Kozoroski Kanashiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A função otolítica pode ser avaliada pela Vertical Visual Subjetiva (VVS que determina a capacidade de um indivíduo julgar se objetos estão na posição vertical na ausência de outras referências visuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a VVS em indivíduos brasileiros normais usando um aparelho portátil. As medidas da VVS foram realizadas em 160 indivíduos (16 a 85 anos. O valor médio da VVS foi obtido após dez ajustes. A VVS teve valores médios entre -2,0º e +2,4º (média=0,18º, e DP=0,77º. Não houve diferença entre as médias da VVS em relação à idade (teste de Kruskal-Wallis; p=0,40, mas as faixas etárias maiores tiveram variância maior (teste de Levene; p=0,016. Os valores da VVS encontrados neste estudo foram semelhantes aos registrados na literatura. Não houve diferença nas médias das inclinações da VVS de acordo com a idade, mas foi encontrada maior variância entre indivíduos mais idosos.Otolith function can be evaluated by subjective visual vertical (SVV that determine the capacity of a subject to judge if the objects are on vertical position with absence of any visual reference. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SVV in a sample of normal Brazilian subjects using a portable device. Measurements of SVV were performed in 160 normal subjects (aged from 16 to 85. SVV mean value was obtained after ten adjustments. SVV mean values ranged from -2.0º to +2.4º (mean=0.18º, and SD=0.77. Considering all age groups, there was no difference of SVV mean values (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.40, but older groups had a greater variance (Levene test; p=0.016. SVV values observed in this study are comparable to those described in previous studies. Although there was no difference in mean SVV-inclination according to age, there was a greater variance in older subjects.

  18. Evaluation of Static vs. Dynamic Visualizations for Engineering Technology Students and Implications on Spatial Visualization Ability: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros; Dickerson, Daniel; Jovanovic, Vukica; Jones, Mildred

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of using static versus dynamic visualizations is a controversial one. Few studies have explored the effectiveness of static visualizations to those of dynamic visualizations, and the current state of the literature remains somewhat unclear. During the last decade there has been a lengthy debate about the opportunities for using…

  19. Museums for all: evaluation of an audio descriptive guide for visually impaired visitors at the science museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Soler Gallego

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation and interpreting are valuable tools to improve accessibility at museums. Theese tools permit the museum communicate with visitors with different capabilities. The aim of this article is to show the results of a study carried out within the TACTO project, aimed at creating and evaluating an audio descriptive guide for visually impaired visitors at the Science Museum of Granada. The project focused on the linguistic aspects of the guide’s contents and its evaluation, which combined the participatory observation with a survey and interview. The results from this study allow us to conclude that the proposed design improves visually impaired visitors’ access to the museum. However, the expectations and specific needs of each visitor change considerably depending on individual factors such as their level of disability and museum visiting habits.

  20. ;Click; analytics for ;click; chemistry - A simple method for calibration-free evaluation of online NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik-Onichimowska, Aleksandra; Kern, Simon; Riedel, Jens; Panne, Ulrich; King, Rudibert; Maiwald, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Driven mostly by the search for chemical syntheses under biocompatible conditions, so called ;click; chemistry rapidly became a growing field of research. The resulting simple one-pot reactions are so far only scarcely accompanied by an adequate optimization via comparably straightforward and robust analysis techniques possessing short set-up times. Here, we report on a fast and reliable calibration-free online NMR monitoring approach for technical mixtures. It combines a versatile fluidic system, continuous-flow measurement of 1H spectra with a time interval of 20 s per spectrum, and a robust, fully automated algorithm to interpret the obtained data. As a proof-of-concept, the thiol-ene coupling between N-boc cysteine methyl ester and allyl alcohol was conducted in a variety of non-deuterated solvents while its time-resolved behaviour was characterized with step tracer experiments. Overlapping signals in online spectra during thiol-ene coupling could be deconvoluted with a spectral model using indirect hard modeling and were subsequently converted to either molar ratios (using a calibration-free approach) or absolute concentrations (using 1-point calibration). For various solvents the kinetic constant k for pseudo-first order reaction was estimated to be 3.9 h-1 at 25 °C. The obtained results were compared with direct integration of non-overlapping signals and showed good agreement with the implemented mass balance.

  1. "Click" analytics for "click" chemistry - A simple method for calibration-free evaluation of online NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik-Onichimowska, Aleksandra; Kern, Simon; Riedel, Jens; Panne, Ulrich; King, Rudibert; Maiwald, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Driven mostly by the search for chemical syntheses under biocompatible conditions, so called "click" chemistry rapidly became a growing field of research. The resulting simple one-pot reactions are so far only scarcely accompanied by an adequate optimization via comparably straightforward and robust analysis techniques possessing short set-up times. Here, we report on a fast and reliable calibration-free online NMR monitoring approach for technical mixtures. It combines a versatile fluidic system, continuous-flow measurement of 1H spectra with a time interval of 20s per spectrum, and a robust, fully automated algorithm to interpret the obtained data. As a proof-of-concept, the thiol-ene coupling between N-boc cysteine methyl ester and allyl alcohol was conducted in a variety of non-deuterated solvents while its time-resolved behaviour was characterized with step tracer experiments. Overlapping signals in online spectra during thiol-ene coupling could be deconvoluted with a spectral model using indirect hard modeling and were subsequently converted to either molar ratios (using a calibration-free approach) or absolute concentrations (using 1-point calibration). For various solvents the kinetic constant k for pseudo-first order reaction was estimated to be 3.9h-1 at 25°C. The obtained results were compared with direct integration of non-overlapping signals and showed good agreement with the implemented mass balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity amongst Descurainia sophia L. genotypes by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Sahar; Bagheri, Hedayat; Deljou, Ali; Zeinalabedini, Mehrshad

    2016-01-01

    Descurainia sophia is a valuable medicinal plant in family of Brassicaceae. To determine the range of diversity amongst D. sophia in Iran, 32 naturally distributed plants belonging to six natural populations of the Iranian plateau were investigated by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The average percentage of polymorphism produced by 12 ISSR primers was 86 %. The PIC values for primers ranged from 0.22 to 0.40 and Rp values ranged between 6.5 and 19.9. The relative genetic diversity of the populations was not high (Gst =0.32). However, the value of gene flow revealed by the ISSR marker was high (Nm = 1.03). UPGMA clustering method based on Jaccard similarity coefficient grouped the genotypes into two major clusters. Graph results from Neighbor-Net Network generated after a 1000 bootstrap test using Jaccard coefficient, and STRUCTURE analysis confirmed the UPGMA clustering. The first three PCAs represented 57.31 % of the total variation. The high levels of genetic diversity were observed within populations, which is useful in breeding and conservation programs. ISSR is found to be an eligible marker to study genetic diversity of D. sophia.

  3. Automated static perimetry: the influence of myopic anisometropia on evaluation of visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Sanja; Cerovski, Branimir; Perić, Porin; Skegro, Ivan; Tiljak, Hrvoje

    2013-04-01

    The aim of study was to establish which level of myopic refractive error influences visual field defects in automated static perimetry, if these defects are typical, and if optimal correction normalized the visual field. The study included 100 patients (200 eyes) divided into three groups according to the severity of the myopic refractive error: group A (till -3.25 Dsph), group B (-3.50 Dsph to -5.25 Dsph) and group C (-5.50 Dsph to -8.00 Dsph). The control group included 20 emmetropes (40 eyes). This study confirms that optimal corrected and uncorrected myopia up to -3.25 Dsph does not produce quantitative visual field defects, when tested by static automated perimetry. Even in optimally corrected myopics, with myopia higher than -5.50 Dsph, visual field defects on gray scale can be found. Defects are in the intermediary zone with more prominent defects in the upper quadrants. Visual field indices (MD, MS, LV RF) were completely normalized.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Several Simple Screening Tests for Risk of Neuropathic Ulcerations of Feet in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasca Monica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate three semi-quantitative screening methods used to predict ulceration risk in diabetic patients: 10 g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SW, 128-Hz tuning fork and VibraTip® device.

  5. Evaluating the Effect of Mozart Music and White Noise on Electroencephalography Pattern toward Visual Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifah Noor Syakiylla Sayed Daud

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Listening to auditory stimuli during study can give positive and negative influence on human cognitive processing. Thus, it has attracted researchers to conduct studies using various types of auditory stimuli. Some researchers believe that Mozart music and white noise are able to give positive influence on cognitive performance. However, most of the past studies gave more attention towards spatial task. Very little studies have been made on the effect of Mozart music and white noise towards memorizing task. Besides, the effect of these auditory stimuli on task difficulty has also not been studied deeply. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of Mozart music and white noise on memory performance with different task difficulty levels; and to propose an effective background stimuli condition for memorization. Experiments have been conducted involving 60 healthy adults that required them to memorize the visual memory task with two difficulty levels; i.e. easy and difficult. Brain signal was recorded during memorization duration using 10-20 electrode placement system of electroencephalography (EEG machine. EEG is a neurological test for measuring and recording the electrical activity of the brain. The effect of sound stimuli on memory performance was evaluated based on memorization test score and brain activity. The wavelet approach was used in processing the EEG data. Based on the memorizing test score result, the subjects are able to memorize better when listening to white noise compared to Mozart music at different difficulty levels. Listening to auditory stimuli can influence the electroencephalography pattern and brain activity. The level of sensory processing and attention increases when listening to white noise which cause the increase of relative gamma (easy level: p-value = 0.005; difficult level: p-value = 0.007 and beta power (easy level: p-value = 0.001; difficult level: p-value = 0.003. Thus, in this study, it is

  6. Evaluation of simple geochemical indicators of aeolian sand provenance: Late Quaternary dune fields of North America revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Dune fields of Quaternary age occupy large areas of the world's arid and semiarid regions. Despite this, there has been surprisingly little work done on understanding dune sediment provenance, in part because many techniques are time-consuming, prone to operator error, experimental, highly specialized, expensive, or require sophisticated instrumentation. Provenance of dune sand using K/Rb and K/Ba values in K-feldspar in aeolian sands of the arid and semiarid regions of North America is tested here. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba can distinguish different river sands that are sediment sources for dunes and dune fields themselves have distinctive K/Rb and K/Ba compositions. Over the Basin and Range and Great Plains regions of North America, the hypothesized sediment sources of dune fields are reviewed and assessed using K/Rb and K/Ba values in dune sands and in hypothesized source sediments. In some cases, the origins of dunes assessed in this manner are consistent with previous studies and in others, dune fields are found to have a more complex origin than previously thought. Use of K/Rb and K/Ba for provenance studies is a robust method that is inexpensive, rapid, and highly reproducible. It exploits one of the most common minerals found in dune sand, K-feldspar. The method avoids the problem of using simple concentrations of key elements that may be subject to interpretative bias due to changes in mineralogical maturity of Quaternary dune fields that occur over time.

  7. Evaluation of simple geochemical indicators of aeolian sand provenance: Late Quaternary dune fields of North America revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.

    2017-09-01

    Dune fields of Quaternary age occupy large areas of the world's arid and semiarid regions. Despite this, there has been surprisingly little work done on understanding dune sediment provenance, in part because many techniques are time-consuming, prone to operator error, experimental, highly specialized, expensive, or require sophisticated instrumentation. Provenance of dune sand using K/Rb and K/Ba values in K-feldspar in aeolian sands of the arid and semiarid regions of North America is tested here. Results indicate that K/Rb and K/Ba can distinguish different river sands that are sediment sources for dunes and dune fields themselves have distinctive K/Rb and K/Ba compositions. Over the Basin and Range and Great Plains regions of North America, the hypothesized sediment sources of dune fields are reviewed and assessed using K/Rb and K/Ba values in dune sands and in hypothesized source sediments. In some cases, the origins of dunes assessed in this manner are consistent with previous studies and in others, dune fields are found to have a more complex origin than previously thought. Use of K/Rb and K/Ba for provenance studies is a robust method that is inexpensive, rapid, and highly reproducible. It exploits one of the most common minerals found in dune sand, K-feldspar. The method avoids the problem of using simple concentrations of key elements that may be subject to interpretative bias due to changes in mineralogical maturity of Quaternary dune fields that occur over time.

  8. Establishment and Efficiency Evaluation of a Simple Mini hatchery for production of Oreochromis niloticus (GIFT strain seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.K.S.K. De Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple technology mini hatchery was established for small scale farmers to meet their own GIFT seed requirements. Different shapes and sizes of jars were trialed for incubation of eggs and yolk-sac larvae. Concaved bottom round plastic bottles (4 L and rectangular (3 L plastic trays gave the best hatchability of eggs and survival of yolk-sac larvae respectively. The best stocking density was 500 eggs/larvae L-1. Optimised flow rate into the incubation bottles and rearing trays were 2.70±0.18 L min-1 and 5.40±0.14 L min-1 respectively. Two gravel filters (15 L and 20 L made with discarded and low cost material purified the water from the incubation containers and directed into a water recirculation system. Production efficiency of this mini hatchery was compared with a hapa breeding method. Two hapas having 10 m3 size and 1.6 mm mesh were positioned in an earthen pond. Each hapa was stocked with 40 GIFT broodfish at 1:1 female to male ratio. In Phase I of the study (60 days, eggs collected from Hapa I were placed in incubation bottles and hatchability and survival rate were determined. In parallel, free-swimming fry were collected and counted from the Hapa II at every 14 days. The study continued in the same way for Phase II (next 60 days by interchanging the brood fish between Hapa I and Hapa II. Yield from the mini hatchery (24,000 fry was significantly different (P≤0.05 from hapa method (4,879 fry indicating that this established mini hatchery could serve as a productive model to support small scale farmers in GIFT seed production.

  9. Evaluation of a Class of Simple and Effective Uncertainty Methods for Sparse Samples of Random Variables and Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonney, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schroeder, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    When very few samples of a random quantity are available from a source distribution of unknown shape, it is usually not possible to accurately infer the exact distribution from which the data samples come. Under-estimation of important quantities such as response variance and failure probabilities can result. For many engineering purposes, including design and risk analysis, we attempt to avoid under-estimation with a strategy to conservatively estimate (bound) these types of quantities -- without being overly conservative -- when only a few samples of a random quantity are available from model predictions or replicate experiments. This report examines a class of related sparse-data uncertainty representation and inference approaches that are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective. Tradeoffs between the methods' conservatism, reliability, and risk versus number of data samples (cost) are quantified with multi-attribute metrics use d to assess method performance for conservative estimation of two representative quantities: central 95% of response; and 10-4 probability of exceeding a response threshold in a tail of the distribution. Each method's performance is characterized with 10,000 random trials on a large number of diverse and challenging distributions. The best method and number of samples to use in a given circumstance depends on the uncertainty quantity to be estimated, the PDF character, and the desired reliability of bounding the true value. On the basis of this large data base and study, a strategy is proposed for selecting the method and number of samples for attaining reasonable credibility levels in bounding these types of quantities when sparse samples of random variables or functions are available from experiments or simulations.

  10. Applying Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) Simple Scoring as an Evidence-based HTA Methodology for Evaluating Off-Patent Pharmaceuticals (OPPs) in Emerging Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixner, Diana; Maniadakis, Nikos; Kaló, Zoltán; Hu, Shanlian; Shen, Jie; Wijaya, Kalman

    2017-09-01

    Off-patent pharmaceuticals (OPPs) represent more than 60% of the pharmaceutical market in many emerging countries, where they are frequently evaluated primarily on cost rather than with health technology assessment. OPPs are assumed to be identical to the originators. Branded and unbranded generic versions can, however, vary from the originator in active pharmaceutical ingredients, dosage, consistency formulation, excipients, manufacturing processes, and distribution, for example. These variables can alter the efficacy and safety of the product, negatively impacting both the anticipated cost savings and the population's health. In addition, many health care systems lack the resources or expertise to evaluate such products, and current assessment methods can be complex and difficult to adapt to a health system's needs. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) simple scoring is an evidence-based health technology assessment methodology for evaluating OPPs, especially in emerging countries in which resources are limited but decision makers still must balance affordability with factors such as drug safety, level interchangeability, manufacturing site and active pharmaceutical ingredient quality, supply track record, and real-life outcomes. MCDA simple scoring can be applied to pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, formulary listing, and drug procurement. In November 2015, a workshop was held at the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Annual Meeting in Milan to refine and prioritize criteria that can be used in MCDA simple scoring for OPPs, resulting in an example MCDA process and 22 prioritized criteria that health care systems in emerging countries can easily adapt to their own decision-making processes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...... networks that include several regions outside the visual system. The two visual capacity parameters are functionally separable, but seem to rely on largely overlapping brain areas....

  12. An Evaluation of Instruction in Visual Imagining on the Written Spelling Performance of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Angelica A; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has evaluated the utility of teaching potentially covert strategies to mediate overt performance. As an extension of this developing literature, the current study used a multiple-probe design to evaluate the effects of instructing in a visual imagining strategy on correct written spelling responses with three adolescents with various learning disabilities. After the participants were presented with the textual target stimuli, they were instructed to imagine the word in their head before writing it down. All three participants demonstrated improvements in spelling after this instruction, but two of them required additional consequences to meet the mastery criterion.

  13. HEALTH SELF-EVALUATION OF ELDERLY PERSONS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER AND STATE OF HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Teskeredžić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Health self-evaluation, as a subjective measure, is related to person’s well-being because it encapsulates physical and emotional health evaluation. It has been concluded that subjective health is, for most of people, number one trait of quality of living that is connected to health. Individual is to decide which aspects of objective situation are important for their satisfaction in life. In other words, way in which a person will perceive and react to an objective situation depends on their personal traits. Aim of this research was to examine the differences in relation to gender and health state of visually impaired older persons of that live in institutional accommodation, by self-evaluation. Respondents sample was comprised of 40 visually impaired older persons, both genders (13 male and 27 female that live in nursing home “Dom penzionera” in Tuzla. Research has been conducted by interview, using questionnaire “Quality of life of adult persons with motoric disabilities in territory of Vojvodina” (Susnjevic, 2015. Because of the structure of questions in questionnaire, it was possible to apply it on visually impaired persons as well. Data acquired had been processed with descriptive statistics, hi-squre and t – test, in order to determine if there were differences in relation to gender and selfevaluation of physical and social functioning. Results of the research have shown that although means have proven that there are differences in acquired results between respondents of male and female gender, results of t-test have shown that those differences are not statistically significant. Presence of any kind of damage, and visual impairment as well can influence person’s psychological and physical integrity.

  14. Interpreting Visual Texts: Use of an Analytic Rubric to Evaluate Student Responses to Writing Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.; O'Neil, Kathleen; Fanselow, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Younger students' visual texts are statements and stories conveyed through drawings or other artwork and often convey meaning beyond the child's capability to communicate with written expression. Although opportunities for expression through drawing are routinely offered to children in the initial and middle stages of early childhood literacy…

  15. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  16. Evaluation of Visual Arts Lesson Gains According to the Learning Steps of Cognitive, Affective Psychomotor Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, Eylem

    2012-01-01

    Primary education (1-8 Grades) Visual Arts Instruction Schedule is a program built up and constituted by a commission composed of academicians and specialist teachers in their fields within the body of Ministry of National Education in year 2006 on the basis of "constructivist approach" philosophy of education. Instruction Schedule…

  17. Evaluation of Modular EFL Educational Program (Audio-Visual Materials Translation & Translation of Deeds & Documents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Sahar Sadat Afshar

    2013-01-01

    Modular EFL Educational Program has managed to offer specialized language education in two specific fields: Audio-visual Materials Translation and Translation of Deeds and Documents. However, no explicit empirical studies can be traced on both internal and external validity measures as well as the extent of compatibility of both courses with the…

  18. Visual versus mechanised leucocyte differential counts: costing and evaluation of traditional and Hemalog D methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M J; Green, A E

    1980-11-01

    Visual differential counts were examined for efficiency, cost effectiveness, and staff acceptability within our laboratory. A comparison with the Hemalog D system was attempted. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are enumerated and discussed in the context of a large general hospital.

  19. Signature Evaluation Tool (SET: a Java-based tool to evaluate and visualize the sample discrimination abilities of gene expression signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chi-Hung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of specific gene expression signature for distinguishing sample groups is a dominant field in cancer research. Although a number of tools have been developed to identify optimal gene expression signatures, the number of signature genes obtained is often overly large to be applied clinically. Furthermore, experimental verification is sometimes limited by the availability of wet-lab materials such as antibodies and reagents. A tool to evaluate the discrimination power of candidate genes is therefore in high demand by clinical researchers. Results Signature Evaluation Tool (SET is a Java-based tool adopting the Golub's weighted voting algorithm as well as incorporating the visual presentation of prediction strength for each array sample. SET provides a flexible and easy-to-follow platform to evaluate the discrimination power of a gene signature. Here, we demonstrated the application of SET for several purposes: (1 for signatures consisting of a large number of genes, SET offers the ability to rapidly narrow down the number of genes; (2 for a given signature (from third party analyses or user-defined, SET can re-evaluate and re-adjust its discrimination power by selecting/de-selecting genes repeatedly; (3 for multiple microarray datasets, SET can evaluate the classification capability of a signature among datasets; and (4 by providing a module to visualize the prediction strength for each sample, SET allows users to re-evaluate the discrimination power on mis-grouped or less-certain samples. Information obtained from the above applications could be useful in prognostic analyses or clinical management decisions. Conclusion Here we present SET to evaluate and visualize the sample-discrimination ability of a given gene expression signature. This tool provides a filtration function for signature identification and lies between clinical analyses and class prediction (or feature selection tools. The simplicity

  20. The use of cyanoacrylate sealant as simple mesh fixation in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: a large animal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, E; Van Cleven, S; Van Overbeke, I; Chiers, K; De Baets, P; Troisi, R; Berrevoet, F

    2015-08-01

    The use of glue as mesh fixation in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) significantly reduces fixation associated morbidity. This experiment evaluates the intraperitoneal use of synthetic glue as single mesh fixation. A total of 21 sheep were operated using a hernia model with two fascial defects of 2 cm(2) at the linea alba. One week later two polypropylene meshes (Dynamesh®) were implanted laparoscopically, using cyanoacrylate glue (Ifabond®) or conventional fixation (Securestrap®). In half of the animals the fascial defect was closed before mesh placement. After 1 day (n = 6), 2 weeks (n = 8) and 6 months (n = 6), a second laparoscopy was performed at which hernia recurrence, mesh integration and adhesion formation were evaluated. After euthanasia, burst strength testing and histopathology were evaluated. One animal died due to intestinal incarceration. In 20 surviving animals, no hernias were diagnosed and mesh placement was satisfying. Adhesions could hardly be observed after 1 day but were omnipresent in both groups at 2 weeks and 6 months. Burst strength testing exceeded 100 N in all samples, independent of the fixation device used. Not after 1 day, but after 2 weeks the inflammatory cell response was significantly higher in the glue group. At 6 months minor inflammation was seen, as was foreign body reaction (FBR). Using a standardized biomechanical testing system, synthetic glue can be considered an effective fixation tool in LVHR. The possible tissue toxicity of cyanoacrylates does not lead to an increased FBR. No difference in burst strength was observed for closing or not closing the defect.

  1. IEA SHC Task 42/ECES Annex 29 – A Simple Tool for the Economic Evaluation of Thermal Energy Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Hiebler, Stefan; Lävemann, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    to the capital costs, the intended payback period of the user class (e.g. industry or building), the reference energy costs, and the annual number of storage cycles. The Bottom-up approach focuses on the realised storage capacity costs of existing storages. The economic evaluation via Top-down and Bottom......-up approach is a valuable tool to make a rough estimate of the economic viability of an energy storage for a specific application. An important finding is that the annual number of storage cycles has the largest influence on the cost effectiveness. At present and with respect to the investigated storages...

  2. Re-phrasing the question: A simple tool for evaluation of adherence to therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, T; Ungar, B; Ben-Haim, G; Levhar, N; Eliakim, R; Ben-Horin, S

    2017-10-01

    -adherence was skepticism about drug efficacy or safety (20.5%), followed by vacation or weekend (15%), problems with prescription or pharmacy (13.5%) and forgetfulness (10%). No single demographic or clinical factor correlated with non-adherence. The only factor which correlated with higher probability for non-adherence was biological and combination treatment. Non-compliance with treatment is much more common than patients admit. Asking patients how often does it happen that they miss a drug dosing is a simple, practical tool which performs significantly better in disclosing non-adherence compared with asking patients if they take their medication as they should.

  3. Towards an assistive peripheral visual prosthesis for long-term treatment of retinitis pigmentosa: evaluating mobility performance in immersive simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Marc Patrick H.; Boon, Mei-Ying; Matteucci, Paul B.; Lovell, Nigel H.; Suaning, Gregg J.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The prospective efficacy of a future peripheral retinal prosthesis complementing residual vision to raise mobility performance in non-end stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was evaluated using simulated prosthetic vision (SPV). Approach. Normally sighted volunteers were fitted with a wide-angle head-mounted display and carried out mobility tasks in photorealistic virtual pedestrian scenarios. Circumvention of low-lying obstacles, path following, and navigating around static and moving pedestrians were performed either with central simulated residual vision of 10° alone or enhanced by assistive SPV in the lower and lateral peripheral visual field (VF). Three layouts of assistive vision corresponding to hypothetical electrode array layouts were compared, emphasizing higher visual acuity, a wider visual angle, or eccentricity-dependent acuity across an intermediate angle. Movement speed, task time, distance walked and collisions with the environment were analysed as performance measures. Main results. Circumvention of low-lying obstacles was improved with all tested configurations of assistive SPV. Higher-acuity assistive vision allowed for greatest improvement in walking speeds—14% above that of plain residual vision, while only wide-angle and eccentricity-dependent vision significantly reduced the number of collisions—both by 21%. Navigating around pedestrians, there were significant reductions in collisions with static pedestrians by 33% and task time by 7.7% with the higher-acuity layout. Following a path, higher-acuity assistive vision increased walking speed by 9%, and decreased collisions with stationary cars by 18%. Significance. The ability of assistive peripheral prosthetic vision to improve mobility performance in persons with constricted VFs has been demonstrated. In a prospective peripheral visual prosthesis, electrode array designs need to be carefully tailored to the scope of tasks in which a device aims to assist. We posit that maximum

  4. Evaluation of Melbourne Edge Test contrast sensitivity measures in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Eperjesi, Frank; Napper, Genevieve

    2005-07-01

    Contrast sensitivity (CS) provides important information on visual function. This study aimed to assess differences in clinical expediency of the CS increment-matched new back-lit and original paper versions of the Melbourne Edge Test (MET) to determine the CS of the visually impaired. The back-lit and paper MET were administered to 75 visually impaired subjects (28-97 years). Two versions of the back-lit MET acetates were used to match the CS increments with the paper-based MET. Measures of CS were repeated after 30 min and again in the presence of a focal light source directed onto the MET. Visual acuity was measured with a Bailey-Lovie chart and subjects rated how much difficulty they had with face and vehicle recognition. The back-lit MET gave a significantly higher CS than the paper-based version (14.2 +/- 4.1 dB vs 11.3 +/- 4.3 dB, p < 0.001). A significantly higher reading resulted with repetition of the paper-based MET (by 1.0 +/- 1.7 dB, p < 0.001), but this was not evident with the back-lit MET (by 0.1 +/- 1.4 dB, p = 0.53). The MET readings were increased by a focal light source, in both the back-lit (by 0.3 +/- 0.81, p < 0.01) and paper-based (1.2 +/- 1.7, p < 0.001) versions. CS as measured by the back-lit and paper-based versions of the MET was significantly correlated to patients' perceived ability to recognise faces (r = 0.71, r = 0.85 respectively; p < 0.001) and vehicles (r = 0.67, r = 0.82 respectively; p < 0.001), and with distance visual acuity (both r = -0.64; p < 0.001). The CS increment-matched back-lit MET gives higher CS values than the old paper-based test by approximately 3 dB and is more repeatable and less affected by external light sources. Clinically, the MET score provides information on patient difficulties with visual tasks, such as recognising faces.

  5. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C.; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. Methods A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Results Both the training only intervention (p ergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. PMID:22030069

  6. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Both the training only intervention (pergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of the traffic parameters in a metropolitan area by fusing visual perceptions and CNN processing of webcam images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Alberto; Giordano, Daniela; Spampinato, Concetto

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes a traffic monitoring architecture based on a high-speed communication network whose nodes are equipped with fuzzy processors and cellular neural network (CNN) embedded systems. It implements a real-time mobility information system where visual human perceptions sent by people working on the territory and video-sequences of traffic taken from webcams are jointly processed to evaluate the fundamental traffic parameters for every street of a metropolitan area. This paper presents the whole methodology for data collection and analysis and compares the accuracy and the processing time of the proposed soft computing techniques with other existing algorithms. Moreover, this paper discusses when and why it is recommended to fuse the visual perceptions of the traffic with the automated measurements taken from the webcams to compute the maximum traveling time that is likely needed to reach any destination in the traffic network.

  8. WinSim: A simple simulation program for evaluating the influence of windows on heating demand and risk of overheating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    A two-node model of a room has been implemented in a computer program, WinSim, devel-oped for evaluation of thermal performance of windows in new buildings and in case of retro-fitting. The program calculates the annual heating demand and the number of hours with in-door temperatures higher than...... a user defined limit. WinSim is characterised by the limited amount of required input data. Guide-lines for calculation of the effective thermal capacity of the room is given, and results obtained with WinSim have been compared to results from an advanced building simulation program. Good agreement has...... been found between the two programs with respect to calculated annual heating demand and energy savings due to win-dow exchange, and also the calculated number of hours with overtemperature is similar. Based on the limited examples used for the comparison it can be concluded that WinSim is well suited...

  9. How Strong Is Your Coffee? The Influence of Visual Metaphors and Textual Claims on Consumers’ Flavor Perception and Product Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relative impact of textual claims and visual metaphors displayed on the product’s package on consumers’ flavor experience and product evaluation. For consumers, strength is one of the most important sensory attributes of coffee. The 2 × 3 between-subjects experiment (N = 123 compared the effects of visual metaphor of strength (an image of a lion located either on top or on the bottom of the package of coffee beans and the direct textual claim (“extra strong” on consumers’ responses to coffee, including product expectation, flavor evaluation, strength perception and purchase intention. The results demonstrate that both the textual claim and the visual metaphor can be efficient in communicating the product attribute of strength. The presence of the image positively influenced consumers’ product expectations before tasting. The textual claim increased the perception of strength of coffee and the purchase intention of the product. The location of the image also played an important role in flavor perception and purchase intention. The image located on the bottom of the package increased the perceived strength of coffee and purchase intention of the product compared to the image on top of the package. This result could be interpreted from the perspective of the grounded cognition theory, which suggests that a picture in the lower part of the package would automatically activate the “strong is heavy” metaphor. As heavy objects are usually associated with a position on the ground, this would explain why perceiving a visually heavy package would lead to the experience of a strong coffee. Further research is needed to better understand the relationships between a metaphorical image and its spatial position in food packaging design.

  10. A biomechanical evaluation of visually impaired persons' gait and long-cane mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, V K; Blasch, B B; Kita, A; Johnson, B F

    1999-10-01

    This study was designed to compare selected kinematic components of gait and long cane mechanics between groups of visually impaired travelers. Twenty subjects were placed in Traditional or Modified technique groups according to their long cane traveling technique. Subjects were measured during the following conditions; 1) normal walking (NW), 2) walking while anticipating a simulated drop-off (AD), 3) walking while responding to an audible task (ST) and, 4) walking while anticipating a simulated drop-off and responding to an audible task (STAD). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's r correlation coefficient. Analyses revealed no differences between groups of travelers. However, significant differences were noted between trials for components of gait velocity, stride length, and hip flexion velocity. These findings may indicate a potentially dangerous alteration in the normal gait cycle of visually impaired travelers when faced with additional attention-demanding tasks while walking.

  11. 3D Nondestructive Visualization and Evaluation of TRISO Particles Distribution in HTGR Fuel Pebbles Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongyi Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonuniform distribution of tristructural isotropic (TRISO particles within a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR pebble may lead to excessive thermal gradients and nonuniform thermal expansion during operation. If the particles are closely clustered, local hotspots may form, leading to excessive stresses on particle layers and an increased probability of particle failure. Although X-ray digital radiography (DR is currently used to evaluate the TRISO distributions in pebbles, X-ray DR projection images are two-dimensional in nature, which would potentially miss some details for 3D evaluation. This paper proposes a method of 3D visualization and evaluation of the TRISO distribution in HTGR pebbles using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT: first, a pebble is scanned on our high-resolution CBCT, and 2D cross-sectional images are reconstructed; secondly, all cross-sectional images are restructured to form the 3D model of the pebble; then, volume rendering is applied to segment and display the TRISO particles in 3D for visualization and distribution evaluation. For method validation, several pebbles were scanned and the 3D distributions of the TRISO particles within the pebbles were produced. Experiment results show that the proposed method provides more 3D than DR, which will facilitate pebble fabrication research and production quality control.

  12. Recommendations on a Test Infrastructure for Evaluation of Touchscreen Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired Users

    OpenAIRE

    Smaradottir, Berglind; Håland, Jarle; Martinez, Santiago; Somdal, Åsmund Rodvig; Fensli, Rune Werner

    2015-01-01

    Published version of a paper from the 13th Scandinavian Conference on Health Informatics, Tromsø Mobile technologies’ touchscreen allows the use of choreography of gestures to interact with the user interface. Relevant aspects in mobile technology design become crucial when targeting users with disabilities. For instance, when assistive technology is designed to support speech interaction between visually impaired users and a system, accessibility and ease-of-use of such technology should...

  13. Semantic descriptor ranking: a quantitative method for evaluating qualitative verbal reports of visual cognition in the laboratory or the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Matthew; Odel, Jeffrey; Hegdé, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For scientific, clinical, and machine learning purposes alike, it is desirable to quantify the verbal reports of high-level visual percepts. Methods to do this simply do not exist at present. Here we propose a novel methodological principle to help fill this gap, and provide empirical evidence designed to serve as the initial "proof" of this principle. In the proposed method, subjects view images of real-world scenes and describe, in their own words, what they saw. The verbal description is independently evaluated by several evaluators. Each evaluator assigns a rank score to the subject's description of each visual object in each image using a novel ranking principle, which takes advantage of the well-known fact that semantic descriptions of real life objects and scenes can usually be rank-ordered. Thus, for instance, "animal," "dog," and "retriever" can be regarded as increasingly finer-level, and therefore higher ranking, descriptions of a given object. These numeric scores can preserve the richness of the original verbal description, and can be subsequently evaluated using conventional statistical procedures. We describe an exemplar implementation of this method and empirical data that show its feasibility. With appropriate future standardization and validation, this novel method can serve as an important tool to help quantify the subjective experience of the visual world. In addition to being a novel, potentially powerful testing tool, our method also represents, to our knowledge, the only available method for numerically representing verbal accounts of real-world experience. Given that its minimal requirements, i.e., a verbal description and the ground truth that elicited the description, our method has a wide variety of potential real-world applications.

  14. Semantic Descriptor Ranking: A Quantitative Method for Evaluating Qualitative Verbal Reports of Visual Cognition in the Laboratory or the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eMaestri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For scientific, clinical, and machine learning purposes alike, it is desirable to quantify the verbal reports of high-level visual percepts. Methods to do this simply do not exist at present. Here we propose a novel methodological principle to help fill this gap, and provide empirical evidence designed to serve as the initial ‘proof’ of this principle. In the proposed method, subjects view images real-world scenes and describe, in their own words, what they saw. The verbal description is independently evaluated by several evaluators. Each evaluator assigns a rank score to the subject’s description of each visual object in each image using a novel ranking principle, which takes advantage of the well-known fact that semantic descriptions of real-life objects and scenes can usually be rank-ordered. Thus, for instance, ‘animal’, ‘dog’, and ‘retriever’ can be regarded as increasingly finer-level, and therefore higher-ranking, descriptions of a given object. These numeric scores can preserve the richness of the original verbal description, and can be subsequently evaluated using conventional statistical procedures. We describe an exemplar implementation of this method and empirical data that show its feasibility. With appropriate future standardization and validation, this novel method can serve as an important tool to help quantify the subjective experience of the visual world. In addition to being a novel, potentially powerful testing tool, our method also represents, to our knowledge, the only available method for numerically representing verbal accounts of real-world experience. Given that its minimal requirements, i.e., a verbal description and the ground truth that elicited the description, our method has a wide variety of potential real-world applications.

  15. Evaluating spatial- and temporal-oriented multi-dimensional visualization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Ho Yu

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visualization tools are said to be helpful for researchers to unveil hidden patterns and..relationships among variables, and also for teachers to present abstract statistical concepts and..complicated data structures in a concrete manner. However, higher-dimension visualization..techniques can be confusing and even misleading, especially when human-instrument interface..and cognitive issues are under-applied. In this article, the efficacy of function-based, datadriven,..spatial-oriented, and temporal-oriented visualization techniques are discussed based..upon extensive review. Readers can find practical implications for both research and..instructional practices. For research purposes, the spatial-based graphs, such as Trellis displays..in S-Plus, are preferable over the temporal-based displays, such as the 3D animated plot in..SAS/Insight. For teaching purposes, the temporal-based displays, such as the 3D animation plot..in Maple, seem to have advantages over the spatial-based graphs, such as the 3D triangular..coordinate plot in SyStat.

  16. Visualizing the qualitative: making sense of written comments from an evaluative satisfaction survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith V. Bletzer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Satisfaction surveys are common in the field of health education, as a means of assisting organizations to improve the appropriateness of training materials and the effectiveness of facilitation-presentation. Data can be qualitative of which analysis often become specialized. This technical article aims to reveal whether qualitative survey results can be visualized by presenting them as a Word Cloud. Methods: Qualitative materials in the form of written comments on an agency-specific satisfaction survey were coded and quantified. The resulting quantitative data were used to convert comments into “input terms” to generate Word Clouds to increase comprehension and accessibility through visualization of the written responses. Results: A three-tier display incorporated a Word Cloud at the top, followed by the corresponding frequency table, and a textual summary of the qualitative data represented by the Word Cloud imagery. This mixed format adheres to recognition that people vary in what format is most effective for assimilating new information. Conclusion: The combination of visual representation through Word Clouds complemented by quantified qualitative materials is one means of increasing comprehensibility for a range of stakeholders, who might not be familiar with numerical tables or statistical analyses.

  17. Evaluating the Use of Visualization Resources for Teaching Inquiry to Pre-service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, M. R.; Quadracci, K.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed a pilot method for assessing student outcomes as they are related to the teaching of inquiry. The pilot assessment model focuses on improving elementary teacher preparation in geosciences at the University of Northern Colorado. The model consists of a structure for implementing visualization learning environments in an undergraduate upper division course for non-majors (simulations, modeling, and imagery of real data sets) and a method for assessing student outcomes. We will present the framework, data, and analysis from a two-semester study. Data indicates students are able to scaffold their inquiry skills in interpreting the relationship among three or more variables in a complex system. For example, students are able to use visualizations to observe, analyze, and predict volcanic type, earthquake depth, and earthquake magnitude relationships based on the type of plate boundary. Students then refine, apply, and defend their knowledge to a new world; complete with plate boundaries they've created. The entire learning environment is managed using WorldWatcher, a complete data analysis and visualization software.

  18. A Portuguese version of the Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services: a simple outcome evaluation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Christo Inventory for Substance-Misuse Services (CISS is a single page outcome evaluation tool completed by drug alcohol service workers either on the basis of direct client interviews or of personal experience of their client supplemented by existing assessment notes. It was developed to assist substance misuse services to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of their treatments to their respective funding bodies. Its 0 to 20 unidimensional scale consists of 10 items reflecting clients' problems with social functioning, general health, sexual/injecting risk behavior, psychological functioning, occupation, criminal involvement, drug/alcohol use, ongoing support, compliance, and working relationships. Good reliability and validity has already been demonstrated for the CISS [Christo et al., Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2000; 59: 189-197] but the original was written in English and a Portuguese version is presented here. The present review explores its applicability to a Brazilian setting, summarizes its characteristics and uses, and describes the process of translation to Portuguese. A pilot study conducted in a substance misuse service for adolescents indicated it is likely to be suitable for use among a Brazilian population. The simplicity, flexibility and brevity of the CISS make it a useful tool allowing comparison of clients within and between many different service settings.

  19. Development of a simple measurement scale to evaluate the severity of non-specific low back pain for industrial ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Kumashiro, Mashaharu

    2010-06-01

    This study developed an assessment scale that hierarchically classifies degrees of low back pain severity. This assessment scale consists of two subscales: 1) pain intensity; 2) pain interference. First, the assessment scale devised by the authors was used to administer a self-administered questionnaire to 773 male workers in the car manufacturing industry. Subsequently, the validity of the measurement items was examined and some of them were revised. Next, the corrected low back pain scale was used in a self-administered questionnaire, the subjects of which were 5053 ordinary workers. The hierarchical validity between the measurement items was checked based on the results of Mokken Scale analysis. Finally, a low back pain assessment scale consisting of seven items was perfected. Quantitative assessment is made possible by scoring the items and low back pain severity can be classified into four hierarchical levels: none; mild; moderate; severe. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of this scale devised by the authors allows a more detailed assessment of the degree of risk factor effect and also should prove useful both in selecting remedial measures for occupational low back pain and evaluating their efficacy.

  20. Stretch Reflex as a Simple Measure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Potential Flight Countermeasures Using the Bed Rest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is acknowledged to have significant effects on the major postural muscles. However, it has been difficult to separate the effects of ascending somatosensory changes caused by the unloading of these muscles during flight from changes in sensorimotor function caused by a descending vestibulo-cerebellar response to microgravity. It is hypothesized that bed rest is an adequate model to investigate postural muscle unloading given that spaceflight and bed rest may produce similar results in both nerve axon and muscle tissue. METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, stretch reflexes were measured on 18 subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 deg at a peak velocity of approximately 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender and compared with spaceflight data. RESULTS: Although no gender differences were found, bed rest induced changes in reflex latency and CV similar to the ones observed during spaceflight. Also, a relationship between CV and loss of muscle strength in the lower leg was observed for most bed rest subjects. CONCLUSION: Even though bed rest (limb unloading) alone may not mimic all of the synaptic and muscle tissue loss that is observed as a result of spaceflight, it can serve as a working analog of flight for the evaluation of potential countermeasures that may be beneficial in mitigating unwanted changes in the major postural muscles that are observed post flight.

  1. Preparation, Characterization and in vivo Evaluation of Simple Monolithic Ethylcellulose-coated Pellets Containing Topiramate with Biphasic Release Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Wang, Yuli; Shao, Shuai; Xie, Si; Shan, Li; Yang, Meiyan; Gao, Chunsheng; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used both as a binder and a pore-former to prepare ethylcellulose (EC)-coated pellets to deliver topiramate (TPM) for a controlled release profile. The objective of this work was to further optimize the formulation and evaluate the in vivo profiles of TPM sustained-release pellets. Similar to the previous formulation with no binder, the in vitro drug release of TPM sustained-release pellets with 50% PVP binder in drug layer was sensitive to pore-former PVP level ranged from 27.0% to 29.0%. The higher the level of PVP was, the quicker release rate in vitro was. Moreover, when the proportion of poreformer PVP decreased, the Cmax decreased, and the tmax and mean residence time of TPM coated pellets were both prolonged. The in vitro release profile of optimal formulation showed biphasic release characteristics similar to reference formulation Trokendi XR(®), i.e., involving immediate release of TPM in initial release stage followed by a sustained release up to 24 h. Moreover, the impact of the pH of release medium on the drug release rate of TPM sustained-release pellets was not significant. The release mechanism of TPM from the sustained-release pellets might be the interaction of diffusion (coating-film) and corrosion (drug layer). The in vivo pharmacokinetics results showed the TPM sustained-release pellets had the similar in vivo pattern compared with Trokendi XR(®). These studies provide valuable basis for further development of TPM sustained-release pellets.

  2. Effects of the office environment on health and productivity 1: Auditory and visual distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E. de; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual

  3. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDS FROM SIMPLE CROSSES USING MAIZE ELITE LANDRACES WITH FORAGE OUTSTANDING CHARACTERISTICS FOR A MEXICAN ARID LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. García Hernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Comarca Lagunera region is the most important area of maize forage in México. In this region; which is shared by the Mexican States of Coahuila and Durango, are used a great amount of hybrids and varieties of maize imported from other countries. Generally, these genotypes are not completely adapted to the soil and/or climatic conditions of the region. These antecedents lead scientists to pursuit for genotypes with the best adaptation to such conditions. The present investigation was carried out with the aim to find the best hybrids from the crosses of ten self-pollinating landraces following a diallel mating design. The landraces were obtained from different institutions: a the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT, b the “Antonio Narro” Agrarian Autonomist University (UAAAN, and c the National Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following variables were evaluated from the hybrids: whole plant fresh matter yield (FMY, whole plant dry matter (DMY, fresh fruit yield (FFY fresh stem yield (FSY, and fresh foliar yield (FLY. All variables reported as t ha-1. The Griffing statistical analysis was used to determine the general combining ability (GCA, and the specific combining ability (SCA. The highest values of GCA were obtained for the landraces M7, M8, and M9. The hybrids with highest SCA were: M5xM7, M2xM7, M6x10, M4xM8, M5xM8, M8xM10, M2xM5, M1xM10 and M6xM9. Two of these hybrids (M5xM7 and M2xM7 also showed the highest values for FMY and DMY. In conclusion, there is enough variability on FMY and DMY to believe on the possibility to find the most appropriate hybrid for the targeted region, and also to extend the breeding program to other arid lands in México

  4. Evaluation of an Audio-Visual Novela to Improve Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge toward Dementia: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Unger, Jennifer B; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Mel

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration in cognitive ability that limits the capacity for independent living. Interventions are needed to target the medical, social, psychological, and knowledge needs of caregivers and patients. This study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a dementia novela presented in an audio-visual format in improving dementia attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. Adults from Los Angeles (N = 42, 83% female, 90% Hispanic/Latino, mean age = 42.2 years, 41.5% with less than a high school education) viewed an audio-visual novela on dementia. Participants completed surveys immediately before and after viewing the material. The novela produced significant improvements in overall knowledge (t(41) = -9.79, p novela can be useful for improving attitudes and knowledge about dementia, but further work is needed to investigate the relation with health disparities in screening and treatment behaviors. Audio visual novelas are an innovative format for health education and change attitudes and knowledge about dementia.

  5. Evaluating refraction and visual acuity with the Nidek autorefractometer AR-360A in a randomized population-based screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoor, Katri; Karvonen, Elina; Liinamaa, Johanna; Saarela, Ville

    2017-11-30

    The evaluation of visual acuity (VA) and refraction in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Eye study was performed using the Nidek AR-360A autorefractometer. The accuracy of the method for this population-based screening study was assessed. Measurements of the refractive error were obtained from the right eyes of 1238 subjects (mean age 47), first objectively with the AR-360A and then subjectively by an optometrist. Agreement with the subjective refraction was calculated for sphere, cylinder, mean spherical equivalent (MSE), cylindrical vectors J 45 and J 0 and presbyopic correction (add). Visual acuity (VA) was measured using an ETDRS chart and the autorefractometer. The refractive error measured with the AR-360A was higher than the subjective refraction performed by the optometrist for sphere (0.007 D ± 0.24 D p = 0.30) and also for cylinder (-0.16 D ± 0.20 D p refraction. In 99.2% of the measurements, visual values were within one decimal line of each other. The Nidek AR-360A autorefractometer is an accurate tool for determining the refraction and VA in a clinical screening trial. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Visually impaired drivers who use bioptic telescopes: self-assessed driving skills and agreement with on-road driving evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Elgin, Jennifer; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-01-15

    To compare self-assessed driving habits and skills of licensed drivers with central visual loss who use bioptic telescopes to those of age-matched normally sighted drivers, and to examine the association between bioptic drivers' impressions of the quality of their driving and ratings by a "backseat" evaluator. Participants were licensed bioptic drivers (n = 23) and age-matched normally sighted drivers (n = 23). A questionnaire was administered addressing driving difficulty, space, quality, exposure, and, for bioptic drivers, whether the telescope was helpful in on-road situations. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed. Information on ocular diagnosis, telescope characteristics, and bioptic driving experience was collected from the medical record or in interview. On-road driving performance in regular traffic conditions was rated independently by two evaluators. Like normally sighted drivers, bioptic drivers reported no or little difficulty in many driving situations (e.g., left turns, rush hour), but reported more difficulty under poor visibility conditions and in unfamiliar areas (P evaluators' ratings. Bioptic drivers show insight into the overall quality of their driving and areas in which they experience driving difficulty. They report using the bioptic telescope while driving, contrary to previous claims that it is primarily used to pass the vision screening test at licensure.

  7. An Evaluation Method for Façade Renovation Strategies in Residential Buildings Using Gaze Responsive Visual Comfort Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarey Khanie, Mandana; Ślipek, M.; Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria

    Maintaining daylight quality while ensuring thermal comfort during periods of high solar gain proves to be a challenge in renovated multi-story housing. The objective of this study was to develop guidelines for facade renovation, where overheating problems can only be avoided through façade...... solutions. As a first step, different shading systems have been investigated and compared in terms of their daylight performance, visual comfort and gaze responsive characteristics. This trio evaluation method is going to be further developed and used for a larger set of selected shading devices....

  8. Tillage effects on topsoil structural quality assessed using X-ray CT, soil cores and visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Soil structure plays a key role in the ability of soil to fulfil essential functions and services in relation to, e.g., root growth, gas and water transport and organic matter turnover. The objective of this paper was: (1) To quantify tillage effects on soil structural quality in the entire topsoil...... tillage and natural consolidation, and aggravated by a poor structural stability due to a low organic matter content. The visual soil evaluation scores were negatively correlated to soil porosity and number of pore networks estimated from X-ray CT imaging and positively correlated to the macropore...

  9. Challenges in Evaluating Relationships Between Quantitative Data (Carbon Dioxide) and Qualitative Data (Self-Reported Visual Changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, C. M.; Foy, M.; Mason, S.; Wear, M. L.; Meyers, V.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nuances in clinical data is critical in developing a successful data analysis plan. Carbon dioxide (CO2) data are collected on board the International Space Station (ISS) in a continuous stream. Clinical data on ISS are primarily collected via conversations between individual crewmembers and NASA Flight Surgeons during weekly Private Medical Conferences (PMC). Law, et.al, 20141 demonstrated a statistically significant association between weekly average CO2 levels on ISS and self-reported headaches over the reporting period from March 14, 2001 to May 31, 2012. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the evaluation of a possible association between visual changes and CO2 levels on ISS and to discuss challenges in developing an appropriate analysis plan. METHODS & PRELIMINARY RESULTS: A first analysis was conducted following the same study design as the published work on CO2 and self-reported headaches1; substituting self-reported changes in visual acuity in place of self-reported headaches. The analysis demonstrated no statistically significant association between visual impairment characterized by vision symptoms self-reported during PMCs and ISS average CO2 levels over ISS missions. Closer review of the PMC records showed that vision outcomes are not well-documented in terms of clinical severity, timing of onset, or timing of resolution, perhaps due to the incipient nature of vision changes. Vision has been monitored in ISS crewmembers, pre- and post-flight, using standard optometry evaluations. In-flight visual assessments were limited early in the ISS program, primarily consisting of self-perceived changes reported by crewmembers. Recently, on-orbit capabilities have greatly improved. Vision data ranges from self-reported post-flight changes in visual acuity, pre- to postflight changes identified during fundoscopic examination, and in-flight progression measured by advanced on-orbit clinical imaging capabilities at predetermined testing

  10. Visual system of recovering and combination of information for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries; Sistema visual de recuperacao e combinacao de informacoes para bibliotecas no formato ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.S. Velloso [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Corcuera, Raquel A. Paviotti [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a data information retrieval and merger system for ENDF (Evaluated Nuclear Data File) format libraries, which can be run on personal computers under the Windows {sup TM} environment. The input is the name of an ENDF/B library, which can be chosen in a proper window. The system has a display function which allows the user to visualize the reaction data of a specific nuclide and to produce a printed copy of these data. The system allows the user to retrieve and/or combine evaluated data to create a single file of data in ENDF format, from a number of different files, each of which is in the ENDF format. The user can also create a mini-library from an ENDF/B library. This interactive and easy-to-handle system is a useful tool for Nuclear Data Centers and it is also of interest to nuclear and reactor physics researchers. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Singer's Voice Quality by Means of Visual Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forczmański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a description of the algorithm of singing voice quality assessment that uses selected methods from the field of digital image processing and recognition. It adopts the assumption that an audio signal with recorded vocal exercise can be converted into a visual representation, and processed further, as an image. Presented approach is based on generating a sound spectrogram of a sample in the form of a rectangular matrix, objective improvement of its visual quality based on local changes in brightness and contrast, and scaling to a fixed size. Then, it uses a two-step approach: the construction of a representative database of reference samples and the identification of test samples. The process of building the database uses two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis. Then, the recognition operation is carried out in a reduced feature space that has been obtained by two-dimensional Karhunen-Loeve projection. Classification is done by a variant of Support Vector Machines approach. As it is shown, the results are very encouraging and are competitive to the most powerful state-of-the-art methods. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Santos Martinez-Sala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations. These systems are either too complex, inaccurate, or require very special conditions (i.e., rare in everyday life to operate. In this regard, Ultra-Wideband (UWB technology has been shown to be effective for indoor positioning, providing a high level of accuracy and low installation complexity. This paper presents SUGAR, an indoor navigation system for visually impaired people which uses UWB for positioning, a spatial database of the environment for pathfinding through the application of the A* algorithm, and a guidance module. The interaction with the user takes place using acoustic signals and voice commands played through headphones. The suitability of the system for indoor navigation has been verified by means of a functional and usable prototype through a field test with a blind person. In addition, other tests have been conducted in order to show the accuracy of different relevant parts of the system.

  13. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Indoor Navigation System for Visually Impaired People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sala, Alejandro Santos; Losilla, Fernando; Sánchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos; García-Haro, Joan

    2015-12-21

    Indoor navigation is a challenging task for visually impaired people. Although there are guidance systems available for such purposes, they have some drawbacks that hamper their direct application in real-life situations. These systems are either too complex, inaccurate, or require very special conditions (i.e., rare in everyday life) to operate. In this regard, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology has been shown to be effective for indoor positioning, providing a high level of accuracy and low installation complexity. This paper presents SUGAR, an indoor navigation system for visually impaired people which uses UWB for positioning, a spatial database of the environment for pathfinding through the application of the A* algorithm, and a guidance module. The interaction with the user takes place using acoustic signals and voice commands played through headphones. The suitability of the system for indoor navigation has been verified by means of a functional and usable prototype through a field test with a blind person. In addition, other tests have been conducted in order to show the accuracy of different relevant parts of the system.

  14. The dynamics of orbital maneuvering: Design and evaluation of a visual display aid for human controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Grunwald, Arthur J.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive proximity operations planning system, which allows on-site planning of fuel-efficient, multi-burn maneuvers in a potential multi-spacecraft environment was developed and tested. Though this display system most directly assists planning by providing visual feedback to aid visualization of the trajectories and constraints, its most significant features include an inverse dynamics algorithm that removes control nonlinearities facing the operator and a trajectory planning technique that reduces the order of control and creates, through a geometric spread-sheet the illusion of an inertially stable environment. This synthetic environment provides the user with control of relevant static and dynamic properties of way-points during small orbital changes allowing independent solutions to the normally coupled problems of orbital maneuvering. An experiment was carried out in which experienced operators were required to plan a trajectory to retrieve an object accidently separated from a dual-keel space station. The time required to plan these maneuvers was found to be predicted by the direction of the insertion thrust and did not depend on the point of separation from the space station.

  15. Evaluating role of interactive visualization tool in improving students' conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath Kumar, Bharath

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of partnering visualization tool such as simulation towards development of student's concrete conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. Students find chemistry concepts abstract, especially at the microscopic level. Chemical equilibrium is one such topic. While research studies have explored effectiveness of low tech instructional strategies such as analogies, jigsaw, cooperative learning, and using modeling blocks, fewer studies have explored the use of visualization tool such as simulations in the context of dynamic chemical equilibrium. Research studies have identified key reasons behind misconceptions such as lack of systematic understanding of foundational chemistry concepts, failure to recognize the system is dynamic, solving numerical problems on chemical equilibrium in an algorithmic fashion, erroneous application Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) etc. Kress et al. (2001) suggested that external representation in the form of visualization is more than a tool for learning, because it enables learners to make meanings or express their ideas which cannot be readily done so through a verbal representation alone. Mixed method study design was used towards data collection. The qualitative portion of the study is aimed towards understanding the change in student's mental model before and after the intervention. A quantitative instrument was developed based on common areas of misconceptions identified by research studies. A pilot study was conducted prior to the actual study to obtain feedback from students on the quantitative instrument and the simulation. Participants for the pilot study were sampled from a single general chemistry class. Following the pilot study, the research study was conducted with a total of 27 students (N=15 in experimental group and N=12 in control group). Prior to participating in the study, students have completed their midterm test on the topic of chemical equilibrium. Qualitative

  16. Simple and economical assay systems for evaluation of phosphinothricin resistant transgenics of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. (L.) Moench., and pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshavardhan, D; Santha, B; Rani, T S; Ulaganathan, K; Madhulety, T Y; Laxminarayana, C; Seetharama, N

    2003-02-01

    Five simple and rapid methods for evaluation of sorghum and pearl millet transgenics resistant to herbicide phosphinothricin (used as selectable marker) were studied. For rapid in vitro selection, three assays (establishment of sensitivity curves for embryogenic calli, determination of lethal doses for seed germination, and a rapid screening of cut young leaves based on the colour change of the medium) were established. For rapid screening of transgenic progeny, effects of in vivo Basta leaf spray and dip tests were studied at three different morphological stages. For all the above assays, LD50, and LD100 values were higher for pearl millet than sorghum. However, in both the crops, genotype effect was not significant. The assays standardized in the study were found to be effective for rapid, economical and mass-scale identification and characterization of transgenic plants of sorghum and pearl millet.

  17. A simple evaluation procedure of the TAN calibration and the influence of non-ideal calibration elements on VNA S-parameter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Stumper

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the 7-term general TAN (Through-Attenuator-Network self-calibration method of a four-sampler vector network analyser (VNA, and for all derived calibration methods like TLN, TRL, TRM, TAR, or TMN, it is shown that a very simple evaluation procedure of the seven error terms is possible, even if the Through connection is replaced by a reflectionless network with known transmission. Expressions for the deviations of the measured S-parameters of two-port test objects (d.u.t.s from the true values, which are caused by deviations of the modeled S-parameters of non-ideal calibration elements ("standards" from their true values, are also presented. Additionally, it is shown that a TAN calibration is also possible in case of unequal reflections of the Network.

  18. Visual Product Evaluation: Using the Semantic Differential to Investigate the Influence of Basic Vase Geometry on Users’ Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Maier, Anja; Milanova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Products evoke emotions in people. Emotions can influence purchase decisions and product evaluations. It is widely acknowledged that better product performance and higher user satisfaction can be reached through aesthetic design. However, when designing a new product, most of the attention...... is generally paid to enhance its functionality and usability and much less consideration is given to the emotional needs of users. This paper explores a methodology based on Emotional Design theory in order to discover implicit emotional needs of users toward product design and how they are related to very...... perception from a simple set of geometric features....

  19. Retrieval interval mapping: a tool to visualize the impact of the spectral retrieval range on differential optical absorption spectroscopy evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vogel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing via differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS has become a standard technique to identify and quantify trace gases in the atmosphere. Due to the wide range of measurement conditions, atmospheric compositions and instruments used, a specific challenge of a DOAS retrieval is to optimize the retrieval parameters for each specific case and particular trace gas of interest. Of these parameters, the retrieval wavelength range is one of the most important ones. Although for many trace gases the overall dependence of common DOAS retrieval on the evaluation wavelength interval is known, a systematic approach for finding the optimal retrieval wavelength range and quantitative assessment is missing. Here we present a novel tool to visualize the effect of different evaluation wavelength ranges. It is based on mapping retrieved column densities in the retrieval wavelength space and thus visualizing the consequences of different choices of spectral retrieval ranges caused by slightly erroneous absorption cross sections, cross correlations and instrumental features. Based on the information gathered, an optimal retrieval wavelength range may be determined systematically.

    The technique is demonstrated using examples of a theoretical study of BrO retrievals for stratospheric BrO and BrO measurements in volcanic plumes. However, due to the general nature of the tool, it is applicable to any type of DOAS retrieval (active or passive.

  20. The Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment: A new visual perceptual motor skills evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chen, Hao-Ling; Lee, Candy Chieh; Chen, Ying-Dar; Wang, Tien-Ni

    2017-10-01

    Visual perceptual motor skills have been proposed as underlying courses of handwriting difficulties. However, there is no evaluation tool currently available to assess these skills comprehensively and to serve as a sensitive measure. The purpose of this study was to validate the Computerized Perceptual Motor Skills Assessment (CPMSA), a newly developed evaluation tool for children in early elementary grades. Its test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness were examined in 43 typically developing children and 26 children with handwriting difficulty. The CPMSA demonstrated excellent reliability across all subtests with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs)≥0.80. Significant moderate correlations between the domains of the CPMSA and corresponding gold standards including Beery VMI, the TVPS-3, and the eye-hand coordination subtest of the DTVP-2 demonstrated good concurrent validity. In addition, the CPMSA showed evidence of discriminant validity in samples of children with and without handwriting difficulty. This article provides evidence in support of the CPMSA. The CPMSA is a reliable, valid, and promising measure of visual perceptual motor skills for children in early elementary grades. Directions for future study and improvements to the assessment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Digital Enhancement of Television Signals for People with Visual Impairments: Evaluation of a Consumer Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2008-03-01

    Technology to improve the clarity of video for home theater viewers is available utilizing a low cost enhancement chip (DigiVision DV1000). The impact of such a device on the preference for enhanced video was tested for people with impaired vision and normally sighted viewers. Viewers with impaired vision preferred the enhancement effects more than normally sighted viewers. Preference for enhancement was correlated with loss in contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. Preference increased with increased enhancement settings (designed for those with normal vision) in the group with vision impairments. This suggests that higher enhancement levels may be of even greater benefit, and a similar product could be designed to meet the needs of the large, growing population of elderly television viewers with impaired vision.

  2. Clinical evaluation of dynamic visual acuity in subjects with unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenbaum, Elizabeth; Paquet, Nicole; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Fung, Joyce

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: 1) to examine the effect of frequency of head motion on the clinical dynamic visual acuity (DVA) score in subjects with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH); 2) to compare DVA scores between subjects with UVH and subjects with a complete unilateral vestibular deficit; and 3) to establish whether a relationship exists between the extent of the vestibular deficit and the DVA score. Experimental study. Vestibular outpatient rehabilitation program. A convenience sample of 10 subjects with UVH. Dynamic visual acuity scores were recorded using 2 standard acuity charts: Snellen and E-chart. The DVA scores were obtained at slow (0.5 Hz), moderate (1 and 1.5 Hz), and fast (2.0 Hz) frequencies of head motion in the horizontal and the vertical planes. Percentage of caloric weakness was compared with DVA scores in each subject to test whether a relationship exists between the two. As the frequency of head motion increased, the number of UVH subjects with an abnormal DVA score increased. Subjects with an abnormal DVA score at 1 Hz had the same or higher score as the frequency of the head motion was increased. Spearman correlation analyses revealed low-correlation coefficients between percentage of vestibular paresis at the caloric test and DVA scores (horizontal direction: r = 0.31, p = 0.38 for Snellen chart and r = -0.33, p = 0.35 for the E-chart; vertical: r = 0.05, p = 0.91 for the Snellen chart and r = -0.28, p = 0.50 for the E-chart). Subjects with UVH manifest impaired DVA. The frequency of head motion has an impact on clinical DVA scores in UVH subjects.

  3. Evaluation methodology for comparing memory and communication of analytic processes in visual analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, Eric D [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Provenance tools can help capture and represent the history of analytic processes. In addition to supporting analytic performance, provenance tools can be used to support memory of the process and communication of the steps to others. Objective evaluation methods are needed to evaluate how well provenance tools support analyst s memory and communication of analytic processes. In this paper, we present several methods for the evaluation of process memory, and we discuss the advantages and limitations of each. We discuss methods for determining a baseline process for comparison, and we describe various methods that can be used to elicit process recall, step ordering, and time estimations. Additionally, we discuss methods for conducting quantitative and qualitative analyses of process memory. By organizing possible memory evaluation methods and providing a meta-analysis of the potential benefits and drawbacks of different approaches, this paper can inform study design and encourage objective evaluation of process memory and communication.

  4. A BASIC STUDY OF EVALUATION STRUCTURE TO VISUAL DESIGN OF NEO-FUNCTIONALISM BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Teppei; Sasaki, Yoh

    This research's final goal is to clarify how people focus on the external appearance of neo-functionalism bridges which are characterized by their distinguishing morphological features, and also determine whether people evaluate these bridges and how they do it. As a first step, the research focuses on the Through-type Arch Bridge and attempts to make clear the evaluation structure by means of an experimental psychology approach. Upon this, the dynamic image will be defined by the vitality flow and motion impression that characterize this kind of bridge. The sensibility evaluation experiment is carried out by using CG that reflects the changes of related feature shapes. Thus, the relationship between the assortments of the bridge's morphological characteristic and its impression are analyzed by using Rough Set Theory. As a result, it was possible to find out a variety of evaluation trends related to the intellectual background of the bridge observer and also establish the distinct characteristics of various evaluation trends.

  5. Simple Electromagnetic Analysis in Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Martinasek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main principle and methods of simple electromagnetic analysis and thus provides an overview of simple electromagnetic analysis.The introductions chapters describe specific SPA attack used visual inspection of EM traces, template based attack and collision attack.After reading the article, the reader is sufficiently informed of any context of SEMA.Another aim of the article is the practical realization of SEMA which is focused on AES implementation.The visual inspection of EM trace of AES is performed step by step and the result is the determination of secret key Hamming weight.On the resulting EM trace, the Hamming weight of the secret key 1 to 8 was clearly visible.This method allows reduction from the number of possible keys for following brute force attack.

  6. Evaluation of visual stress symptoms in age-matched dyslexic, Meares-Irlen syndrome and normal adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana A. Alanazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the prevalence of dyslexia and Meares-Irlen syndrome (MIS among female students and determine their level of visual stress in comparison with normal subjects. METHODS: A random sample of 450 female medical students of King Saud University Riyadh (age range, 18-30y responded to a wide range of questions designed to accomplish the aims of this study. The detailed questionnaire consisted of 54 questions with 12 questions enquiring on ocular history and demography of participants while 42 questions were on visual symptoms. Items were categorized into critical and non-critical questions (CQ and NCQ and were rated on four point Likert scale. Based on the responses obtained, the subjects were grouped into normal (control, dyslexic with or without MIS (Group 1 and subjects with MIS only (Group 2. Responses were analysed as averages and mean scores were calculated and compared between groups using one way analysis of variance to evaluate total visual stress score (TVSS=NCQ+CQ, critical and non-critical visual stress scores. The relationship between categorical variables such as age, handedness and condition were assessed with Chi-square test. RESULTS: The completion rate was 97.6% and majority of the respondents (92% were normal readers, 2% dyslexic and 6% had MIS. They were age-matched. More than half of the participants had visited an eye care practitioner in the last 2y. About 13% were recommended eye exercises and one participant experienced pattern glare. Hand preference was not associated with any condition but Group 1 subjects (3/9, 33% were significantly more likely to be diagnosed of lazy eye than Group 2 (2/27, 7% and control (27/414, 7% subjects. The mean±SD of TVSS responses were 63±14 and it was 44±9 for CQ and 19±5 for NCQ. Responses from all three variables were normally distributed but the CQ responses were on the average more positive (82% in Group 2 and less positive (46% in Group 1 than control. With NCQ, the

  7. Evaluation of a simple in-house test to presumptively differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from nontuberculous mycobacteria by detection of p-nitrobenzoic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guirong; Yu, Xia; Liang, Qian; Chen, Suting; Wilson, Stuart; Huang, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    The timely differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and non-tubercular mycobacterium (NTM) species is urgently needed in patient care since the routine laboratory method is time consuming and cumbersome. An easy and cheap method which can successfully distinguish MTC from NTM was established and evaluated. 38 mycobacterial type and reference strains and 65 clinical isolates representing 10 species of mycobacterium were included in this study. Metabolites of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) reduction were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A spectrophotometric method was developed to detect these metabolites, which was evaluated on a number of MTC and NTM species. All of the tested NTM species and strains reduced PNB to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), while none of the MTC strains showed a similar activity. Spectrophotometric detection of PABA had 100% sensitivity and specificity for MTC and NTM differentiation among the type strains and the clinical isolates tested. PABA was identified as one of the metabolites of PNB reduction. All the tested NTM species metabolized PNB to PABA whereas the MTC members lacked this activity. A simple, specific and cost-effective method based on PABA production was established in order to discriminate MTC from NTM from cultured organisms.

  8. Novel expandable gastro retentive system by unfolding mechanism of levetiracetam using simple lattice design – Formulation optimization and in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivaneswari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize a novel expandable gastro-retentive dosage form (GRDF, based on unfolding mechanism. The dosage form consists of a drug loaded the polymeric patch, folded into a hard gelatin capsule. Gastro retention obtained from unfolding and swelling of the patch and its adhesion to the gastric mucosa. Therefore in this work, a gastro retentive patch of levetiracetam was developed using simple lattice design considering concentration of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose, Carbopol 934P and Xanthan gum as independent variables. A response surface plot and multiple regression equations were used to evaluate the effect of independent variables on dependent variables such as mucoadhesive strength (g/cm2 and t90 (h. The prepared patches were evaluated for weight and thickness variation, mechanical properties, in vitro drug release and unfolding behavior. The absence of drug-polymer interaction and uniform drug dispersion in the polymeric patches was revealed by FT-IR, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results indicates, the novel GRDF based on unfolding mechanism can be alternative for other mucoadhesive dosage forms which will provide sustained release for 12 h.

  9. Design and development of a linked open data-based health information representation and visualization system: potentials and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Kauppinen, Tomi; Keßler, Carsten; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-10-25

    Healthcare organizations around the world are challenged by pressures to reduce cost, improve coordination and outcome, and provide more with less. This requires effective planning and evidence-based practice by generating important information from available data. Thus, flexible and user-friendly ways to represent, query, and visualize health data becomes increasingly important. International organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly publish vital data on priority health topics that can be utilized for public health policy and health service development. However, the data in most portals is displayed in either Excel or PDF formats, which makes information discovery and reuse difficult. Linked Open Data (LOD)-a new Semantic Web set of best practice of standards to publish and link heterogeneous data-can be applied to the representation and management of public level health data to alleviate such challenges. However, the technologies behind building LOD systems and their effectiveness for health data are yet to be assessed. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether Linked Data technologies are potential options for health information representation, visualization, and retrieval systems development and to identify the available tools and methodologies to build Linked Data-based health information systems. We used the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for data representation, Fuseki triple store for data storage, and Sgvizler for information visualization. Additionally, we integrated SPARQL query interface for interacting with the data. We primarily use the WHO health observatory dataset to test the system. All the data were represented using RDF and interlinked with other related datasets on the Web of Data using Silk-a link discovery framework for Web of Data. A preliminary usability assessment was conducted following the System Usability Scale (SUS) method. We developed an LOD-based health information representation, querying

  10. Validation of Catquest-9SF-A Visual Disability Instrument to Evaluate Patient Function After Corneal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Margareta; Armitage, W John; Byström, Berit; Montan, Per; Samolov, Branka; Stenvi, Ulf; Lundström, Mats

    2017-09-01

    Catquest-9SF is a 9-item visual disability questionnaire developed for evaluating patient-reported outcome measures after cataract surgery. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to determine the responsiveness of Catquest-9SF for corneal transplant patients. Patients who underwent corneal transplantation primarily to improve vision were included. One group (n = 199) completed the Catquest-9SF questionnaire before corneal transplantation and a second independent group (n = 199) completed the questionnaire 2 years after surgery. All patients were recorded in the Swedish Cornea Registry, which provided clinical and demographic data for the study. Winsteps software v.3.91.0 (Winsteps.com, Beaverton, OR) was used to assess the fit of the Catquest-9SF data to the Rasch model. Rasch analysis showed that Catquest-9SF applied to corneal transplant patients was unidimensional (infit range, 0.73-1.32; outfit range, 0.81-1.35), and therefore, measured a single underlying construct (visual disability). The Rasch model explained 68.5% of raw variance. The response categories of the 9-item questionnaire were ordered, and the category thresholds were well defined. Item difficulty matched the level of patients' ability (0.36 logit difference between the means). Precision in terms of person separation (3.09) and person reliability (0.91) was good. Differential item functioning was notable for only 1 item (satisfaction with vision), which had a differential item functioning contrast of 1.08 logit. Rasch analysis showed that Catquest-9SF is a valid instrument for measuring visual disability in patients who have undergone corneal transplantation primarily to improve vision.

  11. Evaluation of discriminant functions for sexing skulls from visually assessed traits applied in the Rainer Osteological Collection (Bucharest, Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soficaru, A; Constantinescu, M; Culea, M; Ionică, C

    2014-12-01

    The sexing of human skeletal remains based on visual scoring of descriptive traits on the skull is useful for both forensic and bioarchaeological studies, given that many such features preserve well in the field and can be assessed quickly. The goal of our work is to evaluate the accuracy of this method on an age-balanced, known sex, random sample of 360 modern adult crania in the Rainer Osteological Collection. Consistent with Walker (2008), we scored glabella area (G), the mastoid process (Ma), the mental eminence (M), the orbital edge (O) and the nuchal crest (N), on a five-point scale. We generated sex discriminant functions (logistic), selected the most accurate of them, and subsequently applied them to archaeological samples from Romania. Each skull feature showed significant score differences by sex. Eight out of 31 discriminant functions passed criteria of high accuracy (∼90%), sex bias (±2%), and ease of use (direct calculation of sex). The best estimates were obtained for the 30-60 age groups. Further testing these functions on six archaeological samples showed high percentages of agreement with the sex assessed on the coxal bone. The study also indicated that, although easy to learn by novices, the method of visually scoring the skull traits depends on prior experience with human osteology. The accuracy of the method may be influenced by geographical and historical differences which are bound to exist between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of BG-sentinel trap trapping efficacy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in a visually competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Tamara S; Ritchie, Scott R

    2010-07-01

    The BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap uses visual and olfactory cues as well as convection currents to attract Aedes aegypti (L.). The impact of the visual environment on trapping efficacy of the BGS trap for Ae. aegypti was investigated. Four- to 5-d nulliparous female and male Ae. aegypti were released into a semicontrolled room to evaluate the effect of the presence, reflectance, and distribution of surrounding harborage sites on BGS trapping efficacy. Low-reflective (dark) harborage sites near the BGS had a negative effect on both male and nulliparous female recapture rates; however, a more pronounced effect was observed in males. The distribution (clustered versus scattered) of dark harborage sites did not significantly affect recapture rates in either sex. In a subsequent experiment, the impact of oviposition sites on the recapture rate of gravid females was investigated. Although gravid females went to the oviposition sites and deposited eggs, the efficacy of the BGS in recapturing gravid females was not compromised. Ae. aegypti sampling in the field will mostly occur in the urban environment, whereby the BGS will be among oviposition sites and dark harborage areas in the form of household items and outdoor clutter. In addition to understanding sampling biases of the BGS, estimations of the adult population size and structure can be further adjusted based on an understanding of the impact of dark harborage sites on trap captures. Outcomes from this suite of experiments provide us with important considerations for trap deployment and interpretation of Ae. aegypti samples from the BGS trap.

  13. Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, K V; Dill, V; Madi, M; Martin, P; Van der Stede, Y; Vandenberge, V; Haas, B; Van Borm, S; Koenen, F; Kasanga, C J; Ndusilo, N; Beer, M; Liu, L; Mioulet, V; Armson, B; King, D P; Fowler, V L

    2017-11-09

    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Advances in molecular technologies allow implementation of modern and reliable techniques for quick and simple pathogen detection either in basic laboratories or even at the pen-side. Here, we report on a study to evaluate a fully automated cartridge-based real-time RT-PCR diagnostic system (Enigma MiniLab® ) for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The modular system integrates both nucleic acid extraction and downstream real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The analytical sensitivity of this assay was determined using serially diluted culture grown FMDV, and the performance of the assay was evaluated using a selected range of FMDV positive and negative clinical samples of bovine, porcine and ovine origin. The robustness of the assay was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test and by deployment into an African laboratory. It was demonstrated that the system is easy to use and can detect FMDV with high sensitivity and specificity, roughly on par with standard laboratory methods. This cartridge-based automated real-time RT-PCR system for the detection of FMDV represents a reliable and easy to use diagnostic tool for the early and rapid disease detection of acutely infected animals even in remote areas. This type of system could be easily deployed for routine surveillance within endemic regions such as Africa or could alternatively be used in the developed world. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

  14. CT x-ray tube voltage optimisation and image reconstruction evaluation using visual grading analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoming; Kim, Ted M.; Davidson, Rob; Lee, Seongju; Shin, Cheongil; Yang, Sook

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this work were to find an optimal x-ray voltage for CT imaging and to determine the diagnostic effectiveness of image reconstruction techniques by using the visual grading analysis (VGA). Images of the PH-5 CT abdomen phantom (Kagaku Co, Kyoto) were acquired by the Toshiba Aquillion One 320 slices CT system with various exposures (from 10 to 580 mAs) under different tube peak voltages (80, 100 and 120 kVp). The images were reconstructed by employing the FBP and the AIDR 3D iterative reconstructions with Mild, Standard and Strong FBP blending. Image quality was assessed by measuring noise, contrast to noise ratio and human observer's VGA scores. The CT dose index CTDIv was obtained from the values displayed on the images. The best fit for the curves of the image quality VGA vs dose CTDIv is a logistic function from the SPSS estimation. A threshold dose Dt is defined as the CTDIv at the just acceptable for diagnostic image quality and a figure of merit (FOM) is defined as the slope of the standardised logistic function. The Dt and FOM were found to be 5.4, 8.1 and 9.1 mGy and 0.47, 0.51 and 0.38 under the tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, respectively, from images reconstructed by the FBP technique. The Dt and FOM values were lower from the images reconstructed by the AIDR 3D in comparison with the FBP technique. The optimal xray peak voltage for the imaging of the PH-5 abdomen phantom by the Aquillion One CT system was found to be at 100 kVp. The images reconstructed by the FBP are more diagnostically effective than that by the AIDR 3D but with a higher dose Dt to the patients.

  15. A simple and rapid Hepatitis A Virus (HAV titration assay based on antibiotic resistance of infected cells: evaluation of the HAV neutralization potency of human immune globulin preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Gerardo G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in general does not cause cytopathic effect and is detected by immunochemical or molecular probes. Simple HAV titration assays could be developed using currently available viral construct containing selectable markers. Results We developed an antibiotic resistance titration assay (ARTA based on the infection of human hepatoma cells with a wild type HAV construct containing a blasticidin (Bsd resistance gene. Human hepatoma cells infected with the HAV-Bsd construct survived selection with 2 μg/ml of blasticidin whereas uninfected cells died within a few days. At 8 days postinfection, the color of the pH indicator phenol red in cell culture media correlated with the presence of HAV-Bsd-infected blasticidin-resistant cells: an orange-to-yellow color indicated the presence of growing cells whereas a pink-to-purple color indicated that the cells were dead. HAV-Bsd titers were determined by an endpoint dilution assay based on the color of the cell culture medium scoring orange-to-yellow wells as positive and pink-to-purple wells as negative for HAV. As a proof-of-concept, we used the ARTA to evaluate the HAV neutralization potency of two commercially available human immune globulin (IG preparations and a WHO International Standard for anti-HAV. The three IG preparations contained comparable levels of anti-HAV antibodies that neutralized approximately 1.5 log of HAV-Bsd. Similar neutralization results were obtained in the absence of blasticidin by an endpoint dilution ELISA at 2 weeks postinfection. Conclusion The ARTA is a simple and rapid method to determine HAV titers without using HAV-specific probes. We determined the HAV neutralization potency of human IG preparations in 8 days by ARTA compared to the 14 days required by the

  16. Evaluation of promoters and visual markers for transformation of eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan Zipf; Alex M. Diner; Rufina Ward; Suman Bharara; George Brown; R. Nagmani; L.K. Pareek; Govind C. Sharma

    2001-01-01

    This report serves to evaluate possible promoters for use in the production of trmsgenic eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Embryogenic cultures of eastern white pine were bombarded with gold particles coated separately with a variety of gene constructs containing the Uida B-glucoronidase (GUS) or green flourescent protein (GFP) reporter gene....

  17. AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUDIO-VISUAL METHODS--CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARD EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOWELL, EDGAR L.; AND OTHERS

    AUDIOVISUAL PROGRAMS FOR PARENTS OF DEAF CHILDREN WERE DEVELOPED AND EVALUATED. EIGHTEEN SOUND FILMS AND ACCOMPANYING RECORDS PRESENTED INFORMATION ON HEARING, LIPREADING AND SPEECH, AND ATTEMPTED TO CHANGE PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILDREN AND SPOUSES. TWO VERSIONS OF THE FILMS AND RECORDS WERE NARRATED BY (1) "STARS" WHO WERE…

  18. Real-time evaluation and visualization of learner performance in a mixed-reality environment for clinical breast examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotranza, Aaron; Lind, D Scott; Lok, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the efficacy of incorporating real-time feedback of user performance within mixed-reality environments (MREs) for training real-world tasks with tightly coupled cognitive and psychomotor components. This paper presents an approach to providing real-time evaluation and visual feedback of learner performance in an MRE for training clinical breast examination (CBE). In a user study of experienced and novice CBE practitioners (n = 69), novices receiving real-time feedback performed equivalently or better than more experienced practitioners in the completeness and correctness of the exam. A second user study (n = 8) followed novices through repeated practice of CBE in the MRE. Results indicate that skills improvement in the MRE transfers to the real-world task of CBE of human patients. This initial case study demonstrates the efficacy of MREs incorporating real-time feedback for training real-world cognitive-psychomotor tasks.

  19. Visual evaluation of kinetic characteristics of PET probe for neuroreceptors using a two-phase graphic plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoko; Seki, Chie; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Suhara, Tetsuya; Kanno, Iwao

    2017-05-01

    Objectives In PET studies for neuroreceptors, tracer kinetics are described by the two-tissue compartment model (2-TCM), and binding parameters, including the total distribution volume (V T ), non-displaceable distribution volume (V ND ), and binding potential (BP ND ), can be determined from model parameters estimated by kinetic analysis. The stability of binding parameter estimates depends on the kinetic characteristics of radioligands. To describe these kinetic characteristics, we previously developed a two-phase graphic plot analysis in which V ND and V T can be estimated from the x-intercept of regression lines for early and delayed phases, respectively. In this study, we applied this graphic plot analysis to visual evaluation of the kinetic characteristics of radioligands for neuroreceptors, and investigated a relationship between the shape of these graphic plots and the stability of binding parameters estimated by the kinetic analysis with 2-TCM in simulated brain tissue time-activity curves (TACs) with various binding parameters. Methods 90-min TACs were generated with the arterial input function and assumed kinetic parameters according to 2-TCM. Graphic plot analysis was applied to these simulated TACs, and the curvature of the plot for each TAC was evaluated visually. TACs with several noise levels were also generated with various kinetic parameters, and the bias and variation of binding parameters estimated by kinetic analysis were calculated in each TAC. These bias and variation were compared with the shape of graphic plots. Results The graphic plots showed larger curvature for TACs with higher specific binding and slower dissociation of specific binding. The quartile deviations of V ND and BP ND determined by kinetic analysis were smaller for radioligands with slow dissociation. Conclusions The larger curvature of graphic plots for radioligands with slow dissociation might indicate a stable determination of V ND and BP ND by kinetic analysis. For

  20. Understanding safety culture by visualization of scenarios--development and evaluation of an interactive prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomé, Mikael; Ek, Asa

    2012-01-01

    To be able to disseminate knowledge about maritime safety culture and safety management to different actors in the Swedish maritime sector, a preliminary pedagogical concept was developed and evaluated. As a first user group, students at upper secondary maritime schools were chosen and the pedagogical concept was adapted for this group. The concept includes an interactive prototype and a teacher's guide and is based on a model for experience-based learning which connects theory and practice by a cyclic approach. The concept was tested in a classroom setting including interaction with the students and a follow-up one week later. A preliminary evaluation of the results shows a very positive response among the students as well as the lecturers. The educational material was successful in immediately creating a relevant discussion about safety culture, and one week later, students could remember many of the safety scenarios included in the pedagogical concept.

  1. Evaluation of a new handheld instrument for the detection of counterfeit artesunate by visual fluorescence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Tabernero, Patricia; Green, Michael D; Verbois, Leigh; Herrington, James; Sampson, Eric; Satzger, R Duane; Phonlavong, Chindaphone; Thao, Khamxay; Newton, Paul N; Witkowski, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and inexpensive handheld instruments for the evaluation of medicine quality in the field. A blinded evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the Counterfeit Detection Device 3 (CD-3), developed by the US Food and Drug Administration Forensic Chemistry Center, was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Two hundred three samples of the oral antimalarial artesunate were compared with authentic products using the CD-3 by a trainer and two trainees. The specificity (95% confidence interval [95% CI]), sensitivity (95% CI), positive predictive value (95% CI), and negative predictive value (95% CI) of the CD-3 for detecting counterfeit (falsified) artesunate were 100% (93.8-100%), 98.4% (93.8-99.7%), 100% (96.2-100%), and 97.4% (90.2-99.6%), respectively. Interobserver agreement for 203 samples of artesunate was 100%. The CD-3 holds promise as a relatively inexpensive and easy to use instrument for field evaluation of medicines, potentially empowering drug inspectors, customs agents, and pharmacists. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. a Real-Time GIS Platform for High Sour Gas Leakage Simulation, Evaluation and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Liu, H.; Yang, C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of high-sulfur gas fields, also known as sour gas field, is faced with a series of safety control and emergency management problems. The GIS-based emergency response system is placed high expectations under the consideration of high pressure, high content, complex terrain and highly density population in Sichuan Basin, southwest China. The most researches on high hydrogen sulphide gas dispersion simulation and evaluation are used for environmental impact assessment (EIA) or emergency preparedness planning. This paper introduces a real-time GIS platform for high-sulfur gas emergency response. Combining with real-time data from the leak detection systems and the meteorological monitoring stations, GIS platform provides the functions of simulating, evaluating and displaying of the different spatial-temporal toxic gas distribution patterns and evaluation results. This paper firstly proposes the architecture of Emergency Response/Management System, secondly explains EPA's Gaussian dispersion model CALPUFF simulation workflow under high complex terrain and real-time data, thirdly explains the emergency workflow and spatial analysis functions of computing the accident influencing areas, population and the optimal evacuation routes. Finally, a well blow scenarios is used for verify the system. The study shows that GIS platform which integrates the real-time data and CALPUFF models will be one of the essential operational platforms for high-sulfur gas fields emergency management.

  3. Structural and biological evaluation of lignin addition to simple and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, A; Eraković, S; Ristoscu, C; Mihailescu Serban, N; Duta, L; Visan, A; Stan, G E; Popa, A C; Husanu, M A; Luculescu, C R; Srdić, V V; Janaćković, Dj; Mišković-Stanković, V; Bleotu, C; Chifiriuc, M C; Mihailescu, I N

    2015-01-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation of simple hydroxyapatite (HA) or silver (Ag) doped HA combined with the natural biopolymer organosolv lignin (Lig) (Ag:HA-Lig). Solid cryogenic target of aqueous dispersions of Ag:HA-Lig composite and its counterpart without silver (HA-Lig) were prepared for evaporation using a KrF* excimer laser source. The expulsed material was assembled onto TiO2/Ti substrata or silicon wafers and subjected to physical-chemical investigations. Smooth, uniform films adherent to substratum were observed. The chemical analyses confirmed the presence of the HA components, but also evidenced traces of Ag and Lig. Deposited HA was Ca deficient, which is indicative of a film with increased solubility. Recorded X-ray Diffraction patterns were characteristic for amorphous films. Lig presence in thin films was undoubtedly proved by both X-ray Photoelectron and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analyses. The microbiological evaluation showed that the newly assembled surfaces exhibited an inhibitory activity both on the initial steps of biofilm forming, and on mature bacterial and fungal biofilm development. The intensity of the anti-biofilm activity was positively influenced by the presence of the Lig and/or Ag, in the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida famata biofilms. The obtained surfaces exhibited a low cytotoxicity toward human mesenchymal stem cells, being therefore promising candidates for fabricating implantable biomaterials with increased biocompatibility and resistance to microbial colonization and further biofilm development.

  4. Vaginal film for prevention of HIV: using visual and tactile evaluations among potential users to inform product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, K M; Rohan, L; Rosen, R K; Vargas, S E; Shaw, J G; Katz, D; Kojic, E M; Ham, A S; Friend, D; Buckheit, K W; Buckheit, R W

    2017-06-21

    Topical prevention of HIV and other STIs is a global health priority. To provide options for users, developers have worked to design safe, effective and acceptable vaginal dissolving film formulations. We aimed to characterize user experiences of vaginal film size, texture and color, and their role in product-elicited sensory perceptions (i.e. perceptibility), acceptability and willingness to use. In the context of a user-centered product evaluation study, we elicited users' 'first impressions' of various vaginal film formulation designs via visual and tactile prototype inspection during a qualitative user evaluation interview. Twenty-four women evaluated prototypes. Participants considered size and texture to be important for easy insertion. Color was more important following dissolution than prior to insertion. When asked to combine and balance all properties to arrive at an ideal film, previously stated priorities for individual characteristics sometimes shifted, with the salience of some individual characteristics lessening when multiple characteristics were weighted in combination. While first impressions alone may not drive product uptake, users' willingness to initially try a product is likely impacted by such impressions. Developers should consider potential users' experiences and preferences in vaginal film design. This user-focused approach is useful for characterizing user sensory perceptions and experiences relevant to early design of prevention technologies.

  5. Statistical process control (SPC)--a simple objective method for monitoring seizure frequency and evaluating effectiveness of drug interventions in refractory childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Suresh; Calvert, Sophie; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Chin, Richard F M; Smith, Ralph A; Cross, J Helen; Das, Krishna; Pitt, Matthew; Scott, Rod C

    2010-10-01

    Objective assessment of seizure fluctuation in patients with refractory epilepsy in the clinical setting is difficult and subjective assessment may lead to inappropriate changes in medication. We therefore evaluated the utility of Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts as a simple objective clinical tool to demonstrate variability in seizure frequency and to assess the efficacy of drug interventions. Total weekly seizure frequencies over 1 year were collected for 38 young people with refractory epilepsy. SPC I-charts were generated and Nelson's tests for "special" causes of variability applied. In a separate analysis, run charts were reviewed by two epileptologists blinded to clinical data who were asked to identify if and when drug interventions took place. The SPC charts showed that only seven out of 38 (18%) patients had stable seizure frequencies. In the others, they identified significant but short-lived increases in seizure frequency, which were followed by rapid return towards baseline independently of drug changes. A substantial reduction in seizure frequency was associated with a drug increase in only 5 (6.5%) instances. Inter-rater agreement on whether there were drug interventions and their timing was poor (κ=0.15, p=0.4). SPC I-charts have the potential to be used as a clinical tool to monitor seizure frequency and to evaluate efficacy of drug interventions in patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsy is commonly an unstable condition with fluctuations in seizure frequencies which are unpredictable and usually do not require a change in treatment. Positive responses to treatment changes are uncommon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Visualization of in vitro evaluation of restored teeth with synthetic resins by neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis N., E-mail: abarbosa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: vrcrispim@gmail.com [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (UFRJ/CT/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the technique of neutron radiography can provide information on strength and adherence in dental restoration with synthetic polymeric materials, particularly as a tool for the analysis of micro leakage and voids. Thus, tooth samples were drilled, producing cavities with similar dimensions in each tooth, and then carefully filled with eight types of resins that are the most commonly used by dentists. After exposing the tooth samples to a neutron beam, their radiographic images were analyzed. This technique gave good results showing that all the tooth samples were suitably restored. (author)

  7. Further evaluation of the Walter Reed Visual Assessment Scale: correlation with curve pattern and radiological deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Sonia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Walter Reed Visual Assessment Scale (WRVAS was designed to measure physical deformity as perceived by patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Previous studies have shown that the instrument has excellent internal consistency and a high correlation with the radiological magnitude of scoliotic curves. Nonetheless, it is not known whether the scale can discriminate between the various curve patterns of the deformity, or whether the deformities represented in the scale's drawings relate to the corresponding radiological deformities. Methods This study included 101 patients (86 women and 15 men; mean age 19.4 years with idiopathic scoliosis. In a single visit, patients underwent standing PA radiography of the spine and completed the WRVAS. X-ray measurements included: 1 magnitude (Cobb angle of the proximal thoracic curve (PT, main thoracic curve (MT, and thoracolumbar/lumbar curve (TL/L; 2 difference in shoulder level; 3 T1 offset from the central sacral line (T1-CSL; 4 apical vertebra (apV rotation at the MT and TL/L curves and 5 apical vertebra offset of the MT and TL/L curves from the central sacral line. A variable designated Cobbmax was defined as the largest angle of the three curves (PT, MT or TL/L. Patients were grouped onto three patterns: Thoracic (TH Group(n = 30, mean MT 42.1°, TL/L 20.9°; double major (DM Group (n = 39, mean MT 38.6°, TL/L 34.4° and thoracolumbar (TL Group(n = 32, mean MT 14.3°, TL/L 25.5°. The magnitude of the curves in the TL Group was significantly smaller than in the other groups (P Cobbmax variable. The Spearman correlation coefficient was determined between the WRVAS items and shoulder imbalance, T1-CSL offset, MT Cobb angle, MT apV rotation, MT apV offset, PT Cobb, TL/L Cobb, TL/L apV rotation and TL/L apV offset. Results The median (interquartile range of the total WRVAS score was 14 (IQR 6. No correlation was found between the curve pattern and the various scores on the scale (partial

  8. The development and experimental evaluation of a simple analytical model for the TPR in the build-up region of megavoltage photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Marcelo; Galiano, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a simple analytical model for the tissue phantom ratio (TPR) in the build-up region of megavoltage photon beams and to experimentally evaluate the model under a variety of clinically relevant field configurations. Considering electron contamination and primary photons as the main components of the absorbed dose in the build-up region, an analytic expression for the TPR was derived. The electron contamination component was addressed with a biexponential function; the primary photon component was treated as nonlocal energy transport, i.e., assuming the energy deposited by secondary electrons can be described by a biexponential mode similar to that of contaminating electrons. The model contains five independent constants, which were fitted experimentally. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing its results with in-phantom measurements taken on square, rectangular, irregular, and wedged fields, for 6 and 15 MV photon beams on a GE-Saturne 41 accelerator. More specifically, the accuracy of the model was quantified using the gamma index with 2% dose and 2 mm spatial tolerances as described by Low et al. [Med. Phys. 25, 656-661 (1998)]. For square cerrobende blocked fields, the maximum recorded gamma indices were 0.42 and 0.54 for 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively. For "I" shaped fields, the corresponding maxima were 0.64 and 0.52, respectively, while for "cross" shaped fields they were 0.42 and 0.76. For rectangular 10 × 30 cm fields, the corresponding maxima were 0.32 and 0.42, and for 7 × 20 cm fields, they were 0.70 and 0.35, respectively. For square 10 × 10 cm and 15 × 15 cm fields with an acrylic tray, the maxima were 0.57 and 0.45 for 6 MV and 0.32 and 0.77 for 15 MV beams, respectively. For a 10 × 10 cm 60° wedged field, the maxima were 0.53 and 0.33 for 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively. In all examined cases of irregular, rectangular, square (with and without tray), and wedged fields, the

  9. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T. The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA and mean diffusivity (rMD in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.. Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement.

  10. The numeric visual evaluation of subsoil structure (SubVESS) under agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, B.C.; Batey, Tom; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    penetration and aggregate size and shape using a colour diagnostic flowchart. Use of the method enabled identification of extent and severity of compact transition layers in both well-drained and imperfectly drained soils. Porosity and strength assessments were particularly relevant. Reference soils under......) and/or natural processes (e.g. shrinkage crack formation). The method was also used to identify differences in subsoil structural quality within fields associated with field traffic levels (Oxisol in Brazil) and with moisture status (Luvisol in France). The focus of SubVESS on structure rather than...... on texture may not permit recognition of effects such as low water holding capacity that influence agronomic potential. In such cases the more comprehensive evaluation of overall agronomic potential by methods such as the ‘profil cultural’ is required....

  11. On-demand calibration and evaluation for electromagnetically tracked laparoscope in augmented reality visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Plishker, William; Zaki, George; Kang, Sukryool; Kane, Timothy D; Shekhar, Raj

    2016-06-01

    Common camera calibration methods employed in current laparoscopic augmented reality systems require the acquisition of multiple images of an entire checkerboard pattern from various poses. This lengthy procedure prevents performing laparoscope calibration in the operating room (OR). The purpose of this work was to develop a fast calibration method for electromagnetically (EM) tracked laparoscopes, such that the calibration can be performed in the OR on demand. We designed a mechanical tracking mount to uniquely and snugly position an EM sensor to an appropriate location on a conventional laparoscope. A tool named fCalib was developed to calibrate intrinsic camera parameters, distortion coefficients, and extrinsic parameters (transformation between the scope lens coordinate system and the EM sensor coordinate system) using a single image that shows an arbitrary portion of a special target pattern. For quick evaluation of calibration results in the OR, we integrated a tube phantom with fCalib prototype and overlaid a virtual representation of the tube on the live video scene. We compared spatial target registration error between the common OpenCV method and the fCalib method in a laboratory setting. In addition, we compared the calibration re-projection error between the EM tracking-based fCalib and the optical tracking-based fCalib in a clinical setting. Our results suggest that the proposed method is comparable to the OpenCV method. However, changing the environment, e.g., inserting or removing surgical tools, might affect re-projection accuracy for the EM tracking-based approach. Computational time of the fCalib method averaged 14.0 s (range 3.5 s-22.7 s). We developed and validated a prototype for fast calibration and evaluation of EM tracked conventional (forward viewing) laparoscopes. The calibration method achieved acceptable accuracy and was relatively fast and easy to be performed in the OR on demand.

  12. Music to knowledge: A visual programming environment for the development and evaluation of music information retrieval techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Andreas F.; Downie, J. Stephen

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL) project is the creation of a large, secure corpus of audio and symbolic music data accessible to the music information retrieval (MIR) community for the testing and evaluation of various MIR techniques. As part of the IMIRSEL project, a cross-platform JAVA based visual programming environment called Music to Knowledge (M2K) is being developed for a variety of music information retrieval related tasks. The primary objective of M2K is to supply the MIR community with a toolset that provides the ability to rapidly prototype algorithms, as well as foster the sharing of techniques within the MIR community through the use of a standardized set of tools. Due to the relatively large size of audio data and the computational costs associated with some digital signal processing and machine learning techniques, M2K is also designed to support distributed computing across computing clusters. In addition, facilities to allow the integration of non-JAVA based (e.g., C/C++, MATLAB, etc.) algorithms and programs are provided within M2K. [Work supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and NSF Grants No. IIS-0340597 and No. IIS-0327371.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of laser acupuncture and cupping with ryodoraku and visual analog scale on low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Hung-Chien; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wu, Jih-Huah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn't come back to their original values. It means that "cupping" plays the role of "leak or purge" in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; "mend or reinforcing" effect is attributed to the laser radiation.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Laser Acupuncture and Cupping with Ryodoraku and Visual Analog Scale on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Lien Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping. Visual analog scale (VAS and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40 and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn’t come back to their original values. It means that “cupping” plays the role of “leak or purge” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; “mend or reinforcing” effect is attributed to the laser radiation.

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Laser Acupuncture and Cupping with Ryodoraku and Visual Analog Scale on Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mu-Lien; Wu, Hung-Chien; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Su, Chuan-Tsung; Shih, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wu, Jih-Huah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture (LA) and soft cupping on low back pain. In this study, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: active group (real LA and soft cupping) and placebo group (sham laser and soft cupping). Visual analog scale (VAS) and Ryodoraku were used to evaluate the effect of treatment on low back pain in this trial. Laser, 40 mW, wavelength 808 nm, pulse rate 20 Hz, was used to irradiate Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 10 minutes. And the Ryodoraku values were measured 2 times, that is, before and 15 minutes after treatment. The results show that there were significant difference between the first day baseline and the fifth day treatment in VAS in the two groups. Therefore, LA combined with soft cupping or only soft cupping was effective on low back pain. However, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the placebo group have been decreased apparently, and didn't come back to their original values. It means that “cupping” plays the role of “leak or purge” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). On the other hand, the Ryodoraku values of Bladder Meridian of the active group have been turned back to almost their original values; “mend or reinforcing” effect is attributed to the laser radiation. PMID:23118792

  16. Classifier-based offline feature selection and evaluation for visual tracking of sea-surface and aerial targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Serdar; Aytaç, Tayfun; Yıldırım, Alper; Gerek, Ö. Nezih

    2011-10-01

    An offline feature selection and evaluation mechanism is used in order to develop a robust visual tracking scheme for sea-surface and aerial targets. The covariance descriptors, known to constitute an efficient signature set in object detection and classification problems, are used in the feature extraction phase of the proposed scheme. The performance of feature sets are compared using support vector machines, and those resulting in the highest detection performance are used in the covariance based tracker. The tracking performance is evaluated in different scenarios using different performance measures with respect to ground truth target positions. The proposed tracking scheme is observed to track sea-surface and aerial targets with plausible accuracies, and the results show that gradient-based features, together with the pixel locations and intensity values, provide robust target tracking in both surveillance scenarios. The performance of the proposed tracking strategy is also compared with some well-known trackers including correlation, Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature, and scale invariant feature transform-based trackers. Experimental results and observations show that the proposed target tracking scheme outperforms other trackers in both air and sea surveillance scenarios.

  17. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  18. Visual field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam. This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  19. Simple Evaluation Method for CYP3A4 Induction from Human Hepatocytes: The Relative Factor Approach with an Induction Detection Limit Concentration Based on the Emax Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Shino; Kato, Motohiro; Shindoh, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Akihisa; Ishigai, Masaki; Miyauchi, Seiji

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the robustness and utility of the relative factor (RF) approach based on the maximum induction effect (Emax) model, using the mRNA induction data of 10 typical CYP3A4 inducers in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. The RF value is designated as the ratio of the induction detection limit concentration (IDLC) for a standard inducer, such as rifampicin (RIF) or phenobarbital (PB), to that for the compound (e.g., RFRIF is IDLCRIF/IDLCcpd; RFPB is IDLCPB/IDLCcpd). An important feature of the RF approach is that the profiles of the induction response curves on the logarithmic scale remain unchanged irrespective of inducers but are shifted parallel depending on the EC50 values. A key step in the RF approach is to convert the induction response curve by finding the IDLC of a standard inducer. The relative induction score was estimated not only from Emax and EC50 values but also from those calculated by the RF approach. These values showed good correlation, with a correlation coefficient of more than 0.974, which revealed the RF approach to be a robust analysis irrespective of its simplicity. Furthermore, the relationship between RFRIF or RFPB multiplied by the steady-state unbound plasma concentration and the in vivo induction ratio plotted using 10 typical inducers gives adequate thresholds for CYP3A4 drug-drug interaction risk assessment. In light of these findings, the simple RF approach using the IDLC value could be a useful method to adequately assess the risk of CYP3A4 induction in humans during drug discovery and development without evaluation of Emax and EC50. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.